Resource Assessment of Commercially Important Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone

(SNPBZ)

A report

Submitted to

Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone Support Project (SNPBZSP)
Namche Bazaar, Solukhumbu

Submitted by

Khilendra Gurung April, 2007
Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ 1

Acknowledgement
I am deeply indebted to WWF Nepal Program/Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone Support Project for the financial and technical support to conduct this study. I would like to express special thanks to a number of individuals for their assistance and kind cooperation, without whose support the study would not have been possible. At first, I would like to express my sincere thanks to Mr. Haris Chandra Rai, Project Manager, Mr. Hira Gurung; Account and Administration Officer and other staffs of SNPBZSP, Namche for their encouragement, support, cooperation and suggestions during the entire study period. I am grateful to Ms. Rudriksha Parajuli; Senior Program Officer- Mountain and Ms. Santoshi Thapa; Program Officer- WWF Nepal for their kind cooperation and coordination during the study period. My special thanks go to Mr. Birendra Kanel; Ranger, Mr. Uma Basnet, Mr. Akkal Baniya and Mr. Gajendra Shrestha; Sagarmatha National Park, Namche for their painstaking assistance in the field work and sharing their valuable ideas and experiences. My heartfelt thanks go to Mr. Kazi Sherpa (Sherpa BZCFUG), Mr. Aang Chhiring Sherpa (Muse BZCFUG), Mr. Phurba Sherpa and Mr. Shera Tenzi Sherpa (Red Panda BZCFUG), Mr. Lakpa Galjen Sherpa and Mr. Pasang Dawa Sherpa (Tongong BZCFUG), Pemba Nuru Sherpa (Dudh Kunda BZCFUG), Mr. Ngima Dorji Sherpa (Pema Chholing BZCFUG), Mr. Kumbe Biswokarma (Kongde BZCFUG) and Mr. Pemba Tamang (Himalaya BZCFUG) for their assistance and support in the field trip in Chaurikharka VDC. At last but not least, I would like to thank local communities of Tate, Syangma, Teka, Chhuserma, Sano Gumela, Thulo Gumela, Ngonbotek, Thambo and Jambote and hotel and restaurant owners of the trekking route of Chaurikharka, Namche and Khumjung VDCs for their warm hospitality, assistance in accommodation and for their participation in group discussions. Khilendra Gurung

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Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Objectives 1.3 Limitations of the study 1.4 Study area CHAPTER TWO 2.1 Methodology 2.1.1 Primary data collection 2.1.1.1 Key informant survey and resource mapping 2.1.1.2 Identification of NTFPs 2.1.1.3 Inventory of NTFPs 2.1.1.3a Habitat identification 2.1.1.3b Sampling 2.2.1 Secondary data collection 2.3.1 Data processing and analysis 2.3.1.1 Frequency and relative frequency 2.3.1.2 Density and relative density 2.3.1.3 Population distribution parameters 2.3.1.4 Determination of forest types 2.3.1.5 Prioritization of NTFPs 2.3.1.6 Rapid vulnerability assessment (RVA) 2.4.1 Focus group discussion CHAPTER THREE 3. Results 3.1 Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ 3.1.1 Assessment of NTFPs in Chaurikharka 3.1.1a Sherpa BZCFUG 3.1.1b Muse BZCFUG 3.1.1c Red Panda BZCFUG 3.1.1d Tongong BZCFUG 3.1.1e Dudh Kunda BZCFUG 3.1.1f Pema Chholing BZCFUG 3.1.1g Kongde BZCFUG 3.1.1h Himalaya BZCFUG 3.2 Assessment of NTFP in Namche VDC 3.3 Assessment of NTFPs in Khumjung VDC 3.4 Population distribution parameters of commercially important NTFPs 3.4.1 Chaurikharka VDC 3.4.2 Namche and Khumjung VDCs 3.5 Forest and vegetation types in SNPBZ 3.5.1. Chaurikharka VDC 3.5.2. Namche and Khumjung VDCs 3.6.1 Prioritization of NTFPs in Chaurikharka VDC

1 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 11 12 13 13 16 17 17 19 20

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3.6.1a Sherpa BZCFUG 3.6.1b Muse BZCFUG 3.6.1c Red Panda BZCFUG 3.6.1d Tongong BZCFUG 3.6.1e Dudh Kunda BZCFUG 3.6.1f Pema Chholing BZCFUG 3.6.1g Kongde BZCFUG 3.6.1h Himalaya BZCFUG 3.6.2 Prioritization of NTFPs in Namche VDC 3.6.3 Prioritization of NTFPs in Khumjung VDC 3.7 Threat analysis 3.7.1 RVA in Chaurikharka VDC 3.7.1a Sherpa BZCFUG 3.7.1b Muse BZCFUG 3.7.1c Red Panda BZCFUG 3.7.1d Tongong BZCFUG 3.7.1e Dudh Kunda BZCFUG 3.7.1f Pema Chholing BZCFUG 3.7.1g Kongde BZCFUG 3.7.1h Himalaya BZCFUG 3.7.2 RVA of NTFPs in Namche VDC 3.7.3 RVA of NTFPs in Khumjung VDC CHAPTER FOUR 4.1 Overview of enterprise modalities to be set up in SNPBZ 4.2 Comparative analysis of enterprise modalities in SNPBZ 4.3 Identification of enterprise modalities to be set up in SNPBZ 4.4 Potential markets of the value added NTFP products 4.5 Requirements for enterprise success 4.6 Challenges for forest based enterprises 4.7 Trade of NTFPs and trading pattern 4.8 Value addition of NTFPs 4.8.1 Processing technology CHAPTER FIVE 5.1 Biological sustainable harvesting 5.1.1 Checklist to assess harvesting sustainability of forest products 5.2 Harvesting impact on population dynamics 5.3 Establishing sampling areas 5.4 Developing a raw material sourcing plan 5.4.1 Check list for raw materials sourcing plan 5.5 Need based assessment for enterprise set up in SNPBZ CHAPTER SIX 6.1 Conclusion 6.2 Recommendations References
Annexes

20 21 21 22 23 24 24 25 26 27 27 27 27 28 29 30 30 31 32 32 33 34 35 35 37 42 42 43 44 44 45 46 46 46 47 48 48 49 51 51 53

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List of map
Map 1: Location of the study area in Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone 3

List of figure
Figure 1: Sample plot for inventory 5

List of tables
Table 1: Class distribution of NTFPs in different sites Table 2: Matrix Preference Ranking Table 3: Criteria for RVA Table 4: Assessment of NTFPs in Sherpa BZCFUG Table 5: Assessment of NTFPs in Muse BZCFUG Table 6: Assessment of NTFPs in Red Panda BZCFUG Table 7: Assessment of NTFPs in Tongong BZCFUG Table 8: Assessment of NTFPs in Dudh Kunda BZCFUG Table 9: Assessment of NTFPs in Pema Chholing BZCFUG Table 10: Assessment of NTFPs in Kongde BZCFUG Table 11: Assessment of NTFPs in Himalaya BZCFUG Table 12: Assessment of NTFPs in Namche VDC Table 13: Assessment of NTFPs in Khumjung VDC Table 14: Class distribution of Titepati (Artemisia dubia) in different BZCFUGs Table 15: Class distribution of Nigalo/malingo (Arundinaria maling) in different BZCFUGs Table 16: Class distribution of Lokta (Daphne bholua) in different BZCFUGs Table 17: Class distribution of Furmang (Elsholtzia fruticosa) in different BZCFUGs Table 18: Class distribution of Fayang (Gaultheria fragrantissima) in different BZCFUGs Table 19: Class distribution of Jhyau (Parmelia sp) in different BZCFUGs Table 20: Class distribution of Kharsu (Quercus semecarpifolia) in different BZCFUGs Table 21: Class distribution of Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum) in different BZCFUGs Table 22: Class distribution of Kukurpati (Rhododendron lepidotum) in different BZCFUGs Table 23: Class distribution of Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum) in different BZCFUGs Table 24: Class distribution of Chutro (Berberis wallichiana) in different sites Table 25: Class distribution of Aak sello (Hippophae tibetana) in different sites Table 26: Class distribution of Dhupi (Juniperus indica) in different sites Table 27: Class distribution of Dhupi (Juniperus recurva) in different sites Table 28: Class distribution of Gentiana urnula in different sites Table 29: Class distribution of Bajradanti (Potentilla fruticosa) in different sites Table 30: Class distribution of Sunpati (Rhododendron anthopogon) in different sites Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 5

Table 31: Class distribution of Bhale sunpati (Rhododendron setosum) in different sites Table 32: Class distribution of Jangali gulab (Rosa macrophylla) in different sites Table 33: Class distribution of Jangali gulab (Rosa sericea) in different sites Table 34: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Sherpa BZCFUG Table 35: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Muse BZCFUG Table 36: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Red Panda BZCFUG Table 37: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Tongong BZCFUG Table 38: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Dudh Kunda BZCFUG Table 39: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Pema Chholing BZCFUG Table 40: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Kongde BZCFUG Table 41: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Himalaya BZCFUG Table 42: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Namche VDC Table 43: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Khumjung VDC Table 44: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Sherpa BZCFUG Table 45: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Muse BZCFUG Table 46: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Red Panda BZCFUG Table 47: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Tongong BZCFUG Table 48: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Dudh Kunda BZCFUG Table 49: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Pema Chholing BZCFUG Table 50: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Kongde BZCFUG Table 51: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Himalaya BZCFUG Table 52: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Namche VDC Table 53: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Khumjung VDC Table 54: Comparative analysis of enterprise modalities on market, social, technology and conservation criteria in SNPBZ Table 55: Sole and BZCFUG/WAG enterprises in Chaurikharka VDC Table 56: Other enterprise modalities in Chaurikharka VDC Table 57: Identification of different models of enterprises in Namche VDC Table 58: Identification of different models of enterprises in Khumjung VDC Table 59: Potential markets for NTFPs products Table 60: Marketed NTFPs in Chaurikharka VDC Table 61: Value addition techniques Table 62: Processing technology and application Table 63: Rapid assessment of harvesting effects on population dynamics Table 64: Recommended optimal harvesting practices for sustainable NTFPs product use

17 17 17 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 26 27 28 28 29 30 30 31 32 33 33 34 36 37 41 41 41 42 44 44 45 47 47

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Abbreviations and Acronyms
ANSAB: BDS-MaPS: BZCFUGs: BZUCs: BZUGs:
Co.:

Asia Network for Sustainable Agriculture and Bio-resources Business Development Services-Marketing Production and Services Buffer Zone Community Forest User Groups Buffer Zone User Committees Buffer Zone User Groups
Company

DPR: FAO: GDP: ha: IUCN:
Ltd.:

Department of Plant Resources Food and Agriculture Organization Gross Domestic Production Hectare International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
Limited

m.: MAPs: MPR:
NARMSAP:

Meter Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Matrix Preference Ranking
Natural Resource management Sector Assistance Program

NSCFP: NTFPs:
OP: Pc:

Nepal Swiss Community Forestry Project Non Timber Forest Products
Operational Plan Piece

pl: Rel.: Rs.: RVA: SNP: SNPBZ: SNPBZSP: SNV: TISC: VDCs: WAGs: WWF:

Plant Relative Rupees Rapid Vulnerability Assessment Sagarmatha National Park Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone Support Project The Netherlands Development Organization Tree Improvement and Silviculture Component Village Development Committees Women Awareness Groups World Wildlife Fund

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CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) consists of goods of biological origin other than timber or fuelwood derived from forests, other wooded land and trees outside forests (FAO, 1999). NTFPs have been welfare, subsistence or livelihood commodity since long; these are traditional source of food, fiber, medicine, etc. In some rural mountainous areas, it contributes up to 50 % of total annual family income. NTFPs sub-sector in Nepal contributes about 5 % of national GDP out of total estimation of about 15 % from the whole forestry sector (almost 1/3). More than 100 types of plant species are harvested from wild and traded to international market mostly to India; 95 % of the NTFPs are collected from the wild and 90 % are exported to India in raw form. The importance of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs) has increased progressively over the last two decades. Herbal remedies are increasingly becoming mainstream consumer products manufactured by multinational companies amongst other, and sold in super market chains and in a variety of other outlets, globally. Food supplements, cosmetics, fragrances, traditional cuisine, dyeing and coloring agents are just a few of the application where medicinal, aromatic and dye plants are finding increasing use by the day. As a result there is growing demand of Nepalese MAPs and other NTFPs for these purposes. The diverse geography and climate of Nepal has rendered it a unique land of NTFPs along with other natural resources. However, the commercial exploitation without any conservation measures has threatened many species. The high mountain NTFPs are highly praised for high potency and organic nature, hence they fetch higher prices. In spite of all advantages, the government is still not able to harness the full potential of NTFPs for the welfare of rural communities. The major constraints for such situation are considered to be low capital investments both by the government and private sectors for the overall promotion of NTFPs including enterprise development and the perpetual marketing of quality products; government’s unclear investment policy, lack of proper documentation on species availability (or bio-prospecting) and uses and poor awareness among public on its values. Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone (SNPBZ) harbors a rich source of NTFPs. Although tourism is the main source of local economy in the SNPBZ, there are very limited options of livelihood support in the off trail routes. Conservation initiatives through sustainable use of these NTFPs could uplift the income of off trail communities. Collection, cultivation and harvesting of NTFPs are mainly confined to buffer zone as a result of community ownership inside the National Park. In particular, Chaurikharka Village Development Committee (VDC) possesses a high potential of NTFPs promotion. According to the resource assessment survey conducted by SNPBZSP during the second quarter of fiscal year 2006/07, the local users have tremendous drive to promote NTFPs

