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by Thomas R. Jahns, Extension Faculty, Agriculture and Horticulture, and Jeff Smeenk, Extension Horticulture Specialist
nce you have picked the right location, built a greenhouse structure that fits your needs, developed your growing medium and picked appropriate plant varieties that respond successfully to long day lengths, it is now essential to focus your attention on the control of the greenhouse environment. This is especially important if you are to be successful in getting the most out of your construction investment and efforts. By optimizing light, temperature and humidity, in conjunction with the proper fertilization, watering and selection of adapted varieties, an endless array of growing opportunities await the Alaska greenhouse gardener and commercial producer.
Incandescent The incandescent “light bulb” type of light source may be useful in controlling day length, but it offers little help as a grow light. Since the major portion of energy going into incandescent bulbs is released as heat rather than as light, conventional light bulbs are primarily used to manipulate photoperiod rather than as supplemental lighting to enhance growth. Quartz-Halogen (Spotlights) The quartz-halogen “spotlight” type bulbs produce a whiter light and are more electricity-efficient than the incandescent bulb, but because they, too, deliver a point-source type of illumination they are far less efficient than other available bulbs. Fluorescent Fluorescent bulbs are the most commonly used light source for the home gardener. Fluorescent bulbs produce a linear light that gives off more efficient and uniform lighting than incandescent types. Fluorescent bulbs are available in 28–225 watt configurations and can be stacked in banks to enhance coverage areas. In late winter/early spring, most gardeners who start plants from seed utilize some type of inexpensive fluorescent shop light system as their light source.
Operating a greenhouse during the typical Alaska outdoor growing season (May through September) requires no light supplementation. The two main reasons to use supplemental lighting are to increase plant growth during low-light levels and to manipulate the photoperiod (ratio of day length to night length) to either initiate or delay flowering. Comparisons between several light supplementation sources are offered below (Table 1). All components of the lamp should be UL/ CSA approved.
The 28–40 watt bulbs work great for germinating seeds and growing seedlings, which do not require the more expensive, higher intensity, full spectrum “grow lights.” The key in the use of these low-output lights is that you must orient them to within an inch of the top of the plants to capture all the light intensity (lumens) they have to offer. If they are not placed close to the plants, internodal elongation will occur, producing weak, spindly plants that will generally not perform well. While houseplants, seedlings and low-light flowering plants can flourish under fluorescent lights, they fall far short of the light requirements needed to produce most mature flowering and fruiting plants. White reflectors or reflectors made from aluminum foil may aid in maximizing what little light is available from these lowintensity bulbs (Table 2).
these conditions the lamps are hung very close to the seedlings. Because seedlings require much lower light levels than mature plants, several fluorescent lamps alone are capable of meeting their light requirements. As the seedlings enter their vegetative growth stage, their light requirements rapidly outpace the fluorescent lamps’ capability of providing enough light intensity and quality to meet their demands. To sustain this rapid growth past the seedling stage, plants need to be moved into a greenhouse where direct sunlight or high-output artificial lighting is available.
High-Intensity Discharge (HID) High-intensity discharge bulbs are the most costly to purchase and operate but offer the highest quality light output of all grow-light bulbs. Where plant appearance is critical and natural sunlight limited, metal halide Fluorescent lighting is rarely used in commercial bulbs should be used. Due to their energy efficiency greenhouses for producing mature flowering or fruiting and the general quality of the light spectrum emitted plants because of their low-intensity output and the (yellowish light), high-pressure sodium (HP sodium) sunlight-shading effects that their fixtures and reflectors lights are the most commonly used types found in create. Their primary use in commercial operations commercial greenhouses. is in providing light for germination benches. Under Table 1. Light Source Comparisons Light Source Incandescent Lamp Wattage 40 100 150 200 75 250 40 75 110 215 40 40 250 400 1,000 250 400 1,000 Total Wattage 40 100 150 200 75 250 48 84 138 262 47 47 295 425 1,080 300 440 1,145 Initial Lumens* 460 1,620 2,850 3,350 1,000 5,000 3,150 6,300 9,200 15,500 925 1,700 20,500 31,500 110,000 27,500 48,000 140,000 Avg. Life (hrs.) 1,500 1,000 1,000 1,000 2,000 4,000 7,500 12,000 12,000 9,000 12,000 12,000 10,000 20,000 11,000 24,000 24,000 24,000
Halogen Fluorescent Cool White (CW) CW–high output CW – Very High output Gro-lux Wide Spectrum Metal Halide High-Pressure Sodium
*Lumens: Units of measurement of light. One lumen = one foot-candle falling on 1 square foot of area. Source: Adapted from Greenhouse Engineering (NRAES-33); Poot, J. 1984. Application of Growlight in Greenhouses; and Horticultural Lighting by Philips Lighting Company, Somerset, N.J.
The reflector controls the uniformity of the light pattern and the amount of light reflected onto the crop. Hanging Baskets and Plant Selection. Daylength requirements vary. In addition to the wattage choices (lamp intensity) the day length can successfully be lengthened (please see lamp layout design necessary to achieve uniform light local building codes for safe application) (Bartok.0 110 180 3. levels also depends on the fixture type.M. which increases heat and can lead to premature bulb failure. Although it is more costly to purchase several smaller lights than one large one. Department of Agriculture. and in Alaska may limit the survival of even the most temperature-hardy outdoor perennials.Table 2. Reducing day length in Alaska is more difficult shape and the distance from the bottom of the reflector to the top of the crop at each stage. If there are sections that receive less light. there are several wattages of HID lamps available. the reflector also 3 Picture 1. These criteria will determine the distance needed between lamp fixtures. natural light availability and greenhouse design.0 260 400 2. and L. HID lights have a lamp. In the greenhouse environment. Another important reflector design criteria is to stop any light from reflecting back into the bulb. Terrariums. The photoperiod. U. 1978. Plant growth and photoperiod manipulation have different supplemental lighting requirements to accomplish their desired goals. H. the plants in these areas will become etiolated (“leggy”) and the crop will not develop the uniform height that the market desires. how the greenhouse design impacts the choice of lamp wattage is not readily apparent. Indoor Gardening – Artificial Lighting. multiple lights allow additional flexibility in achieving uniform light dispersal. which can be managed with proper ventilation to avoid premature failure. In a greenhouse with a low roof it may be challenging to achieve uniform light with 1000-watt fixtures since the distance that they can be moved above the crop is limited. The design and placement of the lamp reflector is also a critical factor. These range from 150–1000 watts. in turn.0 60 100 4. reflector.S. the reflector 2000). blocks a certain amount of sunlight from reaching the crop. HID lamp with bulb. Campbell. reflector and ballast/ capacitor . ballast and capacitor (Picture 1). affects many plants.E. An efficient greenhouse operation will maximize its lighting by assuring a uniform level of light across all of its growing benches. depending upon species (Table 3). day length is easily extended with lights and an adjustable 24-hour timer. They operate at high temperatures. or day length. By stringing 60-watt incandescent bulbs (with reflectors) four feet apart down a four-foot-wide bed and supported no higher than five feet above the plants. While the crop light requirements are normally documented and the natural lighting duration measurable. determine how many lamps will be necessary to provide the desired amount of supplemental light. Depending on the crop needs. Unfortunately.0 40 60 *fc= foot candles. which will. Illumination at Various Distances from Either Cool White or Warm White Fluorescent Lamps (fc)* Standard 40W T12 Fixtures Distance from Lamp (ft.) Without Reflectors With Reflectors 0.5 500 700 1. Source: Cathey. Photoperiod can be easily manipulated using ordinary incandescent light bulbs.
