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Any reproduction, distribution or retransmission of these materials, in whole or in part, in any manner*, without the prior written consent of Henrys School of Imaging, is prohibited. Any altering of these materials without the exclusive permission of Henrys School of Imaging is also prohibited. * A limited copy of these materials is available via download at www.henrys.com/school. This copy is strictly intended for personal review purposes only and as been made available exclusively for Henrys customers who have attended the corresponding Henrys School of Imaging class 2009 Henrys of Cranbrook Glen Enterprises

Nikon D90/D7000 Part 1

Sample Classroom Slide

Sample Student Note

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Cloud Types in Weather:


Cumulus (heap) Stratus (layer) Cirrus (curl of hair) Nimbus (rain)
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Cumulus clouds (translation: heap) can be dened as a principal type of cloud in the form of individual, detached elements which are generally dense and possess sharp nonbrous outlines; these elements develop vertically, appearing as rising mounds, domes or towers, the upper parts of which often resemble a cauliower Stratus clouds (translation: layer) can be dened as a diffuse, grayish cloud that often produces drizzle and is formed primarily at altitudes no higher than 2,000m; a cloud of this type close to the ground or water is called fog Cirrus clouds (translation: curl of hair) are characterized by thin, whisp-like strands, often accompanied by tufts; they can be so extensive that they form connected sheets of Cirrus formations Nimbus clouds (translation: rain) are precipitation bearing clouds, usually dark gray in colour
Student Note

Downloading Workshop Student Notes


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www.schoolomaging.ca
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What We Will Cover Today


Camera Tour/Shooting Checklist Basic Shooting & Playback Scene Modes Starting to Take Control Controlling Focus Flash Fundamentals ISO/Exposure Compensation White Balance

Password:

NK7K6892
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Whats In the Box?


Charger and Battery LCD cover Strap and Eyepiece cover USB cable/video cables Software Manual/Quickstart guide

Box Contents

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D7000 D90

Although an excellent starting point, the contents of the box do not include a memory card and a few other accessories that will either be essential or prove to be very useful (see next slide). Traveling overseas? Your Nikon battery chargers voltage range (110-240V) should allow your to charge your battery(ies) wherever you go; however, you will likely require an inexpensive adapter to physically plug it in. Check before you go! Cables included with the camera allow for direct connection to a computer for uploading images and as well as to a TV for showing pictures to family and friends. The software that comes with the camera typically allows for the processing (albeit simple processing) of RAW image les - IF you decide to shoot in RAW format (more on RAW in our Part 2 workshop).
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Student Note

Extras to Consider
Spare batteries (extended shooting time) Protective case Faster/greater capacity memory cards Battery grip Memory card reader Image backup device (external hard drive) Lens lters

Extras to Consider
A few critical add-on items can make your shooting experience more pleasant and practical: Spare batteries and extra memory cards allow for extended shooting without recharging or uploading images to a computer. Card readers are ideal for uploading images to the computer. Youll be able to upload faster (depending on reader), without consuming power from your cameras battery and without having the bulk of the camera & lens on your desk. Battery grips provide two advantages: allowing multiple batteries to be used at once without swapping; and providing a more comfortable vertical shooting orientation for portraits and other vertical photo work.

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Student Note

Extras to Consider

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Front Camera Controls


Shutter-Release Button (wake-up button)

D7000 Mode Dial

As cameras increase in resolution (and because with digital there is no cost involved in taking LOTS of pictures), a storage solution for your images becomes critical. An external hard drive allows for greater storage capacity in a separate unit without using up your computers own hard drive. You can add more external hard drives over time as your storage needs increase (and for backups). Carrying camera equipment without any kind of protective case or bag will likely result in quick, unnecessary nicks/scratches on your equipment. A good protective bag can absorb impact, resist weather and store extra gear. Filters can be divided into two categories: creative and protective. A UV lter is essential for protection of the exposed lens element. Scratches on lenses are exceptionally expensive to repair, and in many cases repair is not even possible. Invest in a high quality lters which compliment the quality of your lenses.
Student Note

Front Command Dial

Lens Release Button

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Front Camera Controls


Shutter-Release Button (wake-up button)

D90

Front Camera Controls

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Mode Dial

Front Command Dial

Lens Release Button


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The mode dial allows you to select a particular shooting mode that matches the shooting conditions you will typically encounter (sports, portrait, etc) - more on these later. Lenses that are designed for different photographic subjects can be purchased and attached to the camera. To remove a lens, press & hold the lens release button and rotate the lens clockwise until it can be separated from the camera. To put a lens on, line up the white dot on the lens with the white dot on the body and rotate counterclockwise until the lens clicks into place. The front command dial is used to change various camera settings, and in more advanced modes to control elements of scene exposure.

Student Note

Front Camera Controls

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Rear Camera Controls

D7000

The shutter release button is the most used camera control. It has three distinct positions:
- 1) Fully up, untouched: Performs no function. - 2) Pressed halfway down: Pressing this button down slowly and gently, you will eventually feel a stopping resistance at the halfway press point. This tells the camera to attempt focus on your subject (no photo is taken). It also tells the camera to measure the amount of light around your subject as seen inside the viewnder. In so doing, if the light level is low enough, the cameras builtin ash may respond by popping up (depending on camera mode). Pressing halfway down will also wake up the camera if it has fallen asleep (settled into a power save mode). If in a menu, pressing halfway down will also exit the menu. - 3) Pressed all the way down: Pressing the shutter release all the way down triggers the camera to actually take a picture. Depending on camera settings, the camera might not take the picture if it has not been able to achieve focus at the half press.

