GLOBAL JOURNALISM EDUCATION A conceptual approach

Mark Deuze

Journalism is a more or less autonomous field of study across the globe, yet the education and training of journalists is a subject much debated */but only rarely researched. This paper maps some of the salient issues when studying the structure and culture of a journalism education program to identify the key debates facing programs around the world when structuring, rethinking, and building institutions, schools, or departments of journalism where a combination of practical and contextual training is the prime focus. As a point of departure it is assumed that although media systems and journalistic cultures may differ widely, the changes and challenges facing journalism education around the world are largely similar, and thus would benefit from a ‘‘global’’ approach. The key literature and findings from journalism education studies in different parts of the world is thus conceptually synthesized into 10 categories, starting with philosophical notions of motivation and mission, ending with more ‘‘down-to-earth’’ concepts like curriculum and pedagogy. Each category is discussed in terms of the challenges, debates and tensions as educators and trainers in different parts of the world have signaled these. KEYWORDS international journalism; journalism education; journalism studies; journalism theory; journalism training

Introduction
Journalism is a more or less autonomous field of study across the globe, as exemplified by the (sometimes recent) appearance of dedicated scholarly national and international journals, annual international scientific conferences with dedicated panels, sessions and interest groups, and the emergence of a respectable body of theoretical and empirical literature particular to the field (Berkowitz, 1997; Loffelholz, 2004; Merrill, 2000; ¨ Shoemaker and Reese, 1996; Tumber, 1999; Zelizer, 2004). Yet while this rather selfcongratulatory conclusion may be true, one cannot help but notice that the education and training of journalists is a subject much debated */but only rarely researched. Scholars from different parts of the world lament this, calling for studies on schools of journalism, on the determinants of journalism education, on the distinctions and similarities between industry training and professional education, and on the relationships between education, profession and society (Altmeppen and Homberg, 2002; Cottle, 2000; Morgan, 2003; Reese ¨ and Cohen, 2000). This is not to say that there is little or no journalism education literature; on the contrary, academic bookshelves and peer-reviewed journals feature the work of numerous writers on the subject. The problem with this body of literature according to Becker (2003) is that it tends to be either too normative, or that it remains overtly descriptive. Indeed, most of the journalism education literature tends to be very specific */ featuring case studies of what works or does not work in a particular curriculum, course or classroom */or wildly generic */where often senior scholars offer more or less historicized accounts of their lifelong experiences in ‘‘doing’’ journalism education. Regarding industry Journalism Studies, Vol. 7, No 1, 2006
ISSN 1461-670X print/1469-9699 online/06/010019-16 – 2006 Taylor & Francis DOI: 10.1080/14616700500450293

. If anything. which get particular meanings in situated contexts. Germany and the Netherlands. 2000). if not all areas around the world regarding journalism education. Global in the context of this essay means the lateral links one can identify across (real and perceived) national and cultural boundaries. the changes and challenges facing journalism education around the world are largely similar. p. Ogundimu. 2) on international journalism training: ‘‘[i]ndeed. pp. and thus would benefit from a ‘‘global’’ approach (see also Gaunt. In South America: research and training programs for the entire region initiated by the Ciespal Institute in Quito. overviews of education and training initiatives in particular countries tend just to mention or list these kinds of training programs initiated and paid for by news media organizations themselves (see e. Bierhoff et al. In the Asia-Pacific region: various collaborations of schools. The Netherlands (see Bierhoff and Schmidt. I follow the conclusions of previous cross-national work in the field such as offered by Gaunt (1992). 2001. In this paper. In Africa: audits. I therefore intend to conceptually synthesize some of the key literature and findings from journalism education studies in different parts of the world as these sheds light on common challenges and initiatives. 2000). Especially in recent years. Regarding the feasibility of a global approach to conceptualizing journalism education. 1997. Herbert (2000) in the United Kingdom. as well as overviews offered by media professionals in the field (Lowe Morna and Khan. coupled with emerging undergraduate and graduate international collaborative programs in ‘‘Eurojournalism’’ by schools and universities in Wales. Scholars in different parts of the world. Worldwide: the UNESCO initiative Journet. Bierhoff et al. Denmark.20 MARK DEUZE training. Ecuador. all of whom signal an ever-increasing international formalization and standardization as a fundamental feature of developments in journalism education worldwide */if not particularly in the Western world. de Beer (1995) in South Africa. Bierhoff and Schmidt (1997). though. As argued in the seminal work of Gaunt (1992. whatever the geographic . . 1992). these publications suggest that although media systems and journalistic cultures may differ widely. several efforts have been made to professionalize the scholarship of journalism education (Reese and Cohen. 2000.. Specific examples of international collaborative projects in assessing the wants and needs of a changing journalism training and education environment are: . reports and programs by the Southern Africa Media Training Trust and the Media Institute of Southern Africa. the literature does not offer many answers. 2000). . such as Morgan (2000)Morgan (2003) in Australia. see in particular Putnis and Axford. Frohlich and Holtz-Bacha (2003. Such conclusions are too easy. a self-proclaimed global network for professional education in journalism and the media. . 317 Á/8) ¨ suggest an emerging consensus on homogeneous standards as a key trend in their comparison of journalism education in Europe and the United States. media institutions and universities in the region including partners in Europe and the United States (scholarly summarized and analyzed by Loo and Lau.. and by Frohlich and Holtz-Bacha ¨ (2003). Indeed. In Europe: the various publications and programs on journalism training of the European Journalism Centre in Maastricht. and Dickson (2000) in the United States published works to this effect. 2002). for Australia. 1990).g. Weischenberg (2001) in Germany. What becomes clear when considering these various projects and programs is an amazing similarity of problems identified as topics of structural debate in most.

