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Table of Contents

Table of Contents.................................................................................................................................................. 1 1NC....................................................................................................................................................................... 3 ***INDIA Actor CP................................................................................................................................................ 3 ***INDIA Actor CP................................................................................................................................................. 3 Slv Generic.......................................................................................................................................................... 5 *** Solvency.......................................................................................................................................................... 5 *** Solvency........................................................................................................................................................... 5 Slv Trust............................................................................................................................................................. 7 Slv Lunar Exploration....................................................................................................................................... 10 Slv Mars Exploration........................................................................................................................................ 11 Slv Lunar Mining............................................................................................................................................... 15 Slv Satellites..................................................................................................................................................... 16 Slv: Space Weaponization.................................................................................................................................. 18 Slv Solar Powered Satellites............................................................................................................................ 19 AT: Launch Capabilities...................................................................................................................................... 22 ***ATS................................................................................................................................................................ 22 ***ATS................................................................................................................................................................. AT: Entities List = No Solvency........................................................................................................................... AT: ITAR = No Solvency..................................................................................................................................... AT: Indo-China Mod............................................................................................................................................ AT: Rising Expectations...................................................................................................................................... AT: Delay............................................................................................................................................................. 2NC AT Previous Rocket Explosions............................................................................................................... 2NC AT China DA............................................................................................................................................ AT Perm: US-India Cooperation Fails................................................................................................................. AT Perm: India Coop Links to Politics................................................................................................................. 22 23 24 25 27 28 29 31 32 35

***INDIA COOP CP............................................................................................................................................. 35 ***INDIA COOP CP............................................................................................................................................. 35 1NC..................................................................................................................................................................... 36 Slv Generic ...................................................................................................................................................... 38 ***SOLVENCY.................................................................................................................................................... 38 ***SOLVENCY..................................................................................................................................................... 38 Slv Trust........................................................................................................................................................... 40 ISRO Successful................................................................................................................................................. 44 ***Say YES.......................................................................................................................................................... 44 ***Say YES.......................................................................................................................................................... 44 Say Yes SPS.................................................................................................................................................... 45

Say Yes ASATS............................................................................................................................................... Say Yes Mars................................................................................................................................................... Say Yes Solar Sails.......................................................................................................................................... Say Yes Moon.................................................................................................................................................. AT: Launch Capabilities......................................................................................................................................

50 52 53 54 55

***ATS................................................................................................................................................................ 55 ***ATS................................................................................................................................................................. AT: Entities List = No Solvency........................................................................................................................... AT: ITAR = No Solvency..................................................................................................................................... AT: Indo-China Mod............................................................................................................................................ AT: Rising Expectations...................................................................................................................................... AT: Delay............................................................................................................................................................. 55 56 57 58 60 61

1NC

Text: The Republic of India should The United States Federal government will deploy a one way, volunteer mission to mars modeled off of Mars Direct crewed by senior astronauts who pass rigorous fitness standards through normal means. under direction of the India Space Research Organization. The CP solves -- Indias program is gaining momentum and past successes prove it has necessary capabilities. Wax 09 Washington Post Staff Writer, Foreign Service (Emily, Nov 4, 2009, India's space ambitions taking
off http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/11/03/AR2009110303419.html? sid=ST2009110400142)

The ascendancy of India's space program highlights the country's rising ambitions on the world stage, as it grows economically and asserts itself in matters of diplomacy . Politicians once dismissed the space program as a waste. Activists for India's legions of poor criticized additional funding for the program, saying it was needless decades after the American crew of Apollo 11 had landed on the moon. Now, however, the program is a source of prestige. Last year, India reached a milestone, launching 10 satellites into space on a single rocket. Officials are positioning the country to become a leader in the business of launching satellites for others, having found paying clients in countries such as Israel and Italy. They even talk of a mission to Mars .
India's program is smaller in scope than China's and is thought to receive far less funding. It is also designed mostly for civilian purposes, whereas experts have suggested that China is more interested in military applications. (The Communist Party has said its goal is peaceful space exploration.) "A regional

human space flight with an eventual moon mission is a direct challenge to China's
said John M. Logsdon, professor emeritus of political science and international affairs at George Washington

leadership,"

University's Space Policy Institute. "China is still the leader. India has yet to diminish China's space stature. But

India is indeed seeking

a higher global profile." India now has among the world's largest constellations of remote-sensing

satellites. They are sophisticated enough to distinguish healthy coconuts from diseased ones in this region's thick palms. They can also zero in on deadly mosquitoes lurking in a patch of jungle. In September, a NASA device aboard India's first lunar probe detected strong evidence of water on the moon -- a "holy grail for lunar scientists," as Jim Green, director of the Planetary Science Division at NASA headquarters in
Washington, put it. The partnership with Americans was particularly gratifying to Indians, given recent bilateral history. After New Delhi conducted nuclear tests in 1998, the United States imposed sanctions denying India access to certain technology in a bid to curb its ability to launch nuclear rockets, said Theresa Hitchens, a space expert who is director of the U.N. Institute for Disarmament Research in Geneva. "Space launchers and ballistic missiles are quite similar from a technical perspective," she said. Many of the sanctions have been lifted, and India and the United States last year signed a historic civilian nuclear agreement, lifting a 30-year ban on bilateral nuclear trade. "The scientists at ISRO and NASA have always had deep respect for each other. But it was politics and bureaucracy that stood in the way of great

As India's space program barrels ahead, experts fear that NASA is losing ground. The space agency's human spaceflight program is facing budget cuts, as well as basic questions about where to go and how to get there . After NASA's aging space shuttle retires in 2010, it will be five years before the United States will have another spacecraft that can reach the international space station. The United States may have to buy a seat to the moon on an Indian spaceship, said Rakesh Sharma, India's first astronaut, who in 1984 was aboard the Soviet Union's Soyuz T-11
science," said Pallava Bagla, co-author of "Destination Moon: India's Quest for the Moon, Mars and Beyond." space shuttle. "Now that would be something," Sharma said. "Maybe budget cuts could usher in an era of more cooperation rather than competition and distrust." Through community-based programs, India's space agency has been partnering with schools in remote areas such

The agency is also training thousands of young scientists and, in 2012, will open the nation's first astronaut-training center in the
as this one, helping to teach students about space exploration and cutting-edge technology. southern city of Bangalore. "I want to be prepared in space sciences so I can go to the moon when India picks its astronauts," said Lakshmi

***INDIA Actor CP

Kannan, 15, pushing her long braids out of her face and clutching her science textbook. Lakshmi's hopes are not unlike India's ambitions, writ small. For

years, the country has focused its efforts in space on practical applications -- using satellites to collect information on natural disasters, for instance. But India is now moving beyond that traditional focus and has planned its first manned space mission in 2015. The ambitions of the 46-year-old national space program could vastly expand India's international profile in space and catapult it into a space race with China. China, the only country besides the United States and Russia to have launched a manned spacecraft, did so six years ago. "It's such an exciting time in the history of India's space program," said G. Madhavan Nair, a rocket scientist and the outgoing chairman of the national space agency, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). "More and more bright young Indian scientists are calling us for jobs. We will look back on this as a turning point."

Slv Generic
US and India should cooperate in space on a code of conduct, launch costs, lunar exploration, climate change, and space debris; this would bring in other nations to cooperate- it worked before
Inderfurth and Mohan, 09 (Karl I. and C. Raja, * professor at George Washington University and a former assistant secretary of state for south
Asia affairs, 1997-2001 and ** Indian academic, journalist and foreign policy analyst. He is currently Strategic Affairs Editor of the Indian Express, New Delhi, Put Space at the Heart of U.S.-India Relations, Financial Times, 11/22/09, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/87161d80-d794-11de-b57800144feabdc0.html#axzz1QJTXYHba) AFL President Obama will receive Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on Tuesday for the first official state visit of his administration, a visit befitting Indias emergence as a major global actor. It also signals Americas commitment to a strong partnership.

For more than a decade, the US-

India relationship has been deepening. This visit provides the chance to focus on a big idea that could lift relations to a higher orbit literally. Mr Obama and Mr Singh should unveil a long-term bilateral initiative to work together to secure the threatened common spaces of our planet our global commons including the seas, atmosphere, outer space and the digital domain. The two leaders should underscore this by launching a major venture in outer space. The Obama administration and Singh government are both in their first year of tenure and have the political capital to push through a major advance. A similar moment in July 2005 led to the launch of a challenging civil nuclear initiative and its passage against great odds
in both capitals. Today, the conventional wisdom is that the two leaders will not match the scale of the nuclear bargain and should limit themselves

They should aim higher and focus on strategic co-operation in outer space. They can bring lasting benefits to national space programmes and lay out the framework for an international code of conduct in outer space. Besides influencing a range of international issues, from energy security to global warming, space co-operation could define a new template for the management of the global commons. As Washington looks for new partners in the management of the global commons, India is a natural choice. After the end of the Soviet Union, the
to consolidating recent gains. We disagree. US has had no real peers in outer space. Today as the US reviews its civilian and military space objectives amid shrinking resources, there is a

Washington needs enduring partnerships, both bilateral and multilateral, in outer space. What does Delhi bring to the table? As a rising space power with real and potential technical skills, India can help the US pursue more ambitious goals in outer space and at a lower cost. Indias contribution to advances in outer space are impressive, such as the discovery of water molecules on the surface of the moon by its lunar explorer, Chandrayaan-1. The US partnered with India on this mission, with two Nasa payloads on board. Four broad areas of bilateral space co-operation present themselves. First, advanced launch technologies. The greatest limitation on space-ventures is the cost of launching objects into space. The two countries should partner in basic scientific research, such as advanced materials and combustion science that could enable a new generation of spacecraft, while avoiding the proliferation of dangerous ballistic missile capabilities. Second, lunar exploration and beyond. With interest in both countries for exploring the moon and its resources, the US and India should exploit synergies between their moon programmes and consult on an ambitious human exploration of the moon and inter-planetary space. Lunar resources could be used to lower the costs of sustaining human and robotic outposts beyond the earth. Third, climate change. The two countries should use the massive American and growing Indian space assets for earth observation to provide comprehensive and credible assessments of climate change. Fourth, space governance. The US and India should work to forge a consensus on limiting space debris, improving space situational awareness for avoiding hazards, and ensuring unhindered operation of the space assets of all nations. Creating a new voluntary code of conduct in outer space could mark the start of an effort to bring order to the global commons. An Obama-Singh space initiative could become the defining feature of an expansive US-India collaboration, especially in science and technology. It could also create
broad consensus within the space community that

*** Solvency

the basis for securing our global commons and offer incentives to other major powers to join this vital undertaking.

The CP solves, India has the capabilities, and cooperation has been empirically successful
Sutaria and Hat 08 *Krishna Sutaria is a former research intern with the South Asia Program at CSIS **Vibhuti Hat is a Research Associate with the South Asia Program at CSIS [http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/sam124.pdf, November 7th 2008, Starry Eyes or Serious Potential? The Rise of Indias Space Program] The landmark success of Indias moon launch in October 2008 has all eyes set on the Indian space program. Indias space program produces both satellites and launchers. The development-oriented missions of educational communications and remote sensing that were the programs mainstay are now supplemented by plans for human space flight and hopes for a significant share of the US$2.5 billion commercial launch industry. The United States has resumed space cooperation with India, and is hoping to extend this more fully to the launch area. Indias strategic thinking has expanded to encompass a defensive role for its space capabilities. This is yet another manifestation of India re-positioning its position in the global power game. To the Moon and Back: On October 22, 2008 Chandrayaan-I, Indias first unmanned spacecraft, was launched on a two year mission to the moon from the Satish Dhawan space centre at Sriharikota spaceport near Chennai. After orbiting the earth twice Chandrayaan-I will fire towards the moon, taking five and a half days to complete its journey. There are eleven instruments on board, five indigenous and six under international cooperation from the United States, the European Space Agency (ESA) and Bulgaria. The spacecraft will orbit the moon studying the topography and mineralogical content of the lunar surface. Even as Chandrayaan-I successfully begins its journey to the moon, plans are already underway for Chandrayaan-II, the follow up mission in 2011-2012 that will land on the moon with a lunar orbiting spacecraft and a land rover. Anticipating the success of its first Moon mission, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has already signed an agreement in 2007 with Russian space agency Roskosmos to make Chandrayaan-II a joint mission. ISRO will manage the lunar orbiter, while Roskosmos manages the rover.

Slv Trust
India Trusts the US- Spacelab Mission 3 began new era of partnership Indian Embassy 9
cooperation.php; WBTR] [February 6, 2009, Embassy of the Republic of India, Washington DC, USA- http://www.indianembassy.org/india-us-space-

Apart from the operational missions of IRS and INSAT, ISRO has also initiated dedicated space science missions such as SROSS-C for atmospheric studies and AstroSat mission for astronomical observation in UV and X-rays. Anuradha, an Indian experiment for cosmic ray studies was part of NASAs third Spacelab mission. As a first step in planetary exploration, Chandrayaan-1, for remote sensing of the moon from 100 km lunar polar orbit was initiated. Data obtained from this mission will improve our current understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon. American cooperation in India's first unmanned lunar mission, Chandrayaan-I, which was successfully launched from Shriharikota on 22nd October, and inserted into Moons orbit on 8th November, marks the beginning of a new era of trust and partnership between the two countries in the field of space exploration. The mission to the moon carries two NASA payloads - a Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar to map ice deposits in the moon's surface and a Moon Mineralogy Maper to assess mineral resources of the Moon The inclusion of two US Instruments on this spacecraft has provided further fillip to Indo-US cooperation in the space arena. India, along with seven other countries, has signed a landmark agreement with the United States (NASA) to carry out lunar exploration. The agreement was signed at American space agency NASA's Ames Research Centre on 28th July 2008. ISRO is also planning a second version named Chandrayaan-2 to land a motorized rover on the moon in 2011/2012. The strides that the US and India can make together as partners in space will advance tele-medicine, teleeducation, and disaster preparedness and management which in turn help development of mankind in a global perspective. Indinan Prime Minister trusts the US after Pres. Obamas visit to India Science Insider 10
[9 November 2010 Science Insider Magazine Obama Visit Boosts India-U.S. Science Ties by Pallava Bagla, http://news.sciencemag.org/scienceinsider/2010/11/ obama-visit-boosts-india-us-scie.html; WBTR]

******* CORRECTION NOTE: This item has been corrected, 11 November. It originally read that a bilateral "Joint Clean Energy Research and Development Center" would receive $1 million a year each from the United States and India for the next 5 years. That figure is $5 million.
New DelhiPresident Barack Obama's

unprecedented 3-day visit to India, which ended today, yielded a bumper crop of diplomatic agreements on topics including disease surveillance, agricultural research, clean energy, and monsoon forecasting. In addition, NASA and the Indian space agency began talks on joint human space flight. And the United States agreed to relax certain export controls affecting Indian defense and space facilities. At a special session of the Indian Parliament yesterday, Obama spoke of U.S.-India ties as an "indispensable and defining relationship of the 21st century." He acknowledged India's contributions to science and backed India's demand for a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council. " This is a manifestation of the growing trust and confidence" between the two countries, said Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, who added that he was gratified that the United States will support India's membership in export-control regimes such as the Nuclear Suppliers Group, a cartel created in 1974 to restrict global trade in nuclear technology after India conducted a nuclear explosion. To foster cooperation in public health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will team up with the Indian ministry of health in a regional disease detection center in New Delhi. It will carry out surveillance on emerging diseases and help in early detection of tropical disease outbreaks. No budget has yet been announced for this 5-year effort. In

agriculture, Obama announced that India and the United States will jointly support R&D to usher in an "evergreen revolution," a model for sustaining food security for the world. India will host the Global Center for Nuclear Energy Partnership involving the United States. Among other things, according to a joint statement, the center will "strengthen global nuclear security and address threats of nuclear terrorism." A bilateral "Joint Clean Energy Research and Development Center" with $5 million a year each from the United States and India for the next 5 years will develop new ways to harvest solar energy and tap shale gas, among other goals. To understand the monsoon
better, the United States will provide about $600,000 for a 5-year computer modeling effort that will also help set up a "monsoon desk" at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction in Camp Springs, Maryland, said Jane Lubchenco, administrator of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The two countries aim to work together in predicting the 2011 monsoon season

NSSP builds trust and overall relations Borman 4


*Mathew S. Borman is a reporter for the Hindu, a newspaper based in India [http://www.hindu.com/2004/10/02/stories/2004100205511100.htm, October 2nd, 2004, NSSP: U.S., India interests in action]

In the article entitled, "India, U.S. & Trade in Technology" (The Hindu, September 27), Mr. R. Ramachandran argues that the recent announcement by President Bush and Prime Minister Singh on Phase One of the U.S.-India Next Steps in Strategic Partnership (NSSP) initiative has been "hyped" and lacks substance. Mr. Ramachandran misunderstands both the purpose and the impact of this important initiative. The United States and India share a range of common interests, including preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and facilitating high-technology trade. The NSSP turns these interests into significant and concrete actions, which will be taken through a series of reciprocal steps that build on each other, consistent with each country's laws and international obligations. Completion of Phase One of the NSSP represents an important change in U.S. export licensing policy for dual-use items. India's Phase One actions regarding enhanced export controls and use of U.S.-origin items in accordance with U.S. requirements have enabled the United States to address three significant export policy issues: * Removing the
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) headquarters from the Department of Commerce's Entity List; * Reducing the licensing requirements for exports to the ISRO subordinates remaining on the Entity List by approximately 80 per cent by removing such requirements for EAR99 and "999" items exported to those facilities; and *Applying a "presumption of approval" for all dual-use items subject to multilateral and unilateral controls, except those controlled by the Nuclear Suppliers' Group, for export to the "balance of plant" portions (non-reactor related end users) of nuclear power facilities which are currently under International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards (Tarapur 1 & 2 and Rajasthan 1 & 2). * Each of these policy changes is substantial. * Removing the EAR99 and "999" licence requirements is anticipated to eliminate the need for approximately 25 per cent of all licence applications for U.S. exports to India. This change will facilitate further cooperation between U.S. companies and India's civilian space programme, by eliminating the time and uncertainty of such requirements. The current high volume of such licence applications

The ease of obtaining the affected items, including parts and components, will enhance India's civilian space programme. * Indian government officials have long sought removal of the ISRO headquarters from the Entity List because of the critical role that ISRO plays in India's economic development. In addition to the substantive impact of this change, the removal of the ISRO headquarters from the Entity List sends a strong political signal to exporters to be more positive about business opportunities with the entire ISRO organisation. * Facilitating the use of U.S.-origin items not controlled by the Nuclear Suppliers' Group (NSG) if intended for export to the "balance-of-plant" portions of safeguarded facilities will open opportunities for U.S. and Indian collaboration in the Indian civilian nuclear power sector. It should be noted that
(about 250 in fiscal year 2004) demonstrates the value that the Indian civilian space programme places on obtaining these U.S. products. the licence review policy for these transactions was misprinted in the September 22 Federal Register notice. A second Federal Register notice was published on Wednesday, September 29, to clarify that the "presumption of approval" is for all items other than those controlled multilaterally for nuclear proliferation reasons (i.e., controlled by the NSG) for use in the "balance of plant" activities at facilities which currently are safeguarded. As such, licence applications for exports of items unilaterally controlled by the United States such as turbines to the "balance of plant" portions of these facilities will be accorded a "presumption of approval."