Rear Command Dial

Menu/Playback/ Misc Image Control Buttons

OK Button

Navigation Controller
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Student Note

Rear Camera Controls

D90

Rear Camera Controls

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Delete Button

Rear Command Dial

Menu/ Playback/ Misc Image Control Buttons

Navigation Controller OK Button

The Rear Command dial plays a similar role to the Front Command dial, but is devoted to a different set of camera settings. The MENU button allows you to enter the Nikon menu system. The Navigation pad is the primary control that you use for getting around and making choices in the Nikon menu system. Directional arrows on the pad allow for navigation in all directions through the menu system. The Playback, Image Control and Delete buttons allow you to view and delete images on your cameras memory card. These buttons also allow for zooming in and out of an image to check ne focus and see the image detail (more on these later). The OK button is used to tell the camera to accept your choice from a list of choices in the camera menu system.

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Student Note

Info Panel

Top LCD Display

D7000

LCD Backlight Switch (toggle)

One press activates panel

Battery Power Remaining

Second press to change settings


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Pictures Remaining

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Top LCD Display

D90

Top LCD Display

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LCD Backlight Switch (toggle)

Battery Power Remaining

The top LCD has the primary function of showing you a summary of current shooting settings and camera status. Here we point out two of the most important ones: battery power and pictures remaining. In dark environments the top LCD can be illuminated. The main camera ON/OFF switch also serves as a LCD illumination switch. Simply turn the switch lever to the lightbulb setting and release (this portion of the switch is spring-loaded). The switch will return to the power ON position and illuminate the LCD for a short period of time (approx 5 seconds). To shut off the LCD illumination before the 5 seconds is up, simply perform the same action. Note: on the D90 there is a camera preference to allow this switch to perform a dual function: top LCD illumination and INFO panel activation.
Student Note

Pictures Remaining
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Dual Function Buttons

Dual Function Buttons

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Shooting Function (press/hold + wheel) Playback Function (press once)

Some of the buttons have a dual purpose (they perform two functions). The function written on the button itself is the primary function of that button. It is a function that is used during image playback. This primary function is activated by a single press of the button. The secondary function is written above the button. Its a function thats used while taking pictures. If youd like to to use a secondary function, press & hold its button while simultaneously turning the Rear Command dial. This will cause the setting for that secondary function to change. As you turn the Command dial, observe the top LCD panel. Changes will be displayed there as you cycle through the various settings for that function.
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Student Note

Memory Access Lamp


Do not eject memory card or interrupt power while glowing green

The Viewnder

Viewnder Essentials
Used to frame the shot Displays important shooting info Location of info differs slightly between models D7000 D90
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The Viewnder

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The design of the modern DSLR camera is largely based on older lm SLR cameras. The viewnder is an integral part of the design, giving the user a clear, optical view of their subject (through the lens). This allows the user to frame their subject quickly & easily. The viewnder also provides a digital display containing essential camera & exposure information. This includes: shutter & aperture information (explored in greater detail in our Nikon Part 2 workshop), the number of pictures remaining, a battery status warning, a ash readiness indicator & focus conrmation indicator. While several camera models now offer a live view display feature (which uses the rear LCD screen to display a real time image of what is coming through the lens as well as camera & exposure info), the viewnder still remains the superior & preferred device for most shooting situations. Focus points work in conjunction with the cameras autofocus system to allow control over where the camera will focus.

Focus Points D7000

Student Note

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Focus Points

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Focus points represent sensors in the camera that are used to achieve proper focus of your subject. They are the focusing targets. Later in the workshop we will discuss focus modes, which allow us to determine how these focus points will be used when we try to take a picture. Automatic and manual focus point selection modes are available.

Focus Points D90

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Student Note

Viewnder Contents

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Low Battery Auto Focus Confirmation Exposure Values Exposure Scale Flash Indicator Photos Remaining

Note: The location of each of the viewnder options will differ slightly between models, but their function is identical. Auto Focus Conrmation: Lets you know when the camera has achieved focus by glowing steadily. If this light blinks, focus has failed. Exposure Values: These numbers represent settings discussed in our Nikon Part 2 workshop. Taking creative control of exposure requires some knowledge of these. In this class (Part 1) we allow the camera to take full control of exposure. Exposure Scale: This scale is used for several purposes. In this workshop we discuss this scale as a tool for controlling exposure compensation, which we cover towards the end of the workshop. Low Battery: This symbol appears when its time to recharge.

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Student Note

Viewnder Contents

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Nikon Menus
A menu strip is displayed when the MENU button is pressed

Photos Remaining: Based on your current le size, card capacity & image settings, this display shows how many more pictures you can take. Flash Indicator: Glows steadily to indicate that the ash is charged and ready to re. If blinking, the camera is indicating ash is needed for proper exposure.

Student Note

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Nikon Menus
The menu system for Nikon cameras employs a vertical menu strip on the left hand side. This is your starting point. Each icon in the strip represents a group of related settings (for example, a group of settings for shooting, a group for custom settings, a group for image playback control, and so on). The contents of the menus are somewhat different between the various models (due to slightly different features), but the navigation method is identical.