journalism educators and media professionals have had to come to terms with the same problems’’. ¨ Canadian educator Raudsepp (1989. 2005. such a conclusion seems overtly ambitious at best. and by an increasingly fragmented and seemingly disinterested public (see e. barely. Such Platonic ideas of either the profession of journalism or the ‘‘nature’’ of the university obscure the more complex and continuous character of the relationship between thinking and doing. and mirrored in Europe by Stephenson (1997. 1).GLOBAL JOURNALISM EDUCATION 21 area or sociopolitical context. as Starck (2000) explains. p. it feels itself unloved by the industry and tolerated. What underlies this global debate is the consensus among practitioners that the status quo in the industry is the ideal one. Another point of consensus among key scholars in the field of journalism studies seems to be that the question what journalism is (or should) be has become increasingly important in a media ecology best characterized by technological and cultural convergence. 4). theory and practice. On the other hand. but rather reinforced traditional notions of journalism and journalism education as necessary. Looking at the slowly but surely disappearing audiences for mainstream news media as well as the corresponding impact of disintermediation all across the globe. Zelizer. has ended up as neither fish nor fowl. university administrators and faculty also tend to feel there is only one way of doing things */the academic way. this debate was reignited in 2002 when the president of Columbia University in New York halted the search for a new dean for the journalism school. The resulting (inter-) national debate and report published by a specially appointed taskforce did not seem to resolve key questions. Before I move on to conceptually integrate the literature. 23): ‘‘the relationship between the world of academe and the world of journalism is not a bed of roses’’. 2000). p. voiced in similar terms for South Africa by de Beer (1995). p. p. these binary oppositions function extremely well to dig fictitious trenches to separate the social systems of journalism and the academe. 1996. and declared the journalism curriculum ‘‘insufficient’’ (Kunkel. for example. by the academy’’. and dangerously naıve at worst. 2003. In the United States. Gaunt (1992. Pragmatically speaking. Romano. a recurring and most fundamental discussion regarding global journalism education has to be resolved: the worldwide debate whether journalism education should exist at all .g. journalism within the context of professional education and industry training means the preparation of students for a career working in news media organizations and studying the work of those people editorially responsible for different types of storytelling in a wide range of news media (following Weaver and Wilhoit. 2003. . which argument can be heard throughout journalism’s history in. . a sentiment echoed for the Asia-Pacific region by Loo and Lau (2000. for example. which leads them to question the intellectual validity of adding vocational training to an otherwise largely ‘‘theoretical’’ program of study. 3) summed up the debate over time quite clearly: ‘‘journalism education . reflection and action. For the purposes of this paper this important debate needs to be addressed on its own. globalization and localization. crucial. the United States. p. hence newcomers only need to internalize what their senior peers already do. Dennis (1988. . p. and even having ‘‘an ascending importance in the modern world’’ (Bollinger. perhaps even before a school or program in journalism studies and education takes shape. de Beer and Merrill. 2004. 124) also considers the ‘‘deeply entrenched antagonism between ‘‘professionals’’ (empıricos) and college graduates ´ (universitarios)’’ a significant feature of journalism training in Latin America and the Caribbean. p. 2003). 4) called the debate between profession and education ‘‘a dialogue of the deaf’’. 3). Deuze.

