1. What do you understand by mis-en-scene?

Ans: Set design An important element of "putting in the scene" is set design—the setting of a scene and the objects (props) there in. Set design can be used to amplify character emotion or the dominant mood of a film, or to establish aspects of the character. Lighting The intensity, direction, and quality of lighting have a profound effect on the way an image is perceived. Light (and shade) can emphasise texture, shape, distance, mood, time of day or night, season, glamour; it affects the way colors are rendered, both in terms of hue and depth, and can focus attention on particular elements of the composition. Space The representation of space affects the reading of a film. Depth, proximity, size and proportions of the places and objects in a film can be manipulated through camera placement and lenses, lighting, set design, effectively determining mood or relationships between elements in the story world. Costume Costume simply refers to the clothes that characters wear. Using certain colors or designs, costumes in narrative cinema are used to signify characters or to make clear distinctions between characters. Acting There is enormous historical and cultural variation in performance styles in the cinema. Early melodramatic styles, clearly indebted to the 19th century theater, gave way in Western cinema to a relatively naturalistic style.

2. What is a script? Write a brief note on the following scripts
A script is a written work that is made especially for a film or television program or any kind of visual play. Scripts can also be original works or adaptations from existing pieces of writing. A script is a set of written instructions. A written version of a play or other dramatic composition; used in preparing for a performance. Something written by hand; a particular orthography or writing system. Script is a written document which states the incidents either created or narrated at a place between one or many characters, which overall narrates the flow subject/ concept. Scripts can also be original works or adaptations from existing pieces of writing. A script is a written work that is made especially for a film or television program or any kind of visual play.

a. Comedy b. Horror c. Romance d. Action

The image feed from cameras are recorded onto an inexpensive medium (usually MiniDV or Hi8) and nowadays on hard disks. so rough cuts can be made by the VA operator right on set. and speed up or slow down the action. Situational/ Factual i. This is essential for a director to show actors where to change their moves. or to recheck dialogue lines. together with its electronics. was installed inside a movie camera that allows (with the addition of a monitor) the director to see approximately the same view as the camera operator. The VA recorder can usually simulate the under-cranking or over-cranking of the camera. Originally a small device. The chip. and time camera or stunt actions. even right after the shot. blends or pre-visualize visual effects. Classic/ Art g. called the video tap. correct overlaps. lens system and mounting hardware is the video tap. and was commonly called video assist until the video assist industry grown large. and thus ensure that the film is being shot and framed as desired. the modern VA equipment does much more than that. Ramps (speed changes in the shot) can be shown also. and also helps the Script Supervisor. History 3. Suspense h.e. This is done by using a small chip (similar to ones in consumer camcorders) inside the viewfinder. He or she is then able to play back any shot in a short time. The VA operator keeps a precise log about which take was recorded where. What is video assist and how has it revolutionized film making? Video assist is a system used in filmmaking which allows filmmakers to view a video version of a take while it is being filmed. Camera gear like the jib was possible only with the invention of VAs. it was only the camera operator who was viewing the action through his viewfinder and the others had to wait till the film was processed and printed. The Video Assist gear often includes a portable editing system (usually a laptop with a digitizing box and an editing software). It is very easy to check shooting angles. A video printer is often used to print out pictures or hard copies of . While a very simple video assist equipment is only capable of showing a live image. A portable video mixer is useful to check out key. noting the time code or file name. Before the invention of video assist. Sentimental/ Emotional f.