Specifically the NSSP built trust within the ISRO

Ollapally 4

*Deepa M. Ollapally Senior Fellow at the Sigur Center for Asian Studies, Elliott School of International Aairs, at The George

Washington University. was Assistant Professor of Political Science at Swarthmore College from 1991-1995, and then Associate Professor from 19951997. She has been a visiting professor at Bryn Mawr College and Georgetown University [http://www.gwu.edu/~sigur/assets/docs/scap/SCAP22-Ollapally.pdf, April 2004, U.S. India Relations: Ties That Bind?]

An important segment of the government that seems to share this view, taking a long-term approach, is the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The ISROs interest extends well beyond immediate cooperation with the U.S. to what is termed the next generation of space exploration in which India could offer both cost and technology advantages, something the Americans are now believed to understand . 38 India has already captured approximately fteen to twenty percent of the global market for remote sensing data for civilian applications. For space technology cooperation, the ultimate test from the Indian side is whether an Indian launch vehicle would be allowed to carry an American-built satellite. The optimists say that nothing can be ruled out in the future, especially if market forces determine American policy.

Slv Lunar Exploration


India solves lunar exploration -- finding water on the Moon proves.
Einhorn 09 - Asia regional editor in Bloomberg Businessweek's Hong Kong bureau, previously the Asia technology correspondent (9/25/09, Bruce Einhorn, Bloomberg Business Week, A Win for Indias Space Program, http://www.businessweek.com/blogs/eyeonasia/archives/2009/09/a_win_for_indias_space_program.html)
There was some embarrassment in India after the untimely end of the countrys first mission to the Moon last month. The unmanned Chandrayaan-I spacecraft, which was supposed to last for two years, fell out of radio contact while in orbit around the Moon in late August, just ten months after its launch. That prompted some defensiveness from a fansite of the Indian Space Research Organization, which quickly played damage control by claiming the mission had accomplished much of its goals. Chandrayaan-I.com said in a statement that its not unusual for things to go wrong in space. NASA has faced several space mission failures and who can forget tragic end of space shuttle Columbia and the crew perished during entry, 16 minutes prior to landing. * In other words, yes, our space mission crashed but at least

Indians can crow that their nascent space program, through its short-lived Chandrayaan-I, has helped make one of the most important discoveries in the history of human exploration of the Moon. A NASA probe aboard the Chandrayaan-I detected water on the Moons surface, and the Indian press is euphoric. One Big Step for India, One Giant Leap for Mankind, crowed the Times of India. If it werent for them (ISRO), we wouldnt have been able to make this discovery, the paper quoted Carle Pieters, the Brown University researcher who analyzed the data from the NASA probe, saying. Unfortunately for ISRO, the agency wont be able to capitalize quickly on the discovery. The next Indian space mission, the
nobody died! Now, though, ISRO fans dont have to resort to poor-taste defensiveness. Indeed, Chandrayaan-2 isnt scheduled to launch until 2013. That means India would be behind China in a 21st-century Asian version of the U.S.Soviet Union space race. The Chinese ended their first lunar mission earlier this year after 16 months and plan on landing a craft on the Moon in 2012. Japans in the race, too, having just completed its first lunar mission. In this Asian race, the Chinese seem to have the edge, but for now the

engineers in Indias program can boast that their first mission turned out pretty well after all.

Slv Mars Exploration


India solves Mars exploration best. Fox 10 (FoxNews The Race to the Red Planet http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2010/10/27/road-red-planet-mars-nasa-china/ kdej) A 50-million-mile target has been set, a straight spaceshot with a clear (though distant) goal. But who will make the first footprint on Mars? Though both Russia and China have put men in space and say they hope someday to set foot on the moon, the
United States remains the only country to do so. Yet Russia and China and some other countries have also publicly articulated a vision for manned space exploration that includes a more distant target: Mars. Initially built for a 90-day mission, Mars rovers Spirit spent more than six years exploring Mars. NASA recently retired the vehicle, but it leaves behind a wealth of data. Now reports of a new deep-space satellite suggest that China intends to launch toward Mars -- and as soon as 2013. It's too early to call it a race, says Henry Hertzfeld, research professor of space policy and international affairs in the Space Policy Institute at George Washington University. But China's Martian orbiter may indicate a second destination for the country's space program. "It's natural that if they are serious about space exploration (which, it is clear, they are), Mars is a challenge beyond the Moon. Just as it is for us," Hertzfeld told FoxNews.com in an e-mail. The new project will make use of technologies developed for China's first lunar satellite, launched in 2007, according to a report from the Xinhua news agency. The plan was based on research conducted by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST), said Huang Jiangchuan, an expert at a forum on China's space technology. He described the technologies likely to be used -- including ones to boost the satellite's payload capability and exploration accuracy -- as "already quite advanced," according to the report. Hertzfeld nevertheless cautioned that the differences between the 1960s and the 21st century make for a very different competitive landscape. There are more countries now with space capabilities and access to space; there is much more cooperation among nations; and the costs are astronomical. "I think it's too early to tell if we will engage in a true 'race' to Mars as we did with the USSR to the moon," he said. But the official messages from governments seem to tell a different story, with the U.S., India, China, and Russia all declaring that they hope to reach Mars at around the same time. "By the mid-2030s, I believe we can send humans to orbit Mars and return them safely to Earth," President Obama said this year when he announced America's new goal's for NASA. "And a landing on Mars will follow. And I expect to be around to see it." But will we be first? India

has plans of its own for the Red Planet. Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) chairman K. Radhakrishnan said Monday that Mars was on its radar as well. "A mission to Mars, for several reasons, has become a priority for us," Radhakrishnan said -- though he admitted that India would not build the lander that would take its Chandrayan 2 program to the surface. That vehicle is being developed by Russia, he explained, although a rover "is currently being fabricated in Indian laboratories." Nevertheless, India has publicly stated that it intends to go to Mars by 2030. So the race is on.Yet many rules and
parameters governing the battle remain unresolved, Hertzfeld said. "If there is a race, the major and minor players are yet to be determined," he told FoxNews.com. "And unlike the Cold War space race, it may not be one to show off technological superiority -- but one that is focused on partnerships for resource needs (terrestrially, such as oil and food), and/or political standing. Commercial interests on celestial bodies would be a possibility, but a longer term one." Hertzfeld noted the key issue standing before the U.S. and NASA when it comes to reaching Mars: money. And he asked: "Will either the U.S. or China (or someone else) commit the large amount of capital over a long period of time to these projects?" NASA is currently coordinating with a variety of commercial businesses to facilitate manned missions to Mars, including SpaceX, the United Launch Alliance (a partnership that includes Boeing Corp.), Orbital Sciences Corp., and others. Which one will successfully build our next-generation rocket for manned spaceflight remains a much debated question -- and representatives from NASA did not respond to multiple requests from FoxNews.com for comments for this story. NASA isn't resting on its laurels, however, or leaving the entire mission up to private enterprise. The space agency has given the green light for development of a 2013 Mars orbiter mission to investigate the mystery of how Mars lost much of its atmosphere, a program called the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (Maven) mission. In addition, the space agency plans yet another in its series of Martian rovers, this one a science laboratory called Curiosity intended to collect soil samples and rock cores and analyze them for organic compounds. NASA has just installed a webcam to let the public watch Curiosity's assembly and testing. But months of work remain before the carsized rover is ready for launch from Cape Canaveral. "The launch period for Curiosity (the Mars Science Laboratory mission) is fall 2011. The specific launch period is Nov. 25 to Jan. 18, 2011," said Guy Webster of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA has sent a half dozen probes to Mars already, including the well known rovers Spirit and Opportunity that landed there in 2004 and have sent back a wealth of data. In addition, the Phoenix lander hit the planet on May 25, 2008, on a mission to explore the planet's icy soil, and the Reconnaissance Orbiter has been capturing pictures of Mars since 2006. Earlier craft Express and Odyssey also gleaned knowledge of our distant neighbor. In fact, rather than a race, NASA characterizes relations with China as friendly. NASA administrator Charles Bolden just returned from a trip to China that he credited with laying a foundation for future dialogue and cooperation between the two space programs. "Although my visit did not include consideration of any specific proposals for future cooperation, I believe that my delegation's visit to China increased mutual understanding on the issue of human spaceflight and space exploration, which can form the basis for further dialogue and cooperation in a manner that is consistent with the national interests of both of

If dates slip and none of these programs succeed in putting a man on Mars, the first footprint on the Red Planet may end up surprising everyone . Russia has announced plans to return to space
our countries," Bolden said in an Oct. 25 statement. -- using monkeys to pilot its rockets.

India Solves Mars Exploration One India 7


( India can take up Mars mission in 2012: ISRO http://news.oneindia.in/2007/04/11/india-can-take-up-mars-mission-in-2012-isro1176297531.html kdej)

India can launch a mission to Mars in 2012 , Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Chairman G Madhavan Nair indicated today. Talking to newspersons here, he said ISRO had received a proposal for Mars mission from the Indian scientific community and it was being looked into. If feasible, the mission could take place in 2012. The GSLV was capable of taking an Indian spacecraft of up to 500 kg weight to Mars, he added. On manned mission, Dr Nair said ISRO had received an allocation of Rs 80 crore in the current budget for preparing a detailed project report and other requirements. ISRO would be in a position to submit the report to the Government for clearance in a year . Once the approval was
Bangalore, Apr 11: received from the Government, the mission could be launched eight years from then. Detailed studies need to be carried out on various aspects of

the payload for the Chandrayaan I mission was being finalised and tested and it would be integrated later this year for the mission to take off early next year. Scientists from NASA had visited India and ISRO scientists had also visited the US for discussions on the payload.
the manned mission, including training, before it could be implemented, he explained. To a question, he said

Necessary research is already being done. CEC 8 (Citizens Electoral Council, India Plans Mars Mission by 2015 http://cecaust.com.au/main.asp?sub=articles&id=2009_09_01_india-mars.html
kdej) September 1, 2009 (LPAC)Addressing the inaugural session of the 8th International Conference on Low Cost Planetary Missions, G. Madhavan

India plans to launch the country's mission to Mars some time between 2013 and 2015. "The mission is at a conceptual stage and will be taken up after Chandrayaan-2," he added. "Mars is very much on our agenda... It will be a challenge for us and we will chalk out a program soon." Chandrayaan-2, is the second unmanned lunar exploration mission proposed by the ISRO. The mission includes a lunar
Nair, chairman of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) at Panaji, Goa, said orbiter as well as a Lander/Rover. ISRO plans to land a motorized rover on the Moon likely in 2012, as a part of its second Chandrayaan mission. The wheeled rover will move on the lunar surface, to pick up soil or rock samples for on site chemical analysis. The data will be sent to Earth through Chandrayaan-2, which will be in lunar orbit. Chandrayaan-1 landed on Moon last November, and, after sending signals for about 10 months, it has just lost contact with the command center. India plans to power some parts of the Chandrayaan-2its next unmanned mission to the Moonwith nuclear energy and the feasibility studies are being carried out by Indian Space Research Organization and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. "We are thinking of powering some parts of Chandrayaan-2 with nuclear power and it will power the spacecraft when it revolves around the dark side of the moon," ISRO Chairman Madhavan Nair told media on Aug. 13, before accepting the degree of Doctorate of Science conferred on

The ISRO chief said the mission to Mars would be the most important Indian exploration as "it is a planet with atmosphere, lots of minerals and even preliminary indications of water presence." ISRO has already begun preparation for sending a spacecraft to Mars. New Delhi has sanctioned the seed money to carry out various studies on experiments to be conducted, en route in the mission and other details necessary to scale the new frontier. Nair had said recently that the mission studies had already been completed and that space scientists were trying to collect scientific proposals and scientific objectives.
him at the 47th Convocation of Indian Institute of Technology, in Mumbai (IIT-B).

India solves the case. MeriNews 7 (India plans a trip to Mars http://www.merinews.com/article/india-plans-a-trip-to-mars/127850.shtml kdej) A FLIGHT to mars is the latest buzzword. India is all set to pay a visit to the Red Planet as part of ISROs 11th plan that came to light on Friday. Mars seems to have become a favorite after moon for countries like the US, Russia and the European Space Agency. Russia has already started its preparations in full swing for a trip to Mars. According to sources, India is likely to carry out scientific activities on Mars. The Indian Mars Mission is likely to focus on studying the Martian atmosphere and the weather. The project will also focus on searching for water. Japan and China are also expected to plan a trip to mars. Indian space scientists feel that at this point we cannot afford to stay behind . However, a lot of analysis needs to be done before finalizing the trip to Mars. Mars is one planet which has attracted scientists and researchers since a long time. People have even held debates on the possibility of life on Mars. The timeline for the six to eight month flight to Mars is yet to be

worked. It has been estimated that if the centre gives its support, the project will take off by 2015. The GSLV (GeoSynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) is already operational and the total estimated cost of the project is Rs 386 crore. A trip to Mars has triggered various ideas in the minds of the people. Some feel that it will be a great expedition while others day that the money could be used to tackle more important issues like poverty in India. Manju Mehta, a science teacher says, The

mission to Mars is a great venture. If it works out, it will be an enormous achievement for India. Mars is one of the most sought after planet and a scientific journey will enhance the economic value of India. Ketki Rao, banker, says, When I told my kids that scientists were planning a visit to Mars,
they were very excited. They said that we would get to know if there was life on the other planet and that if aliens really existed. A trip to Mars will answer several questions regarding the atmosphere, the Ionosphere and presence of water. Priyanka Mehra, entrepreneur says, As a kid I always wondered if Mars had life on it? I thought that the planet had a reddish atmosphere with lots of dust and aliens who dressed in thermal silver clothes. The trip will answer a number of my questions and I am sure it will be an interesting affair. Meenakshi Dutt, a schoolteacher, says, The trip to Mars will benefit the scientific department but it will also incur a huge cost. There are more important problems in our country that need to be tacked for example poverty, environment degradation and terrorism. The government never has enough money to support those who die from hunger each year,

but there are ample resources in its treasury to finance a trip to Mars. Rohan Gupta, businessman says, Wow. A trip to Mars! Is there any tourist destination there? How will the common man benefit from the expedition to Mars? You never know, our
scientists might borrow some of the Martians advanced technologies. A trip to Mars might be an enchanting one but one can only depend on time

A well directed effort like this might add a feather in the cap of Indias space ventures and bring it at par with other so-called scientifically advanced countries.
to decide when it will be flagged.

India has met almost all necessary preconditions to go to Mars they just need a push Asia Times 7 (India sets its sights on Mars http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/ID19Df02.html kdej) BANGALORE - India's space scientists are reaching out further into the universe. Even as an unmanned mission to the moon is readying for launch, and a manned mission to space awaits final approval from the government, they are already eyeing the next destination - Mars. The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is willing to launch a mission to Mars if it gets a green light from the government, its chairman Madhavan Nair, told reporters in Bangalore last week. "Our scientific community has come out with an outline of a mission to Mars. If the proposal is interesting, we will pursue it ," Nair said. "We can undertake a mission to Mars within five years of the government's approval. If the project is given the go-ahead now, we will be in a position to launch the mission to the red planet by 2012 ," Nair, who is also chairman of the Space
Commission, an apex policymaking body on space matters, said. Nair's statement came in response to questions from the media on India's Mars strategy in the context of China recently announcing a joint mission with Russia to Mars in 2009. Under an agreement signed by Russia and China a little more than a fortnight ago, the Russian spacecraft Phobos Explorer will carry a Chinese satellite to Mars, where the latter will probe the

the ISRO denies that the interest in a Mars mission has been prompted by the Chinese-Russian move to this planet. "India's space program has always been determined by its own development goals, interests and priorities," S Krishnamurthy, ISRO's spokesman, told Asia Times Online, ruling out that India is in a space race with other countries or that its space program is influenced by what other countries do. India's space program is on a roll. Preparations for an unmanned moon mission, Chandrayaan-I, are on in full swing. The ISRO has begun assembling the moon craft that will lift off in March 2008. And it is pushing forward with regard to sending a human into space as well. After getting a nod from the Indian scientific community for a manned space mission, the ISRO is working on the
Martian space environment. But project proposal which it will submit for government approval later this year. In January, the ISRO demonstrated expertise in re-entry technology that is central to sending a manned mission when it brought back safely to earth an orbiting capsule. This is complex technology that only a few

if India succeeds with its manned space mission it will join an exclusive club including Russia, the US and China that have sent humans into space. India has impressive capabilities in launch vehicles and satellites. Until a recent failed launch of the geo-synchronous launch vehicle, the ISRO had a string of successful launches to its credit. It has put some 45 satellites in orbit to date . In the area of Earth
countries, the United States, Russia, France, Japan, China and now India, have. And Observation, the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite system is the world's largest constellation of satellites in operation. ISRO scientists are confident that they have the technological expertise to fulfill India's space dreams, whether with regard to the unmanned space mission, the manned mission to space or the Mars mission. "A

mission to Mars might seem a distant dream at this juncture but it is not impossible given our considerable expertise and experience," a retired ISRO scientist told Asia Times Online. "An Indiamade rocket like the GSLV [geo-synchronous launch vehicle] can carry over 500-kg payload and reach Mars without a hitch," Nair had pointed out last week. Like its mission to the moon, the mission to Mars will come in for sharp criticism from sections within the

country on the grounds that this is a hugely costly indulgence as India confronts serious problems of poverty, illiteracy and malnutrition. But

India's robust economic growth in recent years means it can afford its space and defense programs , counter others. Besides, the ISRO's projects are implemented with small budgets. Its total budget is said to be one-twentieth of that of America's National Aeronautical and Space Administration. Years of technology sanctions imposed on India following its explosion of a
nuclear device in 1974, prompted its scientific community to look for economical and indigenously developed technology. Krishnamurthy points out that missions to the moon or Mars are not at the cost of the ISRO's other programs that have developmental applications. "The moon mission, for instance, involves an investment of only Rs600 million [US$14 million] per year over five years, just 2% of ISRO's total budget," he said, stressing that the priority of other programs will not fall as a result of the headline-grabbing moon or Mars missions. Besides, the ISRO isn't a research organization that simply consumes funds. It has yielded concrete results, contributed to development priorities such as education and healthcare,

The ISRO's growing commercial success - India builds and launches satellites that are 40% cheaper than its European and US competitors - is meeting a large part of its rising expenditures. They might be increasing dramatically - its projected
generated profits and is a commercial success. The financing of its dreams isn't fully dependent on government largesse. spending for fiscal 2008 is the highest in recent years and 29% more than budgeted for in the previous financial year - but so is its revenue. Antrix,

Unlike the space programs of other countries that had their roots in their defense programs, that of India was rooted in developmental objectives. According to the ISRO chairman, "NASA is interested in interplanetary exploration, looking at galaxies, asteroids and other planets. ISRO is first and foremost interested in looking at planet Earth and conceiving of applications for space to improve the quality of life down here." Indeed, India's space program has been an agent of change with achievements in the fields of education, distance learning, television broadcasting, water management, weather forecast, agriculture, telemedicine and so on. Does India's mission to the moon or a possible one to Mars indicate a change in the ISRO's priorities? Will its mission to explore the moon and Mars distract it from pursuing the development agenda? Will India's space program lose direction if it decides to go in for mission to Mars? Krishnamurthy stoutly refutes such allegations. "Missions to the moon or Mars will give us technology that will upgrade our communication and remote-sensing systems, which are used for developmental application s," he argues. These missions he says will in fact further fuel the development agenda of India's space program . Besides, the development applications of the space program are expanding alongside. It does seem that India's space program hasn't lost direction yet.
the ISRO's commercial arm, expects a 30% growth in revenue for the year ending March 2008.