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Menu Strip
Each camera shares the following menu strip icons Each icon represents a group of settings Settings differ in their labeling and location between models

Playback Menu Shooting Menu Custom Setting Menu Setup Menu Retouch Menu Recent Settings

Student Note

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Navigation

D90 menu example

Navigation

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Choosing this menu (a Autofocus)

Leads to these options (for Autofocus)


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Navigating the menu system requires the use of the Navigation Controller located on the back of the camera. The controller allows you to move the menu cursor up, down, left & right. When youve located a menu entry whose setting you wish to change, you will often be required to press to the right on the controller to see a submenu. A submenu is simply a rened set of options for you to choose from. A good example would be the menu entry for Image Size. Since the image size menu offers three image size options, you would rst be required to choose the image size menu entry itself, then navigate to its submenu which would present the actual three choices for image size. Continuing with this example, once you have located/highlighted the image size setting you wish to activate, press the OK button to lock that setting in.

Student Note

Navigation Basics
Using Your Controller The 8-way controller is used for menu navigation Using the OK Button The OK button conrms/activates a menu option Practice Lets change our cameras image size setting to practice

Navigation Activity (1 of 3)
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1 3

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Navigation Activity (2 of 3)
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Navigation Activity (3 of 3)
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7 5 6 8

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Pre-Shot Checklist
D90

Resetting the Camera


What Does It Do? Sets camera shooting/setup functions to factory default When Should It Be Done? Anytime you wish If you changed something that causes a problem that you
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3 2

D7000
1

cant identify (likely caused by a change of another setting)

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Reset Camera (workshop only)


D90 D7000

Verify Image Size

Press and Hold (3 secs)

D90

D7000

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Image Size

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Image Quality Setting


Camera default is Normal Best quality is Fine

Image Size refers to the number of pixels (pixel dimensions) making up the image. The Large image size setting uses all of your cameras pixels to record images, yielding the highest possible detail and image clarity. Choosing a smaller image size (Medium or Small) means less detail is recorded. The default setting for the Nikon DSLRs is Large. It is the preferred setting - always! Its true that smaller image size settings will reduce the amount of memory required for each picture le (which means your memory card will be able to store more pictures). However, memory cards today are exceptionally low in price and high in capacity. In years past this was not always the case. The argument for using smaller image sizes to conserve memory card space has since become a non-issue.
Student Note

D90

D7000

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Image Quality

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Setting Quality

Image Quality is a separate setting from Image Size. Your camera has three possible Image Quality settings. They are: Basic, Normal and Fine. Image Quality refers to how much JPEG image compression is applied to the image. When an image is compressed, pure colour delity and image detail is moderately sacriced in order to reduce image le size. The Basic setting uses the highest possible compression level (which causes the greatest quality sacrice) and the Fine setting uses the lowest possible compression level (invisible quality sacrice). For the same reasons we discussed with regard to le size and inexpensive memory cards, we will always want the camera to record using its highest image quality setting. The default for the Nikon DSLRs image quality is Normal (uses a moderate amount of image compression). We will want to change this to Fine.
Student Note

1 - (hold)

3 - Change (set to Fine)


2 - (turn)

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On Image Size/Quality

Image Size and Quality


Now that we understand the settings for image size and quality, we also need to realize that we may occasionally wish to create copies of images and make those copies smaller. If we wanted to display an image on a web page, send an image through email or share an image with a friend - the original image size may be overkill or too large for those purposes. Most email programs, image editors and photo sharing applications allow you to size down an image for these uses. Because pictures from your camera are really just computer les, you can easily make as many copies of these as you wish and change their size for the intended use. So our conclusion here is - always set the camera to record the best possible image, you can manipulate the image size later.
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Always record using highest possible Size & Quality Size & Quality can be reduced later on a computer via:
Email programs Image editors (Photoshop, etc) Photo management software (iPhoto, etc) Online photo sharing applications

Student Note

Camera Diopter

Camera Diopter

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Adjusts viewnder sharpness/clarity


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The camera diopter adjusts the clarity of what you see in the viewnder. Setting the diopter should be done at least once, with care, to match the particular vision needs of your eye. As the visual acuity of your eye may or may not change over long periods of time, it may be wise to re-adjust the diopter if you feel it is needed. The diopter wheel is fairly rm and accidental changes to its setting are rare, but still possible. The diopter setting will have no effect whatsoever on the quality of the images taken by the camera. The focus of the image is controlled by the camera focus system - but you will still need to see into the viewnder clearly to control the picture taking process.
Student Note

Camera Diopter
adjust half-press
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What We Will Cover Today


Camera Tour/Shooting Checklist Basic Shooting & Playback Scene Modes Starting to Take Control Controlling Focus Flash Fundamentals ISO/Exposure Compensation White Balance

view

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Camera Handling

Camera Handling

Finger grip (nger to shutter) Cradle lens Eye to viewnder


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Vertical Orientation
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Camera Handling (Horizontal Orientation)


The camera is designed to be held with a rm, condent grip on the grip handle. Using your right hand, wrap your ngers around the grip. Your grip should be tight enough to support the camera without use of your left hand. Gently rest your index nger of your right hand on the camera shutter release button. Your left hand should be used to adjust the zoom on your lens as well as offer a gentle cradle or support for some of the camera weight. Finally, raise the camera viewnder to your eye. Your elbows should not be raised unnecessarily, but rather fall to your sides or resting near your ribs.