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based products through community based enterprise establishment and marketing endeavors. Conservation and sustainable use of these NTFPs would uplift local livelihood in the SNPBZ if: a) communities take on increased responsibility for management of forest resources; b) ecological monitoring and sustainable harvesting practices are developed; c) communities have greater access to and understanding of the market system; d) sustainable enterprises bring local benefits especially to households in off trail communities; and e) local and scientific knowledge underpins appropriate management systems. To address the current needs, one way would be the establishment of community based forest enterprise adopting both the resource based and market based policy. It is essential that the women, underprivileged groups and buffer zone community forest user groups (BZCFUGs), women awareness groups (WAGs) and buffer zone user groups (BZUGs) should be included in such a model. WAGs and underprivileged groups should be transformed to skillful entrepreneur and BZCFUGs and BZUGs are a commercial entity, taking into account the conservation issues. The semi processed and processed NTFPs products produced from such enterprises should be promoted to the market after the value addition in the local level thereby benefiting the local communities. In this scenario, the present study is justifiable in terms of linking local livelihood with resource management, initiating community based forest enterprises and its linkage to market through product promotion. It would certainly assist in conserving the biodiversity of the Sagarmatha National Park and its Buffer Zone, which is the ultimate goal set up by WWF Nepal-SNPBZSP. 1.2 Objectives The overall objective is to explore the prospects of NTFPs available in SNPBZ having potentiality for enterprise development and seek possibility of market linkage, in consultation with the local community. The specific objectives are as follows: 1. To conduct the resource assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ 2. To prioritize NTFPs on the basis of trade value and threat 3. To identify various models of community based forest enterprises to be set up in SNPBZ 4. To assess the current market status of NTFPs locally and trading pattern of NTFPs 5. To visualize the NTFPs products that can be value added locally 6. To recommend steps to be followed by community for sustainable harvesting of identified important NTFPs 1.3 Limitations of the study The field work was conducted in February-March and thus majority of the ground vegetation was yet to be regenerated due to the dry season. Also it was difficult to identify deciduous species as they were defoliated. Furthermore, the unfavorable weather

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(snow fall) conditions hindered the study. Apparently the area harbors much more species than what is listed in the report. Due to this fact, several high valued NTFPs like Nirmasi (Delphinium himalayi), Kutki (Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora), Satuwa (Paris polyphylla), Padam Chaal (Rheum australe), Ban Lasun (Fritillaria cirrhosa), Yarsa Gumba (Cordyceps sinensis) etc. were not visible and therefore not documented in the report. Furthermore, regeneration study was not carried out due to the dry season. Field study during May-July will be more comprehensive in terms of species richness. 1.4 Study area Sagarmatha National Park (SNP) and Buffer Zone in upper part of Solukhumbu district was the area for the study. The study area comprises three VDCs viz. Chaurikharka, Namche and Khumjung. Altogether 8 buffer zone community forest user groups (Sherpa, Muse, Red Panda, Tongong, Dudh Kunda, Pema Chholing, Kongde and Himalaya BZCFUGs) were studied in Chaurikharka VDC. While the forests and scrublands within the buffer zone user committees of Phurte, Sam Singh, Theso, Thamo, Mende, Samde, Thame, Pahare, Thamboche and Hilajung were studied in Namche VDC. Whereas, forests and scrublands of Kyangjuma, Mongla, Tasinga, Phungi Thanga, Tengboche, Deubuche, Pangboche, Dingboche, Phortse, Phortse Thanga, Neute, Dole, Lafarma, Luza, Machhermo, Fanga and Gokyo were studied within Khumjung VDC.

Map 1: Location of the study area in Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ 10

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Methodology Current work was completed in four phases viz. primary data collection, secondary data collection, data analysis and report writing. Primary data was collected from the field while secondary data was compiled from various other related documents. 2.1.1 Primary data collection Primary data collection was done by following methods: 2.1.1.1 Key informant survey and resource mapping Information about the availability, current status and use of NTFPs and MAPs was collected from BZCFUGS and BZUGs members. Group discussions were done for listing of available NTFPs and their identification, priority ranking of NTFPs for the inventory and suitable site selection. 2.1.1.2 Identification of NTFPs NTFPs were identified visually on the basis of researcher's knowledge. Unidentified species were identified consulting with the reference literatures (Stainton & Polunin, 1984; Stainton, 1988; Yoshida, 1994; Lama et al. 2001; IUCN, 2004; Bista and Bista, 2005). Documentation of all available NTFPs were carried out according to Shrestha, 1998 & Press et al., 2000. 2.1.1.3 Inventory of NTFPs Inventory methods include two different steps; habitat identification and sampling. 2.1.1.3a Habitat identification The sampling was conducted in defined habitats. The identification of NTFPs habitats was done systematically by observing at each of the following characteristics. • Altitude • Forest type • Aspect • Slope • Plant abundance 2.1.1.3b Sampling Following procedures were applied for the inventory of NTFPs resources by sampling techniques: • At least one vertical elevation line was taken from top to bottom of the habitat. The number of elevation line depends on the habitat width, plant density, aspect and topography. At some instances, steep and rugged terrain caused the transect line to deviate from the original direction. • For every elevation line, horizontal sampling lines were set up at 100 m elevation intervals. • The sampling plots were set up along the horizontal line. Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ 11

The plots were determined as 1m ×1m for herbs, 5m×5m for shrubs and 10m×10m for trees (Raunkiaer, 1934). 10 m x 10 m

5mx5m 1m x1 m

Figure 1: Sample plot for inventory • An inventory form was filled for every sampling plot.

2.2.1 Secondary data collection Secondary data were collected from all the possible documents, reports, articles, maps, official records, and other published and unpublished materials from ANSAB, DPR, WWF Nepal etc. 2.3.1 Data processing and analysis Data obtained from the field was processed and analyzed to find out frequency, relative frequency, density, relative density, population distribution parameters, matrix preference ranking (MPR), rapid vulnerability assessment (RVA), enterprises development criteria, potential for value addition and market linkage, etc. 2.3.1.1 Frequency and relative frequency Frequency is the number of sampling units in which the particular species occur, thus express the dispersion of various species in a community. It refers to the degree of dispersion in terms of percentage occurrence (Raunkiaer, 1934; Zobel et al. 1987). Frequency = No. of quadrats in which species occured × 100 Total Number of quadrats studied

Relative frequency is frequency of a species in relation to other species. Relative Frequency % = Frequency of a species × 100 Total frequency of all species

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2.3.1.2 Density and relative density Density expresses the numerical strength of the presence of species in a community. It is the number of individuals per unit area and is expressed as number per hectare (Raunkiaer, 1934; Zobel et al. 1987). Density Pl/ha = Total number of plant of any spcies × 10000 Total number of quadrat studied × area of quadrat

Relative density is the density of a species with respect to the total density of all species. Relative Density % = Density of individual species × 100 Total density of all species

2.3.1.3 Population distribution parameters Distribution of NTFP parameters are categorized in following ways.
Frequency High >75 Medium 31-74 Low <30 High >15 Relative Frequency Medium 5-15 Relative density >15 5-15 <5 Low <5

Population density / ha >800 300-800 <300

Table 1: Class distribution of NTFPs in different sites 2.3.1.4 Determination of forest types Forest types of respective BZCFUGs and VDCs under the study area were determined by visual observation and consulting with Stainton (1972) and document published by TISC, (2002). 2.3.1.5 Prioritization of NTFPs Matrix Preference Ranking (MPR) was used to find out most preferred NTFPs. By using this tool, the most preferred NTFP species was identified from each BZCFUG and VDC for the detail study. The criteria of preference were made by the users, availability of the resources and potential for value addition. Moreover, the prioritization criteria of other development organizations like NSCFP, SNV, ANSAB, BDS-MaPS and Matrix Ranking Criteria have been thoroughly examined to attain the set objectives with proper justification. S.N. Criteria Scale and value
1 2 3 4 5 6 Market demand Margin / Profit Availability ( in time ) Geographical distribution Conservation status Potential for cultivation High (3), Moderate (2), Low (1) High (3), Moderate (2), Low (1) Almost always(3), Occasionally(2), Seasonal rare (1) Widespread (3), Moderate (2) ,Low(1) Minimum (3), Moderate (2) , Low (1) High (3), Moderate (2), Low (1)

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7 8 9 10 11 12

Regenerative potential Contribution to income Gender impact Potential for value addition Processing technology Ethnobotanical value

High (3), Moderate (2), Low (1) High (3), Moderate (2), Low (1) Only women (3), Both men and women (2) , only men (1) High (3), Moderate (2), Low (1) Manual/ local technology (3), Mechanical/ expertise required (2), Sophisticated / foreign technology (1) Diverse use (3), medium uses (2) , single use (1)

Table 2: Matrix Preference Ranking 2.3.1.6 Rapid vulnerability assessment (RVA) RVA method collects information to identify species, resources or sites that may be at risk of over exploitation. It was developed as a quick way of collecting both scientific and indigenous information about species and has been used to recommend whether or not that resource species is suitable for harvest. Potential for sustainable use Criteria Low High
Low abundance (1) High abundance (2) Slow growth (1) Fast growth (2) Slow reproduction (1) Fast reproduction (2) Sexual reproduction only (1) Both sexual & vegetative reproduction (2) Habitat – specific (1) Habitat- non specific (2) High habitat diversity (1) Low habitat diversity (2) High life form diversity (1) Low life form diversity (2) Tree and shrub (1) and grasses (2) roots , rhizomes and bulbs ( 1) and leaf, flower, bark , fruit (2) Size/age classes not selected for harvesting (2), Particular size/age classes selected for harvesting (1)

Ecology

Life form Parts used Harvesting method

Table 3: Criteria for RVA Source: Wong & Jenifer, 2001; Cunningham, 1994, 1996 a, 2001; Watts et al., 1996 2.4.1 Focus group discussion Discussion/ interaction programs were held at Chaurikharka VDC with BZCFUGs, WAGs, BZUGs and other stakeholders about the possibility of establishing different model of community based forest enterprises in Chaurikharka VDC and the need based assessment for value addition, focusing the ecological, social and economical sustainability.

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CHAPTER THREE

3. Results 3.1 Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ Frequency, Relative Frequency, Density and Relative Density of each NTFP species were calculated and analyzed in respective BZCFUGs of Chaurikharka VDC and Namche and Khumjung VDCs. 3.1.1 Assessment of NTFPs in Chaurikharka 3.1.1a Sherpa BZCFUG Altogether 79 NTFP species were recorded from Sherpa BZCFUG. Among them 15 NTFP species were sorted on the basis of their potentiality for value addition, their abundance and quantification. The details are presented in table below: Table 4: Assessment of NTFPs in Sherpa BZCFUG SN Botanical name Frequency Rel. Frequency Density Rel. Density
1 Artemisia dubia 2 Arundinaria maling 3 Berberis asiatica 4 Borinda emeryi 5 Edgeworthia gardneri 6 Elsholtzia fruticosa 7 Eupatorium adenophorum 8 Gaultheria fragrantissima 9 Himalayacalamus hookerianus 10 Lindera neesiana 11 Quercus semecarpifolia 12 Rhododendron arboreum 13 Urtica dioica 14 Yushania maling 15 Zanthoxylum armatum 60 20 80 20 40 40 40 80 40 40 80 80 40 20 40 1.863 0.621 2.484 0.621 1.242 1.242 1.242 2.484 1.242 1.242 2.484 2.484 1.242 0.621 1.242 19924 12978 2892.8 9104 4723.2 3789.2 24200.4 20355 7414 1360 3823 4812.4 8846.4 6260 1036.4 5.894 3.839 0.856 2.693 1.397 1.121 7.159 6.021 2.193 0.402 1.131 1.424 2.617 1.852 0.307

3.1.1b Muse BZCFUG Altogether 84 NTFP species were recorded from Muse BZCFUG. Among them 15 NTFP species were sorted on the basis of their potentiality for value addition, their abundance and quantification. The details are presented below: Table 5: Assessment of NTFPs in Muse BZCFUG SN Botanical name Frequency Rel. Frequency Density Rel. Density
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis asiatica Daphne bholua Edgeworthia gardneri Elsholtzia fruticosa Eupatorium adenophorum Gaultheria fragrantissima Himalayacalamus hookerianus 66.67 16.67 100 66.67 50 50 50 83.33 33.33 1.633 0.408 2.449 1.633 1.225 1.225 1.225 2.041 0.816 6832.667 30 2138.667 3655.333 1043.333 367.333 4013.333 13107.333 118 4.166 0.018 1.304 2.229 0.636 0.224 2.447 7.993 0.072

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10 11 12 13 14 15

Lindera neesiana Rhododendron arboreum Taxus wallichiana Urtica dioica Yushania maling Zanthoxylum armatum