Sound engineers and make-up usually requests a separate. ANS: Trailer is a teaser which provokes the viewer to go to the movie theatre to watch the movie. What is ‘persistence of vision’? Explain how cinematography evolved in the early days. 4. live-only feed to know what's happening in front of the cameras and so don't need to continuously pop in and out of set.sets. which is then loaded into the main unit archive so it can be watched and checked against main unit footage. Discuss the importance of trailers and the strategy in promoting trailers. Trailers have therefore become very important. and storyboard artists. Evolution of cinematography: . songs. trailers are often shown on TV even after the release of a movie to attract the audience. The technology of cinematography is based on this concept by displaying a series of slightly displaced pictures in succession at 24/25 frames per second and the human eye gets an illusion of movement. camera angles or faces for art designers. locals etc. 5. Earlier trailers were shown before the release of a movie in movie halls but now with the television being omnipresent. This process is designed from the time the trailers appears in media and builds up to the time it is getting released. Strategies of how the trailer unveils the most interesting element of the cinema. 2nd units or splinter units shooting extra shots or b-roll can take away small VA recorders to record their own footage. make-up artists. ‘Persistence of vision’ is a characteristic of the human eye wherein an image falling on the retina sticks to it for about 1/10th of a second. A movie without trailer is like missing a good opportunity to market the film. etc which will attract the moviegoers. fight sequences.such as the casting. Some of the highlights of the movie are given like melodious songs. Trailer is one which creates a kind of interest and the answer to that is to watch the movie. the cast.

Camera i. Lighting i. Edwin Porter explored the medium in such a way that instead of just mounting the camera and shooting a frame in which the artistes performed. With the television invading the bedrooms. Another inventor went further and created a photographic disc on which 12 images were captured. a. This disc when turned and projected gave a moving picture image. Briefly describe the following departments. Gaffer & Electricians (control the lights) . and sound. The invention of photographic film on flexible base gave rise to the roll film with which a camera could capture a series of images. feature films went from standard format to widescreen formats.A series of still cameras were placed in such a way that in a horse race. Clapper/Loader (loads film and slates scenes) c. he invented the technique of cutting into shots and also moving the camera around. Camera Assistants (loads camera. A kaleidoscope was used with which one person could view moving images through a keyhole. Assistant Director (drives the set) iii. This when projected. 6. lighting. Lumiere brothers invented a camera as well as a projector with which several people could view moving images in a theatre and it was in the year 1895 that the first paid preview for a film happened. Cinematographer (oversees lighting design) ii. Camera Operator (operates the camera) iii. In the late 30s sound was added to movies though it was not that refined as it was played from a gramophone disc. the horses will trip on a cable and one by one 24 frames will be exposed on photographic film. Second Assistant Director (works with the actors) b. Today. film uses digital technology extensively. Camera. The technology to record sound on film was refined in the 40s and thus the films from then on were with sound. Cinematographer or DP (oversees camera operation) ii. pulls focus) iv. This also gave birth to editing. Direction i. Director (oversees all aspects of the production) ii. the persons involved in each department and their roles: Direction. gave the illusion of movement.

Any damage to this negative or unsatisfactory results means the entire effort and money has gone down the drain. they are often set up in advance. Sound Mixer (records the sound) ii. Cost: The cost of film and processing is a disadvantage with film. such as the property master. Camera operation. cranes. Some aspects of production include: Direction. stills photographer. Lighting. Describe what happens during the production stage in film making? The production phase refers to the period of time when the film is actually being shot. Digital technology scores over film on this aspect. camera car. 8.iii. These are just the most common roles in filmmaking. Besides films are not . the production office will be free to create any unique blend of roles to suit a particular film. Quality: The quality of film is still considered as the ultimate though the advancements in digital media are rapidly progressing. dressing and lighting can take many hours or even days. Key Grip & Grips (handles dollies. More crew will be recruited at this stage. Sound recording and Acting. Compare digital versus celluloid film. and sound editors. etc.) d. picture editor. assistant directors. Since set construction. Sound i. All of the departments and positions described above serve one goal: to capture the sound and image necessary to tell the story. A typical day's shooting begins with the crew arriving on the set/location by their call time. Boom operator (positions the microphone) iii. The entire money and effort spent will have to be managed judiciously in this stage as this stage leads to the original camera negative. script supervisor. Clapper (displays the clap slate for the camera) 7. In production the film is created and shot. Actors usually have their own separate call times.

