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# MANE 4240 & CIVL 4240 Introduction to Finite Elements

Prof. Suvranu De

Reading assignment: Logan 10.2 + Lecture notes Summary: • Computation of shape functions for 4-noded quad • Special case: rectangular element • Properties of shape functions • Computation of strain-displacement matrix • Example problem •Hint at how to generate shape functions of higher order (Lagrange) elements

Four-noded rectangular element

Finite element formulation for 2D: Step 1: Divide the body into finite elements connected to each other through special points (“nodes”) py v3 3 px 4 3 u3 ⎧u 1 ⎫ v4 2 ⎪v ⎪ v2 Element ‘e’ v ⎪ 1⎪ 1 4 ⎪u 2 ⎪ u u4 ST u2 ⎪ ⎪ v1 2 ⎪v 2 ⎪ y d=⎨ ⎬ x y ⎪u 3 ⎪ Su u1 ⎪v 3 ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ v x x ⎪u 4 ⎪ u ⎪v ⎪ ⎩ 4⎭

Summary: For each element Displacement approximation in terms of shape functions

u=Nd
Strain approximation in terms of strain-displacement matrix
ε=Bd

Stress approximation σ = DB d Element stiffness matrix

k = ∫ e B D B dV
T V

f = ∫ e N X dV + ∫ e N T S dS
T T V ST f
b

f

S

1

y) ∂N2(x.y3) 3 v2 v (x3. y)⎫ ⎡ N1 u=⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ v (x.y) ∂N (x.y3) y (x.y1) u1 v u u2 x v3 (x3.y)v2 + N3(x.y) 0 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ∂x ∂N1(x.y)⎥ ⎥ ∂x ∂y ∂x ⎥ ⎦ 0 ∂N3(x.directions) • Hence 6 dofs per element ⎡1 x 1 1 A = area of triangle = det ⎢1 x 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢1 x 3 ⎣ a1 = x2 y3 − x3 y 2 a2 = x3 y1 − x1 y3 a3 = x1 y 2 − x2 y1 b1 = y 2 − y3 b2 = y3 − y1 b3 = y1 − y 2 y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎦ c1 = x3 − x2 c2 = x1 − x3 c3 = x2 − x1 Approximation of displacements u=Nd ⎧u (x. y)⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 Approximation of the strains ⎧ ε x ⎪ ε = ⎨ε y ⎪γ ⎩ xy ∂u ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ∂x ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ∂v ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ ⎬ ⎬ ≈ B d ∂y ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ∂u ∂v ⎪ ⎪ ∂y + ∂x ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪v ⎪ ⎪ 1⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎤ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ N 3 ⎥ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎦ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪v3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Element stiffness matrix k = ∫ e B D B dV T V t Since B is constant A k = B D B∫ e dV = B D B At T T V t=thickness of the element A=surface area of the element ⎡∂N1(x.y)⎥ 1 ⎢ 0 = ⎢ 0 c1 0 c2 0 c3 ⎥ ⎥ ∂y ∂y ⎥ 2A ⎢c1 b1 c2 b2 c3 b3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ∂N2(x.y) 2 (x2.y) ∂N3(x.y) 0 B=⎢ 0 ⎢ ∂y ⎢∂N (x.y) 2 (x2.y)≈ N1(x.and y.y)≈ N1(x.y) 1 2 ⎢ 1 ∂x ∂y ⎢ ⎣ ∂y ⎤ ⎥ ⎡b1 0 b2 0 b3 0 ⎤ ⎥ ∂N2(x.y2) x u u2 3 u3 v2 u3 where a1 + b1x + c1 y 2A a + b x + c2 y N2 = 2 2 2A a + b x + c3 y N3 = 3 3 2A N1 = y (x.y) ∂N3(x.y1) Formula for the shape functions are v1 v3 1 u1 (x1.y) ∂N (x.y)u3 v (x.y) ∂x 0 Element nodal load vector f = ∫ e N X dV + ∫ e N T S dS T T V ST f b f S 2 .Constant Strain Triangle (CST) : Simplest 2D finite element v1 1 (x1.y) ∂N3(x.y)u2 + N3(x.y2) u (x.y)v1 + N2(x.y)u1 + N2(x.y) v3 • 3 nodes per element • 2 dofs per node (each node can move in x.

