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a) Dead metaphors Dead metaphors, viz.

metaphors where one is hardly conscious of the image, frequently relate to universal terms of space and time, the main part of the body, general ecological features and the main human activities: for English, word such as: space, field, line, top, bottom, foot, mouth, arm, circle, drop, fall, rise. They are particularly used graphically for concepts and for the language of science to clarify or define literal. Normally dead metaphors are not difficult to translate, but they often defy literal translation, and therefore offer choices. b) Clich metaphors Cliche metaphors as metaphors that have perhaps temporarily outlived their usefulness, that are used as a substitute for clear thought, often emotively, but without corresponding to the facts of the matter. Taken the passage: The County School will in effect become not a backwater but a break through in educational development which will set trends for the future. In this its traditions will help and it may well become a jewel in the crown of the countys education. This is an extract from specious editorial, therefore a vocative text, and in translation (say for a private client), the series clichs have to be retained (mare stagnante, percee, donnera le ton, joyau de la couronne, traditions, not to mention the tell-tale en effect for well) in all their hideousness; if this were prt of political speech or any authoritative statement, the same translation procedures would be appropriate. c) Stock or standard metaphors Stock or standard metaphors as an established metaphor which in an informal context is an efficient and concise method of covering a physical and/or mental situation both referentially and pragmatically a stock metaphor has a certain emotional warmth and which is not deadened by overuse. (You may have noticed that I personally dislike stock metaphors, stock collocation and phaticisms, but I to admit that they keep the word and society going they oil the wheels (mettre de Ihuile dans les rouages, schmieren den Karren , deie Dinge erliechtern). d) Adapted metaphors In translation, an adapted stock metaphor should, where possible, be translated by an equivalent adapted metaphor, particularly in a text as sacred as one by Reagan (if it

were translated literally, it might be comprehensible). Thus, the ball is a little in their court cest peut-e:re a eux de jouer ; sow division semer la division (which is in fact normally and natural). In other cases, one has to reduce to sense: get them in the door les introduire (faire le premier pas?); outsell the pants off our competitors epuiser nos produits et nos concurrents (?). the special difficulty with these sacred texts is that one knows they are not written by their author so one is tempted to translate more smartly than the original. e) Recent metaphors Bu recent metaphor, mean a metaphorical neologism, often anonymously coined, which has spread rapidly in the SL. When this designated a recently current object or process, it is a metonym. Otherwise it may be a new metaphor designating one of a number of prototypical qualities that continually renew themselves in language, e.g. fashionable (in, with it, dans le vent); good (groovy, sensass; fab); drunk (pissed, cuit); without money (skkint, sans le rond); stupid (spastic, spsmoid); having sex (doing a line); having an orgasm (making it, coming); woman chaser (womaniser); policeman (fuzz, flic). f) Original metaphors Must now to consider original metaphors, created or quoted by the SL writer. In principle, in authoritative and expressive texts; these should be translated literally whether they are universal, cultural or obscurely subjective. Newmark set this up as a principle, since original metaphors (In the widest sense): (a) contain the core of an important writers message, his personality, his comment on life, and though they may have a more or a less cultural element, these have be transferred neat; (b) such metaphors are a source of enrichment for the target language. Tieck and Schlegels translation of Shakespeares great plays have given German many original expressions, but many more metaphors could have been transferred. Taken Wilfred Owens We wise who with a thought besmirch Blood over all our soul (Insensibility) and Gunter Bohnkes translation: Wir weisen, die mit einem Gedanken Blutbesudeln unsere Seele, Whatever this means, the translator can only follow the original lexically since the metre will not quite let the grammar be reproduced the metaphor is virtually a litarel rendering, and the readers of each

version are faced with virtually the same difficulties of interpretation. However, if an original cultural metaphor appears to you to be a little obscure and not very important, you can sometimes replace it with a descriptive metaphor or reduce it to sense. Evelyn Waughs Oxford, a place in Lyonnesse could be Oxford, lost in the mythology of a remote, vanished region (or even, in Atlantis).