500 180 9. 4 .Table 3. Adapted from Application of Growlight in Greenhouses.300 650 30 240 Day length Hours 13 16 24 18 16 16 14 18 24 18 24 14 20 20 18 18 18 18 18 16 18 16 16 16 16 16 24 16 24 18 18 16 18 24 16 8 16 *Foot-candles: a foot-candle is how bright the light is one foot away from the source. N.000 240 4.000 370 3. Philips Lighting Co. m Foot-candles* 3.000 240 6.000 240 7.000 240 8. Stock Cuttings Stock/Prop. Recommendations for Supplemental Greenhouse Plant Lighting Plant Species Alstromeria Anthirrhinum Azalea Bedding Plants Begonia Bromeliads Cacteae Calceolaria Camellia Chrysanthemum Cyclamen Gesneria Kalanchoe Ferns Foliage Geranium Gerbera Gladiolus Nursery Stock Orchids Rose Sinningia (gloxinia) Stephanotis Succulents Cucumbers Lettuce Strawberries Tomatoes Crop Stage Cultivation Propagation Cultivation Propagation Forcing Seedlings Stock/Prop. Propagation Cuttings/Prop.000 240 6. and Philips Lighting Application Guide. Cut Flowers Rooting/Prop.000 370 6.000 240 4.J.000 740 7.000 4.500 180 6. St.500 9.500 25.000 240 6.000 240 3.500 180 9.000 240 4.000 240 6.000 650 9.000 120 9.000 240 485 370 485 2.. Somerset.000 7.000 240 6.500 700 9. Seedlings Minimum Light Levels Watts/sq.000 370 6.000 370 4..000 350 6. Source: Energy Conservation for Commercial Greenhouses (NRAES-3). PL Light Systems. Catherines.000 370 6. Propagation Forcing Propagation Forcing Cultivation Stock Rooting Cut Flowers Propagation Propagation Cultivation Stock Rooting/Prop. Ont.000 240 6.000 4. Production Cultivation Propagation Cultivation Seedlings Propagation Seedlings (growth room) Crop Production (GH) Fruit Prod.000 120 6.000 120 4.000 240 6.500 180 6.500 180 6.
energy values should be operating costs: operating costs = fixture wattage x obtained for the light fixtures being considered (Table electricity cost x hours.5m x When the main purpose of supplemental lighting is to 3m) = 112.000 mW/sq. several other factors must be of the lamps to be used (if we use 400W high-pressure considered.400 9. J. Philips Lighting Co.970 4. Alaska. Effective flux is assumed hours of electricity used.500 mW total. Energy Values for Four Illumination Sources Light Source Total Input (W) Lamp Flux (lm) Effective Flux (lm)* Lamp Flux (mW) Conversion Factor (mW/lm) Effective Flux (mW)* Incandescent I150W 150 2. which was the 2009 and fluorescent lamps.000 ___ 38. The following formula will help to calculate determined (Table 3).5 m throughout the entire light-reduction period to avoid x 3 m bed under lights. N. depending on reflectors. m (1. depending upon reflectors.500 25. The HID bulbs in particular. (For example. Somerset. First. Source: Adapted with permission from Poot.400 (Table • Crop light requirements 4) = 2.135 2. • Desired light intensity and quality • Uniformity of light pattern (number of fixtures Light unit PAR comparisons and conversions between HP required) sodium. Divide that by effective flux enhance plant growth. effective flux Warning: only 1–2 foot candles of light will cause a light response in plants.300 Metal halide 400W 425 31. you would need the following reduced day-length manipulation failures. the minimum light supplementation expensive to operate if multiday. Application of Growlights in Greenhouses and Horticultural Lighting.. Next. It can vary from a low of less than 50% to a high of 70% for incandescent and fluorescent lamps. Table 4. if your monthly to be approximately 80 percent of the lamp flux for electric bill is $125 and you averaged 650 KWhr per high-intensity discharge lamps.20 / KWhr). Fixture wattage = number of bulbs x (bulb wattage + The number of fixtures required equals the required light fixture wattage).but can be accomplished by covering plants (to keep N= light level x surface area them in total darkness) for the required period of time. Homer Electric Company consumer rate for Kenai. 5 .500/38. For electricity costs refer to a recent level multiplied by the surface area to be illuminated electric bill and divide total costs by number of kilowattdivided by the effective flux. may be extremely to be utilized.5 sq. • Operating costs • Financial return on investment The cost of supplemental lighting should be considered prior to the purchase of a light supplementation Light selection will depend upon the plant application system.600 *The effective flux is assumed to be approximately 80% of the lamp flux for the two HID lamps. 1984. metal halide and sunlight are offered in Table 5.2 ___ Flourescent HP sodium F40CW/40W 400W 48 440 3.J. then your average cost per kilowatt hour is 20 of 50 percent to a high of 70 percent for incandescent cents ($125/650=$0.3 88. long-hour applications requirements to grow a given plant species must be are needed. m (Table 3) x 4.9 ___ 110.150 48.850 ___ 11. These include sodium bulbs we would need 112. so total darkness is required If you were going to grow lettuce seedlings in a 1. It may vary from a low month. 4). light system (or equivalent) to accomplish this goal: light level 25.200 2.400 2.8 70.93 (or three 400W sodium lamps).200 88.