must negotiate rather essentialist self-perceptions of both industry and academy. and other private or government institutions (Eastern Europe. and programs of. Argentina. special programs and initiatives deployed. All of the above. journalism education also leads to the inevitable conclusion that all over the world journalism education is proliferating and differentiating. Denmark. At the same time */not in the least because of the trends as outlined above */journalism education everywhere is increasingly facing the same issues. Turkey. India. Great Britain and Australia started this way. publishers. However. while at the same time finding ways to navigate the inconsistencies of its own field (e. one can define five distinct types of journalism ¨ education worldwide: 1. increasingly in Great Britain and Australia. Germany. having to defend their curriculum. Training at schools and institutes generally located at universities (see e. as choosing to lean towards either side */an unwinnable strategy yet commonly advocated */does not resolve the debate.22 MARK DEUZE So journalism educators and scholars face similar struggles all over the world. Using the cross-national comparative work of Gaunt (1992) and Frohlich and Holtz-Bacha (2003). resist this model on the grounds that it has neo-colonial features. negotiating a tradition in both the humanities and the social sciences). Japan.g. in other words. A worldwide comparison of contemporary approaches to. the Middle East). methods and theories against industry-wide shared notions that the academy is not the place to teach students how to get a job in the media. China. the literature does suggest most if not all systems of journalism education are moving towards the first or second model. particularly in Africa and Latin America. and it has been revisited regularly ever since. for example through apprenticeship systems (Austria. The importance of this debate is that it is structural: it can be found in the earliest works on journalism education and training in the beginning of the 20th century. United States. Kenya. 4. 3. Nigeria. Egypt. 5.g. the Gulf States. as this is a typical feature of the Anglo-Saxon model). this is neither an inevitable nor necessarily linear development. Mixed systems of stand-alone and university-level training (France. Finland. making local programs increasingly dependent on global Western ideas and economies). Indonesia. Spain. schools are started. new institutions or foundations erected. South Korea. and that journalism is not the place to thoroughly reflect on the roles and functions of news media in society. indicating increasing levels of professionalization. Primarily on-the-job training by the media industry. The world of journalism education is becoming increasingly complex. Cuba. this is becoming the dominant mode of training journaliststo-be worldwide. Brazil. It can be resolved by dissolving the perceived dichotomy between theory and practice. 2. Although one should not reduce regional and local complexities too much. formalization and standardization worldwide. Journalism education. North and Central Africa. some educators. Journalism education at stand-alone schools (Netherlands. Research on journalism (education) therefore needs to conceptually address this dilemma. South Africa). and my argument should not be construed as a claim to singularity or . Italy). Canada. and particularly including commercial programs at universities as well as in-house training by media companies. trade unions. Yet this adds a level of complexity to our understanding of journalism (and its education) that most likely would lead people in the field to protest. as it undermines entrenched perceptions of the different functions and thus legitimacy of both professional journalism and institutional learning in society.

. Curriculum : how is the balance between practical and contextual knowledge resolved? 9. journalism education everywhere traditionally covers practical skills training. and the trade literature especially revisits the legitimacy issue on a regular basis (category 3). I have organized the literature */ consisting of scholarly research publications. 2002). 2. Contextualization : in what social context is journalism education grounded? 7. It comes as no surprise that my main conclusion on all of the issues mentioned will consist of a call to arms for more intensive. starting with philosophical notions of motivation and mission. Direction : what are the ideal characteristics of those graduating? 6. The sketched trend towards differentiated and specialized teaching is not unique to journalism education. as systems of higher education worldwide are expanding rapidly. curricula or even disciplines (Daun. or departments of journalism where a combination of practical and contextual training is the prime focus. and building institutions. innovating and further developing existing programs. Kees. on the one hand. 3. or functions of journalism in society)? 5. whereas decisions made on every level function to enable or limit options in the next phase of structuring a program on journalism education research. 2000. rigorous and cross-cultural (next to cross-national) research on journalism education using the considerations and steps as outlined here as a guide (Hanitzsch. and I consider the decisions made within every category as having a ‘‘domino-effect’’ across the whole spectrum of possible choices. schools. I move on to identify the key debates facing programs around the world when structuring.GLOBAL JOURNALISM EDUCATION 23 universality as an inescapable byproduct of globalization. rethinking. Education : is journalism education a socializing or an individualizing agent? 8. Using these points of reference for my map. on the other hand. Although the specific needs and demands of the media system differ from region to region and are largely determined by (and are a reflection of) the particular culture and foundation in law and history. 2005). national and regional audits and reports */into 10 categories. One also has to note that industry training exists in most if not all countries. 2002). trade journals. and why? 10. Management and Organization : how is journalism education organized? 1. and general contextual education and liberal arts courses. genres.2 The identified analytical categories can be conceptualized as 10 fundamental questions: Motivation : why journalism education? Paradigm : what (set of) ideas guide journalism education? `-vis the profession and its Mission : what is the position of journalism education vis-a publics? 4. the delicate balance between practical and contextual knowledge has always been the main area of attention within journalism programs worldwide. ending with more ‘‘down-to-earth’’ concepts like curriculum and pedagogy. adding all kinds of new courses. Method : what is the structural or preferred pedagogy.1 This conceptual organization is based on the assumption that each step or debate flows from the previous one. even though investment in newsroom training tends to suffer most in times of economic downturn for the news (Bierhoff et al. Whatever its shape or size. Orientation : on what aspect (or aspects) of journalism is the education based (such as: the media. Let me repeat that each of these issues is a significant area of research and debate.. Most scholarly work tends to focus almost exclusively on issues related to curricular matters (category 8).