16.67 100 50 16.67 33.33 33.33

0.408 2.449 1.225 0.408 0.816 0.816

48 6312 693.333 469.333 247 48

0.029 3.849 0.423 0.286 0.151 0.029

3.1.1c Red Panda BZCFUG Altogether 56 NTFPs were enlisted from Red Panda BZCFUG. Among them 15 NTFP species were sorted on the basis of their potentiality for value addition, their abundance and quantification. The details are given below: Table 6: Assessment of NTFPs in Red Panda BZCFUG SN Botanical name Frequency Rel. Frequency Density Rel. Density
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis aristata Borinda emeryi Daphne bholua Dipsacus inermis Edgeworthia gardneri Elsholtzia fruticosa Gaultheria fragrantissima Parmelia sp Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Rhododendron lepidotum Usnea orientalis Zanthoxylum armatum 75 75 50 25 50 75 25 50 100 100 100 100 100 100 50 2.521 2.521 1.681 0.840 1.681 2.521 0.840 1.681 3.361 3.361 3.361 3.361 3.361 3.361 1.681 15981 19888 2294 6225 1581 3039 210 1866 39970 18911 5231 6932 45336 2789 782 5.255 6.540 0.754 2.047 0.520 0.999 0.069 0.614 13.143 6.218 1.720 2.279 14.908 0.917 0.257

3.1.1d Tongong BZCFUG Altogether 82 NTFPs were enlisted from Tongong BZCFUG. Among them 15 NTFP species were sorted on the basis of their potentiality for value addition, their abundance and quantification. The details are given below: Table 7: Assessment of NTFPs in Tongong BZCFUG SN Botanical name Frequency Rel. Frequency Density R.Density
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Artemisia dubia Berberis asiatica Daphne bholua Dipsacus inermis Elsholtzia fruticosa Gaultheria fragrantissima Parmelia sp Potentilla fruticosa Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Rhododendron lepidotum Swertia chirayita Taxus wallichiana 100 83.33 66.67 83.33 66.67 100 100 83.33 100 100 83.33 16.67 50 2.239 1.866 1.492 1.866 1.492 2.239 2.239 1.866 2.239 2.239 1.866 0.373 1.119 37452.667 3086.000 6350.667 4067.333 6006.000 17356.333 14985.333 25670.000 4589.333 6309.333 19207.333 416.000 143.333 10.178 0.839 1.726 1.105 1.632 4.717 4.073 6.976 1.247 1.715 5.220 0.113 0.039

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

16

14 Yushania maling 15 Zanthoxylum armatum

83.33 100

1.866 2.239

15229.333 1778.667

4.139 0.483

3.1.1e Dudh Kunda BZCFUG Altogether 63 NTFPs were enlisted from Dudh Kunda BZCFUG. Among them 15 NTFP species were sorted on the basis of their potentiality for value addition, their abundance and quantification. The details are presented below: Table 8: Assessment of NTFPs in Dudh Kunda BZCFUG SN Botanical name Frequency Rel. Frequency Density Rel. Density
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis asiatica Borinda emeryi Daphne bholua Dipsacus inermis Elsholtzia fruticosa Gaultheria fragrantissima Parmelia sp Potentilla fruticosa Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Rhododendron lepidotum Swertia nervosa Zanthoxylum armatum 75 25 75 25 25 75 100 75 100 75 100 100 100 50 75 2.174 0.725 2.174 0.725 0.725 2.174 2.899 2.174 2.899 2.174 2.899 2.899 2.899 1.449 2.174 17028.000 2445.000 2199.000 9372.000 150.000 2589.000 6466.500 1525.500 9153.000 12817.500 2362.500 1540.500 16218.000 3117.000 555.000 8.749 1.256 1.130 4.815 0.077 1.330 3.323 0.784 4.703 6.586 1.214 0.792 8.333 1.602 0.285

3.1.1f Pema Chholing BZCFUG Altogether 64 NTFPs were recorded from Pema Chholing BZCFUG. Among them 15 NTFP species were sorted on the basis of their potentiality for value addition, their abundance and quantification. The details are presented below: Table 9: Assessment of NTFPs in Pema Chholing BZCFUG SN Botanical name Frequency Rel. Frequency Density Rel. Density
1 Artemisia dubia 2 Arundinaria maling 3 Berberis asiatica 4 Borinda emeryi 5 Daphne bholua 6 Dipsacus inermis 7 Elsholtzia fruticosa 8 Gaultheria fragrantissima 9 Parmelia sp 10 Potentilla fruticosa 11 Quercus semecarpifolia 12 Rhododendron arboreum 13 Taxus wallichiana 14 Yushania maling 15 Zanthoxylum armatum 100 25 75 25 75 75 100 75 100 50 100 100 100 50 75 2.581 29841 0.645 2880 1.935 2645 0.645 7914 1.935 2112 1.935 6420 2.581 15218.25 1.935 6365 2.581 15668 1.290 15630 2.581 3801 2.581 2848 2.581 1765 1.290 4282 1.935 373 11.397 1.100 1.010 3.022 0.807 2.452 5.812 2.431 5.984 5.969 1.452 1.088 0.674 1.635 0.142

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

17

3.1.1g Kongde BZCFUG Altogether 65 NTFPs were recorded from Kongde BZCFUG. Among them 15 NTFP species were sorted on the basis of their potentiality for value addition, their abundance and quantification. The details are presented below: Table 10: Assessment of NTFPs in Kongde BZCFUG SN Botanical name Frequency Rel. Frequency Density Rel. Density
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis insignis Cotoneaster frigidus Daphne bholua Dipsacus inermis Elsholtzia fruticosa Gaultheria fragrantissima Parmelia sp Potentilla fruticosa Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Rhododendron lepidotum Rosa macrophylla Zanthoxylum armatum 75 62.5 87.5 37.5 75 87.5 100 37.5 100 87.5 87.5 100 100 100 87.5 2.290 1.908 2.672 1.145 2.290 2.672 3.053 1.145 3.053 2.672 2.672 3.053 3.053 3.053 2.672 22648.00 20086.50 6178.00 1092.50 11302.50 4108.50 8652.50 580.50 15902.00 24642.50 2835.50 3733.50 27463.50 9785.50 10463.50 7.139 6.331 1.947 0.344 3.562 1.295 2.727 0.183 5.012 7.767 0.894 1.177 8.656 3.084 3.298

3.1.1h Himalaya BZCFUG Altogether 49 NTFPs were enlisted from Himalaya BZCFUG. Among them 15 NTFP species were sorted on the basis of their potentiality for value addition, their abundance and quantification. The details are given below: Table 11: Assessment of NTFPs in Himalaya BZCFUG SN Botanical name Frequency Rel. Frequency Density Rel. Density
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis asiatica Berberis insignis Borinda emeryi Daphne bholua Elsholtzia fruticosa Parmelia sp Potentilla fruticosa Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Rhododendron lepidotum Rosa macrophylla Usnea orientalis Zanthoxylum armatum 100 75 75 75 25 100 100 100 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 2.899 2.174 2.174 2.174 0.725 2.899 2.899 2.899 2.174 2.899 2.899 2.899 2.899 2.899 2.899 18505 25530 1994 3470 6300 15515 7245 17855 15410 2300 3865 22465 3440 10198 12605 6.142 8.474 0.662 1.152 2.091 5.150 2.405 5.926 5.115 0.763 1.283 7.457 1.142 3.385 4.184

3.2 Assessment of NTFP in Namche VDC Altogether 55 NTFPs were recorded from Namche VDC. Among them 15 NTFP species were sorted on the basis of their potentiality for value addition, their abundance and quantification. The details are presented in the table below: Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ 18

Table 12: Assessment of NTFPs in Namche VDC SN Botanical name Frequency Rel. Frequency
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Berberis wallichiana Cotoneaster microphyllus Gentiana urnula Hippophae tibetana Juniperus indica Juniperus recurva Nardostachys grandiflora Potentilla fruticosa Rhododendron anthopogon Rhododendron cinnabarinum Rhododendron setosum Rosa macrophylla Rosa sericea Selinum tenuifolium Swertia racemosa 72.727 90.909 72.727 9.091 90.909 100 18.182 63.636 45.455 72.727 81.818 90.909 36.364 27.273 90.909 3.846 4.808 3.846 0.481 4.808 5.288 0.962 3.365 2.404 3.846 4.327 4.808 1.923 1.442 4.808

Density
33925.455 4798.182 26990.909 4181.818 21778.182 31667.273 2609.091 14496.364 2223.636 4041.818 52221.818 25234.545 3285.455 978.182 12690.909

Rel. Density
9.854 1.394 7.84 1.215 6.326 9.198 0.758 4.211 0.646 1.174 15.168 7.33 0.954 0.284 3.686

3.3 Assessment of NTFPs in Khumjung VDC Altogether 49 NTFPs were recorded from Khumjung VDC. Among them 15 NTFP species were sorted on the basis of their potentiality for value addition, their abundance and quantification. The details are presented in the table below: Table 13: Assessment of NTFPs in Khumjung VDC SN Botanical name Frequency Rel. Frequency Density Rel .Density
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Berberis erythroclada Berberis wallichiana Cotoneaster microphyllus Ephedra gerardiana Gentiana urnula Hippophae tibetana Juniperus indica Juniperus recurva Potentilla fruticosa Rhododendron anthopogon Rhododendron cinnabarinum Rhododendron setosum Rosa macrophylla Rosa sericea Usnea longissima 50.000 94.444 100.000 38.889 77.778 38.889 88.889 66.667 66.667 33.333 55.556 100.000 61.111 44.444 55.556 2.579 4.871 5.158 2.006 4.011 2.006 4.585 3.438 3.438 1.719 2.865 5.158 3.152 2.292 2.865 6287.778 21755.556 39424.444 4945.556 36172.222 3938.889 9462.222 5140.000 10378.889 4070.000 3127.778 51161.667 11868.889 5583.333 9433.333 2.148 7.431 13.466 1.689 12.355 1.345 3.232 1.756 3.545 1.390 1.068 17.475 4.054 1.907 3.222

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

19

3.4 Population distribution parameters of commercially important NTFPs 3.4.1 Chaurikharka VDC Table 14: Class distribution of Titepati (Artemisia dubia) in different BZCFUGs
BZCFUGs Sherpa Muse Red Panda Tongong Dudh Kunda Pema Chholing Kongde Himalaya Frequency Medium Medium High High High High High High Rel. Frequency Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Density High High High High High High High High Rel. Density Medium Low Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium

Table 15: Class distribution of Nigalo/malingo (Arundinaria maling) in different BZCFUGs
BZCFUGs Sherpa Muse Red Panda Tongong Dudh Kunda Pema Chholing Kongde Himalaya Frequency Low Low High Low Low Medium High Rel. Frequency Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Density High Low High High High High High Rel. Density Low Low Medium Low Low Medium Medium

Table 16: Class distribution of Lokta (Daphne bholua) in different BZCFUGs
BZCFUGs Sherpa Muse Red Panda Tongong Dudh Kunda Pema Chholing Kongde Himalaya Frequency Medium Medium Medium Low High High High Rel. Frequency Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Density High High High Low High High High Rel. Density Low Low Low Low Low Low Medium

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

20

Table 17: Class distribution of Furmang (Elsholtzia fruticosa) in different BZCFUGs
BZCFUGs Sherpa Muse Red Panda Tongong Dudh Kunda Pema Chholing Kongde Himalaya Frequency Medium Medium Medium Medium High High High High Rel. Frequency Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Density High Medium High High High High High High Rel. Density Low Low Low Low Low Medium Low Low

Table 18: Class distribution of Fayang (Gaultheria fragrantissima) in different BZCFUGs
BZCFUGs Sherpa Muse Red Panda Tongong Dudh Kunda Pema Chholing Kongde Himalaya Frequency High High High High High High Medium Low Rel. Frequency Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Density High High High High High High Medium Low Rel. Density Medium Medium Medium Low Low Low Low Low

Table 19: Class distribution of Jhyau (Parmelia sp) in different BZCFUGs
BZCFUGs Sherpa Muse Red Panda Tongong Dudh Kunda Pema Chholing Kongde Himalaya Frequency High High High High High High High High Rel. Frequency Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Density High High High High High High High High Rel. Density Low Medium Medium Low Low Medium Medium Medium

Table 20: Class distribution of Kharsu (Quercus semecarpifolia) in different BZCFUGs
BZCFUGs Sherpa Frequency High Rel. Frequency Low Density High Rel. Density Low

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

21

Muse Red Panda Tongong Dudh Kunda Pema Chholing Kongde Himalaya

High High High High High High High

Low Low Low Low Low Low Low

High High High High High High High

Low Low Low Low Low Low Low

Table 21: Class distribution of Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum) in different BZCFUGs
BZCFUGs Sherpa Muse Red Panda Tongong Dudh Kunda Pema Chholing Kongde Himalaya Frequency High High High High High High High High Rel. Frequency Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Density High High High High High High High High Rel. Density Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low

Table 22: Class distribution of Kukurpati (Rhododendron lepidotum) in different BZCFUGs
BZCFUGs Sherpa Muse Red Panda Tongong Dudh Kunda Pema Chholing Kongde Himalaya Frequency Medium Medium High High High High High High Rel. Frequency Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Density High High High High High High High High Rel. Density Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium

Table 23: Class distribution of Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum) in different BZCFUGs
BZCFUGs Sherpa Muse Red Panda Frequency Medium Medium Medium Rel. Frequency Low Low Low Density High Low Medium Rel. Density Low Low Low

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

22

Tongong Dudh Kunda Pema Chholing Kongde Himalaya

High High High High High

Low Low Low Low Low

High Medium Medium High High

Low Low Low Low Low

3.4.2 Namche and Khumjung VDCs Table 24: Class distribution of Chutro (Berberis wallichiana) in different sites
VDCs Namche Khumjung Frequency Medium High Rel. Frequency Low Low Density High High Rel. Density Medium Medium

Table 25: Class distribution of Aak sello (Hippophae tibetana) in different sites
VDCs Namche Khumjung Frequency Low Medium Rel. Frequency Low Low Density High High Rel. Density Low Low

Table 26: Class distribution of Dhupi (Juniperus indica) in different sites
VDCs Namche Khumjung Frequency High High Rel. Frequency Low Low Density High High Rel. Density Medium Low

Table 27: Class distribution of Dhupi (Juniperus recurva) in different sites
VDCs Namche Khumjung Frequency High Medium Rel. Frequency Medium Low Density High High Rel. Density Medium Low

Table 28: Class distribution of Gentiana urnula in different sites
VDCs Namche Khumjung Frequency High High Rel. Frequency Low Low Density High High Rel. Density Medium Medium

Table 29: Class distribution of Bajradanti (Potentilla fruticosa) in different sites
VDCs Namche Khumjung Frequency Medium Medium Rel. Frequency Low Low Density High High Rel. Density Low Low

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

23

Table 30: Class distribution of Sunpati (Rhododendron anthopogon) in different sites
VDCs Namche Khumjung Frequency Medium Medium Rel. Frequency Low Low Density High High Rel. Density Low Low

Table 31: Class distribution of Bhale sunpati (Rhododendron setosum) in different sites
VDCs Namche Khumjung Frequency High High Rel. Frequency Low Medium Density High High Rel. Density High High

Table 32: Class distribution of Jangali gulab (Rosa macrophylla) in different sites
VDCs Namche Khumjung Frequency High Medium Rel. Frequency Low Low Density High High Rel. Density Medium Low

Table 33: Class distribution of Jangali gulab (Rosa sericea) in different sites
VDCs Namche Khumjung Frequency Medium Medium Rel. Frequency Low Low Density High High Rel. Density Low Low

3.5 Forest and vegetation types in SNPBZ 3.5.1. Chaurikharka VDC The ecological zones of the study areas of Chaurikharka VDC encompass the following forest and vegetation types: a. Himalayan Oak-Laurel forest This forest type occurs between 2000-2500m on the south of the main Himalayan range. This forest is characterized by the occurrence of oak (Quercus lanata) and a number of evergreen lauraceous trees as Litsea sp, Dodecadenia sp, Neolitsea sp, Lindera pulcherrima, Symplocos sp and Lyonia ovalifolia. b. Mixed Rhododendron-Maple forest This forest is also known as mixed broadleaved forest lying between elevations of 26003000m. Rhododendron arboreum and species of maple (Acer campbelli and A. pectinatum) remain prominent in this forest type. A number of laurels and other evergreen shrubs as Symplocos spp. and Ilex spp. form the second storey; in some areas, Taxus wallichiana and Tsuga dumosa are found in this forest type.

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

24

c. Temperate Mountain Oak forest The oak forest (Quercus semecarpifolia) occupies montane level at altitude of 25003000m. On humid slopes, oak is associated with hemlock (Tsuga dumosa), rhododendrons and maples. Some understorey layers of laurels (Neolitsea sp, Lindera pulcherrima and Dodecadenia grandiflora) occur in this forest. d. Upper Temperate Blue Pine forest It occurs abundantly between elevations of 2200-2600m in the humid valley. In the northern slopes it is associated with hemlock and oaks. e. Fir-Hemlock-Oak forest It occurs in lower sub-alpine and upper temperate zones at 2800-3400m, characterized by the dominance of silver fir (Abies spectabilis) mixed with hemlock (Tsuga dumosa) on the northern aspects and with oak (Quercus semecarpifolia) on southern aspects. Himalayan yew (Taxus wallichiana) forms the second layer of the forest. f. Silver Fir forest Pure fir forests are generally found at 3000-3600m. Fir forest is associated with a number of rhododendrons as Rhododendron arboreum, R. barbatum, R. hodgsonii, R. campanulatum as the second layer of the canopy. A small stature bamboos Arundinaria spp. Occur at the forest destruction sites. Herbs such as Meconopsis sp, Rosa sp, Primula sp, Anemone sp, Androsace sp cover the grassy floor. g. Birch-Rhododendron forest Birch-rhododendron association is regarded as the tree line vegetation in Nepal Himalaya. Massive stands of birch (Betula utilis) are formed on north facing, shady slopes and ravines with an understorey of rhododendrons, Sorbus sp and maples (Acer sp). Birch forest is often mixed with fir trees rising above the birch canopy. The associated rhododendron species include, Rhododendron campanulatum, R. cinnabarinum, R. hodgsonii. Small stature bamboos as Arundinaria maling form an important component of ground cover with herbs as Primula sp, Rheum sp, Aconitum sp and Swertia sp. h. Silver Fir-Blue Pine forest Silver Fir (Abies spectabilis)-blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) forests occupy side valleys sheltered from wind occurring at an altitude ranging from 3000-3600m. The colonization of pine trees are vigorous at slightly lower elevations, while at higher altitudes blue pine associates is not common.

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

25

3.5.2. Namche and Khumjung VDCs The ecological zones of the study areas of Namche and Khumjung VDCs encompass the following forest and vegetation types: a. Silver Fir-Blue Pine forest Silver Fir (Abies spectabilis)-blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) forests occupy side valleys sheltered from wind occurring at an altitude ranging from 3000-3600m. The colonization of pine trees are vigorous at slightly lower elevations, while at higher altitudes blue pine associates is not common. b. Silver Fir forest Pure fir forests are generally found at 3000-3600m. Fir forest is associated with a number of rhododendrons as Rhododendron arboreum, R. barbatum, R. hodgsonii, R. campanulatum as the second layer of the canopy. A small stature bamboos Arundinaria spp. Occur at the forest destruction sites. Herbs such as Meconopsis sp, Rosa sp, Primula sp, Anemone sp, Androsace sp cover the grassy floor. c. Birch-Rhododendron forest Birch-rhododendron association is regarded as the tree line vegetation in Nepal Himalaya. Massive stands of birch (Betula utilis) are formed on north facing, shady slopes and ravines with an understorey of rhododendrons, Sorbus sp and maples (Acer sp). Birch forest is often mixed with fir trees rising above the birch canopy. The associated rhododendron species include, Rhododendron campanulatum, R. cinnabarinum, R. hodgsonii. Small stature bamboos as Arundinaria maling form an important component of ground cover with herbs as Primula sp, Rheum sp, Aconitum sp and Swertia sp. d. Dry alpine scrub This forest type occurs from elevations 4000-4500m. The forest is dominated by dwarf and prostrate junipers (Juniperus recurva and Juniperus indica) along with other xerophyllous plants as Ephedra gerardiana, Cassiope fastigiata, Potentilla fruticosa and Berberis spp (Berberis erythroclada, B. wallichiana). e. Moist alpine scrub The vegetation is dominated by dwarf rhododendrons (Rhododendron anthopogon, R. setosum) at higher altitude and by shrubby rhododendrons (Rhododendron campanulatum, R. cinnabarinum) at slightly lower elevations. Alpine meadows are rich in species of Primula and Meconopsis. Drier sites are occupied by sedges, grasses and Ephedra sp. While moist sites are occupied by some commercially important medicinal herbs as Nardostachys grandiflora, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora, Aconitum sp, Selinum tenuifolium, Swertia sp etc.

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

26

f. Upper alpine meadows Alpine meadows are occupied by herbaceous vegetation, basically with sedges and grasses at an altitude between 4500-5000m. This region is dominated by grass species as Carex sp, Agrotis sp and Festuca sp along with Primula sp, Ranunculus sp, Cotoneaster sp, Potentilla sp, Gentiana sp, Bistorta sp, Saxifraga sp, Arenaria sp and so on. Some high value medicinal plants as Aconitum sp, Nardostachys grandiflora, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora, Sedum sp occur in this region. 3.6 Prioritization of NTFPs The species were prioritized based on 8 principal criteria viz. (i) highly demanded commercial species (ii) species having high market price (iii) having potential for domestic value addition (iv) species available over wide geographical range (v) species harvestable in short rotation period (vi) land fertility requirement for species (vii) species importance in ethnobotany and (viii) species conservation status. 3.6.1 Prioritization of NTFPs in Chaurikharka VDC 3.6.1a Sherpa BZCFUG Prioritized NTFP species of Sherpa BZCFUG for value addition and marketing linkage and further assessment are Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum), Argeli (Edgeworthia gardneri), Fayang (Gaultheria fragrantissima), Titepati (Artemisia dubia), Sisnu (Urtica dioica) and Nigalo (Arundinaria maling). The details are given in table below: Table 34: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Sherpa BZCFUG
Potential for cultivation Contribution to income Regenerative potential Processing technology Availability ( in time ) Ethnobotanical value 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 3 3 2 3 S N Criteria⇒ Conservation status

Potential for value addition

Market demand

Margin \ Profit

Gender impact

Geographical distribution

NTFP species ⇓ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis asiatica Borinda emeryi Edgeworthia gardneri Elsholtzia fruticosa Eupatorium adenophorum Gaultheria fragrantissima Himalayacalamus hookerianus Lindera neesiana Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Urtica dioica

1 2 1 1 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1

3 2 1 2 3 1 2 2 2 3 2 1 1

3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 3

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3

3 2 1 2 3 3 3 1 2 3 1 1 3

3 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 3

2 3 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 1

3 1 3 1 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3

3 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 3

1 3 2 3 2 3 2 1 3 3 3 2 3

30 29 24 26 31 26 28 30 27 27 25 23 30

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

27

Total

14 15

Yushania maling Zanthoxylum armatum

1 3

2 3

3 2

3 2

3 3

2 3

2 2

1 3

2 3

2 3

3 3

2 3

26 33

3.6.1b Muse BZCFUG Prioritized NTFP species of Muse BZCFUG for value addition, marketing linkage and further study are Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum), Argeli (Edgeworthia gardneri), Fayang (Gaultheria fragrantissima), Sisnu (Urtica dioica) and Titepati (Artemisia dubia). The details are given in table below: Table 35: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Muse BZCFUG
Potential for cultivation Contribution to income Regenerative potential Processing technology Availability ( in time ) Ethnobotanical value 2 3 2 1 2 1 1 3 2 3 2 1 3 2 3 S N Criteria⇒ Conservation status

Potential for value addition

Market demand

Margin \ Profit

Gender impact

Geographical distribution

NTFP species ⇓ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis asiatica Daphne bholua Edgeworthia gardneri Elsholtzia fruticosa Eupatorium adenophorum Gaultheria fragrantissima Himalayacalamus hookerianus Lindera neesiana Rhododendron arboreum Taxus wallichiana Urtica dioica Yushania maling Zanthoxylum armatum

1 2 1 3 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 3 1 1 3

3 2 1 3 3 1 2 2 2 3 1 2 1 2 3

3 1 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 2

3 1 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 1 3 3 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3

3 2 1 1 3 3 3 1 2 3 1 1 3 2 3

3 2 2 1 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2

2 1 1 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 2 1 1 3

3 1 3 1 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 1 3 2 3

3 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 1 3 2 3

1 3 2 3 2 3 2 1 3 3 2 1 3 3 3

30 23 24 24 31 26 28 30 27 27 23 19 30 26 33

3.6.1c Red Panda BZCFUG Prioritized NTFP species of Red Panda BZCFUG for value addition, marketing linkage and further study are Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum), Fayang (Gaultheria fragrantissima), Argeli (Edgeworthia gardneri), Titepati (Artemisia dubia), Furmang (Elsholtzia fruticosa) and Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum). The details are given in table below:

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

28

Total

Table 36: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Red Panda BZCFUG
Potential for cultivation Contribution to income Regenerative potential Processing technology Availability ( in time ) Ethnobotanical value 2 3 2 2 1 1 2 1 3 1 2 2 1 1 3 Ethnobotanical value 2 2 S N Criteria⇒ Conservation status

Potential for value addition

Market demand

Margin \ Profit

Gender impact

Geographical distribution

NTFP species ⇓ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis aristata Borinda emeryi Daphne bholua Dipsacus inermis Edgeworthia gardneri Elsholtzia fruticosa Gaultheria fragrantissima Parmelia sp Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Rhododendron lepidotum Usnea orientalis Zanthoxylum armatum

1 2 1 1 3 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 3

3 2 1 2 3 1 3 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 3

3 2 3 2 1 2 3 2 3 3 1 2 3 3 2

3 2 3 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3 2 1 2 1 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 3

