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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Wallace

Internal Reactions: 6 Maximum

(3 Force Components & 3 Moment Components) "Cut Surface" Centroid of Cross Section y Centroid of Cross Section

Shear Forces ( )

x "Cut Surface" z

Bending Moments ()

x

Vx Vy

Mx

My

Normal Force:

Centroid y "Cut Surface" x z P Axial Force

P A

l Uniform over the entire cross section. l Axial force must go through centroid.

Axial Stress

Shear Forces:

Cross Section

y

x

Point of interest LINE perpendicular to V through point of interest b = Length of LINE on the cross section

Vy

y

x

y Aa

Aa = Area on one side of the LINE Centroid of entire cross section Centroid of area on one side of the LINE I = Area moment of inertia of entire cross section about an axis pependicular to V. y = distance between the two centroids

Vx

V Aa y Ib

Note: The maximum shear stress for common cross sections are: Cross Section: Cross Section:

Rectangular:

max = 3 2 V A

Solid Circular:

max = 4 3 V A

I-Beam or H-Beam:

flange

Thin-walled tube:

max = 2 V A

Dr. D. B. Wallace

Solid Circular or Tubular Cross Section:

y "Cut Surface" x

=

z

T Torque

Tr J

r = Distance from shaft axis to point of interest R = Shaft Radius D = Shaft Diameter

J= J=

D4 R 4 = 32 2 Do4 Di4 32

max = max =

16 T D3 16 T Do

j

for hollow shafts

Do 4 D i 4

y Centroid "Cut Surface" x z T Torque

2 1

Torsional Stress

Method 1:

max = 1 = T 3 a + 1.8 b

Method 2:

g ea

b2

j

a/b 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

1,2 =

T 1,2 a b

2

Use the appropriate from the table on the right to get the shear stress at either position 1 or 2.

Treated in advanced courses.

Dr. D. B. Wallace

Bending Moment

y

x

Mx

y x

Mx y Ix

and

My x Iy

My

where: Mx and My are moments about indicated axes y and x are perpendicular from indicated axes Ix and Iy are moments of inertia about indicated axes

Moments of Inertia:

b c h

b h3 I= 12 Z=

h is perpendicular to axis

I = Z =

D4 R4 = 64 4 I D3 R3 = = c 32 4

b h2 I = c 6

new axis d Area, A centroid

I = I + A d2

I = Moment of inertia about new axis I = Moment of inertia about the centroidal axis A = Area of the region d = perpendicular distance between the two axes.

max =

Mc M = I Z

max =

32 M D

3

bSolid Circular g

max =

6 M b h2

a Rectangular f

The section modulus, Z, can be found in many tables of properties of common cross sections (i.e., I-beams, channels, angle iron, etc.).

The beam is assumed to be initially straight. The applied moment, M, causes the beam to assume a radius of curvature, . Before:

= E

After:

M

y = Perpendicular distance from the centroidal axis to the point of interest (same y as with bending of a straight beam with Mx). = radius of curvature to centroid of cross section

Dr. D. B. Wallace

Geometry:

nonlinear stress distribution

centroidal axis

centroid

co ci

y ro

rn =

i

neutral axis

rn

ri

A dA area e = r rn

M Stresses:

Any Position: Inside (maximum magnitude): Outside:

M y e A rn + y

i =

M ci e A ri

o =

M co e A ro

Cross Section

Rectangle r h ro Trapezoid r ti ri h ro Hollow Circle r a ri

z

h 2

area

dA

ri +

t ln

FG r IJ Hr K

o i

ht

ri + to

h ti + 2 to 3 t i + t o

g

to ti +

ro t i ri t o r ln o h ri

FG IJ H K

ti + t o 2

LM N

r 2 b2 r 2 a 2

OP Q

a 2 b2

Dr. D. B. Wallace

Stresses for the inside and outside fibers of a curved beam in pure bending can be approximated from the straight beam equation as modified by an appropriate curvature factor as determined from the graph below [i refers to the inside, and o refers to the outside]. The curvature factor magnitude depends on the amount of curvature (determined by the ratio r/c) and the cross section shape. r is the radius of curvature of the beam centroidal axis, and c is the distance from the centroidal axis to the inside fiber.

Centroidal Axis

c r

M

Inside Fiber:

i = Ki

Mc I Mc I

Outside Fiber:

o = Ko

A

b/4

4.0

Values of Ki for inside fiber as at A

b/8

A

b

c

B A B A

Trapezoidal U or T

c

b/2 b

Round or Elliptical

c

b

b/6

b/3

B I or hollow rectangular

c r

I or hollow rectangular

0.5 0 1 2

10

11

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