C. Washington. Faust.00054 x hours of light 0.15 Footcandles x 0.13 Footcandles x 0.320 watts x $0.0 12.3 7.9 October 9. Each bulb fixture requires an additional 40 ballast watts (Table 1).m-2 s-1 of PAR (400-700 nm) Moles/day (PAR) Watts/m2 (PAR) Watts/m2 (total energy) Type of Measurement Main use Visible (human eye) Visible (human eye) Quanta of light in PAR range “daily light integral”: accumulated PAR light during an entire day Energy in PAR range Total energy Compared with 1 foot-candle Sunlight HP Sodium Metal Halide Industry (U. Shading With Alaska’s intense summer sunshine and extreme day lengths.074 0. Conversion Between Different Light Units Unit Foot-candles Lux µmol. research 0.8 June 21. Bulletin.033 0.7 11. D.089 Source: Fisher.00071 x hours of light 0.38/day (1000 watts/kilowatt). Glazing materials offer some inherent shading characteristics that should not be ignored.S. U.6 10. Table 8 offers some examples of different glazing materials. Table 7 offers shading suggestions for an assortment of common ornamental plants grown under northeast United States environmental conditions.. sunny days in summer. Ohio Florists Assn.76 10.76 10.8 16. especially during our clear.15/kilowatt-hour x 12 hours = $2. There are two distinct categories of shading materials for the greenhouse: in one category shading compounds 6 . Evaluating Supplemental Light for Your Greenhouse.76 (Europe) Horticulture research Horticulture research Engineers.7 February 8. The addition of shade cloth to the outside of the greenhouse would help cool the greenhouse during the heat of the day. 2001.6 September 13. we needed three 400W HP sodium bulbs to cover our 4.5 sq. so we would use a total of 400 + 40 x 3 = 1.20 Footcandles x 0. in the other category shade fabrics are draped over or under the glazing material.5 9.0 5.3 6. m growing area. compared to Alaska. so we would need to supplement approximately 12 hours per day (Table 6) of supplemental daylight (if we were to start these seedlings in mid-March).00047 x hours of light 0.9 18.3 July 19. If we return to our lettuce-seedling growing example above.S.) 1 1 1 Industry 10.5 15. While the degree of required shading may be higher in the Northeast. C. and J. Naval Observatory.1 November 6. Lettuce seedlings require 24 hours of daylight (Table 3). research Engineers.101 0. so check with a greenhouse equipment supplier for a system tailored to your needs. P.026 0.1 March 11. are directly applied to the outer glazing material.4 December 4.320 watts per KWhr. shading is important in controlling greenhouse temperatures in Alaska.1 August 16. greenhouse shading may be required to maximize plant performance and control temperature.Table 5.8 April 15.043 0.4 18. Donnelly.9 Adapted from 2004 Astronomical Applications Department. Table 6. Alaska Month Fairbanks Kenai January 5.7 May 18. Average Monthly Day-length Hours for Fairbanks and Kenai. Operating costs = 1. There are many inside and outside installation options.2 14.
In Alaska. United States Suggested degree of shade Type of plants 25–35% Geraniums. check with your local Alaska greenhouse operators who utilize UVinhibited polyethylene glazings. Used glazing can often be purchased for a fraction of the new cost and will generally give several years of excellent service to the greenhouse gardener. dracaena 75–80% Palms Source: Greenhouses for Homeowners and Gardeners (NRAES-137) Heating and Heat Loss Greenhouse heating is required in Alaska when extending the growing season (both early and late). Double-layer polyethylene glazing is commonly used commercially in Alaska. Nationally. infrared radiation and light that enters and is absorbed by objects in the greenhouse (which warm up) and then is reradiated back into the greenhouse or beyond. 2003. Solar Greenhouses – Horticulture Resource List. the IRPolyethylene glazing should be considered. although it may be limited in availability (check with your local commercial greenhouse operators). . 2001). snapdragons 45–50% Bedding plants. Greenhouse Glazing Light Transmittance Values Glazing Percent Light Transmittance Glass-single 85–95 Glass-Factory sealed double 70–75 Polyethylene-single 80–90 (new) Polyethylene-double 60–80 Polyethylene-corrugated high density 70–75 Laminated acrylic/poly film-double 87 Impact modified acrylic-double 85 Fiber reinforced plastic 85–90 (new) Polycarbonate-double wall rigid 83 Source: Adapted from: Bellows. Polyethylene. Table 8. depending upon the plant species grown. cloud cover and the ambient temperature determine the amount of radiant heat loss. and a major reason why most commercial greenhouses are seasonally run. Radiant heat is the amount of solar radiation. Agriculture and Engineering Service. improves thermal radiation retention by approximately 20 percent (Natural Resource. philodendron. while single-layer polyethylene is one of the least efficient. B. ivy. poinsettias 55–60% Orchids. chrysanthemums. treated with infrared radiation (IR) absorbing materials. caladiums 50–55% Azaleas. ATTRA National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service. Glazings or greenhouse coverings. begonias. lilies. ficus 60–65% Rhododendron. polyethylene glazings should have a UV inhibitor built into them if more than one season of use is required. the cost of heating comprises 70–80 percent of the annual energy dollars spent in a commercial greenhouse operation (Natural Resource.E. African violets. Agriculture and Engineering Service. For the minimal cost difference. and will often enhance summer plant growth by keeping nighttime temperatures above ambient levels. "Greenhouse Effect"). gloxinias. pachysandra. it may even be greater. Glass or rigid plastic glazing is the best at trapping thermal radiation (greater than 96 percent.Table 7. 2001). allowing more than 50 percent of the 7 In either case. It offers thermal radiation retention that is 67 percent more efficient than single-layer polyethylene. thermal radiation to escape. dieffenbachia 70–75% Fern. If on a tight budget. bromeliads. Shading Requirements of Select Plants Grown in N.