3 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 1 2 3 1 2

2 1 1 1 3 1 2 2 3 1 1 2 1 1 3

3 1 3 1 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 3

3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 1 1 3

1 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 3

30 25 24 23 23 23 30 26 30 21 22 26 22 20 33

3.6.1d Tongong BZCFUG Prioritized NTFP species of Tongong BZCFUG for value addition, marketing linkage and further study are Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum), Titepati (Artemisia dubia), Fayang (Gaultheria fragrantissima),Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum), Furmang (Elsholtzia fruticosa), Nigalo (Yushania maling) and Chirayito ( Swertia chirayita). The details are given in table below: Table 37: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Tongong BZCFUG
Potential for cultivation Contribution to income Regenerative potential Processing technology Availability ( in time ) S N Criteria⇒ Conservation status

Potential for value addition

Market demand

Margin \ Profit

Gender impact

Geographical distribution

NTFP species ⇓ 1 2 Artemisia dubia Berberis asiatica

1 1

3 1

3 3

3 3

3 3

3 1

3 2

2 1

3 3

3 2

1 2

30 24

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

29

Total

Total

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Daphne bholua Dipsacus inermis Elsholtzia fruticosa Gaultheria fragrantissima Parmelia sp Potentilla fruticosa Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Rhododendron lepidotum Swertia chirayita Taxus wallichiana Yushania maling Zanthoxylum armatum

3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 3

3 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 3

1 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 3 2 1 3 2

1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 3 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3

1 3 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 2 3

1 3 2 2 1 3 1 2 3 3 2 2 2

3 1 2 3 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 3

1 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 2 3

2 2 2 3 2 1 3 3 1 2 1 2 3

3 2 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 3 3

1 1 1 3 1 1 2 2 1 3 1 2 3

23 23 26 30 21 24 22 26 22 26 19 26 33

3.6.1e Dudh Kunda BZCFUG Prioritized NTFP species of Dudh Kunda BZCFUG for value addition, marketing linkage and further study are Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum), Fayang (Gaultheria fragrantissima), Titepati (Artemisia dubia), Nigalo (Arundinaria maling), Nigalo (Borinda emeryi) and Furmang (Elsholtzia fruticosa). The details are given in table below: Table 38: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Dudh Kunda BZCFUG
Potential for cultivation Contribution to income Regenerative potential Processing technology Availability ( in time ) Ethnobotanical value 2 3 2 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 2 1 S N Criteria⇒ Conservation status

Potential for value addition

Market demand

Margin \ Profit

Gender impact

Geographical distribution

NTFP species ⇓ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis asiatica Borinda emeryi Daphne bholua Dipsacus inermis Elsholtzia fruticosa Gaultheria fragrantissima Parmelia sp Potentilla fruticosa Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Rhododendron lepidotum

1 3 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1

3 2 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1

3 2 3 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 3

3 3 3 3 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3 2 1 2 1 3 3 1 1 3 1 1 1

3 2 2 2 1 3 2 2 1 3 1 2 3

2 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 1 2 1

3 1 3 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2

3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 1 3 3 1

1 3 2 3 3 2 3 1 1 2 2 2 2

30 29 24 27 23 23 27 30 21 24 22 26 22

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

30

Total

14 15

Swertia nervosa Zanthoxylum armatum

1 3

1 3

2 2

3 2

3 3

3 3

3 2

1 3

2 3

1 3

3 3

1 3

24 33

3.6.1f Pema Chholing BZCFUG Prioritized NTFP species of Pema Chholing BZCFUG for value addition, marketing linkage and further study are Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum), Titepati (Artemisia dubia), Fayang (Gaultheria
fragrantissima), Nigalo (Yushania maling), Nigalo (Arundinaria maling), Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum), Nigalo ( Borinda emeryi) and Furmang ( Elsholtzia fruticosa). The details are given in table

below: Table 39: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Pema Chholing BZCFUG
Potential for cultivation Contribution to income SN Regenerative potential Criteria⇒ Availability ( in time ) Conservation status Processing technology Ethnobotanical value 2 3 2 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 3 2 3 3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis asiatica Borinda emeryi Daphne bholua Dipsacus inermis Elsholtzia fruticosa Gaultheria fragrantissima Parmelia sp Potentilla fruticosa Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Taxus wallichiana Yushania maling Zanthoxylum armatum

1 3 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 3 3 3

3 2 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 3 2 3

3 2 3 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3 2 1 2 1 3 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 3

3 2 2 2 1 3 2 2 1 3 1 2 1 2 2

2 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 1 2 3 2 3

3 1 3 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 1 1 3

3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 1 3 3 1 3 3

1 3 2 3 3 2 3 1 1 2 2 2 1 3 3

30 29 24 27 23 23 27 30 21 24 22 27 23 29 33

3.6.1g Kongde BZCFUG Prioritized NTFP species of Kongde BZCFUG for value addition, marketing linkage and further study are Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum), Titepati (Artemisia dubia), Nigalo (Arundinaria maling), Lokta (Daphne bholua), Furmang (Elsholtzia fruticosa) and Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum). The details are given in table below:

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

31

Total

NTFP species ⇓

Potential for value addition

Market demand

Margin \ Profit

Gender impact

Geographical distribution

Table 40: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Kongde BZCFUG
Potential for cultivation Contribution to income Regenerative potential Processing technology Availability ( in time ) Ethnobotanical value 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 3 Ethnobotanical value 2 3 2 S N Criteria⇒ Conservation status

Potential for value addition

Market demand

Margin \ Profit

Gender impact

Geographical distribution

NTFP species ⇓ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis insignis Cotoneaster frigidus Daphne bholua Dipsacus inermis Elsholtzia fruticosa Gaultheria fragrantissima Parmelia sp Potentilla fruticosa Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Rhododendron lepidotum Rosa macrophylla Zanthoxylum armatum

1 3 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 3

3 2 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 3

3 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 3 1 2

3 3 3 1 3 2 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3 2 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 3

3 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 1 3 1 2 2 2 2

2 2 1 1 3 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 3

3 1 3 1 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 3

3 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 1 3 3 2 1 3

1 3 2 3 3 2 3 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3

30 29 24 22 28 23 27 26 21 24 22 27 25 21 34

3.6.1h Himalaya BZCFUG Prioritized NTFP species of Himalaya BZCFUG for value addition, marketing linkage and further study are Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum), Titepati (Artemisia dubia), Nigalo (Arundinaria maling), Nigalo (Borinda emeryi), Lokta (Daphne bholua), Furmang (Elsholtzia fruticosa) and Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum). The details are given in table below: Table 41: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Himalaya BZCFUG
Potential for cultivation Contribution to income Regenerative potential Processing technology Availability ( in time ) S N Criteria⇒ Conservation status

Potential for value addition

Market demand

Margin \ Profit

Gender impact

Geographical distribution

NTFP species ⇓ 1 2 3 Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis asiatica

1 3 1

3 2 1

3 2 2

3 3 3

3 3 3

3 2 1

3 2 2

2 2 1

3 1 3

3 3 2

1 3 2

30 29 23

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

32

Total

Total

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Berberis insignis Borinda emeryi Daphne bholua Elsholtzia fruticosa Parmelia sp Potentilla fruticosa Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Rhododendron lepidotum Rosa macrophylla Usnea orientalis Zanthoxylum armatum

1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3

1 2 3 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 3

3 2 3 2 3 3 1 2 3 1 3 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

1 2 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 3

2 2 1 2 1 3 1 2 2 2 2 2

1 2 3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 3

3 1 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3

2 3 2 3 2 1 3 3 2 1 1 3

2 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 3 3 1 3

2 3 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3

24 29 28 27 21 24 22 27 25 21 22 34

3.6.2 Prioritization of NTFPs in Namche VDC Prioritized NTFP species of Namche VDC for value addition, marketing linkage and further study are Seabuckthorn (Hippophae tibetana), Dhupi (Juniperus indica and Juniperus recurva), Jatamansi (Nardostachys grandiflora), Sunpati (Rhododendron anthopogon), Jangali gulab (Rosa macrophylla and Rosa sericea). The details are given in table below: Table 42: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Namche VDC
Potential for cultivation Contribution to income Regenerative potential Processing technology Availability ( in time ) Ethnobotanical value 2 1 1 2 3 3 3 2 3 1 1 2 2 1 S N Criteria⇒ Conservation status

Potential for value addition

Market demand

Margin \ Profit

Gender impact

Geographical distribution

NTFP species ⇓ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Berberis wallichiana Cotoneaster microphyllus Gentiana urnula Hippophae tibetana Juniperus indica Juniperus recurva Nardostachys grandiflora Potentilla fruticosa Rhododendron anthopogon Rhododendron cinnabarinum Rhododendron setosum Rosa macrophylla Rosa sericea Selinum tenuifolium

1 1 1 3 3 2 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 3 3 2 3 1 3 1 1 2 2 2

3 3 2 2 3 3 1 3 2 2 3 2 2 1

3 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

1 1 2 2 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 3

1 2 2 3 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 3

1 1 1 3 3 2 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 1

2 1 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 3 2

2 1 1 3 3 2 3 1 3 1 1 3 3 2

2 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 2

22 19 21 32 31 26 30 24 28 18 20 25 25 23

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

33

Total

15

Swertia racemosa

1

1

2

3

3

2

3

1

3

1

1

1

22

3.6.3 Prioritization of NTFPs in Khumjung VDC Prioritized NTFP species of Khumjung VDC for value addition, marketing linkage and further study are Seabuckthorn (Hippophae tibetana), Dhupi (Juniperus indica and Juniperus recurva), Sunpati (Rhododendron anthopogon) and Jangali gulab (Rosa macrophylla and Rosa sericea). The details are given in table below: Table 43: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Khumjung VDC
Potential for cultivation Contribution to income Regenerative potential Processing technology Availability ( in time ) Ethnobotanical value 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 3 1 1 2 2 1 S N Criteria⇒ Conservation status

Potential for value addition

Market demand

Margin \ Profit

Gender impact

Geographical distribution

NTFP species ⇓ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Berberis erythroclada Berberis wallichiana Cotoneaster microphyllus Ephedra gerardiana Gentiana urnula Hippophae tibetana Juniperus indica Juniperus recurva Potentilla fruticosa Rhododendron anthopogon Rhododendron cinnabarinum Rhododendron setosum Rosa macrophylla Rosa sericea Usnea longissima

1 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 1 3 1 1 2 2 1

3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 2 1

1 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 1 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 3 2

2 2 1 3 1 3 3 2 1 3 1 1 3 3 1

2 2 1 3 1 3 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 1

22 22 19 24 21 32 31 26 24 28 18 20 25 25 18

3.7 Threat analysis Rapid vulnerability assessment (RVA) analysis was carried out for the prioritized NTFP species of respective BZCFUGs of Chaurikharka VDC and Namche and Khumjung VDCs of SNPBZ. RVA was conducted on the basis of the following criteria: 1) Ecology, 2) Life form, 3) Parts used and 4) Harvesting method. 3.7.1 RVA in Chaurikharka VDC 3.7.1a Sherpa BZCFUG The most vulnerable NTFP species of Sherpa BZCFUG are Siltimur (Lindera neesiana), Kharsu (Quercus semecarpifolia), Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum), Chutro (Berberis asiatica),

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

34

Total

Fayang (Gaultheria fragrantissima) and Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum). The details are shown in table below: Table 44: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Sherpa BZCFUG
Mode of reproduction Rate of reproduction Criteria⇒ Harvesting method 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Harvesting method 1 1 1 Life form diversity Habitat diversity

Growth

Habitat

Habit

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis asiatica Borinda emeryi Edgeworthia gardneri Elsholtzia fruticosa Eupatorium adenophorum Gaultheria fragrantissima Himalayacalamus hookerianus Lindera neesiana Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Urtica dioica Yushania maling Zanthoxylum armatum

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1

2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

18 16 15 16 17 18 18 15 16 13 14 14 19 16 15

3.7.1b Muse BZCFUG The most vulnerable NTFP species of Muse BZCFUG are Siltimur (Lindera neesiana), Lauth salla (Taxus wallichiana), Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum), Lokta (Daphne bholua), Chutro (Berberis asiatica), Fayang (Gaultheria fragrantissima) and Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum). The details are shown in table below: Table 45: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Muse BZCFUG
Mode of reproduction Rate of reproduction Criteria⇒ Life form diversity Habitat diversity

Abundance

Habit

1 Artemisia dubia 2 Arundinaria maling 3 Berberis asiatica

2 2 2

2 2 1

2 1 1

1 2 1

2 2 2

2 2 2

2 1 2

2 1 1

2 2 2

18 16 15

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

35

Score

NTFPs ⇓

Parts used

SN

Growth

Habitat

Score

NTFPs ⇓

Parts used

SN

Abundance

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Daphne bholua Edgeworthia gardneri Elsholtzia fruticosa Eupatorium adenophorum Gaultheria fragrantissima Himalayacalamus hookerianus Lindera neesiana Rhododendron arboreum Taxus wallichiana Urtica dioica Yushania maling Zanthoxylum armatum

1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2

1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1

1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

14 17 18 18 15 16 13 14 13 19 16 15

3.7.1c Red Panda BZCFUG The most vulnerable NTFP species of Red Panda BZCFUG are Lokta (Daphne bholua), Kharsu (Quercus semecarpifolia), Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum), Chutro (Berberis aristata), Fayang (Gaultheria fragrantissima), Jhyau (Parmelia sp) and Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum). The details are shown in table below: Table 46: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Red Panda BZCFUG
Rate of reproduction Criteria⇒ Mode of reproduction Harvesting method 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 Life form diversity Habitat diversity