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Camera Handling (Vertical Orientation)

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Handling your camera vertically is very similar to handling it horizontally. The key difference is the position of your right arm, which will likely extend up & out from your body. It will be difcult and uncomfortable to hold this position for an extended period of time. To overcome this, purchase a battery grip attachment for your camera which will allow you to use the more comfortable horizontal orientation stance with your camera in the vertical orientation. The battery grip achieves this by placing a second gripping surface and shutter release button on the camera underside (which becomes the right side of the camera in vertical orientation). A battery grip (also known as a vertical grip) allows multiple batteries to be installed as well, extending camera shooting time without swapping batteries.
Student Note

Student Note

Taking Photos
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Taking Photos
4. Place your subject near centre of viewnder 5. Press shutter button halfway down (focus points appear) 6. Conrm Focus (if ashing or no audible chirp, focus is not possible)
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1. Switch camera to ON 2. Set mode dial to AUTO


3

7. If ash is needed, it automatically pops up 8. Squeeze shutter all the way down to take the picture
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3. Eye to viewnder

Pictures Remaining
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Picture Buffer

Picture Buffer

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Half-press displays
number of buffer shots available Half-Press
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Your camera has a memory space inside of it which is referred to as a picture buffer. This buffer is of a xed size and stores your pictures temporarily before they are written to your cameras memory card. If this buffer did not exist, you would not be able to take a series of pictures in rapid succession due to the varying (sometimes low) speed of memory cards. Holding down the shutter button half-way will display the number of pictures that can be taken in a burst-sequence before a delay will occur. Later in the workshop when we discuss how to use continuous shooting mode, you will see that you can take a series of pictures in a burst by holding down the shutter button (for action sequences, as one example).

Student Note

How Focus Works


Autofocus Here Possible

Try To Focus

Zoom in on a blank/low contrast surface Attempt to focus (focus conrm fails/ashes steadily) Zoom in on your instructor Autofocus Here Not Possible Focus points are actually sensors Focus sensors require contrast
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Attempt to focus (focus conrm succeeds/remains steadily lit)

How Focus Works

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Live View Mode


Uses rear LCD for subject framing/focus Most useful on tripods Slower than using viewnder D7000 (lever)

Inside your cameras viewnder, you can see several focus points. These focus points represent internal focus sensors. They are used to nd your subject and then tell your lens at what distance it should focus so that your subject comes out sharp. Placing a focus point over your intended subject in the viewnder and pressing the shutter halfway down will initiate this focus process. The camera achieves focus by means of there being contrast where the focus point is located. While this method is highly accurate and effective, focus cannot be achieved if there is no contrast at the focus point(s). If this is the case, the camera lens will hunt through its whole focusing range for a short period of time and then eventually give up. The focus conrmation light will then blink to indicate that focus has failed. Focus also cannot be achieved if the subject is closer than the minimum focusing distance of the lens.
Student Note

D90

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Live View Mode


1. Press Live View button (D7000 use lever) 2. Scene appears on LCD 3. Controller moves focus point 4. Half-press shutter to initiate focus 5. Once focus locked, fully press shutter button to take picture
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Photo Playback
2 1

1. Press the Playback Button 2. View image on LCD screen 3. Left/right arrows on controller for next/ previous image
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Zoom In/Out & Panning

Expanded Shooting Data


Up/Down to change display info

- button beyond 100% for thumbnail image display Zoom in

Pan

Zoom Out
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Deleting Photos

Formatting the Card

A 1 1

Press Once for delete option

Hold A & B down together until Top LCD panel is ashing Let go of buttons, then press both together again

Press again to perform delete


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Formatting the Card


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What We Will Cover Today


Camera Tour/Shooting Checklist Basic Shooting & Playback Scene Modes Starting to Take Control Controlling Focus Flash Fundamentals ISO/Exposure Compensation White Balance

Can be performed through the SETUP menu as well


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Scene Modes

Choosing a Scene Mode


D90 - Choose mode from dial

Easy shooting modes Exposure knowledge not required Modes designed for various scenarios

D7000

- Select SCENE on dial

rotate rear dial


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choose mode
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Auto Exposure Mode

Auto Exposure Mode

SOI

This mode is the pure point and shoot mode. The photographer has no control over any exposure settings. The camera makes all decisions regarding exposure, and whether to activate the ash or not. The ash cannot be forced on. It can, however, be forced OFF. This mode is ideal if you want to take a quick shot of something (that is not moving particularly fast) without much fuss.

Point & Shoot mode - no particular creative goal Flash activates if needed
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Student Note

Portrait Mode!

Portrait Mode
Portrait mode is designed for taking pictures of individual people or very small groups (not large groups) - ideally with some sort of discernible background behind them (although this is not a requirement). This mode will produce a soft blurring effect in the background behind your subject. This works best when you stand relatively close to your subject and with the background far behind them. This blurred background effect is well suited for separating the foreground subject from the background, making your subject stand out. You can learn how to control the degree of this effect yourself in our Nikon Part 2 workshop. Lenses ideal for portrait photography start at a focal length of 85mm and go up to approx. 150mm (not a rule, but a guideline).
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Blurs the background Flash activates if needed Flash cannot be forced on

Student Note

Close Up Mode

Macro Mode

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Blurs background Flash pops up automatically if needed Best used with specialty Macro lens Sets single point autofocus
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Macro mode provides good basic settings for close up photography. Much of the success of this mode, however, depends upon the lens used for this type of picture. Macro lenses provide the ability to focus at much closer distances than a typical kit lens. This is vital to allow the subject to ll the majority of the image frame and capture tiny details. Some zoom lenses offer a macro option built-in which, while not as effective as a high quality dedicated macro lens, is a good compromise. Also vital for better macro shots is a tripod.