offer multiple temperature zone capabilities within a greenhouse and can be run at lower. Pellet stoves.and postcracks and crevices. a burning Hot water heaters and boilers that provide radiator. In borderline locations. also be used and in some cases offer a dual purpose. are also worth considering. right for supplementing heat for a few pre. Normally. Source: Adapted from Greenhouses for Homeowners and Gardeners (NRAES-137). or when evening temperatures when wind speed increases from 0 to 15 mph. Research at the University of Connecticut configurations and fuel options. wood stove should always be attended. While not as responsive to rapid temperature adjustments as hot-air heaters. makes an excellent heat source. individual locations may have temperatures lower than this. on-thewall or freestanding. closed system. electric heaters work well in a Heater Selection Gas hot-air heaters come in a wide variety of greenhouse. if the greenhouse to be heated is large enough. At nighttime. which also helps to promote condensation runoff. while more costly to run. glazing should be kept clear. Estimated Heat Requirements in BTUs/Square Foot of Surface Area Zone* A B C D E F -40°F -30°F -20°F -10°F -0°F 15°F Lean-to Greenhouse Single glazing 370 330 290 250 210 175 Double glazing 250 220 190 160 130 100 Freestanding Greenhouse Single glazing 400 360 320 280 240 180 Double glazing 250 225 200 175 150 110 G 30°F 140 70 120 85 *Zone. Unfortunately. in Alaska greenhouses. whether hanging. even Both gas and electrically fired. uniform temperatures in spring and fall. while provide even heating. since most Alaska greenhouses use at least a 6/12 roof pitch for snow shedding. Infiltration is the air exchanged between the generally inexpensive to purchase and may be just inside and outside of the greenhouse through holes. The boiler units should use a expensive. The heat requirement doubles growing season nights. have proven to be fast heating. Convection is the heat lost by cooler wind blowing over the warmer surface of the Electric heaters. hot water baseboard and radiant floor heaters provide a more uniform temperature. Heat in the greenhouse. respectively).Condensation forming on the underside of polyethylene glazing can help to reduce thermal radiation escape 50– 75 percent (light to heavy condensation. Natural and bottled found an electrical cost savings of 25 percent when gas hot-air heaters are some of the more economical heating an 8 x 12 greenhouse with infrared vs. This type of system must be protected from freezing until it is winterized by draining water and blowing air through all lines. to produce hot water for both heating the air and heating accessible tap water that can be tempered for plant watering. Although safety is an issue. greenhouses. Unit heaters. drop below a safe margin during the growing season. utility and efficient heater types available for Alaska hot-air heaters (Bartok. a wood stove installation sources for Alaska greenhouses. The table assumes a 60°F inside night temperature and the following minimum temperatures for your given area. select the colder zone. as well as the home and garage. are glazing. baseboard heaters or infrared heaters. Whether you choose utility heaters. Wood heating makes both a good main and supplemental economically priced and low-maintenance heating heat source. these heating sources a thermostatically controlled one. regulation is a drawback when using a wood stove. a radiant floor and bench heat continue to gain acceptance gas or electric back-up system should be utilized. than Convection and infiltration also influence heat loss their hot-air counterparts. condensation is not an issue. Standard home hot water heaters may Table 9. this thermal radiation reduction comes at the expense of light and solar radiation reception. 8 . In Alaska. 2000). Remember.
By comparing the quick (Table 9) versus comprehensive (examples 1 and 2 below) heater requirement formulas.25 1. These are especially useful in emergency situations. although again within acceptable levels. 8 inches + 2 inches foamed urethane board Concrete block. The heat loss factor depends on the glazing insulation properties. if kept well maintained.5-inch thick urethane board Perimeter.120 Btu/hr. you will find a similar overestimation from the quick method.5 0.4 Source: Greenhouses for Homeowners and Gardeners (NRAES-137) 9 . 1-K grade portable kerosene heaters have been successfully used in greenhouses. kerosene. a correctly sized heater can be obtained (when shopping for heaters make sure you compare heater output values not heater input values). 1-inch thick Concrete block..4 0. but may be advantageous in a situation where both the house and greenhouse share a common heat source. Table 10 lists the U-value for some of the more popular glazing and wall materials used. value coming from Zone G.2 1. Oil-fired furnaces are usually too large to fit into a greenhouse structure. An oversized heater is always better than an undersized heater in Alaska. Heat Transfer Coefficients Greenhouse glazing or wall materials Glass . of floor space. but is rarely an issue for the seasonal greenhouse gardener. A more accurate and complicated method for calculating heat loss from a greenhouse utilizes the following formula: HL = SA x U x TD. ft. abnormally low temperature heating requirement can make the difference between saving and losing a crop. Working through the lean-to examples for both the quick and the comprehensive methods. 8 inches Poured concrete.8 0. where HL is heat loss. Heat loss is a measure of the amount of heat needed to maintain the desired temperature for one hour.Fuel heaters (oil. ft.8 0.2 1. greenhouse heater requirements by approximately 6. By matching Btu/hr. 6 feet Softwood lumber. The importance of a heater backup system is crucial to commercial. more than one heating system is commonly used.single Polycarbonate .2 0. x 16 ft. These U-value: (Btu/(hours x °F x square feet) 1.single Fiberglass reinforced plastic .75 1. and TD represents the difference between desired night temperature and winter design temperature for your area.5 0. it will require a heater capable of (192 x 360 Btu/sq. if your freestanding greenhouse floor dimensions measure 12 ft. year-round greenhouse heating in Alaska.07 0.double Acrylic or polycarbonate . By utilizing the information found in Table 9 and determining the square footage of your greenhouse (rectangle or square layout: length x width) a quick estimate of heater requirements can be obtained.10 0. the higher the value. U is the heat loss factor for the roof and wall material. If you are supplementing heat all winter (Zone B: -30°F minimum temperature) and have a single glazing on your greenhouse. greenhouse heating requirements (heat loss) with Btu/hr.) 23. uninsulated Perimeter. If you are supplying heat only from April through October in Southcentral Alaska. 8 inches + 2 inches foamed polystyrene board Poured concrete. ft.000 Btu/hr. it will require a heater capable of Table 10. Commercially. you have 192 sq.07 0. For example. The less insulative the glazing material is. 24 inches deep approximately (192 x 120 Btu/sq.single Glass – single w/ thermal blanket Plastic film .040 Btu/hr.6 0. 6 inches + 2 inches foamed urethane board Wood-framed wall with 1.12 0..single Plastic film .double Plastic film – double w/ thermal blanket Standard concrete blocks. we find that the quick method overestimated the freestanding 12 ft.10 0. ft. Planning for the occasional. x 16 ft. white gas and diesel) without ventilation are not recommended for greenhouse use. insulated: 2-inch foam board.) 69. heater output. (with the 120 Btu/sq. SA is surface area of greenhouse. which is certainly ballpark.