Abundance

Habit

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis aristata Borinda emeryi Daphne bholua Dipsacus inermis Edgeworthia gardneri Elsholtzia fruticosa Gaultheria fragrantissima Parmelia sp Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Rhododendron lepidotum Usnea orientalis Zanthoxylum armatum

2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1

2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1

1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2

2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1

2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1

2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

36

Score 18 16 15 16 14 17 17 18 15 15 14 14 17 19 15

NTFPs ⇓

Parts used

SN

Growth

Habitat

3.7.1d Tongong BZCFUG The most vulnerable NTFP species of Tongong BZCFUG are Lauth salla (Taxus wallichiana), Lokta (Daphne bholua), Kharsu (Quercus semecarpifolia), Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum), Chutro (Berberis asiatica), Fayang (Gaultheria fragrantissima), Jhyau (Parmelia sp) and Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum). The details are shown in table below: Table 47: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Tongong BZCFUG
Mode of reproduction Rate of reproduction Criteria⇒ Harvesting method 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 Harvesting method Life form diversity Habitat diversity

Abundance

Habit

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Artemisia dubia Berberis asiatica Daphne bholua Dipsacus inermis Elsholtzia fruticosa Gaultheria fragrantissima Parmelia sp Potentilla fruticosa Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Rhododendron lepidotum Swertia chirayita Taxus wallichiana Yushania maling Zanthoxylum armatum

2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2

2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1

2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1

2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1

2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2

3.7.1e Dudh Kunda BZCFUG The most vulnerable NTFP species of Dudh Kunda BZCFUG are Lokta (Daphne bholua), Kharsu (Quercus semecarpifolia), Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum), Chutro (Berberis asiatica), Fayang (Gaultheria fragrantissima), Jhyau (Parmelia sp) and Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum). The details are shown in table below: Table 48: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Dudh Kunda BZCFUG
Mode of reproduction Rate of reproduction Criteria⇒ Life form diversity Habitat diversity

Abundance

Habit

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

37

Score

NTFPs ⇓

Parts used

SN

Growth

Habitat

Score 18 15 14 17 18 15 15 17 14 14 17 16 13 16 15

NTFPs ⇓

Parts used

SN

Growth

Habitat

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis asiatica Borinda emeryi Daphne bholua Dipsacus inermis Elsholtzia fruticosa Gaultheria fragrantissima Parmelia sp Potentilla fruticosa Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Rhododendron lepidotum Swertia nervosa Zanthoxylum armatum

2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1

2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1

1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1

2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1

2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1

18 16 15 16 14 17 18 15 15 17 14 14 17 17 15

3.7.1f Pema Chholing BZCFUG The most vulnerable NTFP species of Pema Chholing BZCFUG are Lauth salla (Taxus wallichiana), Lokta (Daphne bholua), Kharsu (Quercus semecarpifolia), Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum), Chutro (Berberis asiatica), Fayang (Gaultheria fragrantissima), Jhyau (Parmelia sp) and Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum). The details are shown in table below: Table 49: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Pema Chholing BZCFUG
Mode of reproduction Rate of reproduction Criteria⇒ Harvesting method 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 Life form diversity Habitat diversity

Abundance

Habit

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis asiatica Borinda emeryi Daphne bholua Dipsacus inermis Elsholtzia fruticosa Gaultheria fragrantissima Parmelia sp Potentilla fruticosa Quercus semecarpifolia

2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1

2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1

1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2

2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1

2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1

2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

38

Score 18 16 15 16 14 17 18 15 15 17 14

NTFPs ⇓

Parts used

SN

Growth

Habitat

12 13 14 15

Rhododendron arboreum Taxus wallichiana Yushania maling Zanthoxylum armatum

2 1 2 2

1 1 2 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 2 2

2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

14 13 16 15

3.7.1g Kongde BZCFUG The most vulnerable NTFP species of Kongde BZCFUG are Chutro (Berberis insignis), Fayang (Gaultheria fragrantissima), Jhyau (Parmelia sp), Kharsu (Quercus semecarpifolia), Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum), Jangali gulab (Rosa macrophylla), Ruis (Cotoneaster frigidus), Lokta (Daphne bholua) and Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum). The details are shown in table below: Table 50: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Kongde BZCFUG
Mode of reproduction Rate of reproduction Criteria⇒ Harvesting method 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 Life form diversity Habitat diversity

Abundance

Habit

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis insignis Cotoneaster frigidus Daphne bholua Dipsacus inermis Elsholtzia fruticosa Gaultheria fragrantissima Parmelia sp Potentilla fruticosa Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Rhododendron lepidotum Rosa macrophylla Zanthoxylum armatum

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1

2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1

1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1

2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2

3.7.1h Himalaya BZCFUG The most vulnerable NTFP species of Himalaya BZCFUG are Chutro (Berberis asiatica, Berberis insignis), Jhyau (Parmelia sp), Kharsu (Quercus semecarpifolia), Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum), Jangali gulab (Rosa macrophylla), Jhyau (Usnea orientalis), Lokta (Daphne bholua) and Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum). The details are shown in table below:

Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ

39

Score 18 16 14 15 15 17 18 14 14 17 14 14 16 14 15

NTFPs ⇓

Parts used

SN

Growth

Habitat

Table 51: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Himalaya BZCFUG
Mode of reproduction Rate of reproduction Criteria⇒ Harvesting method 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 Harvesting method 1 2 1 1 Life form diversity Habitat diversity

Abundance

Habit

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Artemisia dubia Arundinaria maling Berberis asiatica Berberis insignis Borinda emeryi Daphne bholua Elsholtzia fruticosa Parmelia sp Potentilla fruticosa Quercus semecarpifolia Rhododendron arboreum Rhododendron lepidotum Rosa macrophylla Usnea orientalis Zanthoxylum armatum

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2

2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1

2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2

3.7.2 RVA of NTFPs in Namche VDC The most vulnerable NTFP species of Namche VDC are Chimal (Rhododendron cinnabarinum), Chutro (Berberis wallichiana), Jatamansi (Nardostachys grandiflora), Sunpati (Rhododendron anthopogon) and Jangali gulab (Rosa macrophylla and Rosa sericea). The details are shown in table below: Table 52: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Namche VDC
Mode of reproduction Rate of reproduction Criteria⇒ Life form diversity Habitat diversity

Abundance

Habit

1 2 3 4

Berberis wallichiana Cotoneaster microphyllus Gentiana urnula Hippophae tibetana

2 2 2 1

1 1 2 2

1 1 2 2

1 2 1 2

2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2

1 2 2 1

1 1 2 1

2 1 1 2

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40

Score 14 16 17 16

NTFPs ⇓

Parts used

SN

Growth

Habitat

Score 18 16 14 14 16 15 18 14 17 14 14 16 14 14 15

NTFPs ⇓

Parts used

SN

Growth

Habitat

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Juniperus indica Juniperus recurva Nardostachys grandiflora Potentilla fruticosa Rhododendron anthopogon Rhododendron cinnabarinum Rhododendron setosum Rosa macrophylla Rosa sericea Selinum tenuifolium Swertia racemosa

2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2

1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2

1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1

2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1

15 15 14 17 14 13 16 14 14 16 17

3.7.3 RVA of NTFPs in Khumjung VDC The most vulnerable NTFP species of Khumjung VDC are Chimal (Rhododendron cinnabarinum), Chutro (Berberis erythroclada and Berberis wallichiana), Sunpati (Rhododendron anthopogon) and Dhupi (Juniperus indica and Juniperus recurva). The details are shown in table below: Table 53: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Khumjung VDC
Mode of reproduction Rate of reproduction Criteria⇒ Harvesting method 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 Life form diversity Habitat diversity

Abundance

Habit

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Berberis erythroclada Berberis wallichiana Cotoneaster microphyllus Ephedra gerardiana Gentiana urnula Hippophae tibetana Juniperus indica Juniperus recurva Potentilla fruticosa Rhododendron anthopogon Rhododendron cinnabarinum Rhododendron setosum Rosa macrophylla Rosa sericea Usnea longissima

2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1

1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1

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Score 14 14 16 17 17 16 15 15 17 14 13 16 14 14 13

NTFPs ⇓

Parts used

SN

Growth

Habitat

CHAPTER FOUR 4.1 Overview of enterprise modalities to be set up in SNPBZ Forest based enterprises exist in various modalities, which can be outlined in aspects of ownership structure, linkages to raw materials, target markets, seasonality of operation, technological sophistication, management structure, product types and similar characteristics. On the ownership dimension, 5 different modalities can be set up in SNPBZ, they are as follows: a) Sole enterprise, b) BZCFUG/WAG enterprise, c) Consortium of BZCFUGs enterprise, d) Cooperatives and e) Private limited company. In terms of linkages of raw materials, economic and enterprise activities are based on raw materials drawn from buffer zone community forests and forests within the National Park. 4.2 Comparative analysis of enterprise modalities in SNPBZ Using ranking scores at three levels (Good: 3, Fair: 2 and Poor: 1), a comparative analysis of the proposed five enterprise modalities in SNPBZ was done as developed by ANSAB (2000) and Subedi et al. (2002). The analysis revealed that sole ownership is not necessarily the best modality in the forest enterprise sector. Its main weakness lies in the organization for all kinds of issues and without that there are many risks. Companies scored the lowest of the other modalities. This is due to the lack of institutional mechanism, such as with BZCFUGs, to ensure linkages with support services, environmental management and advocacy with National Park. On the other hand, companies scored higher than BZCFUG/WAG enterprises in the area of marketing because they can have better management capacity. Cooperative enterprises also scored less than BZFUG enterprises because they have no institutional mechanism for advocacy with the National Park or for guarantying environmental management. They also scored higher than BZFUG enterprises on marketing and on participation of woman. BZCFUGs enterprise scored less on marketing because of the lack of management capacity for marketing. However, in many other respects, they are at least potentially as strong as the other enterprise modalities. In summary, if conservation of resource is the most important factor, and those criteria are given additional weight, then the BZCFUGs enterprise would score the highest. On the other hand, if woman’s participation is the most important and if this ranking is weighted, then the cooperative modality would come out higher than the others.

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Table 54: Comparative analysis of enterprise modalities on market, social, technology and conservation criteria in SNPBZ
Factors Sole Enterprise No bargaining power unless organized into a trade association and even then it’s difficult to guarantee agreement on sale price to buyers (1) Difficult to achieve (1) Difficult to organize (1) Difficult to achieve (1) No positive impact can be guaranteed and chances of negative impact are high without peer pressure (1) Needs good linkage with BZCFUGs and can’t be ensured (1) There is no control over equity Enterprise Modalities BZCFUG Cooperative Consortium Potential for Potential for own financing own financing and therefore and therefore for increased for increased bargaining bargaining power, can also power, but difficult to reach achieve agreements agreement amongst amongst all members on members on sale price to sale price to buyers buyers (3) (2) (2) Can be achieved Can be achieved Can be achieved BZCFUG Enterprise Potential for own financing and therefore for increased bargaining power, but difficult to reach agreement amongst all members on sale price to buyers (3) Easy to organize (3) Management capacity is lacking to organize (2) Potential for good impact if participation of all users is ensured and conflicts are resolved (3) Can easily be organized (3) Easy to organize (3) Management capacity is lacking to organize (2) More difficult to ensure participation but has potential for good impact (3) Easy to organize (3) Management capacity is lacking to organize (2) Good impact is only achieved if increased income results in increased awareness of conservation (2) Needs good linkage with BZCFUG in order to be possible and can’t be ensured (2) By lawguarantee, equity and transparency with distribution of dividends but distribution of work opportunities Company Potential for own financing and therefore for increased bargaining power and can also easily reach agreement on sale price amongst shareholders (3) Can be achieved (3) Easy to organize (3) Better management capacity to achieve (3) Good impact is only achieved if increased income results in increased awareness of conservation (2) Needs good linkage with BZCFUG in order to be possible and can’t be ensured (2) Equity is only ensured through distribution of shares. Influential share holders can dominate decision

Market a. Price

b. Economy of scale c. Access to transport d. Access to forward linkage and services Environment a.Biodiversity

b. Management and Monitoring

(3) Can easily be organized

Social a. Distribution of income

(3) Potential to be equitable if there is transparency and good participation in decision making on BZCFUG funds

(3) Potential to be equitable if there is transparency and good participation in decision making on BZCFUG funds

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43

b. Participation of women

c. Impact of Policy

(1) Potential to be very high if it’s a women owned enterprise or an ethnic group in which women are allowed in decision making (3) No advocacy power with DFO/NP

(2) Potential for it to be high, only if there is support for participation in decision making in BZCFUG committee

(2) Potential for it to be high, only if there is support for participation in decision making in BZCFUG committee

may not always be equitable (3) Can be very high in the case of a women’s only cooperative

making (2) Potential to be very high in the case of a women’s only company

(2) Strong advocacy power and potential support from related organizations (3) Good access (3) Can be ensured with good management (3) (29)

Technology a. Access to value addition b. Sustainability

(1) Poor access (1) Very difficult to ensure (1) (13)

(2) Strong advocacy power and potential support from related organizations (3) Good access (3) Can be ensured with good management (3) (29)

(3) No advocacy power with DFO/NP

(3) No advocacy power with DFO/NP

(1) Good access (3) More difficult to ensure continuing linkages (2) (27)