24 MARK DEUZE Motivation The relevance of journalism education ties in with the ongoing professionalization of journalism (and the discipline of journalism studies). there may be a market for all these graduates when a whole cluster of reporters reaches (early) retirement age between 2005 and 2010. department or institute for journalism education. Journalism is generally considered to be contributing significantly to the functioning and well-being of society. Paradigm The motivation for journalism education is at least partly based on its function as the backbone for the journalistic profession. development and application of quality assessment tools for journalistic practices. college graduates are the vast majority (Deuze. Although many educators insist such lofty ideals are part of their motivation. or does it serve to educate ‘‘super’’ citizens? A focus on the first choice reduces teaching and training to helping young women and men internalize the occupational ideology and practices of journalism. and reflection. 2002). Shifting the paradigm to the second option. these academic institutions cleverly answer the demand of the market for critical-reflective and broadly educated newcomers */who also possess some basic . This is not necessarily a debate between practice versus theory. only rarely are such ideals made explicit. In countries where journalism education traditionally was almost exclusively offered on a vocational basis (see categories 2 and 3 above). debate. A critical perspective on (news) media can be a hands-on program largely based on excessive media use. an increasing number of universities now offer MA. Considering the growth of higher education. accessible for those students with an (under-) graduate degree in another field. and does not seem to inspire much more beyond that. In doing so. p. Weaver (1998. Some kind of training in journalism */coupled with contextual courses */at the university level is offered by a wide range of departments and disciplinary traditions. As the average age of journalists in most Western countries is rising steadily. praxis. expand. preparing students to graduate as extremely well-informed citizens */and thus practitioners every employer would love to have. These two fundamental arguments are reflected in the paradigmatic debate on journalism education: does such a program or curriculum prepare journalists for future employment. or innovate a program in journalism education becomes pertinent again. 459) indicates that roughly 40 percent of journalists in 21 countries (from all corners of the earth) have a college degree in journalism. put up for critical reflection or debate. preparing people for immediate employment is a distinctly theoretical exercise as the status quo of the media industry must be gauged and analyzed constantly. the motivation to start. as more and more journalists enter the profession via a school. the social sciences up to computer science and library studies. after all: journalism research and education can (or should) help to build and sustain the professional self-organization of journalism. The discussion could therefore be more focused on conceptual arguments for a well-rounded program in journalism. and contribute to the establishment.and even PhD-level programs in journalism. instilling historical awareness as well as future perspectives in the mode of instruction. Such an economic argument does seem a bit limited as a motivation for journalism education. the industry is continuously looked at with a critical eye. varying from the humanities. A closer look reveals that among those journalists younger than 30 years.