x 16 ft.2 x 90 = 56. In a properly built and oriented solar greenhouse.4 ft.4 sq.2 x 90 = 63.5 x 12 ft. ft. ft. = 192 sq. commercial greenhouse. x 16 ft. but again is more of a commercial greenhouse issue. ft. (a2 + b2 = c2) x 16 ft. Greenhouse (adapted with permission from Greenhouses for Homeowners and Gardeners. NRAES-137).) of greenhouse (SA) x U factor (U) x Temperature difference between minimum outside and 60°F inside (standard) (TD) Given: SA = 526.) of greenhouse (SA) x U factor (U) x Temperature difference between minimum outside and 60°F inside (standard) (TD) Given: SA=586. Total: 586. Roof: 2 ft. U-value (single layer polycarbonate – Table 10) = 1. Roof: 13. Heat Loss (HL) = Surface area (sq. This radiation is captured in storage structures.851 Btu/hr. ft. ft. ft.4 sq. ft. = 214. ft. making the transition to the greenhouse much later and less energy demanding than for a commercial greenhouse operator. = 96 sq.multiple heater systems are often set up to efficiently utilize one heater as the primary heat source.7 ft. ft. (a2 + b2 = c2) x 16 ft. Compartmentalization of plant germination and grow areas can reduce the need for heating the entire greenhouse early season. Surface area: Ends: 2 x 6 ft. with a backup system available for extremely low outside temperature drops or primary heater failures. x 6 ft.4 sq. Total: 526.4 sq. Alaska home greenhouse gardeners often start their seedlings under grow lights in the garage or basement. x 12 ft.4 sq. = 144 sq. = 72 sq. Solar heating is an alternative heat source derived from the sun in the form of solar radiation.4 sq. Lean-to 12 ft.5 x 12 ft. Freestanding 12 ft. ft. ft. Peaks (end walls): 2 x 0. ft. but are generally not issues for the home greenhouse. x 12 ft. Sides: 2 x 6 ft. Example 2.4 x 1. U-value (single layer polycarbonate – Table 10) = 1.4 x 1. Peaks (endwalls) = 2 x 0. 10 . Sidewall: 6 ft.2 TD= 60°F [desired inside temperature] + 30 (-30°F) = 90 Heat Loss = 526. = 214. x 16 ft. NRAES-137). ft. x 16 ft. as much Example 1.2 TD= 60°F [desired inside temperature] + 30 (-30°F) = 90 Heat Loss = 586. purposely built into a solar greenhouse. that have the potential to reradiate this energy back into the greenhouse at night.331 Btu/hr. x 6. = 144 sq. Surface area: End walls: 2 x 6 ft. ft. x 3 ft. = 36 sq. Heater convection tubing and orientation also may play an important role in heat distribution within a large. Heat Loss (HL) = Surface Area (sq. Greenhouse (adapted from Greenhouses for Homeowners and Gardeners.
J. Table 11. there is usually an exhaust system solar radiation reception. Temperature Control Systems (Ventilation) Except for the south-facing glazing. When the temperature rises in the The design of a solar greenhouse differs from a normal greenhouse.340 Concrete/Concrete Block Brick 60ºF 224/cubic foot 271 70 448 542 80 672 813 90 896 1.500 4. As the sun warms the greenhouse. Ross. D.. Roberts. A shallower slope of 50–60° is appropriate for capturing a spring or fall sun.668 30-Gallon Barrel 55-Gallon Barrel 60ºF 2. a single system can service both needs. 1982. In small 20° of true south. Solar Greenhouses for the Home (NRAES-2). Parsons. W.251 90 334 1.A. In west and a long southern exposure for optimal light and larger greenhouses. the temperature inside can rise rapidly. Without a method of ridding the excess heat the temperature can rise to a level that is fatal to the crops within.760 90 10. Ithaca. Orignially published in Bartok. N.000 9. It is the primary function of the ventilation system to prevent that drastic buildup of heat by replacing the hot air with cooler outside air. there must be a way to get rid of the excess greenhouse design. White. Cooling Table 11 summarizes several of the radiation storage Need for air movement in the greenhouse structure options in common use. J. Also. A these systems to work together. a solar greenhouse should be oriented to within for proper gas and relative humidity control.S. with the ridge of the greenhouse eastgreenhouses.: Natural Resource. and R.590 70 5. The slope of the greenhouse and a circulation system. In Alaska.Y. 11 . It is most important to get roof glazing is also critical in a solar greenhouse. in a solar greenhouse supplemental heat may be required. Air movement systems rule of thumb for estimating the desired slope when range from do-it-yourself systems with parts salvaged targeting the capture of a winter sun’s energy is to use from many sources to computer controlled integrated your latitude angle plus 15°. most of the roof and walls of a solar greenhouse are insulated.084 Rocks in Crate Under Stone in Floor Bench 0 60 F 240/cubic foot 220/cubic foot 70 480 440 80 720 660 90 960 880 Adapted from Greenhouses for Homeowners and Gardeners (NRAES-137). At night. There orientation to the sun.500 13. Solar Heat Storage Assuming a 50°F Minimum Greenhouse Temperature Water/Air Temperature BTUs Stored 1-Gallon Jug 5-Gallon Jug 60ºF 83 417 70 167 834 80 250 1. the desired systems that need to be professionally designed and winter roof glazing angle falls somewhere between 75° installed.000 18. Agriculture and Engineering Service (out of print).170 80 7. and 80°.as two days of heat can be captured from a March sun. One of the major differences is in its heat and replace the leaving hot air with cooler air. Aldrich. John W. C. especially when the weather is cloudy and solar-radiation limiting. To maximize the sun’s available is also the need to move air within the plant canopy energy. There are two primary greenhouse needs that airflow must address.A. an insulation blanket or other insulative-type materials are unrolled or somehow attached to the inside of the glazing area to retain heat.
thus cooling the interior of the structure (Figure 1). or series of fans. This wind induced cooling can be significant. best. Second. outside air.In some small greenhouses adequate ventilation can be achieved by simply leaving a door or window open or by removing a section of the covering (Picture 2).and largesized greenhouses. While temporary greenhouses may utilize Visqueentype materials. Minimize obstructions such as trees and buildings that can reduce or redirect the wind. as air heats up. The lost hot air is replaced by cooler air coming in through side vents (or other uncontrolled leaks in the structure). but significant air exchange also takes place when the wind is blowing in the same direction as an open. The nice thing about this type of design is that the walls can be rolled up or down (design dependent) to achieve desirable ventilation (Picture 4). the need for roof. On sunny days in Alaska. The massive movement of the air in the wind can draw air out of the house. One of the least expensive greenhouse ventilation systems is the roll-up or drop-down wall design. As greenhouse size increases. The hot air pulled out will be replaced by cooler. Door vents and high ceilings in small greenhouses can provide adequate ventilation. Air flows out of vents placed on the ridge or end-walls of the greenhouse. wind pressure pushes or pulls air through an opening in the greenhouse. it expands and increases the pressure within the greenhouse. over which the plastic glazing is placed. a control system and a vent. This type of ventilation is often found in commercial greenhouses.assisted ventilation also increases. First. This type of system is regularly incorporated in low-budget greenhouses utilizing a wooden frame. the result of our intense spring and summer solar radiation. air movement needs are met with a combination of active and passive ventilation systems. commercial greenhouse-grade film plastics have a much greater usable lifespan. the air in the greenhouse heats up rapidly. Passive ventilation systems operate on a combination of two principles. . Fans used in conjunction with adequate air-intake systems may enhance temperature control over natural ventilation systems. or series of vents. Wind action through an open door or window also causes significant mixing of the hot air within a house with the cooler outside air. One of the most efficient greenhouse ventilation systems is derived from the use of roof-ridge vents that follow part of or the total length of the roof ridge (Picture 3). Orient the structure to capture the normal summer winds along the side and into the vent(s).and/or fan. to allow air movement. Adapted with permission from Greenhouses for Homeowners and Gardeners (NRAES-137). This pressure is released through openings in the structure. This passive system offers outstanding ventilation when combined with adequate intake vents. their longevity is often seasonal at 12 Picture 2. We all have experienced a wind blowing in through a door. Mechanical ventilation systems are primarily a fan. Fans Fans can either push fresh air into a greenhouse or they can exhaust the greenhouse air to the outside. which Figure 1. For most medium. This system utilizes plastic sheeting for wall (and in many cases roofing) material. out-facing door. UV-inhibited.