Slv Lunar Mining


India solves He-3 mining -- has the capabilities and motivation. Williams 7
Contributing writer to the Technology Review, Mark, India's Space Ambitions Soar, Technology Review, 7/30/07, http://www.technologyreview.com/Infotech/19115/?a=f ** Quoting Kalam, then President of India

Kalam told the international audience of space experts in Boston that, besides expanding its extensive satellite program, India now plans lunar missions and a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) that takes an innovative approach using a scramjet "hyperplane." Kalam said that India understands that global civilization will deplete earthly fossil fuels in the 21st century. Hence, he said, a "space industrial revolution" will be necessary to exploit the high frontier's resources. Kalam predicted that India will construct giant solar collectors in orbit and on the moon, and will mine helium-3--an incredibly rare fuel on Earth, but one whose unique atomic structure makes power generation from nuclear fusion potentially feasible--from the lunar surface. India's scramjet RLV, Kalam asserted, will provide the "low-cost, fully reusable space transportation" that has previously "denied mankind the benefit of space solar-power stations in geostationary and other orbits."

India has the necessary tech and capabilities -- solves the aff. The Times 8 (India Over the Moon, The Times, 10/23/08, Lexis Nexis) Indian pride is rising almost as fast as the Chandrayaan-1 Moon rocket that yesterday blasted off from southern India to begin two years of lunar studies and establish India's place in the forefront of the Asian space race. The launch was greeted with patriotic enthusiasm across the country, as scientists hailed the unmanned mission as a landmark for the nation's high- technology industries, and politicians spoke of India's emerging global importance (see page 35). Few questioned the cost, despite the vast sums still needed to lift hundreds of millions out of poverty. Even the poor expressed joy at an achievement remarkable for a country that was regularly swept by famine only 60 years ago. The space operation is ostensibly about mapping the Moon's surface, looking for helium-3 and broadening India's commercial space programme. In fact, as politicians and the public understand, it is more about responding
to China's first space walk last month and the unmanned probes launched by both China and Japan last year. This has been a good week for India. Two days ago a crossing point over the line of control in Kashmir was opened for the first time to allow Indian and Pakistani lorries to carry fruit, vegetables and other exports between the two halves of the divided state that have been shut off from each other for six decades. The symbolic traffic over the Peace Bridge was agreed during talks between the Indian Prime Minister and the Pakistani President at the United Nations. It is intended to demonstrate to both countries that, despite the political turbulence in Pakistan and Indian accusations that Pakistan was responsible for the bombing of the Indian Embassy in Kabul, the rapprochement between the two countries is still on track. Reopening of the trade route has been a main demand of Kashmiri separatists. It will do much to calm renewed tensions in Indian Kashmir before elections there later in the year. Back on Earth, another Indian has just won the Man Booker Prize. Aravind Adiga, a 33-year-old Oxford-educated writer, beat another Indian shortlisted contender, Amitav Ghosh, and is the fourth Indian-born writer to win the prize since it was established in 1969. But his novel, The White Tiger, is itself a play on the competition between India and China, and takes a bitter look at the hollowness behind the boasts of "India shining" - a crass slogan that probably cost the nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party the last general election. The space launch may deflect attention temporarily from the problems that Adiga chronicles, but the gap between India's vaunted democracy and the realities of daily life are pitilessly exposed, as the Government itself has found. Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister, won a coup in securing his cherished nuclear deal with Washington, but otherwise little has gone his way: the economy has slowed, the quarrels within his coalition have sharpened and reformers are disappointed that changes they see as essential to further development have stalled. Nevertheless, the

Moon shot underlines a point also made by the global downturn: that India, which surely deserves a permanent Secur-ity Council seat, is a power not to be ignored. For millions of Indians that point was joyously made by India's one
really important achievement: victory over Australia in the second Test, with the bonus of Sachin Tendulkar racking up more runs than anyone else in Test match history.

Slv Satellites
India solves environmental monitoring efforts best. Singh 10
CNN World Staff Writer (1/29/10, Harmeet Shah Singh, CNN World, India plans manned space mission in 2016 http://articles.cnn.com/2010-01-29/world/india.manned.space.mission_1_chandrayaan-chandrayaan-1-space-agency?_s=PM:WORLD)

Indian researchers have announced plans to send their astronauts to space in 2016. The cost of the proposed mission is estimated at $4.8 billion, said S. Satish, spokesman for the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). Studies have begun on the design of the crew capsules that will be used to put a pair of astronauts 300 kilometers aloft for seven days, he said. The project budget has been sent for federal approval, he added. A training facility for astronauts will also be built in southern India as part of the program, which Satish said would be solely Indian. In 1984, Rakesh Sharma became the first Indian to explore space in what was a joint mission with the then Soviet Union. In 2008, India launched its first unmanned mission -- Chandrayaan-1 -- to the moon that dropped a probe onto the lunar surface. In 312 days, Chandrayaan-1, meaning moon craft, completed more than 3,400 orbits and met most of its scientific objectives before vanishing off the radars abruptly last year, according to the space agency. The craft carried
payloads from the United States, the European Union and Bulgaria. One of its aims was to search for evidence of water or ice and identify the chemical composition of certain lunar rocks. The Chandrayaan-1 mission came to be seen as the 21st century, Asian version of the space race between the United States and the USSR -- but this time involving India and China. Satish said

the agency was also planning to send

a second version of Chandrayaan in 2012. India held its first rocket launch from a fishing village in southern India in 1963. Now, the South Asian nation lists more than 60 events as "milestones" in its space program, which includes the successful use of polar and geosynchronous satellite launch vehicles. Indian scientists say their country has the world's largest constellation of remote-sensing satellites. These satellites, according to the Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, capture images of the Earth used in a range of applications -- agriculture, water resources, urban development, mineral prospecting, environment, forestry, drought and flood forecasting, ocean resources and disaster management. Another major system, or INSAT, is used for communication, television and meteorology. India, however, maintains competition does not drive its space ambitions. Indias already deploying environmental satellites -- solves the aff. Clark 11 Spaceflight Now Writer (Stephen, April 20, 2011, Indian Rocket Reaches Space with Observation Satellite http://www.space.com/11441-indian-rocket-launch-singapore-satellite.html) Achieving a booming success after two rocket failures last year, India deployed three satellites in orbit early Wednesday (April 20) with the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, a workhorse 14-story booster that racked up its 17th straight successful mission. The rocket blasted
off at 0442 GMT (12:42 a.m. EDT) Wednesday from the Satish Dhawan Space Center on Sriharikota Island on India's east coast, where it was 10:12 a.m. local time. The PSLV thundered into a mostly sunny sky, soaring southeast from the launch site before turning nearly due south to reach a polar sun-synchronous orbit about 511 miles above Earth. [World's Tallest Rockets] Producing a combined thrust of 1.9 million pounds, the launcher's six strap-on boosters and solid-fueled first stage powered the PSLV to an altitude of more than 40 miles in less than two minutes, then a hydrazine-fueled second stage took over to accelerate the rocket to nearly 9,000 mph. Two more stages finished the job, placing the rocket and its three payloads in a stable orbit. "I'm extremely happy to announce that the PSLV-C16/Resourcesat 2 mission is successful," said said K. Radhakrishnan, chairman of the Indian Space Research Organization. The announcement was met by boisterous applause from engineers inside the PSLV control center. Although the PSLV has a successful track record, the Indian space program suffered through a troubling year with consecutive launch failures of its larger GSLV rocket and accusations of institutional nepotism. The PSLV's fourth stage released the 2,658-pound Resourcesat 2 spacecraft 18 minutes after liftoff. Replacing an earlier satellite launched in 2003,

Resourcesat 2 will help officials

respond to natural disasters, monitor agriculture and manage urban and rural roads and infrastructure. "This is the 18th launch of the PSLV, and Resourcesat 2 is the 18th remote sensing satellite of India ," Radhakrishnan said in
post-launch remarks.

Resourcesat 2 will aid environmental scientists in measuring soil contamination,

tracking water resources and monitoring land use trends. India's national security agencies will also use Resourcesat 2 data. The spacecraft carries three visible and infrared cameras with a peak resolution of 5.8 meters, or 19 feet. The imagers are upgraded versions of the cameras flying on Resourcesat 1,

an aging predecessor satellite that has already outlived its lifetime projections. Designed to operate for at least five years, Resourcesat 2 also features advanced and miniaturized electronics and carries an experimental shiptracking Automatic Identification System instrument to collect position, speed and other information from seagoing vessels. The AIS payload was built by Com Dev of Canada. Wednesday's rocket launch also orbited two smaller satellites one for university students in India and Russia and another for Singapore . [Designs for India's First Manned YouthSat, a joint mission between Indian and Russian students, carries three science instruments to study the upper atmosphere and measure solar cosmic rays. X-SAT, Singapore's first national
Spaceship Revealed]

satellite, has a multi-spectral camera and will demonstrate space-based remote sensing and image processing technologies. YouthSat and X-SAT each weighed about 200 pounds at launch. The PSLV flight was the first space launch

of 2011 for India. Three more PSLV missions are planned this year, with the next scheduled for June with India's GSAT 12 communications satellite. Officials are still investigating and fixing problems that doomed two GSLV launches last year. India is also trying to perfect a homemade cryogenic third engine for the GSLV. The domestic
powerplant was the culprit in a GSLV launch mishap in April 2010.

More launches coming -- proves capability. News One 11 (June 1, 2011 India to launch next communication satellite in July http://www.inewsone.com/2011/06/01/india-to-launch-next-communication-satellite-in-july/54648 India will launch another advanced communication satellite GSAT-12 in geosynchronous orbit in the second week of July using a smaller rocket, a senior official said Wednesday. The 1,400kg GSAT-12 will be launched from the
spaceport at Sriharikota, about 80 km northeast of Chennai, on board the polar satellite launch vehicle (PSLV-C17). The 320-tonne heavy rocket will have extended strap-ons for carrying solid and liquid propellants to put the spacecraft in the geosynchronous orbit in two stages, state-run

The Rs.148-crore GSAT-12 will have 12 extended C-band transponders for communications and weather forecast services. The launch cost is about Rs.100 crore. The launch of GSAT-12 has been scheduled next month after the space agency successfully placed an advanced mega satellite GSAT-8 in geosynchronous orbit May 25 after it was launched May 21 from Kourou in
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Chairman K. Radhakrishnan told reporters here. French Guiana off the South American coast onboard the Ariane-V rocket of the European Space Agency consortium Arianespace. GSAT-12 has been built at the space agencys satellite centre in this tech hub and will be shipped to Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh Thursday. As

we are using a polar launch vehicle to place the satellite in the geosynchronous orbit, the spacecraft will be first placed in the lower elliptical orbit between 284 km perigee
subsequently (closer to earth)

and 21,000 km apogee

(away from earth) and

transferred into the intended orbit in stages between 21,000 km perigee and 36,000 km apogee ,

Radhakrishnan said. In the run-up to the launch mission, the rocket will be assembled at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota and integrated with control systems and avionics. The solid and liquid stages are going through final checks before strapping them onto the rocket.

The entire exercise, including assembling, integration and tests will be completed by June 26 for launching the mission in the second week of July, the chairman said.

Slv: Space Weaponization


India Is Willing And Capable To Develop Space Weapons Daily Tech 10 [ India to Enter Space Weapons Race With Lasers, Killer Payloads by Jason Mick , January 13, 2010,
http://www.dailytech.com/India+to+Enter+Space+Weapons+Race+With+Lasers+ Killer+Payloads/article17392.htm

India has joined the game of militarization of space. The director-general of India's defense research organization on Jan. 3 told the press that his country was currently working on an exo-atmospheric kill vehicle and lasers, which could be combined to destroy enemy satellites. V.K. Saraswat, director-general of the Defence Research and Development Organisation, which is part of India's Ministry of Defence, elaborated, "The kill vehicle, which is needed for intercepting the satellite, needs to be developed, and that work is going on as part of the ballistic missile defense program." The onboard lasers would not be used as a high energy weapon, but rather as a positioning device to make sure a destructive payload was delivered to the target. Mr. Saraswat explains, "[The laser] will be able to give you a concrete
Now picture of the satellite, and use that picture to guide your kill vehicle towards that. That work has yet to be done." If the efforts of China, the U.S., Russia, and now India are any indication, it appears that past human wars on the land and on sea may only be a prelude to wars in outer space; the sweeping stellar battles of science fiction tales such as Star Wars may one day become reality. For now, though, space warfare is unlikely because there's little to be gained from it in terms of resources. However, if man has not learned to coexist more peacefully by the time we begin to colonize other celestial bodies and mine their resources, tensions may boil over and successor of these space weapons -- now mere novelties -may see use.

Slv Solar Powered Satellites


India Solves: Has Key Tech for SPS Foust 10 [Jeff, Aerospace Analyst, November 8,.
Space solar powers- Indian connection http://www.thespacereview.com/article/1721/1 July 13, 2011.] Indias role in SBSP Those 1970s-era studies also assumed that the United States would be the lead, if not only, nation involved in the development of SBSP systems: a rational assumption at the time given the capabilities of other spacefaring nations. However, just as technologies have advanced during the last three decades, so have the capabilitiesand energy needsof other nations, opening up opportunities for cooperation not envisioned three decades ago. One example formally announced at a Washington, DC, press conference on Thursday by the National Space Society is the Kalam-NSS Energy Initiative. The project is a joint venture that plans to bring together American and Indian experts to discuss technologies associated with SBSP at a bilateral meeting planned for next May in Huntsville, Alabama, in conjunction with the International Space Development Conference, the annual conference of the NSS. What gives this effort added prominence is one of the Indian

Kalam, the former president of India. Kalam worked on missile and space programs in India before becoming president in 2002, earning the nickname Missile Man of India. He promoted Indias space efforts during his five-year tenure as president and is now lending his name and interest to this new effort. I have been proposing that large missions, like bringing space solar power to the Earth, would need the combined efforts of nations, Kalam said, speaking by
supporters of the effort: Dr. A.P.J. Abdul phone from India. His interest in SBSP, he said, came from a need to meet Indias growing energy requirements while moving away from fossil fuels. We need to graduate from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. While the idea of cooperation between the two countries on space solar power has been brought up in the past (see Should India and the US cooperate on space solar power?, The Space Review, June 8, 2009), the concept was discussed in detail more recently in an August 2010 white paper by Peter Garretson, an Air Force lieutenant colonel who had a fellowship at Indias Institute for Defense Studies and Analyses. In the paper, he outlined the concept of solar power from space and how it might serve to advance the strategic partnership between the United States and India. In the paper, Garretson calls for a three-stage joint effort for development of an SBSP system, after an initial (stage 0) creation of a bilateral framework: a technology development study, development of a demonstration system, and then full-fledged production. While the final stage would cost tens of billions of dollars, Garretson wrote that the technology study stage could be done for only $1030 million over about five years. Why should the two countries cooperate on SBSP, though? At

the two countries have so much in common, ranging from a shared colonial history to strong public interest in space. Both also have growing energy requirements, especially in India as that populous nation modernizes, and SBSP could meet those needs and more. India and the United States can become major net exporters of energy, he said. Basically, youre talking about a combination of American technology and the ability of India to do a lot of
Thursdays press conference, NSS CEO Mark Hopkins noted that low-cost manufacturing, Hopkins said. It was less clear, though, at Thursdays press conference, what exactly India could bring to the table in terms of technologies and other capabilities to enable SBSP. Asked what India could provide, Kalam spoke about the development of what he called a hyperplane, a reusable spaceplane that could greatly lower the costs of space access. For solar power satellite success, we need a launch vehicle system which can bring down the costs from $20,000 to $2,000 a kilogram, he said. The Indian space agency ISRO has been studying a spaceplane concept called Avatar that would use a combination of ramjet, scramjet, and rocket engines to achieve orbit, but has yet to begin flight tests of even subscale technology demonstrators. Given the difficulties India has faced with less complex launch vehicle technologies, such as cryogenic upper stages for expendable launchers (the first flight of an indigenously-developed cryogenic upper stage for its GSLV launcher failed in April of this year), as well as the technology challenges of RLV development as demonstrated by past US efforts, it suggests that the

director of the ISRO Satellite Centre and the Indian leader of the KalamNSS Energy Initiative, said later at the press conference that India could also contribute technology in the area of highefficiency and lightweight solar panels. Hopkins, though, suggested Indias role might be in helping keep system costs down.
hyperplane may be many years in the future. T.K. Alex, Basically, youre talking about a combination of American technology and the ability of India to do a lot of low-cost manufacturing, he said. The press conference took place the day before President Barack Obama left on a three-day visit to India. That trip is expected to include some announcements related to space, including the removal of ISRO from the U.S. Entity List for high-tech exports, a step that would remove one obstacle for American companies seeking to export some items to India. However, SBSP is not expected to be on the agenda of meetings between Obama and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. Kalam suggested that it instead be brought up at a future meeting of G8 or G20 nations. Whether these effortsthe IAA study and the Kalam-NSS initiativegive new life to SBSP remains to be seen. Space solar power has been largely out of the mainstream of discussion in both the space and energy fields for decades (see Blinded by the light, The Space Review, June 7, 2010), and official supportand fundingfor such work has been in short supply. Comebacks, though, are always possible, if the right circumstances arise. After all, Jerry Brown was elected governor of California on Tuesday.

India is key to SPS development 4 warrants


1. Gov. likes SPS 2. Interoperable technology

3. Highly motivated, benfits too great 4. India will have the manpower necessary

Glover 10 [Jessica, Joseph S. Nye Jr. Research Intern, For U.S.-India Cooperation, Space is the Next Frontier CNAS, November 11, 20,
http://www.cnas.org/blogs/naturalsecurity/2010/11/us-india-cooperation-space-next-frontier.html.] As President Obama continues his tour through Asia this week, including Mondays remarks in India, foreign policy-watchers have suggested a

Obama himself emphasized the interplay between technology, new energy, and greater security during his address to the Indian Parliament. The final frontier outer space is one arena where some experts see potential collaboration between the United States and India. A November report issued by the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA) in India, The Skys No Limit laid out the potential for U.S.-Indian efforts on space based solar power (SBSP). If such technology can be developed, SBSP could be a remarkable future source of clean energy. The concept centers on
number of ways to improve and revitalize the India-U.S. relationship including our very own CNAS colleagues. Importantly, President placing satellites in geosynchronous orbit, capturing solar rays before their energy is diluted by the Earths atmosphere, turning this captured energy into microwave energy, and literally beaming it down to Earth-based receivers that could transform it into electricity. The IDSA report

Firstly, India is the only major state where a Head of State has not only suggested space solar power as a goal for its space agency, but also expressed an interest in international cooperation. Second, as already noted above, there is considerable momentum in the Indo-US strategic partnership, with key componentsspace, energy, climate change, high tech, aviation, and dual use strategic technologies and defence cooperationalready in place with vibrant dialogue. Third, Indias need for power and development is acute, likely considerably more acute than other potential partners which makes it potentially a more motivated partner, and a linked effort also promises a tremendous ultimate market potential. Fourthly, the success of space solar power will depend partly on low-cost manufacture. In the time frame when space solar power will come of age, perhaps 15 years in the future, even as other manufacturing and labour markets age and face decline, India is projected to be in the midst of its demographic dividend, with the largest working age population of any country on earth. Despite real concerns over cost and feasibility, as well as a noted
outlines, on page 67, four reasons why promoting India-U.S. cooperation on space based solar power makes sense at this juncture: lack of legal frameworks surrounding potential international cooperation, a report advising the U.S. Department of Defense in 2007 regarded India as a potential partner for future development of SBSP alongside Japan and the European Space Agency.