its history of professionalization. magazines . Several authors have suggested other orientations for journalism education. criticism. and social (multiculturalism and globalization) changes to the existing worldwide media ecology into consideration. Even if most of the literature on journalism education acknowledges these forces of change and their potential impact on the curriculum. and the ‘‘innovator’’ mode. and domains of the media. portal sites or magazines dedicated to a narrowly defined target audience as profiled by a market research company or advertising agency. On the other hand. Such developments do not necessarily change the role of journalism in society. economical (commercialization and corporatization). human interest versus investigative reportage. media workers who understand how . To this one can add a convergence of media formats. One could argue that a more differentiated mission might prepare students for an increasingly complex future. and its privileged role in democratic society. but not why . opinion. If anything. There is much to say for each of these orientations. specialized (and often short-lived) niche media are put on the market at a bewildering pace. preparing students for a changing future rather than a static present. and so on. media types. attempting to offer the quickly vanishing concept of the ‘‘mass’’ audience a little bit of everything. p. Orientation Journalism students generally are trained in sequences. if one takes the combined technological (digitalization and convergence). designs and production styles: newspapers look like television screens (USA Today ) or magazines (opting for the tabloid-format). most if not all of the (news) media around the world are developing along two different but related lines: fragmentation and generalization. most of the existing mainstream media brands are increasingly similar in content and format. where the mission of the school or program centers on training as a reflection of the actual wants and needs of the profession. Mission Several authors identified two distinctly different positions for journalism education in society: the ‘‘follower’’ mode. Journalism education tends to be based on a classical model of the profession. domains and types of journalism */‘‘hard’’ versus ‘‘soft’’ news. while ignoring the ongoing hybridization and convergence of such genres. the question of core mission or mandate tends not be addressed in any analytical detail. but all of them suffer from the same problem: they tend to reify and essentialize the existing ideas. magazine. This is only true if one embraces a strictly instrumental definition of journalism */an approach that tends to reduce journalists to ‘‘button-pushers’’. Examples are new radio and television stations. but most definitely make the work of journalists more complex. values and practices within the constructed sequence. radio. On the one hand. the beat system. Key here is a reflection on the specific role and mandate of journalism education in today’s rapidly converging and globalizing news media market. Internet */each have distinctly different journalisms. for example sequencing the program out along functions of news */information. entertainment */or genres. newspaper. Bierhoff and Schmidt (1997.GLOBAL JOURNALISM EDUCATION 25 journalistic skills. based on the premise that different media */television. where journalism training is seen as a development laboratory. defined by its occupation ideology. 6) conclude their analysis of these two positions as: ‘‘the media industry often says it wants the latter but expects the first’’.

Direction Management philosopher Charles Handy (1995) suggests the direction of education and training should move towards the preparation of students for a ‘‘portfolio worklife’’. lifestyle economy). a medium (print. Issues common to journalism education on a global level. or even a genre (information.26 MARK DEUZE look like television (Stern ). This debate needs specification: a practitioner may be specialized in a ‘‘hot’’ topic (such as foreign policy. Again. Contextualization A discussion on issues facing journalism education is not so much a debate on curricular matters */what to teach */or pedagogical matters */how to teach. This understanding is based on the assumption that journalism cannot exist independent of community . whereas the quality of their work is defined by the diversity and richness of their collection of skills and achievements. the graduating student is more likely to be a good newspaper or television reporter (as radio and Internet generally are underserved sequences). online). This pattern of career-building and employment is typical for information professionals. departments and media more in five years than their senior colleagues have done in 20 years (Deuze. rather than a news worker who has the skills. should include an analysis and discussion of how the various ways to organize the training of journalists can be interconnected with developments in society at large. electronic. movie celebrity. infotainment. Deuze ¨ (2004) and Zelizer (2004) for example */clearly suggests one orientation: a renewed focus on the perceived ‘‘core’’ of journalism. and Internet looks like everything else (MSNBC ). delegating the particulars of all possible sequences to the background. orientation and direction of the school or program in question. How to reorient journalism education in order to address to these developments? The emergence of studies and books offering fundamental overviews and analyses on what the definitions and meanings of journalism and news are */see Loffelholz (2004). Research in journalism education should identify different ways to translate global trends in the industry to local particulars */such as the mission. Industry mergers. it is a profession . and indeed is already visible among the most recent newcomers in journalism around the world: they switch between newsrooms. from industry to industry. the range of answers to these questions should be considered in the context of the previous issues: if the orientation of a school of journalism is the medium. knowledge and reflective attitude necessary to survive in today’s converging media market. 2002). This brings new life to the debate whether a school or program of journalism education should train specialists or generalists. for example. television looks like the World Wide Web (CNN Headline News ). marketing and advertising staff). company crossownership and the liberalization of the media market amplify and accelerate these trends. entertainment). Yet someone who knows a little bit of everything while not being particularly skilled in any medium may find it equally hard to find employment */as most media organizations seem to be looking for an excellent person in one medium who understands and can work together with colleagues from other parts of the company (including but not limited to editorial. arguing that contemporary professionals do not build a career within one organization nor by doing one thing really well */they switch regularly from employer to employer.