y2) x =0 N 3 along 2−3 p y dx • 4 nodes per element • 2 dofs per node (each node can move in x. y) ≈ ∑ N i (x.y3) u (x.y) ≈ ∑Ni (x.0) f S = t∫ l1−3e N T along 2 −3 T S dS f S3 y = t ∫ f S2 y = t ∫ 1 x =0 1 N 2 along 2 −3 p y dx N 3 along 2−3 p y dx x =0 fS3x x a2 + b2 x (x3 y1 − x1 y3 ) + ( y3 − y1 )x ⎡ a + b x + c2 y ⎤ N 2 along 2−3 = ⎢ 2 2 ⎥ = 2A = 2A 2A ⎣ ⎦ y =0 y1 − y1 x y1 (1 − x) y (1 − x) = = 1 ⎡1 x1 y1 ⎤ ⎡1 x1 y1 ⎤ y1 ( x3 − x2 ) det ⎢1 x 2 y2 ⎥ det ⎢1 x 2 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢1 x 3 0 ⎥ ⎣1 x 3 y3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (can you derive this simpler?) = 1− x = 4-noded rectangular element with edges parallel to the coordinate axes: ⇒ f S2 y = t ∫ 1 x=0 N 2 along 2−3 p y dx (x4.y1) 1 2a x 2 (x2.Class exercise For the CST shown below.y)ui 4 = t ∫ (1 − x)(−1) dx x =0 1 =− t 2 y u 2b v (x.y) 3 (x3.directions) •8 dofs per element 3 .0) fS3y fS2x 3 py=-1 (1.y4) 4 v (x. compute the vector of nodal loads due to surface traction Class exercise 1 y f S = t∫ l1−3e N T along 2 −3 T S dS f S = ∫ e N T S dS T ST fS2y 2 1 y fS3y fS2x 3 py=-1 ⎧0⎫ TS =⎨ ⎬ ⎩− 1⎭ fS3x x The only nonzero nodal loads are fS2y 2 (0.and y. y)v i i =1 4 i =1 Now compute f S3 y = t ∫ 1 (x1.

4.or y-axes. ⎧ 1 at node ' i ' N i ( x. The strains and stresses are not constant within an element nor are they continuous across element boundaries. Kronecker delta property 3. The shape functions N1. N2 . choose 1 (x − x 2 )( y − y 4 ) 4 ab 1 (x − x1 )( y − y 3 ) N2 = − 4 ab 1 (x − x 4 )( y − y 2 ) N3 = 4 ab 1 (x − x 3 )( y − y1 ) N4 = − 4 ab N1 = has the property 4 3 2b N1 l1 ( x1 ) = 1 l1 ( x 2 ) = 0 Similarly 1 x l1 ( y ) = y − y4 y1 − y 4 1 2a l1(x) 2 has the property l1 ( y 1 ) = 1 l1 ( y 4 ) = 0 1 Hence choose the shape function at node 1 as ⎛ x − x2 N 1 = l1 ( x ) l1 ( y ) = ⎜ ⎜x −x ⎝ 1 2 ⎞⎛ y − y 4 ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ y − y ⎠⎝ 1 4 ⎞ 1 ⎟= ⎟ 4 ab ( x − x 2 )( y − y 4 ) ⎠ Properties of the shape functions: 1.Generation of N1: y At node 1 l1(y) l1 ( x ) = x − x2 x1 − x 2 Using similar arguments. But along any other line they are nonlinear. The displacement field is continuous across elements 6. y ) = ⎨ ⎩0 at other nodes 3. Completeness 4 ∑ ∑ ∑ 4 4 i =1 Ni =1 N i xi = x N i yi = y i =1 i =1 4 . Along lines parallel to the x. An element shape function related to a specific nodal point is zero along element boundaries not containing the nodal point. N3 and N4 are bilinear functions of x and y 2. 5. the shape functions are linear.