India can create SSP best, has already begun working on the tech and needs to develop more. Dinerman 09,
[Taylor June 8, 20, Should India and the US cooperate on space solar power?, The Space Review, http://www.thespacereview.com/article/1389/1]

If the US has a serious medium-term need for a very large new source of clean energy, India needs it even more. While there is a lot of talk about terrestrial solar, wind, and geothermal power as alternatives to coalwhich seems to be currently
politically unacceptableor nuclearwhich has its own set of political problems but whose greatest drawback may simply be the length of time it

solar power (SSP) may be the only alternative that could be made to work before the major global electricity demand crisis hits, around the year 2050. In Washington lots of people have
takes to build new power plantsspace complained that the Obama Administration has so far not given the India-US relationship the attention it deserves. Others are waiting to see if this relatively new team is going to follow up on the progress made by both the Clinton and the George W. Bush Administrations in building a real friendship between the two democratic giants. The one area in which there seems to be movement on, though, is a renewable energy partnership.If the US has a serious medium-term need for a very large new source of clean energy, India needs it even more.From Indias standpoint the government does take the energy problem very seriously. While they connect it with the question of climate change, they have made it clear that they are not willing to inflict economic pain on their people in order to appease those in the West who are demanding that they cease their current drive to climb out of mass poverty in the name of the environment. Former External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee made this clear when he spoke at the Asia Society in New York last year and said, It is therefore completely one sided to target countries like India, whose emissions though modest are rising, but fail to bring to account those who have been responsible for more than 70% of the accumulated emissions in the atmosphere. Recognizing the potential weakness of a case based strictly on the question of climate change, Mukherjee was wise enough to add that even if there were no climate change arguments, considerations of energy security alone would require a medium to long term strategy of implementing a strategic shift from fossil fuels to non fossil fuels. He called for a major R&D effort to develop applications that that can provide

Any analysis of the potential of terrestrial solar energy in India or elsewhere runs up against the awesome size of the future demand for power. Photovoltaic panels
convenient, cost effective large scale applications of solar energy.

on rooftops and solar water heaters all make excellent small-scale contributions to the solution, but they cannot by any stretch of the imagination fulfill the requirements of a huge growing economy like Indias. Only SSP, which operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, year after year, can hope to meet this need. Fortunately both India and the US have space programs and technologies that could, if developed together and possibly with other interested nations such as Japan, bring SSP systems into service sometime late next decade or the early 2020s. With its commitment to develop a new low cost reusable spaceplane, the India Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is already working on one of the key technologies needed for an SSP system. Indian participation in both private and public SSP programs should be welcomed by the US. Ehe US government should
make an effort to facilitate this by helping with visas and work permits for qualified Indian scientists and engineers. Recent moves towards reforming the notorious International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) should include ensuring that SSP systems are covered by the Department of Commerce regulators rather than by the State Department, which has gained such a sorry reputation in this area.Safe, clean, abundant energy from the Sun is not an impossible dream.In the near term the new Indo-US renewable energy partnership would seem to be the right place to start this collaboration. Together the partners can identify what will be needed in the way of technological and scientific investments over the next decade in order to make SSP a reality. India

has lots of talent that can be committed to this effort and so does the US. In fact,

the kind of ambitious idealism that we saw at NASA during the Apollo years could be engendered by this goal.

AT: Launch Capabilities


CP solves, India has the capabilities and capacity to launch satellites Sutaria and Hat 08 *Krishna Sutaria is a former research intern with the South Asia Program at CSIS **Vibhuti Hat is a Research Associate
with the South Asia Program at CSIS [http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/sam124.pdf, November 7th 2008, Starry Eyes or Serious Potential? The Rise of Indias Space Program] Satellites and Systems - Nuts and Bolts of Indias Space Program: While ISRO is the main developer of launch and satellite systems, it maintains two separate agencies and corresponding classes of satellites, the Indian National Satellite (INSAT) for communication, television broadcasting and

The two existing satellite launch vehicles, the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) are used to place IRS and INSAT class satellites in the required orbits. The PSLV is the space programs workhorse. The most important function of the PSLV is its ability to launch IRS satellites into sun synchronous orbits. Before PSLV, this kind of launch was commercially viable only from Russia. The PSLV had its first successful launch in 1996, three years after its initial introduction. Since then, it has continued to have successful launches - the latest count puts the PSLV at 9 consecutive and 11 total successful launches out of 13 attempts - making it popular with ISRO . The standard version of the PSLV has the capability to launch 1,600 kg to 622 km in a sun synchronous orbit, but with a strapon booster the PSLV can increase that payload to 1,800 kg. ISRO continues to work on improving the efficiency and increasing the payload of their favorite launch vehicle. The GSLV is a heavier rocket used to launch INSAT satellites primarily into geostationary orbits and can carry heavier payloads for greater distances than its polar counterpart. GSLV had its first successful launch in 2001, followed by a second operational launch in 2004.
meteorological studies, and the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) for resources monitoring and management.

***ATS

AT: Entities List = No Solvency


No barriers, the ISRO was removed Sutaria and Hat 08 *Krishna Sutaria is a former research intern with the South Asia Program at CSIS **Vibhuti Hat is a Research Associate
with the South Asia Program at CSIS [http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/sam124.pdf, November 7th 2008, Starry Eyes or Serious Potential? The Rise of Indias Space Program] Money, Money, Money - Indias Scientific Powerhouse: Today, ISRO is complementing development oriented projects like EDUSAT with commercial ventures. ISRO anticipates new revenues from the highly lucrative satellite industry, which includes broadband Internet Protocol (IP) services, defense and military applications, and leasing options to telecommunication providers. Although ISRO, a relative newcomer to space exploration, has a much shorter list of commercial ventures than its counterparts in the United States and Europe, it has made impressive strides. In April 2007, the PSLV conducted its first commercial launch of a foreign satellite for the Italian Space Agency, AGILE, for US $11 million. Then, in January 2008, the PSLV launched an Israeli satellite, TECSAR, followed by another successful launch in April 2008 of ten satellites on the same launch vehicle. Aprils launch broke the record of maximum satellites launched simultaneously by any international space program; a record previously held by Russia at eight satellites in a single launch. Antrix, ISROs marketing arm, has been selling Indian products and services to global customers, thereby increasing ISROs market share in space services. For financial year 2006-07, it clocked in revenues of approximately US$ 1.36 billion from leasing transponders, selling remote sensing images and launching other countries satellites. Senior ISRO officials have admitted that they hope to corner 10 percent of the global space market within the decade. This will put it in competition with the United States,

Reaction from Washington: The Next Steps in Strategic Partnership (NSSP) statement released by President Bush in 2004 paved the way for U.S. - India cooperation in the area of civilian space programs. Subsequently, in 2005, the U.S. Department of Commerce eliminated several licensing restrictions associated with nuclear-related exports and re-exports to India and also removed six Indian entities, including three ISRO organizations, from the United States Entity List of organizations and individuals banned from any commerce with the United States on nonproliferation grounds. Some ISRO organizations still remain on the Entity List, but the signature of a space cooperation agreement in June 2005 and the presence of two U.S. instruments on board Chandrayaan-I represent a major breakthrough in U.S.-Indian space cooperation. The U.S. and India have negotiated, but not signed, a Technology Safeguards Agreement and have been discussing a Commercial Space Launch Agreement, which in turn would further facilitate technology transfers and space cooperation between the two countries.
Russia, China, and the European Space Agency in offering commercial space services.

No more barriers the ISRO was removed Kline 06


Jennifer Kline is a Contributor at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies [http://cns.miis.edu/other/kline_060720.htm, U.S.India Space Cooperation High Despite Lingering Proliferation Concerns July 20th 2006]

These changes led the United States to remove ISRO headquarters from the U.S. Department of Commerce Entity List, identifying foreign organizations of particular proliferation concern. The list was designed to
"inform the public of entities whose activities imposed a risk of diverting exported and re-exported items into programs related to weapons of mass

Three additional ISRO subsidiary entities were removed from the Entity List in July 2005, and ISRO is currently petitioning to have the crucial Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, the Liquid Propulsion Systems Center, and the Satish Dhawan Space Center removed from the list in order to facilitate their receipt of additional high-tech American exports. [17]
destruction." [16]

AT: ITAR = No Solvency

AT ITAR = No Solvency
Garretson 2010 former Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) International Fellow in India, Visiting Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and
Analyses (IDSA) New Delhi. Previously the Chief of Future Science and Technology Exploration for Headquarters Air Force, former Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Service Academy Research Associate, recipient of the National Space Societys (NSS) Space Pioneer Award Peter A. Garretson Skys No Limit: Space-based Solar Power, the Next Major Step in the Indo-US Strategic Partnership http://www.idsa.in/sites/default/files/OP_SkysNoLimit.pdf

A frequent concern encountered in structured discussions was the obstacles posed by the MTCR and ITAR.6 Do these, in fact, pose an insurmountable obstacle? They do not. There is currently a strong current suggesting ITAR may get a re-look to become more permissive with respect to space cooperation. But even if there is no change, ITAR is not a prohibition, just an onerous procedure for approval, which can be navigated by a dedicated, expert cadre. It is also possible that if policymakers are convinced that the success of larger ends is at stake, that special legislation (like the Counter Terrorism Technical Support Organisation7 ) or an executive order could streamline some types of technical interchange. An example exemption already exists for COMSAT.8

AT: Indo-China Mod


China perceives naval containment now
Kaplan 10
Robert Kaplan is a Senior fellow at the Center for a New American Security [The Geography of Chinese Power, Foreign Affairs] Thanks to this favorable situation on land, China is now free to work at building a great navy. Whereas coastal city-states and island nations pursue sea power as a matter of course, doing so is a luxury for historically insular continental powers such as China. In China's case, this might be a luxury that is fairly easy to acquire since the country is as blessed by its seaboard as by its continental interior. China dominates the East Asian coastline in the temperate and tropical zones of the Pacific, and its southern border is close enough to the Indian Ocean that it might one day be

That said, it faces a far more hostile environment at sea than it does on land. The Chinese navy sees little but trouble in what it calls the "first island chain": the Korean Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, Japan (including the Ryukyu Islands), Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Australia. All except for Australia are potential flashpoints. China is already embroiled in various disputes over parts of the energy-rich ocean beds of the East China Sea and the South China Sea: with Japan over the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands and with the Philippines and Vietnam over the Spratly Islands. Such disputes allow Beijing to stoke nationalism at home, but for Chinese naval strategists, this seascape is mostly grim. This first island chain is, in the words James Holmes and Toshi Yoshihara of the U.S. Naval War College, a kind of "Great Wall in reverse": a well-organized line of U.S. allies that serve as a sort of guard tower to monitor and possibly block China's access to the Pacific Ocean. China's answer to feeling so boxed in has been aggressive at times. Naval power is usually more benign than land power: navies cannot by themselves occupy vast areas and must do far more than fight -namely, protect commerce. Thus, one might have expected China to be as benevolent as other maritime nations before it -- Venice, Great Britain, the United States -- and to concern itself primarily, as those powers did, with preserving a peaceful maritime system, including the free movement of trade. But China is not so self-confident. Still an insecure sea power, it thinks about the ocean territorially: the very terms "first island chain" and "second island chain" (the second island chain includes the U.S. territories of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands) suggest that the Chinese see all these islands as archipelagic extensions of the Chinese landmass. In thinking in such a zero-sum fashion about their country's adjoining seas, China's naval leaders are displaying the
linked to it by roads and energy pipelines. In the twenty-first century, China will project hard power abroad primarily through its navy. aggressive philosophy of the turn-of-the-twentieth-century U.S. naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan, who argued for sea control and the decisive battle. But they do not yet have the blue-water force to apply it, and this discrepancy between aspirations and means has led to some awkward incidents over the past few years. In October 2006, a Chinese submarine stalked the USS Kitty Hawk and then surfaced within a torpedo's firing range of it. In November 2007, the Chinese denied the USSKitty Hawk carrier strike group entry into Victoria Harbor when it was seeking a respite from building seas and deteriorating weather. (But another carrier, the USS George Washington, did make the visit to Hong Kong in 2010.) In March 2009, a handful of PLA navy ships harassed the U.S. surveillance ship the USNSImpeccable while it was openly conducting operations outside China's 12-mile territorial limit in the South China Sea, blocking its way and pretending to ram it. These are the actions not of a great power but of a still immature one.

Fears of encirclement are overblown China knows US wouldnt jeopardize economic dependence
Rajan 09
(9/24/09, DS, director at the Chennai Centre for China Studies, China worried over US-India military cooperation, http://news.rediff.com/column/2009/sep/24/china-worried-over-us-india-military-cooperation.htm)

The fact that the party's top theoretical mouthpiece has found the article suitable for its publication is itself significant, notwithstanding the disclaimer given that the opinions do not reflect Qiu Shi's views and are those of the writer. The following are
important to note: The Qiu Shi article has mostly concentrated its attack on the US, accusing it of using India to restrict 'third countries'. The People's Republic of China was not specifically named, but the term 'third countries' may allude to China also. There has been no direct criticism of New Delhi in the write-up, indicating a cautious line towards India. A careful reader could however discern the underlying deep Chinese suspicions in the analysis over India's attitude vis-a-vis China. In 2007-08, the topic of US-India collusion as part of Washington's regional strategy, had prominently figured in Chinese media comments, particularly targetted against the 'Alliance of Democracies' concept, the India-US-Japan joint military exercise and the India-US civil nuclear cooperation agreement. After some lull, the theme appears to be surfacing again now, for example following the article in question, a People's Daily signed analysis (September 15) has charged that 'the US is tipping the balance between China and India, wooing India away from Russia [ Images ] and China and feeding India's ambition to match China force for force by its ever burgeoning

arms sales to India'. More such comments may follow. A probable explanation to the Chinese media's harping again on the topic can be that despite a visible improvement in China's ties with the US and India in a contemporary sense, fears in strategic terms, to be more precise on containment of China by the US with the help of allies like Japan [ Images ] and a partner like India, seems to continue unabated in China. The

Chinese media pronouncements can be understood better, if a close look is given at China's relations with the US as well as India in the framework of two contexts -- contemporary and strategic. Regarding the first, it can be noticed that the character of Washington-Beijing ties
same appears to be getting reflected in some of the current media comments in China. has undoubtedly changed now especially due to the former's financial dependence on China, brought out by the global crisis; symbolising the same are activation of mechanisms like bilateral strategic and economic dialogues and a softening of US posture towards China on key irritants, for example the US now considers that issues like the economy and climate change will take precedence over points of friction like human rights and

China is making suitable responses, for example it has expressed its willingness 'to work with the United States from a strategic and long-term perspective, to enhance dialogue and exchanges, build up mutual trust and cooperation, respect and accommodate each other's core interests and properly handle differences and sensitive issues' (Hu Jintao-Obama talks, London, April 1). Positive changes have occurred in SinoTibet. On its part,

Indian relations also; the two nations are now looking at the same beyond the border dispute, recognising the global character of their ties and witnessing a big momentum in economic and trade links. On the other hand, the corresponding picture from a strategic point of view remains complex and less promising. China continues
to be wary of US intentions in the Asia-Pacific region including in South Asia; demonstrating the same are the authoritative Chinese statements, for example, Beijing's latest Defence White Paper has described the 'increasing US military presence in Asia-Pacific' as China's 'security concern'. On emerging US-India ties, Beijing may have been irked by the assertion made by US Defence Secretary Robert Gates at a conclave in Singapore that there is a genuine convergence of US-India interests and that his country would look towards India as a partner for providing security in the Indian Ocean and beyond.

The Qiu Shi article appears to be more categorical than other Chinese media comments in conveying a message: The US-India 'unified strategy' on all major regional issues is possible and that may change the strategic situation in South Asia. This shifts the focus on indications to China's possible counter moves in the future. Mention of India's ambition to maintain its hegemony over the Indian Ocean and South Asia no doubt has precedence . However, the fact that the party journal has carried the same necessitates an examination of it from the point of view of policy perspectives emerging in China to deal with such ambition. Overall, Chinese media comments had been saying that India, as a sovereign nation with a nationalistic population, will not succumb to American pressures on it to join the US camp against China and instead will continue its friendship with China; but such views do not find a place in the write-up of the party organ. Is it an inadvertent omission or indications of China's doubts on this
account?

AT: Rising Expectations


We control uniqueness expectations are high now and it will collapse relations in the status quo without consultation Perkovich 10
(11/4/10, George, vice president for studies and director of the nonproliferation program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Obama in India, http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=41876)

There are unrealistic expectations. U.S.-India relations were on a positive trajectory from the middle part of the Clinton administration The success of American Presidents Clinton, Bush, and Obama and Indian Prime Ministers Rao, Vajpayee, and Singh basically helped the two countries on a positive trajectory. And then what happened in the Bush administration with the U.S.-India nuclear deal was that the positive trajectory spikedit was like injecting amphetamines into a runner. So, it spiked up and that was seen as a good thing. And it was seen as a good
onwardand this was a very good thing.

as it comes down from the spike there are people in India and the United States who say the relationship is falling, Obama hasnt paid enough attention to it, and so on.
thing in India, but inevitably it came back down to the normal trend line, which is positive. But

Speed in which relations turned make high expectations non-unique Shukla 09


Ajai Shukla: retired officer of the Indian Army, and one of the best known Defence Correspondents in India; India's unrealistic expectations Ajai Shukla / New Delhi December 1, 2009, 0:24 IST

The improbable speed with which Washington has warmed to New Delhi has created unrealistic expectations. In 1971, President Nixon and Henry Kissinger were describing Indians as bastards and aggressive goddam people; and referring to Indira Gandhi as an old witch and a bitch in turn. That said as much about Nixon and Kissinger as about US-India relations but, still, it was only a decade ago that India faced full-frontal sanctions from Washington after the nuclear tests of 1998. In less than a decade that relationship has flowered, yielding a defence framework agreement in 2005 and the civil nuclear agreement last year.

AT: Delay
No delayFramework for cooperation already exists Hindustan Times 8 (February 3, 2008 India and NASA sign agreement for future cooperation in space exploration lexis) (ISRO) and NASA have signed a framework agreement establishing the terms for future cooperation between the two agencies in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes. The agreement was signed on February 1, 2008, at the Kennedy Space Center's visitor complex by NASA Administrator Michael Griffin and ISRO Chairman G. Madhavan Nair. According to the framework agreement, the two agencies will identify areas of mutual interest and seek to develop cooperative programs or projects in Earth and space science, exploration, human space flight and other activities. "I am honored to sign this agreement with the India Space Research Organization. This agreement will allow us to cooperate effectively on a wide range of programs of mutual interest," said Griffin. "India has extensive space-related experience, capabilities and infrastructure, and will continue to be a welcome partner in NASA's future space exploration activities," he added. The agreement replaces a soon-to-expire agreement
Indian Space Research Organization signed on Dec. 16, 1997, which fostered bilateral cooperation in the areas of Earth and atmospheric sciences. In addition to a long history of cooperation in Earth science, NASA and the Indian Space Research Organization also are cooperating on India's first, mission to the moon, Chandrayaan-1, which will be launched later this year.

