DNV’s Hull Structure course for World Wide Shipping

7 - Hull Structure – cargo area Bottom

Hull Structural Breakdown Bottom
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

2.

Bottom

Side Bottom Deck Transverse bulkhead Longitudinal bulkhead Web frames

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Structural functions of bottom
Watertight integrity - Resist external sea pressure - Resist internal pressure from cargo and ballast Flange in hull girder

2.

Bottom

- Bottom plating and longitudinals act together as the lower flange in the hull girder beam

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Structural build up of bottom – single skin tanker

2.

Bottom

Bilge Bottom plating w/longitudinals Keel plate
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CL girder

Web frame

Structural build-up of a double bottom structure

2.

Bottom

Inner bottom plating (tank top) with longitudinals Hopper plating with longitudinals

Buttress

Hopper web plating

CL double bottom girder

Outboard girder (margin girder) Slide 5

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Bottom plating with longitudinals

Transverse girder / floor

Function: Watertight integrity
External loads induce shear forces and bending moments in the bottom longitudinals, acting as single beams (between each web frame)

2.

Bottom

Bottom longitudinal as a single beam between two web frames
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Function: Watertight integrity
Bottom plating with longitudinals are also acting as flange for the transverse web frame

2.

Bottom

Transverse bottom girder/web frame is supported at the longitudinal bulkheads (max. shear force towards long. bhds.)
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Bottom is supported by ship side and longitudinal bulkhead

2.

Bottom

Double span for double bottom without CL longitudinal bulkhead

Shear stress in double bottom floor due to external sea pressure
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Function: Flange in hull girder

2.

Bottom

Global bending moment induces longitudinal stresses in the bottom plating and longitudinals

Section A-A
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Longitudinal stresses (+/-) are acting in the bottom plating and longitudinals due to bending of hull girder

Double bottom structure
The double bottom is a grillage structure built up by transverse girders/floors and longitudinal girders With few longitudinal girders, double bottom stresses resulting from external sea pressure are mainly transferred in the transverse direction

2.

Bottom

Sea pressure

Shear force

Shear fo

rce

Double bottom transverse girder (web frame) as a Slide 10 16.03.2004 single I-beam

For the transverse girder, high shear stresses are induced towards the ship side and longitudinal bulkhead

Characteristic damages

2.

Bottom

1. Bilge keel terminations – crack in hull plating 2. Fatigue cracking in bottom longitudinal connections to web frame and transverse bulkhead 3. Corrosion of bottom structures 4. Hopper knuckle – cracks

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Bilge keel cracking
Oil Tanker 285,690 DWT built 1990 Crack in hull plating i.w.o. bilge keel terminations

2.

Bottom

Bilge keel

Crack in hull plating in way of bilge keel toes

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Bilge keel cracking

2.

Bottom

Bilge keel

Hot spot

Longi

tudina l stres

s

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Bilge keel cracking
Web frame/Bilge Bracket All measures in mm

2.

Bottom

125 Edges to be grinded smooth Ship side Pad plate

10-15mm Bilge Keel 200 1600 100 25 100

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Characteristic damages

2.

Bottom

1. Bilge keel terminations – crack in hull plating 2. Fatigue cracking in bottom longitudinal connections to web frame and transverse bulkhead 3. Corrosion of bottom structures 4. Hopper knuckle – cracks

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Cracking in bottom longitudinals

2.

Bottom

Bottom long. flat bar connection

Bottom long. tripping bracket connection

Similar16 Slide cracking in bottom longitudinals is also 16.03.2004 valid for double hull tankers

Cause for cracking in bottom longitudinals
Bottom longitudinals are subject to both:
Web/ Trans bhd

2.

Bottom

Web

M

M p

1. Local stress from lateral dynamic sea loading

2. Longitudinal stresses from hull girder bending Slide 17 16.03.2004

Consequences of cracks in bottom longitudinals:
-Leakage of oil

2.

Bottom

- Crack may propagate further into bottom plating and induce a larger transverse fracture

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Example: Cracks in inner bottom
Oil Tanker 95,371 DWT Crack in tank top plating at toes of transverse bulkhead buttress P/S

2.

Bottom

Crack in toe of big brackets connecting transverse bulkhead and tank top plating (in various cargo tanks along ships length)

Crack propagating through tank top plating (a few cases)

Crack in bracket toe

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Cracking in double bottom longitudinals

2.

Bottom

Cracks in flatbar connections for bottom and inner bottom longitudinals

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Cause for cracking in double bottom longitudinals

2.

Bottom

In a ballast condition there is a net overpressure in the double bottom ballast tank (full ballast tank and empty cargo tank) In a loaded condition there will be a negative net pressure on the double bottom (empty ballast tank, full draft and full cargo tank)

This effect may cause yield stress in hot spots at flat bar connections Due to the dynamic +/- variation of stresses, low cycle fatigue may occur
Slide 21 16.03.2004

Illustration – double bottom flatbar connections

2.

Bottom

Tensile stresses in critical structural details

The double bottom structure is exposed to large forces both in ballast and loaded condition
Slide 22 16.03.2004

Characteristic damages

2.

Bottom

1. Bilge keel terminations – crack in hull plating 2. Fatigue cracking in bottom longitudinal connections to web frame and transverse bulkhead 3. Corrosion of bottom structures 4. Hopper knuckle – cracks

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Corrosion of bottom structures

2.

Bottom

Local corrosion (pitting): may occur all over the bottom plating, but area below and around bell-mouth is particularly exposed

Pitting is also applicable for double hull tankers 24 Slide i.w.o. tank top plating 16.03.2004

Corrosion of bottom structures

2.

Bottom

- Pittings and local corrosion may cause leakage, in general not any structural problem - General corrosion will reduce the bottom sectional area, which can lead to an increased stress level: 1. Higher risk for fatigue cracks in bottom longitudinals 2. Higher risk for buckling of plate fields in the bottom
Longitudinal stress Force

F σL = A
Area

Increased risk for fatigue cracking and buckling of bottom panels if general corrosion has developed over the cross section
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Characteristic damages

2.

Bottom

1. Bilge keel terminations – crack in hull plating 2. Fatigue cracking in bottom longitudinal connections to web frame and transverse bulkhead 3. Corrosion of bottom structures 4. Hopper knuckle – cracks

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Cracking in hopper knuckle

2.

Bottom

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Crack in hopper knuckle at web frame connections

Cause for cracking in hopper knuckle

2.

Bottom

- Bending of double bottom due to external and internal dynamic loads induces membrane stresses in the inner bottom (flange in the double bottom transverse girder)

Bending moment

σL

Bending stress in inner bottom plating
Slide 28 16.03.2004

Bending stress in double bottom girder

σL

Cause for cracking in hopper knuckle

2.

Bottom

- Inner bottom membrane stresses are transferred into the hopper plating - The turn of the stress direction (inner bottom to hopper plating) results in an unbalanced stress component
Resulting membrane stress in hopper plating

Membrane stress from bending of transverse girder Un-balanced stress component

- This effect together with the knuckle being a geometric ‘hard point’ at web frame connections, induce very high stresses in the knuckle point
Slide 29 16.03.2004

2.

Bottom

Questions ?

Slide 30

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