Student Note

Sports Mode

Sports Mode

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For freezing of action, sports mode is your best scene mode option. Exposure settings are chosen to do the best possible job in good lighting conditions. Flash will not re in this mode. Flash would be unlikely to have any positive inuence on a sports picture due to the very limited range of the ash, among other factors. Lenses ideally suited to this mode would have a long focal length maximum (200-300mm). These lenses are available in xed (single) focal lengths, or zooms that offer a range of focal lengths in one lens. Long focal lengths are ideal for establishing a long reach to the action. Freezes action Flash will not re
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Student Note

Night Portrait Mode

Night Portrait Mode

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Mixes ash and existing light Best used with a tripod

Night Portrait Mode is ideal for situations when you are shooting people in dark conditions and you would like to see more of the background behind them in the same photo. Ideally, the background should have some light to it (street lights, lamps, decorative lights, etc.) This mode works by both ring the camera ash (to illuminate your foreground subject) and extending the exposure time (to allow the background ambient light to appear in the picture). This extended exposure time will require you to hold the camera extra steady. Bracing against a stable surface or using a tripod will help achieve better results.

Auto Exposure Mode

Night Portrait Mode


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Student Note

Landscape Mode

Landscape Mode
Landscape mode is almost the direct opposite of Portrait mode. This mode tries to keep the foreground and background of your image in focus. Wide angle lenses are most suitable for this type of shooting. Focal lengths between 15mm and 35mm ( approx. ) are ideal for getting started.

SOI

Keeps far away objects in focus Flash will not re


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Student Note

Lens Filters

Lens Filters

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Filters can protect your lens Can enhance photos Can reduce unwanted effects Polarizer filter example Fit simply on the end of your lens
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Lens lters can serve many purposes. In the example shown here, a polarizing lter was used to reduce reections in water and create a deeper, bluer sky. This same lter would reduce reections in a window. Other effect lters can change colours, soften focus, create contrast, or even introduce starbursts on bright points of light. Filters come in a wide range of sizes as well - tting all but the largest of lenses. Filters can also be highly useful as protective devices. UV lters, have no signicant effect on your photos and can thus act as a protective glass layer on the front of your lens. Should anything strike the front of your lens and scratch it, an expensive lens could be very costly to repair. Having a UV lter on the lens would absorb that damage - and cost.
Student Note

Lens Hoods

Why Use a Lens Hood?


Keeps stray light from entering lens Eliminates lens are Protection if camera is dropped

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Without Lens Hood

With Lens Hood

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What We Will Cover Today


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Scene Modes Summary


Mode Flash
Auto or off Off Auto or off Auto or off Off Auto or off

Camera Tour/Shooting Checklist Basic Shooting & Playback Scene Modes Starting to Take Control Controlling Focus Flash Fundamentals ISO/Exposure Compensation White Balance

White Balance
Auto Auto Auto Auto Auto Auto

Exp. Comp.
Not possible Not possible Not possible Not possible Not possible Not possible

Focus Mode
AF-A (default) AF-A (default) AF-A (default) AF-A (default) AF-A (default) AF-A (default)

Advance Mode
You set You set You set You set You set You set

ISO
You set You set You set You set You set You set
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AUTO Sports Close Up Portrait Landscape Night Portrait


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Scene Modes Summary


Scene modes are intended to be fairly automatic in their nature. They are designed to provide settings that best suit a general scenario. For certain scene modes, there are settings where you do get to make a decision (portrait mode for example will allow you to choose to re the ash or not). Some scene modes will not allow you to make such a choice (sports mode does not permit ash use).

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Scene Modes Summary


Mode AUTO Sports Close Up Portrait Landscape Night Portrait Flash Auto or off Off Auto or off Auto or off Off Auto or off White Balance Auto Auto Auto Auto Auto Auto Exp. Comp. Not possible Not possible Not possible Not possible Not possible Not possible Focus Mode AF-A (default) AF-A (default) AF-A (default) AF-A (default) AF-A (default) AF-A (default) Advance Mode You set You set You set You set You set You set ISO You set You set You set You set You set You set
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Student Note

Cannot Adjust

Scene Modes Summary


There are other settings (white balance, exposure compensation) which cannot be set or changed in any scene modes. The light blue highlight used on the chart indicates items which stand out as not being selectable in scene modes.

SOI

Programmed Auto Mode


Calculates exposure automatically: but... Flash doesnt pop up automatically Allows most settings to be customized
activate ash exposure compensation focus mode metering, etc

Remembers customized settings


Student Note

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Programmed Auto Mode (P Mode)

SOI

What We Will Cover Today


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Programmed auto mode provides the convenience of automatic exposure calculation, with the ability to override or customize most automatic features. This mode respects the photographers judgement more, allowing the photographer to have greater inuence over the nal shot with these overrides. Some of these overrides include:
- exposure compensation, ability to pop up ash if you feel it is needed, metering mode, advance mode, focus mode, white balance (many of these settings covered later in this workshop)

If you should leave the P mode (perhaps to use a Scene mode), any customization settings you had entered in P mode will be remembered and used when you return to the P mode.