y) ∂y ∂N 2 (x.y) ∂x v y v1 (x. y)⎥⎪v ⎪ ⎥ 3 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ⎥⎪u ⎪ ⎦⎪ 4 ⎪ ⎪v ⎪ ⎩ 4⎭ Computation of the terms in the stiffness matrix of 2D elements (recap) v4 v3 4 u4 3 The B-matrix (strain-displacement) corresponding to this element is u3 u1 v1 0 ∂N1 (x.. y) ∂N 4 (x..y) ∂x 0 ∂N4 (x.y) ∂y v3 0 ∂N 3 (x. y) ∂y ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪v ⎪ ⎤⎪ 1 ⎪ ∂N3(x. etc) since we have not used any specific shape functions for their derivation..y) 1 u1 x u v2 u2 ∂N 2 (x. y) 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x ∂N1(x.. 0 =⎢ ⎥ . y) ∂N (x..y) ⎢ ∂y ⎢ ⎣ We will denote the columns of the B-matrix as y3 − y y − y2 y1 − y 0 ⎤ 0 0 0 ⎡y − y4 1 ⎢ B= x − x2 x1 − x x − x4 x3 − x⎥ 0 0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎥ 4ab ⎢ x − x2 y − y4 x1 − x y3 − y x − x4 y − y2 x3 − x y1 − y⎥ ⎣ ⎦ B u1 Notice that the strains (and hence the stresses) are NOT constant within an element ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ∂ N 1 (x. y) ∂x B 2 u2 ⎡ ∂N1 (x. y) ∂x 0 ∂N 2 (x.y) ∂y v4 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂N4 (x. y) =⎢ 0 ⎢ ∂y ⎢ ∂N (x.y) ∂x u3 ∂N 3 (x. k13 = ∫ e Bu1 D Bu2 dV..y) ∂x u4 ∂N4 (x.y) ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂ N 1 (x. CST.y) ⎥ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂N4 (x... y) ∂N 4 (x. y) ∂N3(x. k12 = ∫ e Bu1 D Bv1 dV. k21 = ∫ e Bv1 D Bv1 dV.y) ∂x 0 ∂N 2 (x.y) ∂y v2 0 ∂N2 (x.y) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ∂x ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂ N 1 (x. y) 0 0 ⎥⎪u 2 ⎪ ∂x ∂x ⎥⎪ ⎪ ∂N3(x.y) ⎥ ∂y ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ∂x ⎣ ⎦ The stiffness matrix corresponding to this element is k = ∫ e B D B dV T V u1 v1 u2 which has the following form v2 u3 v3 u4 v4 ⎡ k11 ⎢k ⎢ 21 ⎢ k 31 ⎢ k k = ⎢ 41 ⎢ k 51 ⎢ ⎢ k 61 ⎢k ⎢ 71 ⎢ ⎣ k 81 k12 k 22 k 32 k 42 k 52 k 62 k 72 k 82 k13 k 23 k 33 k 43 k 53 k 63 k 73 k 83 k14 k 24 k 34 k 44 k 54 k 64 k 74 k 84 k15 k 25 k 35 k 45 k 55 k 65 k 75 k 85 k16 k 26 k 36 k 46 k 56 k 66 k 76 k 86 k17 k 27 k 37 k 47 k 57 k 67 k 77 k 87 k18 ⎤ k 28 ⎥ ⎥ k 38 ⎥ ⎥ k 48 ⎥ k 58 ⎥ ⎥ k 68 ⎥ k 78 ⎥ ⎥ k 88 ⎥ ⎦ u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4 Notice that these formulae are quite general (apply to all kinds of finite elements.y) ∂y ∂N1 (x. The individual entries of the stiffness matrix may be computed as follows k11 = ∫ e Bu1 D Bu1 dV. y)⎥⎪v 2 ⎪ 0 0 ⎨ ⎬ ∂y ∂y ⎥⎪u 3 ⎪ ∂N3(x. and so on..y) ∂x 0 ∂N 3 (x. B v1 = ⎢ ⎥ ∂y ⎢ ∂ N (x.y) ∂y ∂N 3 (x.y) ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ 0 ∂N 2 (x.y) ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂N1 (x. T T V V 5 ..The strain-displacement relationship ⎧εx ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ε = ⎨ε y ⎬ ⎪γ xy ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎡ ∂N1(x. y) 1 ⎢ 1 ∂x ⎢ ⎣ ∂y ∂N 2 (x.y) ∂y ∂N2 (x.y) ⎥ . y) ∂N 4 (x. y) ∂N 4 (x. T T T V V V k 21 = ∫ e Bv1 D Bu1 dV. quadrilateral.