No delayPast negotiations prove PTI 9Press


Trust of India Newspaper (May 23, 2009 N-deal: India seeks speedy negotiations with US http://www.businessstandard.com/india/news/n-deal-india-seeks-speedy-negotiationsus/20/23/358946/)

India today sought speedy negotiations of reprocessing arrangements, as well as liberalisation of the export licensing procedures, to move forward the Indo-US civilian nuclear deal. This deal is very high on our priority. We are conscious of the fact that it was the US government which did the heavy hitting, if I may use a cricketing metaphor to get this deal through, said Indias new Ambassador to US Meera Shankar said, stating that India was committed to move forward on the deal. We would very much like to move forward in a concrete way with agreements for building nuclear reactors with US assistance in India, Shankar said at a reception hosted in her honour by the US-India Business Council (USIBC). This was her maiden public engagement after presenting her credentials to President Barack Obama yesterday. We are looking at the speedy negotiations of reprocessing arrangements to facilitate this process, said Shankar, acknowledging the presence of
leaders of the US nuclear industry who are anxious to convert the nuclear deal into business agreements. Both sides have agreed to commence this process and have identified their nodal points. So we

expect to pursue this very expeditiously, she added.

No delaymore cooperation means less delay


Nadu 11Tamil,
writer for The Hindu, Indias national paper (Jan 28, 2011 NASA, ISRO collaboration, a positive sign in space research http://www.hindu.com/2011/01/28/stories/2011012862940600.htm) RAMANATHAPURAM: Ethiraj Venkatapathy, Chief Technologist, Space Technology Division, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NASA's intended joint collaboration with Indian Space Research Organisation and the Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO) was a positive sign in space research. While
(NASA) said here on Thursday that the delivering a lecture at Syed Ammal Engineering College here on Thursday, he said as a senior scientist of NASA, he was happy to know the

the Unites States for intensive cooperation with ISRO for fostering space research. It would facilitate the agencies to remove or reduce restrictions on sharing data or undertaking joint research.
announcement by

2NC AT Previous Rocket Explosions


India space program successful despite single launch vehicle failure. BBC 11 , 4-20-2011 (India successfully launches three satellites into space http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-13141562) India has successfully launched a rocket into space carrying three satellites, officials say. The trouble-free launch was in contrast to a major setback in December when a satellite launch vehicle blew up and fell into the Bay of Bengal. The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) had a smooth lift-off and deployed the satellites in orbit around 820km (500 miles) above Earth. Staff at the launch pad in Andhra Pradesh cheered as the rocket took off. The main satellite in the launch from the Sriharikota space centre was the remote-sensing Resourcesat-2, which will study the impact of humans on the earth's natural resources. The rocket also carried a joint Indian and Russian satellite for stellar and atmospheric studies as well as an imaging orbiter built by the Singapore-based Nanyang Technological University. Correspondents
say the jubilation among technicians and scientists which greeted Wednesday's launch was starkly in contrast to events in December - when a satellite launch vehicle blew up and fell into the Bay of Bengal live on television after it veered from its intended flight path. It was the second

India is hoping to send its first manned flight into space in 2016 and first made a bid for a share of the lucrative commercial satellite-launch market by sending up an Italian orbiter in 2007. The country sees its space exploration programme as an achievement that emphasizes its emergence as a major world economy, and correspondents say that many Indians take patriotic pride in its development. Delhi and Beijing's Moon missions have gained fresh impetus since last year's Nasa budget cuts, which dashed US hopes of a lunar return by 2020 - more than half a century after the Americans' first visit. India has been playing catch-up on China in the race, a less shrill replay of the one between America and the USSR in the 1960s. It became the fourth country to plant its colours on the Moon - after America, Russia and Japan - thanks to the success of its Chandrayaan (Sanskrit for "moon craft") probe.
consecutive failure to launch the rocket, which had been carrying a communications satellite. Lunar return

Tremendous success from recent satellite launch proves India can do the plan despite pervious launch difficulties Clark, 4-20-2011
(Stephen, correspondent for Spaceflight Now, Indian rocket reaches space with observation satellite, April 20, http://spaceflightnow.com/news/n1104/20pslv/)

Achieving a booming success after two rocket failures last year, India deployed three satellites in orbit early Wednesday with the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, a workhorse 14-story booster that racked up its 17th straight successful mission. The rocket blasted off at 0442 GMT (12:42 a.m. EDT) Wednesday from the Satish Dhawan Space Center on Sriharikota Island on India's east coast, where it was 10:12 a.m. local time. The PSLV thundered into a mostly sunny sky, soaring southeast from the launch site before turning nearly due south to reach a polar sun-synchronous orbit about 511 miles above Earth. Producing a combined thrust of 1.9 million pounds, the launcher's six strap-on boosters and solid-fueled first stage powered the PSLV to an altitude of more than 40 miles in less than two minutes , then a
hydrazine-fueled second stage took over to accelerate the rocket to nearly 9,000 mph.

ISRO is back on track new satellite launches and ambitious moon goals prove China Daily, 4-21-2011
04/21/content_12366230.htm) BANGALORE, India (India launches three satellites on single rocket, April 21, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2011-

India launched a rocket carrying three satellites into orbit on Wednesday in its latest effort to gain a share of the global commercial space market. The main satellite in the launch from the Sriharikota space center in Andhra
Pradesh was the remote-sensing Resourcesat-2, which will study the effect of human life on the Earth's natural resources. The rocket also carried an Indo-Russian satellite for stellar and atmospheric studies and an imaging orbiter built by the Singapore-based Nanyang Technological University. "The

Resourcesat-2 mission is successful," Indian Space Research Organization Chairman K. Radhakrishnan announced after all three satellites were released by the rocket 822 kilometers above the Earth. The successful mission was a relief for India's space program, which suffered a major setback in December

when a satellite launch vehicle blew up and fell into the Bay of Bengal live on television after it veered from its intended flight path. India, which aims to send its first manned flight into space in 2016 , first staked a claim for a share of the lucrative commercial satellite-launch market by sending up an Italian orbiter in 2007. The country sees its space exploration program as an achievement that underlines its emergence as a major world economy, and many Indians take pride in its development.

2NC AT China DA
Current Indian policies mean the impacts inevitable. Sengupta 08
NYT Delhi bureau chief (Somini, Oct 21, 2008, India Launches Unmanned Orbiter to Moon http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/22/world/asia/22indiamoon.html) NEW DELHI

India launched its first unmanned spacecraft to orbit the moon early Wednesday, part of an effort
some of the business

to assert its power in space and claim

opportunities there. The Indian mission is scheduled to last

two years, prepare a three-dimensional atlas of the moon and prospect the lunar surface for natural resources, including uranium, a coveted fuel for nuclear power plants, according to the Indian Space Research Organization. The spacecraft will not land on the moon, though it is supposed to

The launching of Chandrayaan-1, as the vehicle is called roughly translated as Moon Craft-1 comes about a year after Chinas first moon mission. Talk of a space race with China could not be contained, even as Manmohan Singh, the Indian prime minister, was due to visit Beijing later in the week. China has gone earlier, but today we are trying to catch them, catch that gap, bridge the gap, Bhaskar Narayan, a director at the Indian space agency, was quoted by Reuters as having said. The first Indian lunar voyage is carrying two devices from NASA. One, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper, or M3, will assess mineral composition of the moon from orbit. The other, the Mini-SAR, will look for ice deposits in the moons polar regions. Chandrayaan-1 was launched from a research station in Sriharikota, a barrier island off the coast of the southern state of Andhra Pradesh. The moon mission, in addition to demonstrating technological capacity, can potentially yield commercial gains for Indias space program. Indias ability to put satellites into orbit has already resulted in lucrative deals; for example, Israel has sent up a satellite by means of an Indian launcher. It is proof of Indias technical capability in an advanced area of science, said Dipankar Banerjee, a retired army general who
send a small impactor probe to the surface. is the director of the Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies here. India

wants to be counted as one of the emerging players in Asia. Space is, of course, an important part of power projection.

AT Perm: US-India Cooperation Fails

U.S.-Indian cooperation launching non-U.S. payloads requires a launch services agreement doesnt exist now. Foust 9 [Jeff,
PhD in Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Aerospace Analyst and Editor and Publisher of The Space Review, The next step in US-India space cooperation, SPACE POLITICS, July 24, , http://www.spacepolitics.com/2009/07/24/the-nextstep-in-us-india-space-cooperation/.]

Clinton got a lot of attention this week about her remarks on North Korea (and the North Koreans odd reaction) she also visited India and signed several agreements between the two countries. One of them,
While Secretary of State Hillary as described in a State Department press release, is a Technology Safeguards Agreement and associated side letters for US-licensed components on spacecraft to be launched by India. Practically, the agreement will facilitate the launch of U.S.-licensed spacecraft components and safeguard protected technologies and data of both countries, the release notes. The

side letters commit the United States and India to enter into consultations regarding the market for commercial space launch and satellite services. That last sentence is key: the agreement, as the joint US-India statement notes, covers only civil or non-commercial satellites with US components to be launched by India. That greatly reduces the practical impact of this agreement, although there have already been cases of Indian spacecraft launching with US components: the Chandrayaan-1 lunar orbiter did carry NASA instruments, for example. Before India can enter the commercial launch market for US payloads (or payloads with US components), a commercial launch services agreement is needed, something that there are still major differences on between the two countries, according to a report this week inThe Hindu. This weeks agreement, though, is the latest in a
series of moves over the last several years towards improved relations between the two countries in space.

India is not a good partner unbalanced economy, infrastructure difficulties. Lee


2010 [John, India's Edge Over China: Soft Power, BUSINESSWEEK, June 17, , http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/jun2010/gb20100617_150774.htm.] That India is relatively poorly integrated into the East and Southeast Asian economies has something to do with it. But it is also the case that President Harry S. Truman's depiction of India back in 1947 (as Robert L. Beisner writes in his 2006 book, Dean Acheson: A Life in the Cold War) as a country "jammed with poor people and cows wandering around the streets, witch doctors, and people sitting on hot

The Indian economy is both cutting-edge and medieval. Despite having what is arguably the world's largest middle class, more than one fifth of its people still live below the poverty line, and one third remain illiterate. The vibrant reputation of the country's entrepreneurialism exists alongside a discriminatory caste system that is still strong in rural regions and small towns. Moreover, although India has world-class "micro-level" strengths in such industries as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, IT outsourcing, and telecommunications, its record of achieving widespread and enduring macroeconomic and structural reformin addition to building much-needed infrastructure and educating its peopleis still unproven.
coals" still holds true, in large part.

NASA and India cancelling cooperative projects now. Daily Tech2006


[Bad And Good News From NASA and Indian Space Agency by Michael Hoffman, May 9, , http://www.dailytech.com/article.aspx?newsid=2221 ]

The United States and India have been partners in space ever since the Indian space program began in 1972. Unfortunately, NASA and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) have temporarily ended plans to train an Indian astronaut that hoped to be on board a manned shuttle launch later this year. One of the reasons of the postponement is that NASA manned missions currently are being sent into space to either work on the International Space Station (ISS) and do

general repairs on the Hubble space telescope. A total of 17 flights are planned, and there will not be any seats available for the next four years or so.

AT Perm: India Coop Links to Politics

Cooperation with India unpopular perceived as taking American jobs. Dudley 4Brier,
Seattle Times technology reporter, India parlays education, timing into tech boom, August 9, http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/businesstechnology/2002000235_india09.html.

Official says government seeks "best value" for tax dollars. Labor groups pounced on Washington state last winter for hiring two companies using Indian labor for technology projects. One instance involved a $25 million contract with IBM to develop a tracking system for the Department of Corrections that the labor groups alleged would be done by IBM workers in India. The other, a $3 million
contract to develop a Web page to administer Department of Social and Health Services benefits, went to Texas-based HealthAxis and

"You have state departments that are letting out contracts that are flowing to offshore vendors and the work is being done in India that's displacing not only Washington jobs but
Hyderabad's Satyam Computer Services. U.S. jobs," says Marcus Courtney, president of the Washington Alliance of Technology Workers, a Seattle-based organizing unit of the

State officials say the contracts went to the lowest bidders. "We go after the best value for the taxpayers' dollar to do the development work," says Roy Lum, deputy director of
Communications Workers of America. the state Department of Information Services. And the 2004 Legislature spurned proposals that would have prohibited the use of foreign

Even if approved, such attempts might not have the intended result: Indian companies could still bid on contracts and do the work at their U.S. offices, and the Washington proposal still would have allowed state work to be done by foreign workers in the U.S. with shortterm work visas.
labor on state services contracts.

***INDIA COOP CP

1NC
Text The United States Federal Government should propose [the area of the plan] in a Joint Working Group with India. The United States will consistently advocate bilateral cooperation over [the plan] in negotiations. The resulting bilateral negotiations should be implemented based on the conclusions of the working group.

Empirically Joint working groups foster cooperation over space theyll say yes Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs 2007 *U.S. governmental agency, press release [http://newdelhi.usembassy.gov/pr030907.html, U.S.-India Joint Working Group on Civil Space Cooperation, February 28th 2007]
Following up on the commitments made under the U.S.-India Next Steps in Strategic Partnership to expand joint work on civil space programs, the Joint Working Group on Civil Space Cooperation (JWG) held its second meeting in Washington, DC, on February 27-28, 2007. Mr. Jeff Miotke, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Science, Space and Health, and Mr. Michael O'Brien, NASA Assistant Administrator for External Relations, led the U.S. delegation, and Dr. R. R. Navalgund, Director, India Space Research Organization (ISRO) Satellite Applications Centre, led the Indian delegation. The Chairmen of the Joint Working Group expressed their satisfaction at the strengthening relationship between the U.S. and India in civil space activities. This relationship is founded on the deep appreciation of each side for the other's achievements and capabilities in the development and application of space technologies, and their conviction that their partnership in civil space is both natural and of mutual benefit. Space activities lead to advances in prosperity, security and knowledge, and they offer a vision of progress that inspires young people around the world. The Chairmen noted that these benefits compel both sides to deepen their cooperation in civil space, and to provide for the widest possible dissemination of the scientific knowledge gained through their efforts in

The Joint Working Group engaged in a broad range of discussions and endorsed the following conclusions: Space exploration and research will enable dramatic advances in knowledge of the basic nature and dynamics of our planet and the universe around it. Successful international cooperation in space research proceeds from the understanding that scientific information should be shared as widely and quickly as possible to enable its fullest use for research purposes in the interests of the public good. The two sides look forward to India's Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission in March 2008, which will greatly increase our knowledge of Earth's natural satellite. NASA and ISRO have agreed upon cooperative programs for this mission that will further both countries' goals for space exploration, and will set the stage for future cooperation. Space exploration is a source of inspiration and discovery in which many nations of the world have chosen to partake. The U.S. has set for itself a Vision for Space Exploration. NASA has invited opinions from India and other countries to define a strategy that details how Lunar exploration fits into the broader global effort to explore space. Additional opportunities for cooperation exist in the field of space science, including astrophysics, robotic exploration of the solar system, and the investigation of the relationship between the Earth and the Sun. Earth observation data and information yield a broad range of societal benefits. The U.S. and India, through cooperation between their technical agencies, including NOAA, NASA and the USGS for the U.S. and ISRO for India, have embarked upon a number of collaborative activities in the application of Earth observations and look forward to continued collaboration in this area. One area that Earth observations can be applied to is disaster management. The Earth and its inhabitants are vulnerable to long-term processes and sudden events, from climate change to natural disasters, without regard to national boundaries. Space observations play a vital role in developing an understanding of these vulnerabilities and mitigating their consequences. The two sides look forward to future launches of U.S. and Indian satellites that will improve global Earth observations and provide opportunities for further cooperative projects. Plans are being made to establish a ground station in India for the U.S. National Polar-orbiting
space.

Operational Environmental Satellite System, and to investigate potential collaboration on medium resolution land-imaging systems. One area for further collaboration is the possible use of Indian Resourcesat data to address
expected gaps in data from U.S. Landsat satellites. Additional activities, including collaborations between U.S. and Indian scientists and coordination of observations from U.S. and Indian spacecraft, are under consideration. In additional to bilateral cooperation, international multilateral fora serve as important areas for discussion and policy coordination on a range of issues. These range from the wide-ranging deliberations of the Group on Earth Observations and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites, to specialized forums on spacecraft

Continued progress is being made in promoting interoperability among existing and future U.S. and Indian civil space based positioning, navigation, and timing systems to create a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). A joint statement detailing areas for future joint work in GNSS was adopted by the JWG. The two sides exchanged information on a range of space and other policy issues and noted the ongoing efforts to conclude new bilateral agreements designed to open up new opportunities for cooperation. At the end of the session, the JWG received information from U.S. and Indian commercial groups on ways and means to promote commercial ties in the space sector. In order to strengthen the relationship between the U.S. and India in civil space cooperation, the Joint Working Group continues to serve as a useful mechanism to endorse proposals for enhanced cooperation, promote understanding of government policies and procedures, and facilitate collaboration by addressing issues promptly. The two delegations have
standards and protocols, to avenues for coordination and planning for space missions and scientific research. identified the next steps that need to be taken by each side and have agreed that the next meeting will take place in India in early 2008.

Slv Generic
US and India should cooperate in space on a code of conduct, launch costs, lunar exploration, climate change, and space debris; this would bring in other nations to cooperate- it worked before
Inderfurth and Mohan, 09 (Karl I. and C. Raja, * professor at George Washington University and a former assistant secretary of state for south
Asia affairs, 1997-2001 and ** Indian academic, journalist and foreign policy analyst. He is currently Strategic Affairs Editor of the Indian Express, New Delhi, Put Space at the Heart of U.S.-India Relations, Financial Times, 11/22/09, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/87161d80-d794-11de-b57800144feabdc0.html#axzz1QJTXYHba) AFL President Obama will receive Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on Tuesday for the first official state visit of his administration, a visit befitting Indias emergence as a major global actor. It also signals Americas commitment to a strong partnership.