Fan capacity — the volume of air a fan can move in one minute — is measured in cubic feet per minute (cfm). sunny day. you need a vent. Multiplying 384 square feet by 12 (standard for measuring fan output) gives the required cfm (4. fan capacities of ¼ (0. Static pressure values should be readily found in the manufacturer’s technical data. Locate the fans so they exhaust with the direction of the prevailing winds. or air pressure will create new air sources (also known as leaks). Fans are rated at different cfm outputs under no air drag (free air) as well as at one or more static pressure (sp) values. Picture 4: The drop-down wall design provides inexpensive but effective ventilation. consider two-speed fans or variable speed fans (Picture 6). As an example.opposite the fan encourages airflow through the greenhouse. rather than those listed under “free air” values. An open door near the fan encourages air to vent through the easiest method possible and not travel the length of the house to exit through the vent as desired. This arrangement gives a good airflow across the greenhouse crop. The fan capacity must match the louver or vent-flow capability. This will cause the normal wind patterns to “help” the fan.250 sp) inch water static pressure values (or greater) should be used. When using these vents. For Alaska. A strategically placed door opening can enhance or hinder the fan’s operation. gives an acceptable standard from which to measure fan output. which take into account air friction created from air movement restrictions such as air passing through inlet louver vents. most commercial operations use exhausting fans and inletting vents to allow replacement air to come in from outside. Alaska greenhouse fan capacity ratings of 1/8 (0. 13 .608) to adequately ventilate the greenhouse (if a fan and louvered ventilation system are used). Table 12 summarize typical fan performance under two static pressure values. will pull fresh air in through the vents. Although there is no special preference. the movement of 12 cubic feet of air volume per minute. per square foot of floor area. A slow speed is adequate to circulate air and CO2 through out the house while a much higher capacity of airflow will be necessary to vent the heat on a bright. Winds oriented into vents and out of exhaust fans will yield greater than a 10-percent increase in efficiency compared to the opposite wind orientation. Picture 3: Roof ridge vents are shown at Trinity Greenhouse in Kenai. Since ventilation needs change throughout the season. while effective in most situations. If you attempt to exhaust air without providing an adequate source of replacement air. If more restrictive insect screening or evaporative cooling pads are used. A cooling fan system. Picture 5 shows a greenhouse measuring 16 feet x 24 feet or 384 square feet of floor space. In a freestanding greenhouse. An open door in the side Vents Whenever you have a fan. either the fan will wear out faster (since it is working harder).125 sp) inch water static pressure should be used. is limited to a greenhouse length of 150 feet. it is customary to put the fans on one end of the house and the vents on the other end (Picture 5). The fans would have to work much harder to force the exhaust air against the wind pressure.
higher fan speed often greenhouse operator. the amount of air moved by the Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) fan decreases. Inc. 2009. 36 in. SP 0. 3701. They are good for circulating air and exhausting the greenhouse. 24 in. 10 in.25 times the area of the fan (Table 13) or 1. capacity to move volumes of air.5 square feet of air inlet opening per 1000 cfm of fan capacity (Bartok. Two Speed 24 in. As the fan blows air into or for the amount of protection given to the motor. Catalog No. p. 1994). Type of fan: Propeller (axial) fans are best used with high volumes of air to move against a minimum static pressure. Many small units are pushed open by the air pressure generated by the fan. This design allows the fan to operate at much higher static pressures. 585 285 The World of Industrial Fans T There are many fans to choose from and the proper choice depends on a number of factors. the amount of air moved also increases.125 in.125 inch (1/8 Prop diameter Air Flow (cfm) inch) of water may be the most appropriate value for Variable Speed 0 in. Unfortunately. 12 in. roof vents should be 15–20 percent of the floor area and open downwind (Figure 1) (Aldrich and Bartok. Source: Adapted from Grainger. Regardless of the choice of intake or exhaust fans. Fan capacity is greatest when there is no have motor options for 110 or 220 electrical systems resistance to moving the air. 16 in. high speed 24 in 24 in. the air pressure inside increases and a static pressure (sometimes called back pressure) For the more detailed information needed to properly against the fan develops. As the static pressure in size large greenhouse fans. 14 . a closed greenhouse. 2000) to provide adequate air flow and ventilation. Fans are rated by their requires larger fan motors. 20 in.Fan speed: Increasing the revolutions per minute (RPM) of the fan blades increases the amount of air here are numerous types of fans available to the movement. Larger vents may require motors that are synchronized with the fan’s control system. While downwind venting offers optimum Orientation to the prevailing summer winds will make a ventilation. 20 in. SP greenhouse operations. the vent(s) on the opposing side of the greenhouse must work in conjunction with the fan. Companies often list the air-moving professional. 400. 20 in. please consult your local the house increases. Duct fans are often used to distribute heated air from a furnace through an air tube to the remainder of the greenhouse. For optimum efficiency. and solar radiation reception. high speed 30 in. Table 12: Fan Performance at Two Static Pressures The cfm value at a static pressure of 0. measured in cubic feet per minute (cfm). capacities of their fans at various static pressures. in Alaska it is more important to orient the position of the greenhouse east to west to maximize sun sizeable difference in cooling efficiency. many fans pressure. against a certain amount of In addition to decisions on the fan design. 18 in. These systems allow easier airflow since the moving air does not have to hold the vents open. Single Speed 18 in. 800 1095 1880 2830 3240 2590 2955 3635 3270 3970 6075 8225 3985/3760 470 720 850 2255 2485 2190 2450 3113 2515 3240 4195 6480 3255/2995 Fan blades: As the length of the fan blade increases. It is important that the surface area of the vent opening be at least 1. Duct fans (tube axial) have the fan mounted in a cylindrical tube or duct.
