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Dr. D. B.

Wallace

Basic Stress Equations


Internal Reactions: 6 Maximum
(3 Force Components & 3 Moment Components) "Cut Surface" Centroid of Cross Section y Centroid of Cross Section

Shear Forces ( )
x "Cut Surface" z

Bending Moments ()
x

Vx Vy

Mx

My

Normal Force () Force Components Moment Components

Torsional Moment or Torque ( )

Normal Force:
Centroid y "Cut Surface" x z P Axial Force

P A

l Uniform over the entire cross section. l Axial force must go through centroid.

Axial Stress

Shear Forces:
Cross Section
y

"y" Shear Force


x

Point of interest LINE perpendicular to V through point of interest b = Length of LINE on the cross section

Vy
y

"x" Shear Force


x

y Aa

Aa = Area on one side of the LINE Centroid of entire cross section Centroid of area on one side of the LINE I = Area moment of inertia of entire cross section about an axis pependicular to V. y = distance between the two centroids

Vx

V Aa y Ib

Note: The maximum shear stress for common cross sections are: Cross Section: Cross Section:

Rectangular:

max = 3 2 V A

Solid Circular:

max = 4 3 V A

I-Beam or H-Beam:

flange

web max = V A web

Thin-walled tube:

max = 2 V A

Basic Stress Equations

Dr. D. B. Wallace

Torque or Torsional Moment:


Solid Circular or Tubular Cross Section:
y "Cut Surface" x

=
z

T Torque

Tr J

r = Distance from shaft axis to point of interest R = Shaft Radius D = Shaft Diameter

for solid circular shafts

J= J=

D4 R 4 = 32 2 Do4 Di4 32

for solid circular shafts

max = max =

16 T D3 16 T Do

j
for hollow shafts

Do 4 D i 4

for hollow shafts

Rectangular Cross Section:


y Centroid "Cut Surface" x z T Torque

2 1
Torsional Stress

Cross Section: b a Note: a>b

Method 1:

max = 1 = T 3 a + 1.8 b
Method 2:

g ea

b2

j
a/b 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

ONLY applies to the center of the longest side

1,2 =

T 1,2 a b
2

Use the appropriate from the table on the right to get the shear stress at either position 1 or 2.

1 .208 .231 .246 .267 .282 .299 .307 .313 .333

2 .208 .269 .309 .355 .378 .402 .414 .421 ----

Other Cross Sections:


Treated in advanced courses.

Basic Stress Equations

Dr. D. B. Wallace

Bending Moment
y

"x" Bending Moment


x

Mx
y x

Mx y Ix

and

My x Iy

"y" Bending Moment

My

where: Mx and My are moments about indicated axes y and x are perpendicular from indicated axes Ix and Iy are moments of inertia about indicated axes

Moments of Inertia:
b c h

b h3 I= 12 Z=

h is perpendicular to axis

I = Z =

D4 R4 = 64 4 I D3 R3 = = c 32 4

b h2 I = c 6

Parallel Axis Theorem:


new axis d Area, A centroid

I = I + A d2

I = Moment of inertia about new axis I = Moment of inertia about the centroidal axis A = Area of the region d = perpendicular distance between the two axes.

Maximum Bending Stress Equations:

max =

Mc M = I Z

max =

32 M D
3

bSolid Circular g

max =

6 M b h2

a Rectangular f

The section modulus, Z, can be found in many tables of properties of common cross sections (i.e., I-beams, channels, angle iron, etc.).

Bending Stress Equation Based on Known Radius of Curvature of Bend, .


The beam is assumed to be initially straight. The applied moment, M, causes the beam to assume a radius of curvature, . Before:

= E
After:

E = Modulus of elasticity of the beam material


M

y = Perpendicular distance from the centroidal axis to the point of interest (same y as with bending of a straight beam with Mx). = radius of curvature to centroid of cross section

Basic Stress Equations

Dr. D. B. Wallace

Bending Moment in Curved Beam:


Geometry:
nonlinear stress distribution

centroidal axis

centroid

co ci

y ro

rn =

i
neutral axis

rn

ri

A dA area e = r rn

A = cross sectional area

rn = radius to neutral axis

r = radius to centroidal axis e = eccentricity

M Stresses:
Any Position: Inside (maximum magnitude): Outside:

M y e A rn + y

i =

M ci e A ri

o =

M co e A ro

Area Properties for Various Cross Sections:

Cross Section
Rectangle r h ro Trapezoid r ti ri h ro Hollow Circle r a ri

z
h 2

area

dA

ri +

t ln

FG r IJ Hr K
o i

ht

ri + to

h ti + 2 to 3 t i + t o

g
to ti +

For triangle: set ti or to to 0

ro t i ri t o r ln o h ri

FG IJ H K

ti + t o 2

LM N

r 2 b2 r 2 a 2

OP Q

a 2 b2

Basic Stress Equations

Dr. D. B. Wallace

Bending Moment in Curved Beam (Inside/Outside Stresses):


Stresses for the inside and outside fibers of a curved beam in pure bending can be approximated from the straight beam equation as modified by an appropriate curvature factor as determined from the graph below [i refers to the inside, and o refers to the outside]. The curvature factor magnitude depends on the amount of curvature (determined by the ratio r/c) and the cross section shape. r is the radius of curvature of the beam centroidal axis, and c is the distance from the centroidal axis to the inside fiber.

Centroidal Axis

c r
M

Inside Fiber:

i = Ki

Mc I Mc I

Outside Fiber:

o = Ko

A
b/4

4.0
Values of Ki for inside fiber as at A

b/8

A
b

c
B A B A

3.5 3.0 Curvature Factor 2.5


Trapezoidal U or T

c
b/2 b

Round or Elliptical

c
b

b/6

b/3

2.0 Ki 1.5 1.0 Ko

B I or hollow rectangular

c r

I or hollow rectangular

0.5 0 1 2

U or T Round, Elliptical or Trapezoidal Values of Ko for outside fiber as at B

10

11

Amount of curvature, r/c