For more than a decade, the US-

India relationship has been deepening. This visit provides the chance to focus on a big idea that could lift relations to a higher orbit literally. Mr Obama and Mr Singh should unveil a long-term bilateral initiative to work together to secure the threatened common spaces of our planet our global commons including the seas, atmosphere, outer space and the digital domain. The two leaders should underscore this by launching a major venture in outer space. The Obama administration and Singh government are both in their first year of tenure and have the political capital to push through a major advance. A similar moment in July 2005 led to the launch of a challenging civil nuclear initiative and its passage against great odds
in both capitals. Today, the conventional wisdom is that the two leaders will not match the scale of the nuclear bargain and should limit themselves

They should aim higher and focus on strategic co-operation in outer space. They can bring lasting benefits to national space programmes and lay out the framework for an international code of conduct in outer space. Besides influencing a range of international issues, from energy security to global warming, space co-operation could define a new template for the management of the global commons. As Washington looks for new partners in the management of the global commons, India is a natural choice. After the end of the Soviet Union, the
to consolidating recent gains. We disagree. US has had no real peers in outer space. Today as the US reviews its civilian and military space objectives amid shrinking resources, there is a

Washington needs enduring partnerships, both bilateral and multilateral, in outer space. What does Delhi bring to the table? As a rising space power with real and potential technical skills, India can help the US pursue more ambitious goals in outer space and at a lower cost. Indias contribution to advances in outer space are impressive, such as the discovery of water molecules on the surface of the moon by its lunar explorer, Chandrayaan-1. The US partnered with India on this mission, with two Nasa payloads on board. Four broad areas of bilateral space co-operation present themselves. First, advanced launch technologies. The greatest limitation on space-ventures is the cost of launching objects into space. The two countries should partner in basic scientific research, such as advanced materials and combustion science that could enable a new generation of spacecraft, while avoiding the proliferation of dangerous ballistic missile capabilities. Second, lunar exploration and beyond. With interest in both countries for exploring the moon and its resources, the US and India should exploit synergies between their moon programmes and consult on an ambitious human exploration of the moon and inter-planetary space. Lunar resources could be used to lower the costs of sustaining human and robotic outposts beyond the earth. Third, climate change. The two countries should use the massive American and growing Indian space assets for earth observation to provide comprehensive and credible assessments of climate change. Fourth, space governance. The US and India should work to forge a consensus on limiting space debris, improving space situational awareness for avoiding hazards, and ensuring unhindered operation of the space assets of all nations. Creating a new voluntary code of conduct in outer space could mark the start of an effort to bring order to the global commons. An Obama-Singh space initiative could become the defining feature of an expansive US-India collaboration, especially in science and technology. It could also create the basis for securing our global commons and offer incentives to other major powers to join this vital undertaking.
broad consensus within the space community that

***SOLVENCY

Slv Trust
India Trusts the US- Spacelab Mission 3 began new era of partnership Indian Embassy 9
cooperation.php; WBTR] [February 6, 2009, Embassy of the Republic of India, Washington DC, USA- http://www.indianembassy.org/india-us-space-

Apart from the operational missions of IRS and INSAT, ISRO has also initiated dedicated space science missions such as SROSS-C for atmospheric studies and AstroSat mission for astronomical observation in UV and X-rays. Anuradha, an Indian experiment for cosmic ray studies was part of NASAs third Spacelab mission. As a first step in planetary exploration, Chandrayaan-1, for remote sensing of the moon from 100 km lunar polar orbit was initiated. Data obtained from this mission will improve our current understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon. American cooperation in India's first unmanned lunar mission, Chandrayaan-I, which was successfully launched from Shriharikota on 22nd October, and inserted into Moons orbit on 8th November, marks the beginning of a new era of trust and partnership between the two countries in the field of space exploration. The mission to the moon carries two NASA payloads - a Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar to map ice deposits in the moon's surface and a Moon Mineralogy Maper to assess mineral resources of the Moon The inclusion of two US Instruments on this spacecraft has provided further fillip to Indo-US cooperation in the space arena. India, along with seven other countries, has signed a landmark agreement with the United States (NASA) to carry out lunar exploration. The agreement was signed at American space agency NASA's Ames Research Centre on 28th July 2008. ISRO is also planning a second version named Chandrayaan-2 to land a motorized rover on the moon in 2011/2012. The strides that the US and India can make together as partners in space will advance tele-medicine, teleeducation, and disaster preparedness and management which in turn help development of mankind in a global perspective. Indinan Prime Minister trusts the US after Pres. Obamas visit to India Science Insider 10
[9 November 2010 Science Insider Magazine Obama Visit Boosts India-U.S. Science Ties by Pallava Bagla, http://news.sciencemag.org/scienceinsider/2010/11/ obama-visit-boosts-india-us-scie.html; WBTR]

******* CORRECTION NOTE: This item has been corrected, 11 November. It originally read that a bilateral "Joint Clean Energy Research and Development Center" would receive $1 million a year each from the United States and India for the next 5 years. That figure is $5 million.
New DelhiPresident Barack Obama's

unprecedented 3-day visit to India, which ended today, yielded a bumper crop of diplomatic agreements on topics including disease surveillance, agricultural research, clean energy, and monsoon forecasting. In addition, NASA and the Indian space agency began talks on joint human space flight. And the United States agreed to relax certain export controls affecting Indian defense and space facilities. At a special session of the Indian Parliament yesterday, Obama spoke of U.S.-India ties as an "indispensable and defining relationship of the 21st century." He acknowledged India's contributions to science and backed India's demand for a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council. " This is a manifestation of the growing trust and confidence" between the two countries, said Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, who added that he was gratified that the United States will support India's membership in export-control regimes such as the Nuclear Suppliers Group, a cartel created in 1974 to restrict global trade in nuclear technology after India conducted a nuclear explosion. To foster cooperation in public health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will team up with the Indian ministry of health in a regional disease detection center in New Delhi. It will carry out surveillance on emerging diseases and help in early detection of tropical disease outbreaks. No budget has yet been announced for this 5-year effort. In agriculture, Obama announced that India and the United States will jointly support R&D to usher in an

"evergreen revolution," a model for sustaining food security for the world. India will host the Global Center for Nuclear Energy Partnership involving the United States. Among other things, according to a joint statement, the center will "strengthen global nuclear security and address threats of nuclear terrorism." A bilateral "Joint Clean Energy Research and Development Center" with $5 million a year each from the United States and India for the next 5 years will develop new ways to harvest solar energy and tap shale gas, among other goals. To understand the monsoon
better, the United States will provide about $600,000 for a 5-year computer modeling effort that will also help set up a "monsoon desk" at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction in Camp Springs, Maryland, said Jane Lubchenco, administrator of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The two countries aim to work together in predicting the 2011 monsoon season

NSSP builds trust and overall relations Borman 4


*Mathew S. Borman is a reporter for the Hindu, a newspaper based in India [http://www.hindu.com/2004/10/02/stories/2004100205511100.htm, October 2nd, 2004, NSSP: U.S., India interests in action]

In the article entitled, "India, U.S. & Trade in Technology" (The Hindu, September 27), Mr. R. Ramachandran argues that the recent announcement by President Bush and Prime Minister Singh on Phase One of the U.S.-India Next Steps in Strategic Partnership (NSSP) initiative has been "hyped" and lacks substance. Mr. Ramachandran misunderstands both the purpose and the impact of this important initiative. The United States and India share a range of common interests, including preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and facilitating high-technology trade. The NSSP turns these interests into significant and concrete actions, which will be taken through a series of reciprocal steps that build on each other, consistent with each country's laws and international obligations. Completion of Phase One of the NSSP represents an important change in U.S. export licensing policy for dual-use items. India's Phase One actions regarding enhanced export controls and use of U.S.-origin items in accordance with U.S. requirements have enabled the United States to address three significant export policy issues: * Removing the
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) headquarters from the Department of Commerce's Entity List; * Reducing the licensing requirements for exports to the ISRO subordinates remaining on the Entity List by approximately 80 per cent by removing such requirements for EAR99 and "999" items exported to those facilities; and *Applying a "presumption of approval" for all dual-use items subject to multilateral and unilateral controls, except those controlled by the Nuclear Suppliers' Group, for export to the "balance of plant" portions (non-reactor related end users) of nuclear power facilities which are currently under International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards (Tarapur 1 & 2 and Rajasthan 1 & 2). * Each of these policy changes is substantial. * Removing the EAR99 and "999" licence requirements is anticipated to eliminate the need for approximately 25 per cent of all licence applications for U.S. exports to India. This change will facilitate further cooperation between U.S. companies and India's civilian space programme, by eliminating the time and uncertainty of such requirements. The current high volume of such licence applications

The ease of obtaining the affected items, including parts and components, will enhance India's civilian space programme. * Indian government officials have long sought removal of the ISRO headquarters from the Entity List because of the critical role that ISRO plays in India's economic development. In addition to the substantive impact of this change, the removal of the ISRO headquarters from the Entity List sends a strong political signal to exporters to be more positive about business opportunities with the entire ISRO organisation. * Facilitating the use of U.S.-origin items not controlled by the Nuclear Suppliers' Group (NSG) if intended for export to the "balance-of-plant" portions of safeguarded facilities will open opportunities for U.S. and Indian collaboration in the Indian civilian nuclear power sector. It should be noted that
(about 250 in fiscal year 2004) demonstrates the value that the Indian civilian space programme places on obtaining these U.S. products. the licence review policy for these transactions was misprinted in the September 22 Federal Register notice. A second Federal Register notice was published on Wednesday, September 29, to clarify that the "presumption of approval" is for all items other than those controlled multilaterally for nuclear proliferation reasons (i.e., controlled by the NSG) for use in the "balance of plant" activities at facilities which currently are safeguarded. As such, licence applications for exports of items unilaterally controlled by the United States such as turbines to the "balance of plant" portions of these facilities will be accorded a "presumption of approval."

Specifically the NSSP built trust within the ISRO

Ollapally 4

*Deepa M. Ollapally Senior Fellow at the Sigur Center for Asian Studies, Elliott School of International Aairs, at The George

Washington University. was Assistant Professor of Political Science at Swarthmore College from 1991-1995, and then Associate Professor from 19951997. She has been a visiting professor at Bryn Mawr College and Georgetown University [http://www.gwu.edu/~sigur/assets/docs/scap/SCAP22-Ollapally.pdf, April 2004, U.S. India Relations: Ties That Bind?]

An important segment of the government that seems to share this view, taking a long-term approach, is the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The ISROs interest extends well beyond immediate cooperation with the U.S. to what is termed the next generation of space exploration in which India could offer both cost and technology advantages, something the Americans are now believed to understand . 38 India has already captured approximately fteen to twenty percent of the global market for remote sensing data for civilian applications. For space technology cooperation, the ultimate test from the Indian side is whether an Indian launch vehicle would be allowed to carry an American-built satellite. The optimists say that nothing can be ruled out in the future, especially if market forces determine American policy.

ISRO Successful

ISRO capable and successfulprobe, launch vehicles, satellites


Singh 10
[CNN producer, writer, analyst, (Harmeet Shah, Jan 29, 2010, India plans manned space mission in 2016 http://articles.cnn.com/2010-0129/world/india.manned.space.mission_1_chandrayaan-chandrayaan-1-space-agency?_s=PM:WORLD]

Indian researchers have announced plans to send their astronauts to space in 2016. The cost of the proposed mission is estimated at $4.8 billion, said S. Satish, spokesman for the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). Studies have begun on the design of the crew capsules that will be used to put a pair of astronauts 300 kilometers aloft for seven days, he said. The project budget has been sent for federal approval, he added. A training facility for astronauts will also be built in southern India as part of the program, which Satish said would be solely Indian. In 1984, Rakesh Sharma became the first Indian to explore space in what was a joint mission with the then Soviet Union. In 2008, India launched its first unmanned mission -- Chandrayaan-1 -- to the moon that dropped a probe onto the lunar surface. In 312 days, Chandrayaan-1, completed more than 3,400 orbits and met most of its scientific objectives before vanishing off the radars abruptly last year, according to the space agency. The craft carried payloads from the United States, the European Union and Bulgaria. One of its aims was to search for evidence of water or ice and identify the chemical composition of certain lunar rocks. The Chandrayaan-1 mission came to be seen as the 21st century, Asian version of the space race between the United States and the USSR -- but this time involving India and China. Satish said
meaning moon craft,

the agency was also planning to send a second version of Chandrayaan in 2012. India held its first rocket launch from a fishing village in southern India in 1963. Now, the South Asian nation lists more than 60 events as "milestones" in its space program, which includes the successful use of polar and geosynchronous satellite launch vehicles.
scientists say Indian

their country has the world's largest constellation of remote-sensing satellites . These satellites, according to the Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, capture images of the Earth used in a range of applications -- agriculture, water resources, urban development, mineral prospecting, environment, forestry, drought and flood forecasting, ocean resources and disaster management. Another major system, or INSAT, is used for communication, television and meteorology.

ISRO is overwhelmingly successful.


Hazarika 10 (Mrinal Ali, correspondent for MeriNews, Excellent march of India in space exploration, courtesy ISRO, July 24,

http://www.merinews.com/article/excellent-march-of-india-in-space-exploration-courtesy-

isro/15827157.shtml) ISRO HAS achieved one more stupendous feat in its space endeavor with the successful launch of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C 15). This was sixteenth consecutive successful launch of Indias smaller rocket and now the space agency geared up its efforts to realized its long cherished dream of launching Indian astronauts into space from Indian soil and that too in an indigenously developed rocket. With the excellent journey so far, it seems that no dream is too big for India in space exploration . In this latest mission five satellites were successfully placed into the orbit and at
the same time ISRO has put behind the bitter memories of its failed mission of Geosynchronous Launch Vehicle (GSLV-D3) in April, 2010. Ten years back PSLV was developed by ISRO and so far it has successfully carried many satellites into the orbit, both Indian and foreign. Till date the success

The launching of multiple satellites on board of a single payload is a new phenomenon and in 2008 ISRO has set a record by placing 10 satellites into orbit. There are numerous other launches scheduled in the coming months of this year. They are also planning to launch an unmanned crew module on board a PSLV in 2013, a crucial step towards sending Indian astronauts in space.
rate of this vehicle has been stupendous and ISRO is worthy of appreciation for this.

India is on par with any other space agency, and with focus surpasses NASA
Padhra 10
[Anil, PhD in meteorology from the University of Reading, Development of the Indian Space Program, November 25, http://www.suite101.com/content/development-of-the-indian-space-program-a313168]

The formation of the ISRO helped India achieve some notable moments. Within six years of its formation, India successfully launched Aryabhatta into space, the first Indian space satellite. This was followed by Bhaskara I, an experimental
Earth observation satellite. By the mid-1980s Rohini-3, a communications satellite sent into orbit, was providing 70 per cent of Indias population with television coverage. Alongside the development of satellites, India also trained astronauts and in 1984, Rakesh Sharma became the first Indian in space when he spent eight days aboard the Soviet space station, Salyut 7. The program today and in the future Since these achievements, India has never looked back. Today, ISRO employs 16,000 Indian nationals managing a budget of just under a billion dollars; not light years away from the budgets of

Say Yes SPS


India would accept the deal They have specifically requested for bilateral cooperation over space based solar power. CP is key to build trust and reduce bureaucratic friction plan alone is insufficient to solve***
Garretson 2010 former Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) International Fellow in India, Visiting Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and
Analyses (IDSA) New Delhi. Previously the Chief of Future Science and Technology Exploration for Headquarters Air Force, former Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Service Academy Research Associate, recipient of the National Space Societys (NSS) Space Pioneer Award Peter A. Garretson Skys No Limit: Space-based Solar Power, the Next Major Step in the Indo-US Strategic Partnership http://www.idsa.in/sites/default/files/OP_SkysNoLimit.pdf

India is the only major state where a Head of State has not only suggested space solar power as a goal for its space agency, but also expressed an interest in international cooperation. Second, as already noted above, there is considerable momentum in the Indo-US strategic partnership, with key components space, energy, climate change, high tech, aviation, and dualuse strategic technologies and defence cooperationalready in place with vibrant dialogue. Third, Indias need for power and development is acute, likely considerably more acute than other potential partners which makes it potentially a more motivated partner, and a linked effort also promises a tremendous ultimate market potential. Fourthly, the success of space solar power will depend partly on low-cost manufacture. In the time frame when space solar power will come of age, perhaps 15 years in the future, even as other manufacturing and labour markets age and face decline, India is projected to be in the midst of its demographic dividend, with the largest working age population of any country on earth.4Finally, and significantly, in a breakthrough project like space solar power where an international regulatory framework is required, the influence of a historically normative power representing the developing world and its equities is a powerful enabler, and without such a partnership a go-it-alone attitude might find the environment and the markets considerably less permissive. Further, the case for technical cooperation with India is quite strong. As already remarked, over the course of nearly a decade, there has been significant momentum to the technical cooperation aspect of the IndoUS strategic partnership and we have finally put in place all the necessary precursor elements for institutional research and development. Cooperation today is principally at a low level because bureaucracies still are not familiar with each other,5 and trust is earned incrementally over time. In the course of this research, there was no indication that there was reason to doubt that such trust and familiarity will be the natural course.
Firstly,

Only Joint US-India development of SBSP makes it effective; India is willing to cooperate now
Space Politics 10 [Space Politics US and India in space (and space solar power?) November 7, 2010 at 9:52 am

http://www.spacepolitics.com/2010/11/07/us-and-india-in-space-and-space-solar-power/; WBTR] President Obama is currently in India, where he is expected to formally announce on Monday the removal of the Indian space agency ISRO from a US list that restricts exports of some sensitive technologies. The Entity List, as it is
formally known, specifies additional requirements for items beyond whats already required under export control regulations. Currently ISRO and four organizations within it are on the list, requiring a case-by-case review for any item on the Commerce Control List for export to those organizations. That restriction dates back to sanctions placed on India and Pakistan for their nuclear tests in the late 1990s. That move isnt

In a Wall Street Journal op-ed on Thursday, former deputy secretary of state Richard Armitage, writing with another former State Department official, R. Nicholas Burns, called on both the White House and Congress to liberalize U.S. export controls that have an impact on India, including by removing the Indian Space Research Organization (the Indian equivalent to NASA) from the U.S. Entity List. However, that appears to be the limit of space-related progress in the presidents visit: Indian media reported last week that its unlikely a commercial satellite launch agreement will be completed in time. Such an agreement would make it easier for US-built commercial satellites, or satellites with US-built components, to be launched on Indian vehicles. A few people, though, are seeking much grander visions of
unexpected: it had been anticipated for weeks in both the US and India.

US-Indian cooperation in space.

At a press conference in Washington on Thursday, American and Indian officials announced the

creation of Kalam-NSS Energy Initiative to promote the development of space-based solar power (SBSP) in the two nations.

The near-term

goal of the initiative is to arrange a bilateral meeting of Indian and American experts on the topic in May in Huntsville, Alabama, in conjunction with the International Space Development Conference (ISDC), the annual conference of the National
Space Society (NSS). The effort might be dismissed as a minor effort of a few people to promote whats widely considered a fringe topic, but it does have the backing of a prominent individual on the Indian side: former president A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, who participated in Thursdays press

Kalam spoke of the need to increase energy production to meet the needs of a modernizing India, without going into details about how the two countries might cooperation in SBSP beyond holding a joint meeting. Asked if the topic might come up in the meeting between President Obama and Indian Prime Minister
conference by phone from India. Singh in New Delhi, Kalam suggested that it should instead be presented at a future meeting of G8 or G20 nations. Also unclear is what India

Kalam discussed the development of what he called a hyperplane, a reusable spaceplane concept, something he said India could cooperate with the US and other nations on. (Given the difficulties any nation has had in developing RLVs, and the challenges India has faced in even building a cryogenic upper stage for its GSLV expendable rocket, jumping ahead to a hyperplane may seem a bit of a stretch.) T.K. Alex, director of the ISRO Satellite Centre and
would bring to the table in terms of its role in developing a SBSP system. Asked what unique capabilities India could offer, the Indian lead of the Kalam-NSS Energy Initiative, said later at the press conference that India could also contribute in the development of high-

NSS CEO Mark Hopkins suggested a different role for India, saying that a combination of American technology and the ability of India to do a lot of low-cost manufacturing could be essential to any future success of SBSP.
efficiency and lightweight solar cells.

Bilat over SPS solves


Garretson 2010 former Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) International Fellow in India, Visiting Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and
Analyses (IDSA) New Delhi. Previously the Chief of Future Science and Technology Exploration for Headquarters Air Force, former Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Service Academy Research Associate, recipient of the National Space Societys (NSS) Space Pioneer Award Peter A. Garretson Skys No Limit: Space-based Solar Power, the Next Major Step in the Indo-US Strategic Partnership http://www.idsa.in/sites/default/files/OP_SkysNoLimit.pdf This paper sought to evaluate space-based solar power, a highly scalable, revolutionary renewable energy technology, in the context of the IndoUS bilateral strategic partnership, and determine if US and Indian interests and amities were sufficiently aligned to allow forward motion on such a project, and if so, what would be an actionable form for policymakers .