Blobaum (2000) in Germany. with possible themes like computer-assisted reporting. p. Contextualizing journalism education can go into many different directions. 25ff) calls ‘‘radical online journalism’’. preferably supported by the media industry. The latter view continues the role of education as a socializing agent from secondary into tertiary education. Education Paraphrasing Rorty (1999 [1989]. Digitalization of media is another possible context. 2000). featuring themes such as social and cultural complexity. In journalism education. Delegating such contexts to elective coursework or ignoring them altogether may not be a feasible strategy if one’s goal is to adequately prepare the student for a professional role in contemporary society. Just as the news organization cannot maintain itself completely distanced or independent from society. strong arguments have been made in the United Kingdom by Herbert (2000) or in the United States by Medsger (1996) for a more professional and vocational focus on journalism education. 2001). and so on (Deuze. Next to globalization. multimedia news production. Freedom in this context means self-creation through a cultivating of imagination. inclusivity and diversity awareness. advocating the training of ‘‘reflective practitioners’’ and an integration of theory and practice in the journalism curriculum.g. p. 2005). doubt and critical self-reflection. 117). rather than a social system located in and managed by corporate media (see e. tactical media use. Finally. championing editorial autonomy. education refers to two entirely distinct. a school of journalism also has to define ways to culturally and thematically contextualize its program. Deuze (2001) in the Netherlands.GLOBAL JOURNALISM EDUCATION 27 interacting with society in many */and not wholly unproblematic */ways. The particulars of such a mix are of key concern here: where does the socialization into media sequences (each with their own historically grown and carefully . a focus on the ongoing corporate colonization of newsrooms opens up curricular possibilities for issues like infotainment. whereas the first sees teaching as a way to help students to develop their own voice in the field */much in line with philosophical notions of journalism as an act of individual freedom and responsibility. that ‘‘objectivity’’ (or some version thereof) is a value typical of American journalists (Brennen. have made similar claims in the past. the work of Merrill on existential journalism). authors as diverse as Glasser (1992) and Reese and Cohen (2000) in the United States. one could also think of the multicultural society. the constraints of the consensual knowledge of the day have to be imposed. Rorty argues. On the other hand. Students would be confronted in all matters by the cross-cultural or transnational nature of what they are learning. Before students can be educated for freedom. The occupational ideology of journalism is indeed largely similar across the globe */ with journalists easily agreeing on shared values like working fast on deadline. and Rhoodie (1995) in South ¨ Africa. desktop publishing. a meaningful context for all courses and pedagogies could be the global Á/local nexus. including but not limited to a distinctly international teaching agenda. In light of the developments in cross-national journalism education as sketched above. and equally necessary processes: socialization and individualization. Ultimately. being ethical. and should therefore be seen as influencing and operating under the influence of what happens in society (Kovach and Rosenstiel. and what Atton (2004. tabloid journalism. A specific example is the rather questionable idea embedded in all US journalism textbooks. and the commodification of news. Rorty calls on colleges to offer a blend of specialized vocational training and provocation to selfcreation.

writing. effectively argue that newsgathering is meaningless without putting the ‘‘facts’’ in a more or less coherent or at least thematic context. Muller (1999. But many question this seemingly clear-cut distinction. Curriculum research. but also social-scientific research methods. and editing). conventions. Carr argues. 133ff) identifies three core issues in the debate about curriculum: purpose. The first domain consists of instrumental skills (such as reporting. idea(l)s. walks a fine line between identifying ‘‘which potentially objective kinds or forms of knowledge and understanding are appropriate for inclusion’’. Curriculum Most of the literature on journalism education starts at the curriculum. Vermittlungs-Kompetenz . Another approach is the more progressive ideal of allowing students to chart their own path through the curriculum. This also means that there are plenty of tools available for conceptualizing and theorizing the journalism curriculum. All over the world. including an emphasis on doing coursework outside of journalism. and does the individualization of the ‘‘free minds’’ that journalists are supposed to be (in their self-image and shared definitions of legitimacy) begin? It could be argued that much of the decision-making on such issues is determined by cultural and historical factors */and thus should become a prime venue of careful and considered journalism education research. and knowledge about journalism: media economy. in terms of their role perceptions). and practices. As mentioned earlier. Kovach and Rosenstiel (2001). political science. the literature generally takes issue with teaching as a way to coherently build up knowledge about a subject. particularly on the way journalists see themselves (e. formulas. Weischenberg (2001) offers one of the most complex and articulate approaches to what he calls the ideal-typical journalistic competence. Carr (2003. In the second domain the student learns articulation skills: how to present information and news (genres. pp. law. form. Morgan (2000) rephrases this dichotomy as a combination of procedural and propositional knowledge plus a professional capability to enact this knowledge. 19 Á/20) argues that an emphasis on ¨ either domain or element thereof in a journalism education program. educators and media practitioners thus conveniently ignore the forces and decisions that defined the parameters within which any discussion of curricular matters takes place. thereby solving the problem of drawing boundaries between two interconnected sets of values.g.28 MARK DEUZE cultivated formulas and legends) stop. p. and content. a second debate can be identified on the uses and merits of . if only because of the impossibility to articulate where ‘‘context’’ stops and ‘‘practice’’ begins. historical and geographical factors that determine educational value for the particular social constituency involved. Regarding the form of the curriculum. defining three particular domains: Fach-Kompetenz . further augmented by changes in the media and in the way society communicates through media. and Sach-Kompetenz . and taking into consideration the cultural. To this mix Weischenberg adds what he describes as ‘‘Nachdenken uber journalistisches Handeln ’’: reflection on role ¨ and function of journalism in society. and history. design. financial economy. Many scholars. the curriculum includes elective and required courses on a variety of special topics like sociology. most of the literature draws a clear line between practical and contextual knowledge. as reflected by moving groups of students through increasingly advanced courses featuring roughly similar topics and skills. for example. and so on). Thirdly. can have an immediate impact on the profession.