(1) Good access (3) More difficult to ensure continuing linkages (2) (27)

Total Score

4.3 Identification of enterprise modalities to be set up in SNPBZ On the basis of the resource availability, processing technology, communities’ willingness and market linkage, the following enterprise modalities are proposed in SNPBZ. Table 55: Sole and BZCFUG/WAG enterprises in Chaurikharka VDC
Buffer Zone CFUGs Sherpa BZCFUG, Chaurikharka-4 Enterprise models a. Sole enterprise Specific product lines 1. Herbal tea Potential species Kharsu exudates (Quercus semecarpifolia), Sisnu aerial parts (Urtica dioica), Aerial parts of Pudina (Mentha arvensis), Lali gurans flower (Rhododendron arboreum) Nigalo (Arundinaria maling, Borinda emeryi and Yushania maling ) Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum), Argeli (Edgeworthia gardneri),

2. Handicraft and basketry 3. NTFP cultivation/ plantation

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44

4. Wine making from wild edible fruits

5. Herbal incense b. BZCFUG/WAG enterprise 1. Bio briquette 2. Collective marketing centre 3. Himalayan nettle curry 4. Herbal drink Muse BZCFUG, Chaurikharka-4 a. Sole enterprise 1. Herbal tea

Chirayito (Swertia chirayita), Bans Ainselu (Rubus ellipticus), Chutro (Berberis asiatica), Bhui ainselu (Fragaria nubicola), Fruits of Fayang (Gaultheria fragrantissima), Thotne (Aconogonum molle) Furmang (Elsholtzia fruticosa), Titepati (Artemisia dubia) Banmara (Eupatorium adenophorum), Titepati (Artemisia dubia) Argeli whiteskin, Timur fruits Sisnu aerial parts Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum) Sisnu aerial parts (Urtica dioica), Lali gurans flower (Rhododendron arboreum), Mael leaves (Pyrus sp) Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum), Argeli (Edgeworthia gardneri), Chirayito (Swertia chirayita) Ainselu (Rubus ellipticus), Chutro (Berberis asiatica), Bhui ainselu (Fragaria nubicola), Fruits of Fayang (Gaultheria fragrantissima), Thotne (Aconogonum molle), Mael fruits (Pyrus sp) Furmang (Elsholtzia fruticosa), Titepati (Artemisia dubia) Banmara (Eupatorium adenophorum), Titepati (Artemisia dubia) Argeli whiteskin, Timur fruits Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum) Lali gurans flower (Rhododendron arboreum) Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum), Argeli (Edgeworthia gardneri) Nigalo (Arundinaria maling

2. NTFP cultivation/ plantation 3. Wine making from wild edible fruits

4. Herbal incense b. BZFUG/WAG enterprises 1. Bio briquette 2. Collective marketing centre 3. Herbal drink Red Panda BZCFUG, Chaurikharka- 3 a. Sole enterprises 1. Herbal tea 2. NTFP cultivation/ plantation 3. Handicraft and

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45

b. BZFUG/WAG enterprises

basketry 1. Wine making from wild edible fruits

Tongong BZCFUG, Chaurikharka- 2 &7

a. Sole enterprises

1. NTFP cultivation/ plantation 2. Herbal tea 3. Wine making from wild edible fruits

4. Incense making

Dudh Kunda BZCFUG, Chaurikharka-6

b. BZFUG/WAG enterprises a. Sole enterprises

1. Collective marketing centre 1. Cultivation of NTFP 2. Incense making 3. Wine making from wild edible fruits and Alu Bakhada

and Borinda emeryi) Ainselu (Rubus ellipticus), Chutro (Berberis asiatica), Bhui ainselu (Fragaria nubicola), Thotne (Aconogonum molle), Fayang berry (Gaultheria fragrantissima) Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum), Argeli (Edgeworthia gardneri) Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum), Kukurpati (Rhododendron lepidotum) Ainselu (Rubus ellipticus), Chutro (Berberis asiatica), Bhui ainselu (Fragaria nubicola), Thotne (Aconogonum molle), Fayang berry (Gaultheria fragrantissima) Furmang (Elsholtzia fruticosa), Titepati (Artemisia dubia), Dhupi (Juniperus indica), Sunpati (Rhododendron anthopogon) Timur fruits Timur, Alu Bakhada (Pyrus sp) Titepati (Artemisia dubia), Furmang (Elsholtzia fruticosa) Ainselu (Rubus ellipticus), Chutro (Berberis asiatica), Bhui ainselu (Fragaria nubicola), Thotne (Aconogonum molle), Fayang berry (Gaultheria fragrantissima), Alu Bakhada Timur fruits Nigalo (Arundinaria maling, Borinda emeryi) Timur leaf, Titepati leaves, Angeri leaves (Lyonia ovalifolia), Bulu leaves (Pieris formosa) Timur

b. BZFUG/WAG enterprises

1. Collective marketing centre 2. Household decorative items/interior decorative items from Nigalo 3. Organic insecticide/pesticides 1. Cultivation of NTFP

Pema Chholing

a. Sole

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46

BZCFUG, Chaurikharka-9

enterprises

2. Herbal tea

3. Herbal incense

4. Wine making from wild edible plants

b. BZFUG/WAG enterprises

1. Collecting marketing centre 2. Nursery management of multipurpose herbs and NTFPs

Kongde BZCFUG, Chaurikharka-5

a. Sole enterprises

1. Herbal tea 2. Herbal incense making

b. BZFUG/WAG enterprises

1. Collective marketing centre 2. Interior decoration of house/ basketry 1. Herbal tea 2. Herbal incense making

Padamchaal (Rheum australe), Lali gurans flower (Rhododendron arboreum), Kukurpati (Rhododendron lepidotum) Furmang (Elsholtzia fruticosa), Titepati (Artemisia dubia), Dhupi (Juniperus indica), Sunpati (Rhododendron anthopogon); pine resin as a base Ainselu (Rubus ellipticus), Chutro (Berberis asiatica), Bhui ainselu (Fragaria nubicola), Thotne (Aconogonum molle), Fayang berry (Gaultheria fragrantissima) Timur fruits (Zanthoxylum armatum), Lokta bark (Daphne bholua) Lauth salla (Taxus wallichiana), Padamchaal (Rheum australe), Satuwa (Paris polyphylla) and others Kharsu exudates (Quercus semecarpifolia), Lali gurans (Rhododendron arboreum) Furmang (Elsholtzia fruticosa), Titepati (Artemisia dubia), Dhupi (Juniperus indica), Sunpati (Rhododendron anthopogon); Pine resin (Pinus wallichiana) as a base Timur fruits (Zanthoxylum armatum) and Lokta bark (Daphne bholua) Nigalo (Arundinaria maling) Lali gurans flowers (Rhododendron arboreum) Furmang (Elsholtzia fruticosa), Titepati (Artemisia dubia), Dhupi (Juniperus indica), Sunpati (Rhododendron anthopogon); Pine resin (Pinus wallichiana) as a base Timur fruits (Zanthoxylum

Himalaya BZCFUG, Chaurikharka-1

a. Sole enterprises

b.

1. Collective marketing

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BZCFUG/WAG enterprises

centre 2. Interior decoration of house/ basketry

armatum) and Lokta bark (Daphne bholua) Nigalo (Arundinaria maling and Borinda emeryi)

Table 56: Other enterprise modalities in Chaurikharka VDC
Buffer Zone CFUGs Sherpa, Muse, Red Panda and Tongong (Dudh Kunda and Pema Chholing can supply raw materials) Tongong, Pema Chholing, Kongde and Himalaya Enterprise models Consortium of BZCFUGs Product lines 1. Essential oils (Wintergreen oil and Artemisia oil) Raw materials/ Potential species Wintergreen oil from Fayang leaves (Gaultheria fragrantissima) and Artemisia oil from Titepati aerial parts (Artemisia dubia) Timur fruits (Zanthoxylum armatum) and Lokta bark (Daphne bholua)

Cooperative

Collective marketing centre of Timur fruits and Lokta bark

Table 57: Identification of different models of enterprises in Namche VDC
Villages Thamo, Thame Thamboche and Hilajung Enterprise models a. Sole enterprises Product lines 1. Herbal tea Raw materials/ Potential species Jangali gulab flower (Rosa macrophylla and Rosa sericea), Bhale sunpati leaves (Rhododendron setosum) Sunpati leaves (Rhododendron anthopogon), Dhupi needles (Juniperus indica) and Pangbo rhizomes (Nardostachys grandiflora)

2. Herbal incense

Table 58: Identification of different models of enterprises in Khumjung VDC
Villages Phortse, Pangboche Dingboche and Pheriche Enterprise models a. Sole enterprise Product lines 1. Herbal tea Raw materials/ Potential species Jangali gulab flowers (Rosa macrophylla and Rosa sericea), Bhale sunpati leaves (Rhododendron setosum) Sunpati leaves (Rhododendron anthopogon), Dhupi needles (Juniperus indica) and Pangbo rhizomes (Nardostachys grandiflora) Aak sello fruits (Hippophae tibetana) High altitude grasses (Carex sp and Kobresia sp)

2. Herbal incense

b. BZUGs/WAGs enterprises

1. Juice making 2. Collective marketing of fodder and grasses

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4.4 Potential markets of the value added NTFP products The enterprise models and the NTFPs products to be value added are designed with the motive of markets linkage assurance focusing basically at the local level consumption. Table 59: Potential markets for NTFPs products SN Specific products Potential markets
1 2 Bio briquette Lokta bark and Timur fruits Hotels and restaurants in the trekking route a. Lokta bark: Handmade paper enterprises at Paiya, Khari Khola (Jubing VDC) and Nunthala (Taksindu VDC) b. Timur fruits: Lukla and Namche market/ Hotels and restaurants in the trekking route Jokpe and Yak owners involved in the trekking during trekking season Various essential oils traders/exporters and health care herbal products manufacturers at Kathmandu a. Handicraft: Souvenir tourist shops in the trekking route b. Basketry: Porters involved in trekking Lukla and Namche markets/ Hotels and restaurants in the trekking route Lukla and Namche markets/ Household level Lukla and Namche markets/ Household level Lukla and Namche markets/ Household level Hotels and restaurants in trekking route Hotels and restaurants in trekking route Other BZCFUGs for plantation/ Household level Farmers/ Household level Hotels and restaurants in trekking route/ Household level

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Fodder and grasses Essential oils (Wintergreen oil and Artemisia oil) Handicraft and basketry Herbal drink (Lali gurans Sorbet) Herbal incense Herbal tea Himalayan nettle curry Household decorative items/interior decorative items from Nigalo Juice (Seabuckthorn Juice) Seedlings and saplings of multipurpose herbs and NTFPs Organic insecticide/pesticides Wine from wild edible fruits

4.5 Requirements for enterprise success The success of the enterprises can be assessed according to the following dimensions: a. Raw material availability A long term biologically sustainable supply of the targeted natural product in sufficient quantities is necessary for the enterprise activity to be financially viable. b. Legal access to and control over the natural resources Collectors should be able to manage natural products harvesting and incorporate the enterprise activity into their overall forest management plans. Enterprise activities must comply with a range of legal requirements.

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c. Equitable distribution of benefits If community members do not feel the benefits are being distributed fairly there will be less incentive to protect the natural resources. The overall raw material source could become threatened as well as the commercial activity and ecosystem’s biodiversity. d. Appropriate processing technology Is the technology compatible with the prevailing infrastructure and human resource conditions at the chosen location? Conditions to be considered include: transport and storage facilities; equipment/machinery availability; power or fuel required for the processing activity and technical skills available. e. Good management People with knowledge of, and experience with managing proposed activities should be available to run the enterprise or they should be closely involved in its operations. f. Commercial sustainability Commercial sustainability is a simple concept. Sell the product at a price and volume that covers all the costs associated with the natural product enterprise with enough money left over as profit. g. Access to capital Start up capital and on going working capital is needed for the enterprise. h. Available and accessible market for the products Is there a market for the available quantity and quality of product? Is there adequate demand at the expected selling price? Who will buy the product? 4.6 Challenges for forest based enterprises Marketing barrier is the major identified challenges for the NTFP based enterprises. The specific challenges are as follows: • Limited number of wholesalers and controlled price information. • Less developed market for many products and high price fluctuations. • Many producers with small quantities of products receiving only a small portion of the total income. • Role and services of brokers and middlemen. • Lack of market information; current marketing channels, amount of each products, price variation as well as future supply and demand of the products, processed product, development and future price projection etc. • Most of the traders with an inadequate marketing knowledge and skills. • Limited access to availability of information and technology for product development. • Lack of marketing infrastructure like storage, transportation, quality testing laboratory facilities, etc.

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Difficulties in matching market requirements by suppliers due to several uncertainties such as production fluctuation, decreased collection due to unfavorable weather, inconsistent quality of products, lack of quality checking facilities, etc.