It is the conclusion of the researcher that SBSP does appear to be a good fit for the US domestic, Indian domestic and bilateral agendas, and there is adequate political space and precursor agreements to begin a bilateral programme, should policymakers desire it.
Given that SBSP appears to fit the articulated Indian criteria for suitability of energy source and to offer a better long-term energy security solution, and that the evaluation of the current energy-climate situation is so unhopeful, with a lack of promising and scalable solutions emerging, a no-

An actionable, three-tiered programme, with threshold criteria/goals, has been proposed, moving from basic technology and capacity building to a multi-lateral demo, and ultimately to an international commercial public-private-partnership entity to supply commercial power in the 2025 timeframe. The launch of such a potentially revolutionary programme can begin with a simple statement exchanged between the two heads of state or articulated in a joint
regret, due-diligence effort in space-based solar power seems a justified and strategic1 investment. statement.

CP solves: encourages cooperation best, promotes private involvement, and accrues tech spinoffs
Rajagopalan, 11 (Dr. Rajeswari Pillai,
Senior Fellow at the Institute of Security Studies (ISS), Observer Research Foundation, New Delhi.

Space

Based Solar Power: Time to Put it on the New US-India S&T Endowment Fund?, 4/2/2011, http://www.orfonline.org/cms/sites/orfonline/modules/analysis/AnalysisDetail.html?cmaid=22177&mmacmaid=22178) AFL With the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami that hit Japan on March 11, isnt it time for India and the US to make serious commitments to Space-Based Solar Power (SBSP)? Japanese crisis has triggered worldwide re-thinking on the feasibility of pursuing nuclear energy to meet growing global energy demands. This has kick-started a debate also in India not only on the safety of nuclear plants but also on other energy

It is time that India and the United States and the countries around the world looked at an often-overlooked option: SBSP. The idea of harnessing SBSP as an option originated in the United States some 40 years ago. But it has not been pursued with
options.

vigour for a variety of reasons, including possibly the influence of nuclear lobbyists. In simple terms, SBSP is described thus by Lt. Col. Peter Garretson of the US Air Force: "In this concept, very large satellites, the largest ever constructed, made up of kilometers of solar cells, would collect the Suns energy where there is no night, and convert it to radio-waves to be beamed to special receiving antenna farms on the ground (called rectennas) about the size of a small airport. The energy is sent in the form of a low energy beam at about 1/6th the intensity of normal sunlight that falls on earth. But because it is a low-energy, non-ionizing wavelength, it is not as dangerous as sunlight with its high energy ultraviolet rays. At the rectenna, the energy is reconverted and sent via the existing electrical grid. Such satellites would necessitate a fleet of re-useable space planes, and as a consequence of economies of scale, reduce the cost of space access a hundred fold, enabling many other applications.2 It is estimated that one kilometre-wide band of geo-synchronous earth bit can produce solar flux to match as much as the total amount of energy produced from all the different recoverable oil reserves on Earth. The idea was promoted by none other than Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam first at the Aeronautical Society of India (AeSI) and later again at a press conference in Washington DC last year. The initiative is now titled as the Kalam-NSS (National Space Society) Energy Initiative. The Kalam-NSS initiative is an India-US partnership taken up by individuals with long-term expertise in the space realm. Some of the key people involved are, in addition to Dr. Kalam, Mark Hopkins, CEO of the US-based National Space Society and John Mankins, President of the Space Power Association and a veteran of NASA. On the Indian side, there seems to be some official involvement due to the involvement of Dr. T.K. Alex, who is the Director of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Satellite Centre, Bangalore and leader of the Chandrayan-I project. Speaking in New Delhi in November last year, Dr. Kalam said that "by 2050, even if we use every available energy resource we have, clean and dirty, conventional and alternative, solar, wind, geothermal, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas, the world will fall short of the energy we need by 66%. There is an answer. An answer for both the developed and developing countries. This is a solar energy source that is close to infinite, an energy source that produces no carbon emissions, an energy source that can reach the most distant villages of the world, and an energy source that can turn countries into net energy exporter."3 According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the worldwide demand for primary energy increases by 55 per cent between 2005 and 2030 - 1.8 per cent hike per year on average; and for India, the demand is expected to more than double by 2030, growing at 3.6 per cent rate per year.4 With energy demand growing rapidly, the SBSP option offers huge opportunities. Such an option will also be reportedly a cleaner energy option. This option would also significantly augment Indias capabilities in the space domain,

This will bring the much-desired focus on the question of technology transfer between India and the US, Japan and Israel. India has looked at this option for quite sometime. In 1987, the first bit of work was undertaken looking at advanced space transportation system design
which will have far-reaching positive spin-offs in the ever-changing security environment in Asia. concepts for cost-effective space solar power. Recently, ISRO is reported to have done some exercise looking at the feasibility of this option and examined three specific configurations. Thereafter, ISRO is believed to have welcomed an International Preliminary Feasibility Study.Unlike terrestrial solar and wind power plants, SBSP is available throughout the year, in huge quantities. It can also reportedly work irrespective of conditions that are a problem for other alternative energy sources such as cloud cover, availability of sunlight, or wind speed. What has prevented the SBSP from becoming a real option? Is it the enormous cost involved in developing the option or is it an option that never got the popular attention due to the multiplicity of departments involved? Proponents argue that the cost of SBSP should not be compared to the direct costs involved. The cost-benefit analysis needs to be done on a different scale, including the direct and indirect cost of global warming and climate change. Otherwise, the costs of developing this technology may seem exorbitant. What are the options to meet this cost? Are the Indian and

The US-India Agreement to establish an S&T Board and an Endowment to carry out research (July 20, 2009) appears to be an ideal basis for new research and development on SBSP. SBSP seems like an ideal candidate because this fund seeks to finance projects on a broad spectrum of issues of mutual benefit such as biotechnology, health and infectious diseases, advanced materials and nanotechnology science, clean energy technologies, climate science, basic space and atmospheric and earth science among others. The US side of
American governments and private sectors willing to make significant investments on the R&D of this technology? funding for the Endowment is reported to come from the US S&T "Rupee Funds" established in the 1980s to encourage and fund bilateral S&T projects.5 However, for the SBSP per se, there appears to be interest among the private sector companies like Boeing, Lockheed Martin, and Northrop Grumman and on the Indian side, Tatas have shown interest in exploring this option. While this can potentially be an excellent case for

Indias foray into space and its space policies have had strong civilian and developmental roots and accordingly the government needs to place the SBSP within its overall national space policy. Indias decision to pursue SBSP will have multiple impact -clean energy, clean environment, advancement in the space arena with technology transfer as a given between India, US and Japan.
public-private partnership, the initiative has to come from the government.

The CP solves India has the technology and the willpower


Dinerman 9
*Taylor Dinerman is an author and journalist based in New York City [http://www.thespacereview.com/article/1389/1, Should the U.S. and India cooperate on space solar power? Taylor Dinerman, June 8th 2009, Published in the Space Review]

If the US has a serious medium-term need for a very large new source of clean energy, India needs it even more. While there is a lot of talk about terrestrial solar, wind, and geothermal power as alternatives to coal

which seems to be currently politically unacceptableor nuclearwhich has its own set of political problems but whose greatest drawback may simply be the length of time it takes to build new power plants space solar power (SSP) may be the only alternative that could be made to work before the major global electricity demand crisis hits, around the year 2050. In Washington lots of people have complained that the Obama
Administration has so far not given the India-US relationship the attention it deserves. Others are waiting to see if this relatively new team is going to follow up on the progress made by both the Clinton and the George W. Bush Administrations in building a real friendship between the two democratic giants. The one area in which there seems to be movement on, though, is a renewable energy partnership. From Indias standpoint the government does take the energy problem very seriously. While they connect it with the question of climate change, they have made it clear that they are not willing to inflict economic pain on their people in order to appease those in the West who are demanding that they cease their

Former External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee made this clear when he spoke at the Asia Society in New York last year and said, It is therefore completely one sided to target countries like India, whose emissions though modest are rising, but fail to bring to account those who have been responsible for more than 70% of the accumulated emissions in the atmosphere. Recognizing the potential weakness of a case based strictly on the question of climate change, Mukherjee was wise enough to add that even if there were no climate change arguments, considerations of energy security alone would require a medium to long term strategy of implementing a strategic shift from fossil fuels to non fossil fuels. He called for a major R&D effort to develop applications that that can provide convenient, cost effective large scale applications of solar energy. Any analysis of the potential of terrestrial solar energy in India or elsewhere runs up against the awesome size of the future demand for power. Photovoltaic panels on rooftops and solar water heaters all make excellent small-scale contributions to the solution, but they cannot by any stretch of the imagination fulfill the requirements of a huge growing economy like Indias. Only SSP, which operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, year after year, can hope to meet this need. Fortunately both India and the US have space programs and technologies that could, if developed together and possibly with other interested nations such as Japan, bring SSP systems into service sometime late next decade or the early 2020s. With its commitment to develop a new low cost reusable spaceplane, the India Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is already working on one of the key technologies needed for an SSP system. Indian participation in both private and public SSP programs should be welcomed by the US. Ehe US government should make an effort to facilitate this by helping with visas and work permits for qualified Indian scientists and engineers. Recent moves towards reforming the notorious International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) should include ensuring that
current drive to climb out of mass poverty in the name of the environment. SSP systems are covered by the Department of Commerce regulators rather than by the State Department, which has gained such a sorry reputation in this area.In

the near term the new Indo-US renewable energy partnership would seem to be the right place to start this collaboration. Together the partners can identify what will be needed in the way of technological and scientific investments over the next decade in order to make SSP a reality. India has lots of talent that can be committed to this effort and so does the US. In fact, the kind of ambitious idealism that we saw at NASA during the Apollo years could be engendered by this goal. Safe, clean, abundant energy from the Sun is not an impossible dream. The technology has not been perfected and the need for new, low-cost Earth-to-orbit transportation systems is as urgent as ever, but there are no requirements for any scientific breakthroughs. The Space Solar Power Study released by the US National Security Space Office (NSSO) in October 2007 found that since the 1977 Reference study, there had been: (a) improvements in PV [photovoltaic] efficiency from about 10% (1970s) to more than 40% (2007); (b) increases in robotics capabilities from simple tele-operated manipulators in a few degrees of freedom (1970s) to fully autonomous robotics with insect-class intelligence and 30100 degrees of freedom (2007); (c) increases in the efficiency of solid state devices from around 20% (1970s) to as much as 70%90% (2007); (d) improvements in materials for structures from simple aluminum (1970s) to advanced composites including nanotechnology composites (2007) The 2007 NSSO study showed just how far the technology had come

and why space solar power is now a more viable alternative for very large-scale power generation than ever before. India and the US are natural partners in the development of this technology and the opportunity provided by the planned renewable energy partnership is a perfect place to begin.

Say Yes ASATS


CP solves India and US can cooperate on ASAT development
Samson 11
(5/9/11, Victoria, Washington Office Director for the Secure World Foundation, India and space security,

http://www.thespacereview.com/article/1838/1) Indian participants commented often that they cannot let themselves be left out of an international regime like India was with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT): they believe (probably rightfully so) that if India had tested a
nuclear weapon prior to the NPT, the country would have been grandfathered in as an official nuclear weapon state. As it was, there was quite a lot

Along those lines, the Indian participants seemed interested in developing an ASAT before the international community decides (whether formally or informally) to ban them. The discussion of space and security is still tied to terms used to discuss
of resentment from the Indian participants that their country was being held accountable to a treaty that it had never signed. nuclear weapons, at least within Indian policy circles. So when one talks about responsible space behavior, the Indians look at it from a proliferation perspective: their take is that since no one is proliferating space technology unduly, no one is acting irresponsibly. Alternatively, they raised the idea several times that, outside of the Chinese ASAT test, no one has acted irresponsibly in space since the Cold War ASAT tests held by the United States and the then-Soviet Union. This logic brings home the need for the international community to develop some sort of accepted definition of what responsible space behavior is, and why it helps space powers like India to be part of that discussion. Several Indian participants likened an ASAT program to a nuclear weapons program: you develop it without testing it, but you have it on hand just in case the international security environment changed and you needed it. But when asked what particular scenarios merited the use of an ASAT, no one had an answer. Also, very telling was a statement by a former foreign secretary, Kinwal Sibal, who said that India perceives itself as a victim of geopolitics rather than an actor who provokes negative reaction. This attitude surfaced several times over the course of the conference and was used to explain why their ASAT program should not be of concern to others. As for the United States, there was curiosity expressed by conference participants about

They are looking for concrete examples that the United States is serious about reaching out to other space powers. Several
how sincere the United States is about the international cooperation pushed for in its National Space Policy. participants, Indian and otherwise, said that they felt that the United States was in a decline and that would affect Indias security calculus.

US and India have capability for bilateral ASATs Indian ability matching Chinas
Brown 10
(1/22/10, Peter, staff writer for the Asia Times Onlinem India targets China's satellites,

http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/LAT2Df01.html)
"With its early support of the former US president George W Bush's ballistic missile defense program and its current drive to develop anti-ballistic missile/anti-satellite capability, New Delhi is determined not to make the same mistake twice," added Gupta. "If and when globally negotiated restraints are placed on such strategic defensive systems or technologies - perhaps restraints of some sort of ASAT testing/hit-to-kill technologies India will already have crossed the technical threshold in that regard, and acknowledgement of such status [will be] grand-fathered into any such

After watching China's moves since the highly controversial satellite shootdown which China undertook in January 2007, India has now openly declared its desire to match China. "There is no reason to be surprised. India is anxious to be seen as not lagging behind China - ergo - if China has an ASAT program, India can do it, too. That's all there is to it." said Uzi Rubin, a defense consultant and former head of Israel's missile
future agreement." defense organization. China was not specifically mentioned by V K Saraswat, director general of India's Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO), when he announced at the 97th Indian Science Congress earlier this month that India had begun to develop an anti-satellite capability. He declared that India is "working to ensure space security and protect our satellites. At the same time, we are also working on how to deny the enemy access to its space assets." There is no doubt as to the identity of the "enemy" in question. " The

Indians are engaged in a major active missile defense program which, because of the technological affinity between missile defense and ASAT, could eventually grow up to the latter," said Rubin. "India, like all countries with their own space assets, is aware that ASAT is a double-edged sword and that if they embark on a program, they will legitimize the Chinese
program and endanger their own national satellites." As for Saraswat's statement - "India is putting together building blocks of technology that could be used to neutralize enemy satellites" - Rubin almost downplays it entirely. "His is quite a tepid statement, I wouldn't make much of it," said Rubin. On the other hand, Subrata Ghoshroy, research associate in the Working Group in the Science, Technology, and Global Security Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has met senior former India Space Research Organization (ISRO) officials who were eager to let it be known that India has the capacity to respond. "There

are growing ties between ISRO and the Indian Ministry of Defense and the two are beginning to feed off each other," said Ghoshroy. What Saraswat did was, in effect, to inject a powerful
destabilizing element into the South Asian strategic equation at a time when the US is determined to do everything in its power to bolster regional stability. When US Defense Secretary Robert Gates planned his trip to India this week, the last thing Gates probably expected to contend with was the possibility that New Delhi might be accelerating its timetable for the development of an ASAT weapon. Writing in the Times of India in advance

of his visit, Gates made no mention whatsoever of space, anti-missile activities or ASAT weapons in particular, although there are certainly spacerelated items on the agenda. What Gates avoided entirely was any mention of the US acting as a solid partner and supporter of India's ASAT program. While that might well be the case, it could be argued that in the interest of regional stability, the US might at least be rethinking how it will proceed in these matters in light of mounting concerns over the situation in Pakistan where China obviously enjoys significant leverage. China's decision this month to proceed with a well-publicized test of its midcourse missile interceptor technology - just a few days after Pradeep Kumar, India's Defense Secretary, departed from Beijing - certainly has sent a strong message, while doing the US a favor in terms of providing the US with a timely excuse for allowing India to go ahead with its plans. However, the US cannot have it both ways in the end. Courting India as a favored client for major arms purchases one moment, and as a strategic hedge against China, and then trying to promote regional stability the next moment is not a very coherent way to make meaningful progress in South Asia. The dilemma for the US is considerable. Saraswat was quite careful in his choice of words, and went out of his way this time to assure any interested parties, including Gates, that

no actual ASAT tests were

now planned by India. Saraswat has good reason to be very careful about his choice of words. A day after the US Navy cruiser USS Lake
Erie shot down an errant US spy satellite in February 2008, for example, former Indian president APJ Abdul Kalam - one of the key players in India's nuclear and missile programs - told reporters at a DRDO-sponsored International Conference on Avionics Systems in Hyderabad that India has, "the ability to intercept and destroy any spatial object or debris in a radius of 200 kilometers. We will definitely do that if it endangers Indian territory". Saraswat, on the other hand, was less specific at the time. And while seeming to agree with Kalam's statement, he did not do so with absolute certainty. "It

is just a matter of time before we could place the necessary wherewithal to meet such requirements," Saraswat said. "We can predict and can always tackle such challenges."

Say Yes Mars


India wants to go to mars with US
Smith 04Marcia,
a Specialist in Aerospace and Telecommunications Policy, Resources, Science Congressional Research Service at Library of Congress, in a testimony to the Committee on Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space (April 27, 2004 INTERNATIONAL SPACE EXPLORATION lexis) In 2003, India announced plans to launch a robotic spacecraft to the Moon in 2007 and is inviting other countries to participate. India is offering to fly 10 kilogram payloads from interested countries for free. Canada, Germany, Russia, Israel, Europe, and the United States reportedly have

The United States and India renewed cooperation in scientific areas, including space exploration, after the United States lifted sanctions imposed in 1998 following India's nuclear weapons tests. The head of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), G. Madhavan Nair, has stated that the robotic lunar probe, Chandrayaan-1, is only the first step in India's space exploration plans. India's President Kalam and Prime Minister Vajpayee also have made supportive statements not only about robotic missions, but about eventual human space flights to Mars.
expressed interest.

India is interested in Mars


Morris 06Jeffery, writer for Aviation Week & Space Technology (December 4, 2006 India to Mars lexis)
India is beginning to define its first Mars orbiter for launch as early as 2013 on its geosynchronous space launch vehicle. The small spacecraft, costing only about $70 million excluding the booster, would carry instruments to research the Martian atmosphere and subsurface, possibly

The mission's main significance at this point is probably India's intent to do it, rather than its explicit scientific goals. With this project, India joins China in defining new Mars exploration for Asia (AW&ST Nov. 27, p. 53). "Mars is emerging on our horizon. The geostationary launch vehicle can take a payload to Mars and our Deep Space Network can track it all the way," G. Madhavan Nair, the chairman of the Indian Space Research Organization told The Hindustan Times. "There is a lot of interest in Mars. The missions of the U.S. and the European Space Agency have given us some interesting data. Let us see what [additional value] our mission can bring."
including a radar.