condensation control and cost efficiency (Pundt and Smith. Minimum Vent Area Required in Relationship to Fan Size Fan Size Minimum Vent Area 16 in. 2000). Greenhouse airflow research at the University of Kentucky found that air circulation rates of 40–100 cfm are ideal (Bartok. a furnace fan can be left on to provide circulation even when the heat is turned off. dedicated 8. Traditional ventilation placement should be used during the warmer parts of the growing season to maximize cooling. 2000). 20 in. windward wall and door vents should be located at approximately plant canopy level and be larger than the area of one roof vent. algae management. 393 sq. In our extended growing conditions. decreases relative humidity in the canopy and on the leaf surfaces and maintains the carbon dioxide level in the canopy. . 2001. Some mechanisms use the heat expansion of certain liquids to open vents without motors and thermostats. so often we will circulate air within the greenhouse without exchanging it with outside air. On the open landscape there is always enough air movement to stir the air in this boundary layer. the incoming replacement air may be cold enough to freeze the plants. 318 sq. 15 Picture 5 Freestanding greenhouses usually have fans at one end of the house and vents on the other. Locate the fan and vents to get the airflow across and through the canopy rather than under the benches or across the ridgeline. it is advisable to have the cold air intake well above the crop height in the greenhouse. Air Circulation As the plant grows. Research at the University of Connecticut found that horizontal airflow (HAF) is best for plant health. in.) greenhouses. For best results during our summer months. In very small (less than 300 sq. Ventilation Placement Most ventilation systems are typically designed so that the hot air is released high in the greenhouse and the cool replacement air drawn into the lower part of the greenhouse. it takes up carbon dioxide and gives off oxygen through tiny pores in the leaves called stomates. in. Bartok. 884 sq. In the greenhouse a lack of air movement can cause the plants to slow their growth rate because they can’t get enough carbon dioxide to thrive. ft. In Alaska the outside air may be frigid. in. In larger houses.to 16-inch circulation fans are recommended. Picture 6: A multi-speed fan helps regulate greenhouse temperature throughout the season. Continuously moving air keeps the temperature more uniform. This builds up a high concentration of oxygen and a deficit of carbon dioxide in the boundary layer between the leaf surface and the air. 30 in. in. 251 sq. 24 in. in. 566 sq. These openers work with vents that are less than 10–15 pounds. This allows the cold fresh air to mix with the warmer greenhouse air before coming in contact with the plants. If this strategy is used in Alaska to extend the early or late growing seasons.Table 13. 18 in.
At lower rates of air movement. Ventilation and Airflow Proper ventilation and adequate internal greenhouse airflow are critical to the success of managing relative humidity in a greenhouse. ft. Since these fans are rather exposed make sure that there are good grills around the blades for worker safety.25 (¼ house volume) and you get 2000 cfm of needed air movement. Warm air holds more moisture Table 14. internal air temperatures drop. at which time water condenses on greenhouse and plant surfaces. air exchanges must take place to remove the moisture-laden internal greenhouse air and replace it with the drier. Above recommendations provide approximately 50-100 cfm circulation rates for greenhouses up to 50 feet in length.Fans should be installed approximately 7–8 feet above the floor and placed in a location about a quarter of the way along the length of the greenhouse. During a warm summer day the internal greenhouse air accumulates moisture. If not properly vented. ft. a 20 ft. 2000). as the evening outside temperatures cool. reducing the water-holding capacity of this internal air until the dew point is reached. Care should be exercised in on the greenhouse structure where it can reduce light keeping heater flue gases from being drawn into the transmission and encourage rust and/or rot of the 16 . Circulation fans are not needed when exhaust fans are running. x 50 ft. The total circulation fan capacity in cfm should be about a quarter of the house volume.200 1. humidity and carbon dioxide related problems may develop and at higher rates (greater than 150 cfm). the morning-watering of plants (so leaf areas dry during the heat of the day rather than go into the cool evening wet). structure itself. Air Circulation Fan Recommendations Floor Area (sq. of volume (20 ft. x 50 ft. the use of oscillating fans capable of moving air through the plant canopy can improve air circulation within small greenhouses. Table 14 offers fan size suggestions for circulating inside greenhouse air. It can also condense relative humidity levels. this Humidity Control fresh air must next be heated (which promotes moisture A secondary role of the ventilation system is to collection). = 8000 cu. Ceiling fans can be effective air circulators in greenhouses ranging from 400–800 square feet that have a ceiling height of at least 10 feet. add another circulating fan. divide this by 0. process should be repeated several times per hour at excess humidity condenses on the leaf surface where both sundown and sunup to effectively reduce internal it can enhance disease problems. proper plant spacing. so they should be either manually controlled or wired to turn on or off depending on exhaust fan activity (Bartok. x 8 ft. For every 50 feet of greenhouse length.) 100 6 200 8 300 10 400 12 500 14 Air Movement (cfm) 400 600 800 1. which reduces internal humidity levels. Greenhouse humidity levels can be reduced by removing the moist air around the plants and replacing it with the cooler and drier outside air. If cool. This eliminate excess humidity. greenhouse would have approximately 8. To minimize this problem. than cool air. proper planting dates and plant growth management are all cultural practices that go a long way toward reducing humidity and subsequent foliar disease. including a trio of damping-off diseases and Botrytis blight. x 8 ft. For example.600 Adapted from Greenhouses for Homeowners and Gardeners (NRAES-137). 2000). It is one of the major contributing factors to a variety of plant diseases. ft. cooler outside air.). Adequate plant nutrition.000 cu. a common fungal disease of bedding plants. Also. Make sure installed fan-blade height is 8 feet or more above the floor (Bartok.) Fan Diameter (in. Cultural Practices High relative humidity is undesirable for growing most greenhouse plants. plant damage may occur.