4.7 Trade of NTFPs and trading pattern The inhabitants of the study areas depend on hotel and restaurants business, trekking and mountaineering tourism, agriculture and animal husbandry for their livelihood support. Few villagers of Chaurikharka VDC collect NTFPs as an additional source of income in the harvesting season. The major traded NTFPs include Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum) fruits and few baskets (doko) made from Nigalo (Arundinaria maling, Borinda emeryi and Yushania maling) collected from their respective BZCFUGs. Timur fruits are traded to market in Lukla and Namche as well as to the hotel and restaurant owners in the trekking routes. Whereas, baskets (doko) are directly sold to the porters involved in the trekking. 1. Timur fruits: Collectors restaurants owners) Local markets (Lukla and Namche/Hotels and Porters involve in

2. Basketry (Doko from Nigalo): Collectors/Manufacturers trekking No trading of NTFPs in Namche and Khumjung VDCs. Table 60: Marketed NTFPs in Chaurikharka VDC SN Name of user groups NTFPs/Products
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Sherpa BZCFUGs Muse BZCFUGs Red Panda BZCFUGs Tongong BZCFUGs Dudh Kunda BZCFUGs Pema Chholing BZCFUGs Kongde BZCFUGs Himalaya BZCFUGs Timur Basket (Doko) Timur Timur Timur Timur Timur

Market price (Rs)
50-60/Mana 40-50/Pc 40-50/Mana 40-50/Mana 40-60/Mana 50-60/Mana 35-50/Mana

4.8 Value addition of NTFPs Value addition techniques at local level includes; cleaning, drying, grading, packaging and improved marketing. Commonly practiced methods of value addition of NTFPs and their techniques are presented below: Table 61: Value addition techniques SN Type of value addition Technique
1 2 3 Drying Cleaning Grading Sun drying and shade drying for aromatic plants Cleaning with water for roots/rhizomes, using cloths and brushes for other parts Grading on the basis of the quality

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4 5

Packaging Improved trading

Packaging in polythene bags ensuring free of moisture Adopting collective bargaining

4.8.1 Processing technology Simple and locally available technologies are more sustainable than the imported and more sophisticated ones. Through the technological interventions there is a scope to improve the quality, reduce the loss, increase the efficiency of operation and thereby reduce the cost. Technological improvements can also be made building on the traditional and existing technologies to match the current market requirement. Few processing technology that can be adopted in SNPBZ are as follows: Table 62: Processing technology and application SN Technology Examples of application 1 Drying (traditional sun drying, fire All medicinal and aromatic plants drying, shade drying and improved solar drier) 2 Steam distillation Essential oils from aromatic plants (Fayang, Titepati, Sunpati, Dhupi, Timur, Talispatra/ Gobre salla etc.) 3 Extraction of juice Lali gurans, Aak sello, Alu bakhada 4 Grinding and mixing Herbal tea, herbal incense 5 Debarking Lokta bark and Argeli whiteskin 6 Bio briquetting Banmara, Titepati 7 Packaging All raw NTFPs, value added products and finished products

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CHAPTER FIVE 5.1 Biological sustainable harvesting Biological diversity and sustainability occur at several levels: a) genes b) population c) community and d) ecosystem Harvesting can impact all of these levels. Since the effect of harvesting are superimposed on the natural population dynamics, a comparison between natural and harvested populations will provide enough information to assess sustainability. To determine biologically sustainable harvesting levels start by collecting community knowledge on particular species. It is important to know: a) The current level of harvesting b) The area where it is harvested c) The amount traded d) The various harvesting methods e) The season, percentage and parts of plant harvested If the species is traditionally collected, indigenous knowledge provides information on sustainable harvesting levels. Less information on sustainability exists for products that are not traditionally collected. Establish sampling areas for both traditionally collected and non- traditionally collected products. Sampling areas provide biological information on the collected natural products. 5.1.1 Checklist to assess harvesting sustainability of forest products - knowledge on the natural distribution of the species - frequency of occurrence or abundance - population structure (age/size/class distribution) - dynamics of the species (growth and reproduction rates) - variation among habitats - role within the ecosystem 5.2 Harvesting impact on population dynamics Forest product harvesting can have short and long term effects on the plant, ecosystem and overall biodiversity. Harvesting impacts on one population can cause ecologically unsustainable conditions for other species and the ecosystem structure. Sustainability must be viewed holistically. Immediate short-term effects of harvesting may be seen in the growth rate or reproduction capacity of the plant, while ecosystem changes may take longer to materialize. To distinguish short and long term effects of harvesting on population dynamics, monitoring is done at two stages: • rapid assessment of the immediate short term impact of harvesting on current population structure and • long term change in population dynamics that can be monitored from sampling areas

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Harvesting effects on population dynamics vary by the classification of plants (annual or perennial), plant parts that are harvested and how it is harvested. For a rapid assessment, monitoring focuses on the life stage being harvested. Table 63: Rapid assessment of harvesting effects on population dynamics
Life stage harvested Annual herb before fruiting or seeding Herbaceous perennial (roots or rhizomes) Woody perennial (leaves) juvenile Woody perennial (leaves) reproductive adults Effect of harvesting Destruction of reproductive adult May result in destruction of reproductive adult or underground storage tissue If too many leaves are constantly removed, it may not reach reproductive maturity Increased mortality due to disease as a result of damage Immediate impact If harvested before fruit/seeds are produced and disseminated then only those plants that escape harvest will supply seeds for next generation Reproductive capacity severely affected

Lack of seeds and propagation

Size distribution, growth, health and reproductive activity may be altered

5.3 Establishing sampling areas Sampling areas provide information on the distribution and abundance of forest products and the impact of harvesting on the plant’s population dynamics. Sampling areas are also an important part of biological monitoring. To determine the long term impact of harvesting on population dynamics, permanent plots must be established. Trials that measure the effect of different harvesting levels and methods are also helpful. Sampling areas must be monitored for years twice at a minimum, to learn how harvesting effects overall biodiversity. Sampling areas help to: - establish rotational harvesting schedules - identify optimal harvesting times and methods - get community members involved in hands on biological monitoring - devise more accurate community resource management plans Table 64: Recommended optimal harvesting practices for sustainable NTFPs product use Optimal harvesting Species/ Optimal Optimal Optimal % of methods Parts harvest rotational plants not season interval harvested harvested
Rhizomes with roots Fruits July-October 3-5 years At least 20% plants undisturbed At least 20% fruits Whole plants pulled from bushy areas and dug out carefully with the tool, kuto, from open grasslands Fruits/fruits with stalks are

July-

1-2 years

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September Leaves/needles Flowers Barks July-October May-August May-August 1 year 1-2 years 3 years

undisturbed At least 30% of leaves left on plant At least 30% of flowers left undisturbed At least 75% bark left undisturbed/For debarking Lokta bark and Argeli whiteskin the stem should be cut at least 15-18 cm above the ground At least 40% plant left undisturbed

detached from stem using sickles or bare hands Leaves hand picked or cut with scissors Flowers hand picked or cut with scissors Bark pulled from plants with the help of sickles or knife/khukuri

Aerial parts

JulyOctober

2-3 years

Aerial parts cut with scissor or khukuri

5.4 Developing a raw material sourcing plan After identifying the raw material sources, prepare a sourcing plan to estimate the raw material flow in relation to the enterprise. The sourcing plan should ensure a reliable supply of raw materials. Categories the area in terms of: • ecosystem (forest, pasture) • raw material • legal control (private, community or government owned) • quality • distance from the enterprise • accessibility Prepare a map illustrating the origins of raw materials. Assess potential risks associated with each location. The final estimate should be able to account for potential risks. Consider that labor may not always be available for collection and transportation activities. Assess the seasonal migration situation to minimize any problems resulting from a labor shortage. Likewise, consider the seasonal conditions of the raw material base. It is important to have good relations and communication with respective suppliers. 5.4.1 Check list for raw materials sourcing plan resource supply areas raw material type and quality quantity by season storage facility legal obligations/ permits transportation arrangements labor supply management

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agreements with suppliers risk and strategies working capital requirements 5.5 Need based assessment for enterprise set up in SNPBZ? The chain of steps for the establishment of community based forest enterprises SNPBZ, these include:
Categorization of community forests according to resources availability ↓

Yield estimation of the prioritized NTFPs ↓ Selection of local motivators ↓ Designation and preparation of worksheet for orientation to motivators ↓ Orientation to local motivators ↓ Identification of NTFPs collectors, local traders, and processors ↓ Ranking of local collectors ↓ Formation of collectors group ↓ Group discussion/interaction/motivation among motivators, collectors, traders, processors, members of BZCFUGs, WAGs and BZUCs ↓ Networking among BZCFUGs/individual persons ↓ Capacity building/strengthening the concerned BZCFUGs / WAGs / BZUCs on institutional development, governance/equity, fund mobilization, financial management, record keeping, benefit sharing mechanism etc. ↓ Training package on NTFPs promotion – time and technique of collection, local processing technology, storage, quality control, packaging, labeling, cultivation of major NTFPs ↓ Revisions in operational plan (OP) of concerned BZCFUGs-for the inclusion of enterprise development activities in OP ↓ Coordination with concerned government agencies and I/NGOs ↓ Site selection (accessible site) for the modalities of enterprise other than sole ↓ Assessment of the enterprise modalities – Sole/ BZCFUG owned/ Consortium of BZCFUGs/ Cooperatives/ Private Ltd. Co. Resource Assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ 56

↓ Threat/challenges/risk factor analysis ↓ Visualization of output/expectations ↓ Development of biological sustainable harvesting system – block rotation system preferable for harvesting/ participatory monitoring system, cultivation of major traded NTFPs ↓ Feasibility study on market, technology, equipments and availability of skill manpower ↓ Identification of the enterprise modalities to be set up ↓ Discussion among network members in different stages/steps (about objective, structure, regulatory mechanisms, business plan, marketing strategy etc.) ↓ Final meeting to discuss on common consensus and minuting of decisions ↓ Preparation of work plan/division of work ↓ Preparation of enterprise development plan/ business plan ↓ Registration of enterprise in concerned government office ↓ Management and conduction of pilot model enterprise

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CHAPTER SIX

6.1 Conclusion The local communities of the study areas are unaware about the use and benefits of NTFPs available in the nearby forests except for fuelwood, fodder and incense. Resource assessment of NTFPs in SNPBZ using the inventory parameters revealed that there are tremendous potentialities for the processing of prioritized NTFPs. The tourism in the region can create the local markets of the value added NTFPs based products. The local communities basically members of WAGs of the off trail routes are more curios for the promotion of NTFPs which would support their livelihood. Enterprises modalities assessment in SNPBZ revealed that, sole enterprises can be set up for the product lines as herbal tea, herbal incense, bio briquette, wine making; BZCFUG/WAG enterprises can be set up for the product lines as herbal drink/juice making, interior decoration/basketry, organic insecticide/pesticide, collective marketing centre of fodder and grasses; consortium of BZCFUG enterprises can be set up for processing essential oils (Artemisia oil and Wintergreen oil) and cooperatives for the collective marketing centre of Timur fruits and Lokta bark. For genesis, operation and growth of forest based enterprise a biologically sustainable harvesting mechanism should be prepared for each buffer zone community forest and forests within National Park. Moreover, some factors that contribute to or hinder the genesis, operation and growth of enterprises should be taken into account. These include: awareness raising, technical assistance, financial support, marketing support, marketing outlets, community characteristics, natural resource base, technology, policy factors, enterprise consequences and natural resource conservation. In conclusion, the communities’ motivation towards entrepreneurship, institutionalization of user groups (BZCFUGs, WAGs, BZUCs) and regulatory mechanisms for sustainable harvesting of NTFPs would definitely create the income generating opportunities and would assist in the conservation of biodiversity in SNPBZ. 6.2 Recommendations The local communities play a crucial role for the conservation and sustainable utilization of NTFP resources in SNP and Buffer Zone. Conservation and sustainable management are the ever raised issues, but why and how to conserve and manage are the big questions challenging ever. Therefore, the following steps are recommended for addressing conservation and livelihood issues of local communities: 1. Awareness programs (workshops, exhibitions, exposure visits, demonstration of the products) on the importance of NTFPs; conservation and sustainable utilization, harvesting at local level need to be conducted.

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2. Capacity building/strengthening the concerned BZCFUGs / WAGs / BZUCs on institutional development, governance/equity, fund mobilization, financial management, record keeping, benefit sharing mechanism etc. should be initiated. 3. Training package on NTFPs promotion; time and technique of collection, local processing technology, storage, quality control, packaging, labeling, and cultivation of major NTFPs should be conducted. 4. Development of biological sustainable harvesting system; block rotation system preferable for harvesting/ participatory monitoring system should be prepared for each user groups. 5. Detailed assessment of enterprise modalities to be set up in SNPBZ should be conducted in collaboration with various user groups. 6. Feasibility study on market linkage, technology transfer, equipments and availability of skill manpower should be conducted for each product line. 7. Micro-credit facilities should be provided for the initiation of small scale sole/BZCFUG or/ WAG enterprise and financial and operational support should be provided for the medium scale consortium of BZCFUGs enterprise/ cooperative. 8. Initiation for the management and conduction of pilot model enterprise preferably, herbal tea and herbal incense (sole); juice making from Seabuckthorn fruits and Rhododendron flowers (BZCFUG/WAG model); essential oil production from Fayang and Titepati leaves (consortium of BZCFUGs model) and collective marketing of Timur fruits, Lokta bark and grasses/fodder (cooperative model) in Chaurikharka and / or Khumjung VDCs recommended.

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References
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