or ‘‘learning by doing’’: stimulating or even requiring students to take internships and apprenticeships in mainstream news media organizations. but are based on the choices made within the other categories as identified here. One important discussion involves tensions between advocates of standardized methods (including testing. What this exactly means. Management and Organization Because of the delicate balance between practical and contextual knowledge offered in journalism education worldwide. and pedagogy). and those implicated by a choice for either formal standardization across cultures and media (a development typical to current trends in European journalism education according to Frohlich and Holtz-Bacha). and engaging them in the production of campus media (maintaining a newspaper. decisions regarding the curriculum also bear on the conceptualization of journalism education in terms of evaluative assessments of the students’ process and performance. several countries */particularly in the European Union and southern Africa */are moving towards some kind of standardization of requirements for undergraduate and graduate programs in journalism education. or ¨ course-by-course or even individual case-by-case assessments. However. the academe (where learning goals and objectives must be identified). radio and television broadcasts intended for students. is quite unclear */ which I do see as a direct result from a lack of rigorous scholarship in the field of (international) journalism education and training. coursework. Finally. Following the American model as established and regularly updated by the Accrediting Council for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (ACEJMC). for example. each school and program tends to combine different methods of teaching. The newly established Flemish-Dutch accreditation council (starting formal operations in 2005). for others it is a costly waste of faculty time and resources. For Blobaum ¨ (2000) the in-house production of campus media is the ideal meeting place for theory and praxis. Standards have to be matched by those maintained in the industry (which are never exactly the same). beyond the formal ACEJMC guidelines there does not seem to be a consensus (yet) on what exactly such standards would be. website. faculty and staff). Nelson and Watt (1999) also remind us of the role particular personalities and institutional policies play in the decision-making process in higher education */a perfectly good plan on paper may mean something entirely different in everyday practice when applied by educators who are either friends or enemies of the initiators involved. as well as limited (or: enabled) by the evaluations and considerations made earlier in the school’s history. Considering the contemporary blend of commodification (and thus massification) of higher education. Method. how this can or should be established or how this could or should be based on the above-mentioned other key elements of building a coherent program for journalism education. taking time and money away from teaching and research. merely mentions comparability with international programs and a curriculum clearly addressing the current and (near) future wants and needs of the industry as two key criteria for accrediting existing and new programs.GLOBAL JOURNALISM EDUCATION 29 experiential education. debates on pedagogical matters in journalism education seem to get more attention. and those who emphasize a culture of learning rather than teaching (emphasizing the importance of . To this can be added that decisions about the content of a curriculum are never value-neutral. proliferation of schools and the professionalization of the discipline.