the liquid will multiple exhaust fans controlled by separate thermostats continue to retract in the coiled tube as temperatures can offer fine-tuning options for an additional cost. when you are cooling. This problem. out of direct sunlight. preferably around plant controls come wired already. If system overlap is a concern. the end-walls. extremely cold outside air or heat with oversize heaters that generate excessive heat. Also avoid thermostat placement that receives Horizontal airflow helps to mix the warm and cool air direct heat from your heater fan. while advanced models can entering the greenhouse. lighting. Protecting thermostats from handle the above plus irrigation. relays and together. Likewise. together within a greenhouse. as a late afternoon sun can be very intense. the use of fan switch. until it activates another low temperature switch that can be used to turn on a heating unit within the Controllers greenhouse. usually within 1°F . Thermostat placement must be out of direct sunlight theoretically eliminating system overlap problems. more sophisticated systems such as noted and thermostats adjusted accordingly to achieve thermostats or computer-controlled fans (controllers) desired temperature settings. It is important to locate at 70°F should turn on at 72° and off at approximately the control thermostat (or sensors) at the plant canopy 68°. the liquid within in your system and to optimize its heating and cooling the thermostat cools and retracts. environment. giving waterproof units that give good service over a wide excessively high.) independently. Cooling thermostats differ free the greenhouse operator from having to constantly from heating thermostats. having They operate via a temperature sensitive liquid in a thermostats adjusted too far apart will result in erratic coiled tube. A good cooling thermostat set adjust the ventilation system. As temperatures drop. Transistorized thermostats in place of a thermostat. often referred to if the sensors are placed too close to the walls of the as system overlap. Inaccuracies should be and-off switch. Time and setting within the tube expands. but are more device capable of accurately monitoring the greenhouse accurate. drop. can be especially difficult to control greenhouse the system will think that the house is in smaller greenhouses when we try to vent with cooler than it actually is. Another late afternoon sun is especially important in Alaska. Most thermostats are accurate to within A more accurate solution is to purchase a controller 5–6°F of switch activation. Home-type thermostats (comfort zone markings) do not offer good control. In a high-low thermostat. advantage is that controllers are usually compact. somewhat buffering it from dropping below the dew point (Bartok. false readings to a thermostat. are adjusted too close together. activating a switch that turns experimentation will be required to work out the bugs a fan on. and thus protected by a board or some other form Simple units are available to monitor temperature of insulation from the sunlight and solar radiation and ventilation needs. Trying to maintain a given Thermostats temperature under these two scenarios will cause your Mechanical thermostats are usually cheaper than equipment to work simultaneously if your thermostats controllers and are commonly used in greenhouses. heaters. Unfortunately. If direct sunlight owners with heating and cooling systems is keeping your is heating the sensor the control system will think the cooling system from running when you are heating and greenhouse is warmer than it actually is and will try conversely. shutting off the capabilities. The sensor should be positioned in the shade so it reads the temperature of the air and is not One of the biggest challenges facing Alaska greenhouse being heated by the sunlight directly. It has the ability to activate different pieces of equipment (fans. A controller is an electronic are more expensive than mechanical ones. keeping your heating system from running to cool the airspace more than is desired. A good heating thermostat set at 70°F will turn on height in the middle of the greenhouse well away from at about 68° and off at about 72°. Choose thermostats that are valued in two-degree increments. 2000). the liquid high and low temperature levels. etc. the day. Always place at Control Systems least one thermometer by your thermostats to determine Although control systems can be as simple as an onthermostat setting accuracy. Installation may and cooling thermostats need to be located close also be simpler as controller switches. As the temperature increases. height and away from back walls that heat up during 17 . etc. Heating variety of environmental conditions.greenhouse during this moisture-reduction process.
D. Lighting Up Profits: Understanding Greenhouse Lighting. but may not eliminate system overlaps because the venting equipment may not act as fast as the controller. Agriculture and Engineering Service for allowing us to reprint selected tables and figures.C. C.V. Chicago: Ball Publishing: 272. 2000.E. 1994. Poot Lichtenegie B. Extension professor emeritus. 2003. Philips Lighting Company. and Professor Meriam G. University of Massachusetts Extension Fact Sheet: 1-17. The authors would like to thank John W. Beytes. Department of Natural Resources Management and Engineering. Kenai. NRAES-137. 2001. 08875-6800. Indoor Gardening – Artificial Lighting. and E. Ohio: Meister Publishing Co. University of Alaska-Fairbanks for their input and review in the development of this publication. N. 2004. Poot. References Aldrich. Also. Bartok. Application of Growlight in Greenhouses.Y.: Natural Resource.. (editor). Karlsson. Faust.: U. B. Grainger. Ball Redbook. School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences and the Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station. Smith. Alaska. Bellows. 2636 CZ Schipluiden.Y.O.S. NRAES-3. Acknowledgements 18 . Naval Observatory. 20392-5420. U. By following the suggestions available in this publication. We would also like to thank Natural Resource. 2001.Controllers will help. H. Somerset. 2009. Bartok.M. P. Vol. The Netherlands. N. Catalogue No. and Engineering Service. 200 Franklin Square Drive.: Natural Resource. ATTRA National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service: 1-35.. 400: 3701. Runkle. Inc. Ron Sexton. Horticultural Lighting. 1978. and T. Jr. Washington D. Terrariums. Jr.: Natural Resource. N. J. owner. Donnelly and J. Greenhouse Engineering. Energy Conservation for Commercial Greenhouses. Fisher. John W. Robert and John W. Astronomical Applications Dept. Fisher. 1984. Pundt.C. Agriculture. Westlander 42. Bartok. Agriculture and Engineering Service. Department of Agriculture. C. 2004. P. P. Ithaca.J.Y. Ithaca. Ithaca. especially under Alaska’s cold air conditions. Willoughby. Campbell. NRAES-33. it is possible to minimize the environmental problems and frustrations commonly encountered in growing plants in greenhouses. N. 1: Greenhouses and Equipment. Hanging Baskets and Plant Selection. and Engineering Service. Evaluating Supplemental Light for Your Greenhouse. Grainger. Washington. Ohio Florists Association Bulletin (May): 6. L. Agriculture. com. 2003. and L. Pest Management for Vegetable Bedding Plants. the wind will factor into how the controller and the working equipment will cycle. 2001.S. Box 6800. Control of the greenhouse environment will make a tremendous difference in the success of greenhouses in Alaska. University of Connecticut. Solar Greenhouses – Horticulture Resource List. Greenhouses for Homeowners and Gardeners. Trinity Greenhouse. Cathey.
unless otherwise noted. University of Alaska Fairbanks.For more information. ©2011 University of Alaska Fairbanks. at 907-746-9470 or jeff. . Visit the Cooperative Extension Service website at www. This publication may be photocopied or reprinted in its entirety for noncommercial purposes. Director of Cooperative Extension Service. Wayne Vandre.edu.edu/ces or call 1-877-520-5211 5-88/WV/1000 Reprinted July 2011 America's Arctic University The University of Alaska Fairbanks Cooperative Extension Service programs are available to all. color. contact your local Cooperative Extension Service office or Jeff Smeenk. developed this publication in 1988 and it was substantially revised by Thomas R. Fred Schlutt. or disability and in accordance with all applicable federal laws. Extension Horticulture Specialist. artwork and figures UAF Extension. creed. 1914. Jahns and Jeff Smeenk in May 2009. national origin.uaf. Department of Agriculture. acts of May 8 and June 30.S. sex. in cooperation with the U. Provided in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work. without regard to race. age.smeenk@alaska. Extension Horticulture Specialist. All photos. The University of Alaska Fairbanks is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer and educational institution.