Camera Tour/Shooting Checklist Basic Shooting & Playback Scene Modes Starting to Take Control Controlling Focus Flash Fundamentals ISO/Exposure Compensation White Balance

Student Note

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Focus Areas & Focus Modes


Focus points located in viewnder Focus Area Modes determine which points are used Focus Area Modes: Auto Area AF Single Area/Single Point Dynamic Area 3D Tracking Focus functionality between D90/D7000 very similar D90 focus points will be used for most examples
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D90

D7000

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Focus Points and Focus Area Modes

SOI

Focus points within the viewnder allow the photographer to determine where the sharpest focus will be in a picture. Various focus modes exist to let the photographer (or camera) determine which points will be used to achieve focus. Particular focus modes can be helpful in particular situations. Some focus modes are best for non-moving subjects, while others are best for subjects that are harder to focus upon due to their constant movement. Much like scene modes, the choice of which focus mode to use depends upon the shooting conditions at the time (and also your personal preference to which works best for your style of taking pictures).

Auto Area AF
Camera chooses focus points automatically based on subject that is closest to the camera Both cameras use all of their focus points (D90 = 11, D7000 = 39)

Student Note

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Auto Area AF

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As the name suggests, the Auto Area AF mode is a fully automatic focus point selection mode. The camera will choose the necessary focus points based on the object that is closest to the camera. This mode is ideal in situations where the subject you want in focus is immediately in front of you (nothing between you and subject).

Single Point
User selects one focus point only
Student Note
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Single Area/Single Point Focus Mode


With this mode, the user is in charge of selecting the focus point. When in this mode, the focus point is chosen with the Navigation Controller on the rear of the camera. Pressing the OK button in the centre of the controller will cause the centre focus point to be selected. Once a focus point is selected, you have the option of locking the point with the focus point lock switch on the back of the camera. This is not required, but will prevent you from accidentally selecting a different focus point while shooting. Ideal for stationary subjects.

SOI

Dynamic Area
User selects focusing point, camera may choose to select another focus point if movement detected
Student Note
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Dynamic Area for D7000


You can choose whether 9, 21 or all 39 points are used

Focus point shifts to follow


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Dynamic Area

SOI

Once a user selects a focus point in the Dynamic Area mode, the camera will honour that choice. However, if the camera detects movement across the camera frame, focus may be shifted to the focus point(s) where the object is moving to. The camera uses motion detect technology to decide where to shift the focus point to. In essence, you are granting the camera permission to change the focus point as needed in this mode. Best used with erratically moving subjects.

3D Tracking AF
Similar to Dynamic Area (focus point follows moving subjects) Uses colour info in subject for advanced tracking
Student Note
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3D Tracking
3D tracking allows for continuous focus based on which focus point was originally used to lock focus on your subject. To use, select focus point, place focus point on subject and lock. Once focus is locked, the focus points will follow your subject. This mode uses the colour of the area surrounding your focused subject for tracking. For this reason, this mode is best used when your subject and background are not of the same colour.

SOI

Important Note
Before We Explore How to Change the AF-Area Modes:
The AF-Area modes have some relevance to the Autofocus Modes which we explore shortly Therefore, depending on your camera settings, the AFArea modes we just discussed may not all be immediately available

Student Note

116

Focus Area Selection


1 4

D90

Focus Area Selection

D7000

3 2 3 1
Single Point

Turn

Choose

Push/Hold
3D Tracking

9, 21 & 39 Point Dynamic Area AF

Auto Area AF
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Practice Selecting Point

Focus & Recompose

Unlock

Focus and Recompose is an essential technique and is used for:


Portraits (focus on eyes) Sports (focus where subject will be) Macro (precision focus) Landscapes (focusing on near foreground) Composition (rule of thirds)
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Focus & Recompose

Focus and Recompose

Try This in Class:


1. Find subject (another student? make a friend!) 2. Select the center focus point 3. Focus on the subjects face. Press/hold shutter halfway (focus locks) Place focus point over desired area (eyes) Press/hold shutter button half way down (focus locks) Shift eld of view to create new framing Focus Lock Recompose (half-press) Press shutter down fully to take the shot Shoot (full-press) 4. Keep holding - shift eld of view for new composition 5. Press shutter fully to take the shot

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How Focusing is Driven


AF-A
AF-S or AF-C chosen by camera

Autofocus Modes
Autofocus mode refers to the mode that determines how focus behaves, irrespective of which focus points are used. Truly, there are only two autofocus modes. They are:
- AF-S Single Servo, and - AF-C Continuous Servo

SOI

AF-S Single Servo


Focusing locks once subject is focused Focus must lock to take a picture

AF-C Continuous Servo


Focuses continuously while shutter is pressed halfway down Take a picture at any time (focus & focus lock not required)
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AF-S Single servo mode requires that focus lock be achieved before a shot can be taken. This mode is the mode more likely to yield a sharp shot. AF-C Continuous Servo mode will focus continuously, never requiring focus lock to take a picture. A shot may be taken at any time in this mode, regardless of whether the subject is in focus or not. AF-A mode is not truly a separate mode per se, but rather it is a setting that allows the camera to dynamically choose to use AF-S or AF-C mode. The camera will choose AF-S if it detects little or no motion. AF-C will be selected if motion is detected.
Student Note