The major expenses are ongoing film and processing costs. Digital is always stuck in whatever quality you shot it. unlike film cameras in which even 50 year old cameras and lenses are in use now. it is possible to delete the shots on the spot if it is felt that they are not usable at all. Film does not become unreadable for no reason. Some films shot on digital medium have been printed on to celluloid as backup for archival purposes. In digital medium. very expensive for what they do. Film:      Film is still higher in resolution Cameras are generally heavier Film can take up a lot of space Film is a continuing cost Film must be developed before viewing Digital  Higher initial cost . digital images are just a few decades old and their stability is yet to be proved. Some decline in quality can be corrected by using the latest digital technology. For example. Digital cameras are comparatively expensive. COST: Digital cameras are very. It doesn't have file compatibility problems.’ Digital scores over film as it is instant. the contrast handling capabilities (highlights versus shadows) are wider in film than digital. However. High quality film cameras are less complicated and therefore less expensive. Performance: The flexibility that film offers to a DoP is not available on digital cameras. Digital or video has nothing to rescan. They become obsolete in very fast. Archiving: Feature films which are almost a century old are still in good condition even now. Film is more ‘forgiving.reusable and also you pay for processing all the NG shots also. PERMANENCE: Film does not erase itself. One has to wait for film to be processed and printed and then use a projector to view the visuals. Traditional black and white film and prints will outlast any of us. What you got it is all you are going to get.

Internegative: Also known as dupe negative which is used for making release prints. Explain the following in 1 or 2 sentences: Aspect ratio: The ratio of the height to width of a frame. Later. gramophone records were used to playback sound but were not very effective. it is the address of each frame. FCP: Final cut Pro. Zoom lens: Also known as variable focal length lens allowing the subject magnification during the shot. Raw stock: A film that has not yet been exposed and/or processed. sound was added. Describe the evolution of sound in cinema. In other words. Recording sound was a problem on location due to the whirring sound of the camera. Dissolve: An optical effect representing a transition through superimposed disappearance of one scene and appearance of another scene. Time code: The unique number which identifies each frame distinctly from the others. Initially. a band of orchestra was hired to play from behind the screen while the show was on. Avid and FCP are the two main competitors extensively used in film editing.      Can easily lose detail in whites and blacks Cameras are generally lighter One hard disk can store more images than a dozen rolls of film Images can be viewed immediately You can edit your images Only print the images you like 9. Movies started as silent movies to begin with but after 2-3 decades. Follow focus: A technique of continuously adjusting the camera lens so as to keep the subject in sharp focus whenever the camera-to-subject distance changes. Some directors tried to put the camera inside a glass enclosure to cut the sound but were not very successful. . AVID is another competitor. Sound on film was invented by which the sound track was in an optical form thereby simplifying the process of sound reproduction. A nonlinear computer-based film/video editing system. 10.

Normally the distributor has to buy the movie blindly without even watching it. The star cast also helps a great deal as many fans watch movies for star value. The producer also gets advance money from the distributors during the course of the film production. Though there is a huge risk involved in this. Now is the age of digital sound with 5. The benefits for both the parties is to be discussed here. A reputed producer with an attractive star cast has the option of selling his movies to distributors on an outright basis. Multiple tracks of sound were added later along with widescreen movies. the producer has to raise money through other sources and complete the movie. . distributors go by the producer’s past performance. Discuss the advantages of a reputed producer with an attractive star cast versus a producer who is new and whose film does not have star value while distribution? Quote some recent examples. he is at the mercy of the distributors and may have to sell the movie for a very low price. The distributor may either make lot of money or lose. The producer gets a certain amount from the distributor and foregoes all rights. After this. How does a film producer and a car manufacturer benefit from each other if that car happens to be in a major part of the film and if the producer has a reputation of churning out blockbusters? The student is expected to write quoting an example like the James Bond movies where cars have been a character in the film.1 surround sound and DTS (digital theatre sound) 11. 12. Without a star cast and no ‘market-tested credentials’ behind him.The system of dubbing was introduced by which sound was added later and this made shooting movies in noisy environments possible. However in the case of a newcomer with no big stars to bank on. he has to show the movie to prospective distributors and deal with them.

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