Say Yes Solar Sails


India already interested in solar sailssay yes
Business Line 05 (August 11, 2005 KALAM OUTLINES AGENDA FOR INDIAN SPACE MISSIONS lexis)

India missed out on the first industrial revolution, but now has the opportunity to be a part of the next by joining the exclusive club of nations that are working to establish industry on the Moon and Mars, he emphasised According to Mr Kalam, eight possible missions that could be a part of India's space programme till 2030 include launching manned missions to the Moon and Mars and the establishment of an industrial base in space, development of cost-effective space transportation systems using hypersonic reusable vehicles, harnessing space energy for power and drinking water, developing a solar sail for inter-planetary missions and using space technology for integrated disaster management

Say Yes Moon


Both countries support cooperative lunar missions-empirics
Kline 06
[Jennifer Kline is a Contributor at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies [, U.S.-India Space Cooperation High Despite Lingering Proliferation Concerns July 20th 2006, http://cns.miis.edu/other/kline_060720.htm] In an environment colored by the controversy surrounding the U.S.-India nuclear agreement and by difficult continuing negotiations over a bilateral

the U.S.-India initiative on lunar exploration stands out as a potential breakthrough in high-technology collaboration between the two countries. [21] In November 2005, the U.S. Department of State signed two Technical Assistance Agreements (TAAs) - the relevant U.S. export
agreement to permit India to launch third-country satellites containing U.S. components or technology, licensing documents authorizing two U.S. scientific instruments to be carried as payloads on the Indian Chandrayaan-I Lunar Mission. The two U.S. instruments are the M3 (Moon Mineralogy Mapper) and the MiniSAR (Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar). The scope of the experiments conducted and the sharing of responsibilities and data collected on this mission were determined in the MOUs signed on May 9, 2006. [22]

Michael Griffin, Administrator of NASA, has strongly endorsed the NASA-ISRO rapprochement symbolized by the Chandrayaan-I agreement. Griffin reportedly stated at a press conference following the May 9 MOU signing ceremony that "he
was sorry about the U.S. sanctions on some ISRO units and that he would use his good offices to lift the sanctions." [23] Despite Griffin's encouraging words, both Indian and American parties remain "cautious about the political implications of this warmth vis--vis the sanctions," illustrating the limitations of NASA's ability to expedite fundamental changes in U.S. space-cooperation policy. [24] Indeed, even Griffin acknowledged that differences between the United States and India in this sphere have "more to do with concerns over proliferation than anything else," reflecting residual concerns in Washington about Indian misuse of space technology for military purposes that NASA will find hard to dispel. [25]

AT: Launch Capabilities


CP solves, India has the capabilities and capacity to launch satellites
Sutaria and Hat 08 *Krishna Sutaria is a former research intern with the South Asia Program at CSIS **Vibhuti Hat is a Research Associate with
the South Asia Program at CSIS [http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/sam124.pdf, November 7th 2008, Starry Eyes or Serious Potential? The Rise of Indias Space Program] Satellites and Systems - Nuts and Bolts of Indias Space Program: While ISRO is the main developer of launch and satellite systems, it maintains two separate agencies and corresponding classes of satellites, the Indian National Satellite (INSAT) for communication, television broadcasting and

The two existing satellite launch vehicles, the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) are used to place IRS and INSAT class satellites in the required orbits. The PSLV is the space programs workhorse. The most important function of the PSLV is its ability to launch IRS satellites into sun synchronous orbits. Before PSLV, this kind of launch was commercially viable only from Russia. The PSLV had its first successful launch in 1996, three years after its initial introduction. Since then, it has continued to have successful launches - the latest count puts the PSLV at 9 consecutive and 11 total successful launches out of 13 attempts - making it popular with ISRO . The standard version of the PSLV has the capability to launch 1,600 kg to 622 km in a sun synchronous orbit, but with a strapon booster the PSLV can increase that payload to 1,800 kg. ISRO continues to work on improving the efficiency and increasing the payload of their favorite launch vehicle. The GSLV is a heavier rocket used to launch INSAT satellites primarily into geostationary orbits and can carry heavier payloads for greater distances than its polar counterpart. GSLV had its first successful launch in 2001, followed by a second operational launch in 2004.
meteorological studies, and the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) for resources monitoring and management.

***ATS

AT: Entities List = No Solvency


No barriers, the ISRO was removed
Sutaria and Hat 08 *Krishna Sutaria is a former research intern with the South Asia Program at CSIS **Vibhuti Hat is a Research Associate with
the South Asia Program at CSIS [http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/sam124.pdf, November 7th 2008, Starry Eyes or Serious Potential? The Rise of Indias Space Program] Money, Money, Money - Indias Scientific Powerhouse: Today, ISRO is complementing development oriented projects like EDUSAT with commercial ventures. ISRO anticipates new revenues from the highly lucrative satellite industry, which includes broadband Internet Protocol (IP) services, defense and military applications, and leasing options to telecommunication providers. Although ISRO, a relative newcomer to space exploration, has a much shorter list of commercial ventures than its counterparts in the United States and Europe, it has made impressive strides. In April 2007, the PSLV conducted its first commercial launch of a foreign satellite for the Italian Space Agency, AGILE, for US $11 million. Then, in January 2008, the PSLV launched an Israeli satellite, TECSAR, followed by another successful launch in April 2008 of ten satellites on the same launch vehicle. Aprils launch broke the record of maximum satellites launched simultaneously by any international space program; a record previously held by Russia at eight satellites in a single launch. Antrix, ISROs marketing arm, has been selling Indian products and services to global customers, thereby increasing ISROs market share in space services. For financial year 2006-07, it clocked in revenues of approximately US$ 1.36 billion from leasing transponders, selling remote sensing images and launching other countries satellites. Senior ISRO officials have admitted that they hope to corner 10 percent of the global space market within the decade. This will put it in competition with the United States,

Reaction from Washington: The Next Steps in Strategic Partnership (NSSP) statement released by President Bush in 2004 paved the way for U.S. - India cooperation in the area of civilian space programs. Subsequently, in 2005, the U.S. Department of Commerce eliminated several licensing restrictions associated with nuclear-related exports and re-exports to India and also removed six Indian entities, including three ISRO organizations, from the United States Entity List of organizations and individuals banned from any commerce with the United States on nonproliferation grounds. Some ISRO organizations still remain on the Entity List, but the signature of a space cooperation agreement in June 2005 and the presence of two U.S. instruments on board Chandrayaan-I represent a major breakthrough in U.S.-Indian space cooperation. The U.S. and India have negotiated, but not signed, a Technology Safeguards Agreement and have been discussing a Commercial Space Launch Agreement, which in turn would further facilitate technology transfers and space cooperation between the two countries.
Russia, China, and the European Space Agency in offering commercial space services.

No more barriers the ISRO was removed


Kline 06
Jennifer Kline is a Contributor at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies [http://cns.miis.edu/other/kline_060720.htm, U.S.India Space Cooperation High Despite Lingering Proliferation Concerns July 20th 2006]

These changes led the United States to remove ISRO headquarters from the U.S. Department of Commerce Entity List, identifying foreign organizations of particular proliferation concern. The list was designed to
"inform the public of entities whose activities imposed a risk of diverting exported and re-exported items into programs related to weapons of mass

Three additional ISRO subsidiary entities were removed from the Entity List in July 2005, and ISRO is currently petitioning to have the crucial Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, the Liquid Propulsion Systems Center, and the Satish Dhawan Space Center removed from the list in order to facilitate their receipt of additional high-tech American exports. [17]
destruction." [16]

AT: ITAR = No Solvency


AT ITAR = No Solvency
Garretson 2010 former Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) International Fellow in India, Visiting Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and
Analyses (IDSA) New Delhi. Previously the Chief of Future Science and Technology Exploration for Headquarters Air Force, former Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Service Academy Research Associate, recipient of the National Space Societys (NSS) Space Pioneer Award Peter A. Garretson Skys No Limit: Space-based Solar Power, the Next Major Step in the Indo-US Strategic Partnership http://www.idsa.in/sites/default/files/OP_SkysNoLimit.pdf

A frequent concern encountered in structured discussions was the obstacles posed by the MTCR and ITAR.6 Do these, in fact, pose an insurmountable obstacle? They do not. There is currently a strong current suggesting ITAR may get a re-look to become more permissive with respect to space cooperation. But even if there is no change, ITAR is not a prohibition, just an onerous procedure for approval, which can be navigated by a dedicated, expert cadre. It is also possible that if policymakers are convinced that the success of larger ends is at stake, that special legislation (like the Counter Terrorism Technical Support Organisation7 ) or an executive order could streamline some types of technical interchange. An example exemption already exists for COMSAT.8

AT: Indo-China Mod


China perceives naval containment now
Kaplan 10
Robert Kaplan is a Senior fellow at the Center for a New American Security [The Geography of Chinese Power, Foreign Affairs] Thanks to this favorable situation on land, China is now free to work at building a great navy. Whereas coastal city-states and island nations pursue sea power as a matter of course, doing so is a luxury for historically insular continental powers such as China. In China's case, this might be a luxury that is fairly easy to acquire since the country is as blessed by its seaboard as by its continental interior. China dominates the East Asian coastline in the temperate and tropical zones of the Pacific, and its southern border is close enough to the Indian Ocean that it might one day be

That said, it faces a far more hostile environment at sea than it does on land. The Chinese navy sees little but trouble in what it calls the "first island chain": the Korean Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, Japan (including the Ryukyu Islands), Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Australia. All except for Australia are potential flashpoints. China is already embroiled in various disputes over parts of the energy-rich ocean beds of the East China Sea and the South China Sea: with Japan over the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands and with the Philippines and Vietnam over the Spratly Islands. Such disputes allow Beijing to stoke nationalism at home, but for Chinese naval strategists, this seascape is mostly grim. This first island chain is, in the words James Holmes and Toshi Yoshihara of the U.S. Naval War College, a kind of "Great Wall in reverse": a well-organized line of U.S. allies that serve as a sort of guard tower to monitor and possibly block China's access to the Pacific Ocean. China's answer to feeling so boxed in has been aggressive at times. Naval power is usually more benign than land power: navies cannot by themselves occupy vast areas and must do far more than fight -namely, protect commerce. Thus, one might have expected China to be as benevolent as other maritime nations before it -- Venice, Great Britain, the United States -- and to concern itself primarily, as those powers did, with preserving a peaceful maritime system, including the free movement of trade. But China is not so self-confident. Still an insecure sea power, it thinks about the ocean territorially: the very terms "first island chain" and "second island chain" (the second island chain includes the U.S. territories of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands) suggest that the Chinese see all these islands as archipelagic extensions of the Chinese landmass. In thinking in such a zero-sum fashion about their country's adjoining seas, China's naval leaders are displaying the
linked to it by roads and energy pipelines. In the twenty-first century, China will project hard power abroad primarily through its navy. aggressive philosophy of the turn-of-the-twentieth-century U.S. naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan, who argued for sea control and the decisive battle. But they do not yet have the blue-water force to apply it, and this discrepancy between aspirations and means has led to some awkward incidents over the past few years. In October 2006, a Chinese submarine stalked the USS Kitty Hawk and then surfaced within a torpedo's firing range of it. In November 2007, the Chinese denied the USSKitty Hawk carrier strike group entry into Victoria Harbor when it was seeking a respite from building seas and deteriorating weather. (But another carrier, the USS George Washington, did make the visit to Hong Kong in 2010.) In March 2009, a handful of PLA navy ships harassed the U.S. surveillance ship the USNSImpeccable while it was openly conducting operations outside China's 12-mile territorial limit in the South China Sea, blocking its way and pretending to ram it. These are the actions not of a great power but of a still immature one.

Fears of encirclement are overblown China knows US wouldnt jeopardize economic dependence
Rajan 09
(9/24/09, DS, director at the Chennai Centre for China Studies, China worried over US-India military cooperation, http://news.rediff.com/column/2009/sep/24/china-worried-over-us-india-military-cooperation.htm)

The fact that the party's top theoretical mouthpiece has found the article suitable for its publication is itself significant, notwithstanding the disclaimer given that the opinions do not reflect Qiu Shi's views and are those of the writer. The following are
important to note: The Qiu Shi article has mostly concentrated its attack on the US, accusing it of using India to restrict 'third countries'. The People's Republic of China was not specifically named, but the term 'third countries' may allude to China also. There has been no direct criticism of New Delhi in the write-up, indicating a cautious line towards India. A careful reader could however discern the underlying deep Chinese suspicions in the analysis over India's attitude vis-a-vis China. In 2007-08, the topic of US-India collusion as part of Washington's regional strategy, had prominently figured in Chinese media comments, particularly targetted against the 'Alliance of Democracies' concept, the India-US-Japan joint military exercise and the India-US civil nuclear cooperation agreement. After some lull, the theme appears to be surfacing again now, for example following the article in question, a People's Daily signed analysis (September 15) has charged that 'the US is tipping the balance between China and India, wooing India away from Russia [ Images ] and China and feeding India's ambition to match China force for force by its ever burgeoning arms sales to India'. More such comments may follow. A probable explanation to the Chinese media's harping again on the topic can be that

despite a visible improvement in China's ties with the US and India in a contemporary sense, fears in strategic terms, to be more precise on containment of China by the US with the help of allies like Japan [ Images ] and a partner like India, seems to continue unabated in China. The

Chinese media pronouncements can be understood better, if a close look is given at China's relations with the US as well as India in the framework of two contexts -- contemporary and strategic. Regarding the first, it can be noticed that the character of Washington-Beijing ties
same appears to be getting reflected in some of the current media comments in China. has undoubtedly changed now especially due to the former's financial dependence on China, brought out by the global crisis; symbolising the same are activation of mechanisms like bilateral strategic and economic dialogues and a softening of US posture towards China on key irritants, for example the US now considers that issues like the economy and climate change will take precedence over points of friction like human rights and

China is making suitable responses, for example it has expressed its willingness 'to work with the United States from a strategic and long-term perspective, to enhance dialogue and exchanges, build up mutual trust and cooperation, respect and accommodate each other's core interests and properly handle differences and sensitive issues' (Hu Jintao-Obama talks, London, April 1). Positive changes have occurred in SinoTibet. On its part,

Indian relations also; the two nations are now looking at the same beyond the border dispute, recognising the global character of their ties and witnessing a big momentum in economic and trade links. On the other hand, the corresponding picture from a strategic point of view remains complex and less promising. China continues
to be wary of US intentions in the Asia-Pacific region including in South Asia; demonstrating the same are the authoritative Chinese statements, for example, Beijing's latest Defence White Paper has described the 'increasing US military presence in Asia-Pacific' as China's 'security concern'. On emerging US-India ties, Beijing may have been irked by the assertion made by US Defence Secretary Robert Gates at a conclave in Singapore that there is a genuine convergence of US-India interests and that his country would look towards India as a partner for providing security in the Indian Ocean and beyond.

The Qiu Shi article appears to be more categorical than other Chinese media comments in conveying a message: The US-India 'unified strategy' on all major regional issues is possible and that may change the strategic situation in South Asia. This shifts the focus on indications to China's possible counter moves in the future. Mention of India's ambition to maintain its hegemony over the Indian Ocean and South Asia no doubt has precedence . However, the fact that the party journal has carried the same necessitates an examination of it from the point of view of policy perspectives emerging in China to deal with such ambition. Overall, Chinese media comments had been saying that India, as a sovereign nation with a nationalistic population, will not succumb to American pressures on it to join the US camp against China and instead will continue its friendship with China; but such views do not find a place in the write-up of the party organ. Is it an inadvertent omission or indications of China's doubts on this
account?

AT: Rising Expectations


We control uniqueness expectations are high now and it will collapse relations in the status quo without consultation
Perkovich 10 (11/4/10, George, vice president for studies and director of the nonproliferation program at the Carnegie Endowment for International
Peace, Obama in India, http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=41876)

There are unrealistic expectations. U.S.-India relations were on a positive trajectory from the middle part of the Clinton administration onwardand this was a very good thing. The success of American Presidents Clinton, Bush, and Obama and Indian Prime Ministers Rao, Vajpayee, and Singh basically helped the two countries on a positive trajectory. And then what happened in the Bush administration with the U.S.-India nuclear deal was that the positive trajectory spikedit was like injecting amphetamines into a runner. So, it spiked up and that was seen as a good thing. And it was seen as a good thing in India, but inevitably it came back down to the normal trend line, which is positive. But as it comes down from the spike there are people in India and the United States who say the relationship is falling, Obama hasnt paid enough attention to it, and so on. Speed in which relations turned make high expectations non-unique
Shukla 09 Ajai Shukla: retired officer of the Indian Army, and one of the best known Defence Correspondents in India
India's unrealistic expectations Ajai Shukla / New Delhi December 1, 2009, 0:24 IST

The improbable speed with which Washington has warmed to New Delhi has created unrealistic expectations. In 1971, President Nixon and Henry Kissinger were describing Indians as bastards and aggressive goddam people; and referring to Indira Gandhi as an old witch and a bitch in turn. That said as much about Nixon and Kissinger as about US-India relations but, still, it was only a decade ago that India faced full-frontal sanctions from Washington after the nuclear tests of 1998. In less than a decade that relationship has flowered, yielding a defence framework agreement in 2005 and the civil nuclear agreement last year.

AT: Delay
No delayFramework for cooperation already exists
Hindustan Times 8 (February 3, 2008 India and NASA sign agreement for future cooperation in space exploration lexis)

(ISRO) and NASA have signed a framework agreement establishing the terms for future cooperation between the two agencies in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes. The agreement was signed on February 1, 2008, at the Kennedy Space Center's visitor complex by NASA Administrator Michael Griffin and ISRO Chairman G. Madhavan Nair. According to the framework agreement, the two agencies will identify areas of mutual interest and seek to develop cooperative programs or projects in Earth and space science, exploration, human space flight and other activities. "I am honored to sign this agreement with the India Space Research Organization. This agreement will allow us to cooperate effectively on a wide range of programs of mutual interest," said Griffin. "India has extensive space-related experience, capabilities and infrastructure, and will continue to be a welcome partner in NASA's future space exploration activities," he added. The agreement replaces a soon-to-expire agreement
Indian Space Research Organization signed on Dec. 16, 1997, which fostered bilateral cooperation in the areas of Earth and atmospheric sciences. In addition to a long history of cooperation in Earth science, NASA and the Indian Space Research Organization also are cooperating on India's first, mission to the moon, Chandrayaan-1, which will be launched later this year.

No delayPast negotiations prove


PTI 9Press
Trust of India Newspaper (May 23, 2009 N-deal: India seeks speedy negotiations with US http://www.businessstandard.com/india/news/n-deal-india-seeks-speedy-negotiationsus/20/23/358946/)

India today sought speedy negotiations of reprocessing arrangements, as well as liberalisation of the export licensing procedures, to move forward the Indo-US civilian nuclear deal. This deal is very high on our priority. We are conscious of the fact that it was the US government which did the heavy hitting, if I may use a cricketing metaphor to get this deal through, said Indias new Ambassador to US Meera Shankar said, stating that India was committed to move forward on the deal. We would very much like to move forward in a concrete way with agreements for building nuclear reactors with US assistance in India, Shankar said at a reception hosted in her honour by the US-India Business Council (USIBC). This was her maiden public engagement after presenting her credentials to President Barack Obama yesterday. We are looking at the speedy negotiations of reprocessing arrangements to facilitate this process, said Shankar, acknowledging the presence of
leaders of the US nuclear industry who are anxious to convert the nuclear deal into business agreements. Both sides have agreed to commence this process and have identified their nodal points. So we

expect to pursue this very expeditiously, she added.

No delaymore cooperation means less delay


Nadu 11Tamil,
writer for The Hindu, Indias national paper (Jan 28, 2011 NASA, ISRO collaboration, a positive sign in space research http://www.hindu.com/2011/01/28/stories/2011012862940600.htm) RAMANATHAPURAM: Ethiraj Venkatapathy, Chief Technologist, Space Technology Division, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NASA's intended joint collaboration with Indian Space Research Organisation and the Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO) was a positive sign in space research. While
(NASA) said here on Thursday that the delivering a lecture at Syed Ammal Engineering College here on Thursday, he said as a senior scientist of NASA, he was happy to know the

the Unites States for intensive cooperation with ISRO for fostering space research. It would facilitate the agencies to remove or reduce restrictions on sharing data or undertaking joint research.
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