Change Autofocus Mode


D90 D7000
Press/Hold Press/Hold

Release Modes
Release Modes determine the rate at which images can be captured Single: (1 shutter press, 1 shot)

Turn

Turn

Continuous: (hold shutter down, multiple shots - L & H speeds) Self Timer: (1 shutter press, time delayed single shot) Delayed Remote: (2 sec. delay with remote use) Quick Response Remote: (immediate shot with remote use) Quiet Mode (D7000): (quieter single shot operation) Mirror Up (D7000): (locks mirror into up position prior to shooting)
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Select

Release Modes
Release modes (sometimes known as drive modes) control how pictures are taken by a single shutter press.

SOI

Setting Release Mode


D90 D7000

Single mode: Camera takes one picture each time shutter pressed all the way down. The user must press the shutter button a second time to take a second picture. Continuous modes: If shutter button is pressed all the way down and held, camera takes multiple pictures at a rapid rate. How many pictures can be taken and and at what rate are inuenced by many factors (le size, shutter speed, speed of memory card, etc). Self-timer modes will allow a delay of time to pass before the shutter is red (10 secs.) Quiet Mode (D7000 only): Single shot mode which raises the mirror in camera more quietly. Press shutter release to take the shot - hold the shutter release to prevent mirror from dropping. Mirror drops when shutter release is not pressed. This allows for a delay between mirror-up/mirror-down which lessens noise also.
Student Note

Press/Hold

Turn Turn Press Button Select

128

What We Will Cover Today


-

Built-in Flash
Convenient, always ready Limited power/range Scene modes use it if needed Can be used anytime in P Useful even in bright settings Can be used to solve unexpected problems

Camera Tour/Shooting Checklist Basic Shooting & Playback Scene Modes Starting to Take Control Controlling Focus Flash Fundamentals ISO/Exposure Compensation White Balance

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Built-in Flash

SOI

AUTO Mode Flash Issue


The camera is set to AUTO Subject is too dark Why?

Your cameras built-in ash is a convenient, always ready tool that can be called upon in variety of situations. Low light situations are the most obvious times where one would desire to use ash, but these are not the only times where your ash can be useful. It is important to understand that the built-in ash does have a very limited power/range capability. When using your cameras scene modes, the camera will decide to use the ash if it feels a need to do so. Some scene modes will not use the ash at all. We learned that in the P mode you can control when the ash is used (it becomes your decision to make). It may surprise you to learn that there are some situations where even if strong light is present, using the ash may be desirable. It may also surprise you to learn that in some situations with very low light, it is desirable to NOT use the ash. We will cover these scenarios now.
Student Note

132

Auto Mode Problem


Problem Situation - Backlit Subject Camera fooled, flash not triggered in auto mode.

SOI

Forcing the Flash ON


Solution
Set Mode Dial to P Force Flash ON

The camera does not think the flash is needed due to the bright
background.

Fill flash from the camera would be useful to bring out the lost
detail in the shadows. the flash up & on.

Remember - in AUTO mode the camera will not allow you to force The AUTO mode is not going to let us improve this shot.

2
Student Note
134

Solution - Use Fill Flash

SOI

Which Looks Better?

The AUTO mode will not allow you to raise the ash if the camera doesnt think its needed. The problem we encountered here is that the cameras meter was fooled by the bright background. Switching to the P mode will allow you to force the ash on. With ash engaged (yes, even in bright outdoor light) you are using ll ash. Fill ash provides a hit of light, just enough to ll in shadows on our foreground subject. The range of your pop up ash is limited, so you need to be fairly close to your subject for this to be effective. The P mode (as previously mentioned) allows the photographer to override some camera functions. Raising the ash when you want to is one of those overrides.
Student Note

+ Flash Forced ON
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Basic Flash Controls


Dark Large Interior using Auto Flash Mode
Too dark & uneven light Flash lacks power to illuminate room In Auto mode, the ash will re

Basic Flash Controls

The Solution: Available light ONLY But HOW?


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Cancel Flash in AUTO Mode


Press/Hold

Basic Flash Controls


To Accomplish This:

+
Turn

Or:

+
Cancel Flash

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Cancel Flash

SOI

External Flash
More power/reach Great exibility Can be used wirelessly Quality of light more controllable

In a dark or low light situation, it is natural to think that using a ash will solve the problem. Using the interior church picture as an example, we can immediately see that the built-in ash simply lacks the power and range to illuminate the entire room. Remember, a built-in ash has a very short range (a couple of meters or so). To solve this problem, we need to select a mode where we can ensure that the ash will not re at all. If this is done, the camera will evaluate the available light in the room and use a longer exposure time to allow that available light to inuence the nal picture. The extended exposure time will likely require that a tripod or other steadying device to be used, otherwise a blurry picture will result. There are several different mode/setting combinations that would allow this result.
Student Note

To learn more about using your ash, take our Mastering Flash workshop

142

What We Will Cover Today

ISO - Helps with Exposure


High ISO settings allow camera to shoot in lower light Can help freeze action (sports, etc) High ISOs can degrade image somewhat Set to AUTO most of the time