2001. trying to keep up with industry and academy. 1994. an in-depth study of journalism education must interrogate the profound consequences this has */in terms of opportunities as well as threats.. models and theories accordingly. As enrolment in journalism programs continues to rise and the number of schools is growing. surveys. Bierhoff et al. This strand of research should primarily be informed by one key assumption: journalism is not and never should be disconnected from (the idea of) community */which concretely means that any conceptualization of journalism must always be framed in terms of journalism and society. Westerheijden et al. a study of ‘‘just’’ the curriculum or ‘‘just’’ the mission of a school or program would . First. we should critically investigate the consequences this has. exposure to much more than just the consensual knowledge of the day). p. as systems of mass education tend to promote a product-oriented teaching culture instead of a process-focused learning culture. a picture of globalized education emerges that begs research. historical document research */to empirically document the impact of the different choices available within and between the distinct categories as outlined in this paper. Hence.30 MARK DEUZE individual expression. (2000) concluded that educators in different countries need to engage in a dialogue */with each other as well as the industry. 22). so if we structure learning with a focus on product rather than process. scholars both inside and outside of the field of journalism studies have to re-ignite ‘‘old’’ debates about what journalism is and should be. on student output rather than input. Several studies show how a shift towards a ‘‘converged’’ curriculum challenges the existing ways of doing things in schools of journalism. 2002). genres. as it then can be situated in particular technological. formats. p. 123). and structures of ownership in the industry (and thus its training and educating models). The teaching and pedagogy debate also becomes more salient because of the convergence of media technologies. Although this advice has been voiced in the past. accommodating increasing student numbers. expert interviews. the assumption would be that none of these categories exists on its own. No small task indeed */and therefore a task that desperately needs to be supported by structural. in particular breaking down the boundaries between formerly distinct departments. In an earlier research project on the various ways in which new media and journalism schools in Europe addressed innovation. economical. case studies. Conclusion This paper is an attempt to map some of the salient issues when studying the structure and culture of a journalism education program. this research has to follow two distinct paths. ‘‘[t]he way learning is structured determines how individuals learn to think’’ (2000. As I see it. political and social contexts. If one links ongoing standardization with increasing AngloAmerican influence. Again. 2002. while at the same time trying to develop some kind of coherence in the curriculum. and postulate concepts. It certainly seems schools and programs of journalism education all over the world are changing fast. journalism education should be addressed as a distinct field of study. applying our well-established methods */content analyses. As Bauman argues. in-depth and particularly systematic research. A third important trend is the growing UK and US influence on higher education worldwide (Daun. The first kind of mindset seems to be on the upper hand. Second. Again. sequences or tracks (Bromley and Purdey. we identified two significant problems for doing so: the general lack of vision and systematic investigation of (old and new) training models. critical. something might be lost (and gained) along the way. Kennedy.

while representing an increasing interest in cross-cultural research. and perhaps even globally relevant insights. Hanitzsch critically addresses ‘‘the nation’’ as unit of analysis. Siegfried Weischenberg. It is my conviction that how we educate them. In other words: with studying journalism education. the vast body of literature. analyzing a variety of primary texts (such as assessment reports. and school materials) and secondary texts (such as trade and academic journals. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS For earlier comments and thoughts regarding the issues discussed in this paper the author would like to thank Frank Morgan. locating cross-national research within the wider field of cross-cultural research. and how we engage our students and ourselves in a meaningful (preferably non-hierarchical) dialogue. 1) argues: ‘‘Overall. arguing that nations are not culturally self-contained and homogeneous. ultimately has an influence on how journalism gets done. I do not assume a historical method produces one way to describe things as they can be found ‘out there’ by the rigorous scholar. Following the work of scholars like Geert Hofstede and Sonia Livingstone. 2. NOTES 1. and serves to add structure and insight to ongoing discussions in the field. I used the historical method of document research and bricolage */assembling. Although it is important to state the same for cultures */as Gerd Baumann’s work in particular shows */empirically the concept of culture does seem to open up more theoretically satisfying articulations for journalism education research than the idea of the nation. please see the reference list. I do base my work on the argument. whereas an embedding of any particular project within the larger framework */one example of which as offered in this essay */would yield interesting. To organize the literature. reading.GLOBAL JOURNALISM EDUCATION 31 be an example of reductionism. as a vast majority of newcomers in the profession worldwide come to the job with some kind of training or education in journalism. This call to arms is not in the least motivated by the fact that journalism education as a socializing agent is becoming increasingly powerful in today’s media. p. we now can take responsibility for our findings when studying the work of journalists. . Simon Cottle. scholarly works on journalism education) in combination with a grounded theory approach to thematize and categorize these materials. Hanitzsch (2005. is dominated by descriptive comparisons of national journalism systems and the people involved’’. For their encouragement and (critical) support for a research agenda on (global) journalism education I also want to thank Bob Franklin and the three reviewers of this essay. and Jan Bierhoff. which enabled me to model and theorize a conceptually coherent approach to the study of global journalism education. that a meaningful synthesis of debates both past and present is possible. audits. For most of the works used in the following section.

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