Camera Tour/Shooting Checklist Basic Shooting & Playback Scene Modes Starting to Take Control Controlling Focus Flash Fundamentals ISO/Exposure Compensation White Balance

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ISO - Helps with Exposure

SOI

ISO Settings Guide


ISO Setting
AUTO

ISO is a setting in your camera which (when set to higher settings) can assist with avoiding unwanted blur in lower light situations. The AUTO setting on the ISO scale allows the camera to choose the ISO it believes it needs automatically. There may be times where setting the ISO on your own is preferable. For example... When capturing night landscapes on a tripod, forcing the ISO to a lower setting (like 100) can help us get the cleanest possible image (less noise/grain & more vivid colours). A slight degradation in image quality (noise, some colour loss) can occur with higher ISO settings. It is generally desired to have ISO set at the lowest possible setting to avoid this. However, if your current lighting situation is unfavourable (dark), a higher ISO may be the only way to achieve a good hand-held result or to freeze action. Current Nikon camera models are among the best at minimizing image degradation at higher ISO settings.

Situation
Most shooting situations Controlled light/ash, strong available light, tripod use Weak available light, indoor events (theatre/plays), hockey

100-400

800-3200

Student Note

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ISO Settings Guide

SOI

ISO Sensitivity

The ISO setting in your camera should be left to AUTO for most shooting situations. The camera will determine a suitable ISO automatically when this is engaged. ISO 100-400 is ideal when you wish to desire optimum image quality, and are in strong light situations (sunny day, ash use etc). If light is not so strong but you plan to use a tripod or other steadying device, this is also an ideal setting for ISO. ISO 800-3200 should be specically selected in challenging light situations, or where light is moderate but you wish to capture motion without motion blur. Indoor hockey arenas are considered fairly low light (even though the ice seems bright). A higher ISO setting will allow the camera to freeze action better in these challenging light situations. ISO is explained in greater technical detail in the Nikon Part 2 workshop.
Student Note

ISO 100 (Lo 1)

ISO 1600

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ISO Sensitivity

ISO Sensitivity

* with ash cancelled

100 ISO
* with tripod & 2 sec timer
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800 ISO
150

Changing ISO Value


Press/Hold

Exposure Compensation

Turn

Select ISO 200

Learn more about ISO in our Part 2 DSLR Camera Workshops


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Quick & easy adjustment for image brightness Uses a simple scale called EV or Exposure Value Affects the entire scene
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Exposure Compensation

Exposure Compensation

Why Use It?


Camera light meters dont always get it right You may simply prefer a darker/lighter shot than what the camera gave initially
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Available in P & other advanced modes Darker Brighter

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Exposure Compensation
Bright sky caused an overall darker exposed image Brightened with +1.0 EV compensation

Exposure Compensation
Scene looks slightly over-bright and washed out Compensate with -1.0 EV to darken scene/saturate colours

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Exposure Compensation

SOI

Setting Exp. Compensation


Press/Hold

Exposure Compensation allows you to override the cameras exposure intention for a particular scene. There are two fundamental reasons to want to do this. Reason One: Although your cameras light meter will usually do a good job of automatically determining what exposure settings are needed for a particular shot, sometimes the meter can be fooled by a tricky lighting situation. In cases like these a moderate amount of exposure compensation (selected by you) will darken or brighten your image to get it right. Reason Two: Even when the camera gets the exposure right, you may wish to brighten or darken the image in order to adjust the nal outcome to your liking. This is purely a matter of preference. This setting does not reset from shot to shot. Remember to set the compensation to 0 when composing a new shot.
Student Note

Turn

Select

Be aware! Exposure Compensation does not reset when camera is turned off
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Exposure Compensation

White Balance

1. Find a suitable subject to take three pictures 2. Use identical framing and zoom for all three pictures 3. Take three pictures using variations on exposure compensation (+1.0, -1.0 and 0) 4. Compare the three images
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Sets correct colour for current scenario Presets available for common situations Auto WB available

White Balance
In order to render colours correctly in a picture, the camera uses the colour of white as a reference point. Once the camera understands which information in your scene is white, all other colours will appear normal. If the camera does not correctly determine which parts of your scene are white, colours will be shifted and appear incorrect. Your camera is equipped with many white balance override settings which you can use to correct colour. These overrides are preset for various scenes and the light temperature that each scene likely contains. Auto white balance attempts to determine the correct colour temperature for the current scene. This is convenient, but not always accurate.

SOI

White Balancing

Student Note

Auto White Balance (too blue)

Daylight WB Setting (correct colour)

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White Balancing

White Balancing

Auto White Balance Auto White Balance Shade Setting


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Incandescent Setting (More Accurate Colour)


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(Too Yellow/Orange)

Changing White Balance


Press/Hold
1

White Balance Via Menus

2 1

Turn

Set
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Now That Youve Completed Nikon D90/7000 Pt. 1


Download Notes

Portrait Lighting Nikon DSLR Pt. 2 Travel Photography Mastering Flash Composition Better Pictures of Your Kids - (DSLR) Great Video With Your DSLR

Notes Password

NK7K6892

Why Shoot RAW?

Photoshop Elements
Part 1

Photoshop Elements
Part 2

Photoshop Elements
Part 3

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Adobe Lightroom 2
Part 2

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