However.5 in E= 30×106 psi ν=0. k12 = ∫ e Bu2 D Bu3 dV. This is exactly the same problem that we solved in last class.2 0.25 Realize that this is a plane stress problem and therefore we need to use 4 D= ⎤ ⎡ 1 ν 0 ⎥ ⎡3.8 3.8 0 ⎤ E ⎢ ⎢ν 1 0 ⎥ = ⎢0.2 0 ⎥ ×10 7 psi 2 ⎥ 1 −ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎥ ⎢ 0 1. except now we have to use a single 4-noded element Compute only the relevant columns of the B matrix We have 4 nodes with 2 dofs per node=8dofs.2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ ⎢0 ⎢0 0 2 ⎦ ⎣ 1 3 in 2 x Write down the shape functions 1 (x − x2 )( y − y 4 ) = ( x − 3)( y − 2) 4 ab 6 1 N2 = − (x − x1 )( y − y3 ) = − x ( y − 2) 4 ab 6 1 (x − x4 )( y − y 2 ) = xy N3 = 4 ab 6 1 (x − x3 )( y − y1 ) = − ( x − 3) y N4 = − 4 ab 6 N1 = x 0 3 3 0 y 0 0 2 2 (a) Compute the unknown nodal displacements. 5 of these are fixed. The nonzero displacements are u2 u3 v3 Hence we need to solve u2 u3 v3 ⎧ ∂N 2 ⎫ ⎧ ( 2 − y ) ⎫ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎪ 6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ B u2 = ⎨ 0 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ ⎪ ∂N 2 ⎪ ⎪ − x ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ⎪ ⎪ 6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎧ ∂N 3 ⎫ ⎧ y ⎫ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎪ 6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ = ⎨0⎬ ⎪ ∂N 3 ⎪ ⎪ x ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ⎪ ⎪ 6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎡ k11 ⎢k ⎢ 21 ⎢ k 31 ⎣ k12 k 22 k 32 k13 ⎤ ⎧u 2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ k 23 ⎥ ⎨u 3 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ ⎥ ⎥⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ k 33 ⎦ ⎪ v3 ⎪ ⎪ f 3 y ⎪ B u3 Need to compute only the relevant terms in the stiffness matrix k11 = ∫ e Bu2 D Bu2 dV. (b) Compute the stresses in the two elements. k13 = ∫ e Bu2 D Bv3 dV T T T V V V k 21 = ∫ e Bu3 D Bu2 dV. k13 = ∫ e Bv3 D Bv3 dV T T T V V V ⎧ ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂N 3 ⎪ ⎪ x ⎪ =⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎪ ∂y ⎪ ⎪ 6 ⎪ ∂N 3 ⎪ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎪ 6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ 6 . k13 = ∫ e Bu3 D Bv3 dV T T T V V V B v3 k31 = ∫ e Bv3 D Bu2 dV. k 22 = ∫ e Bv3 D Bu3 dV. k22 = ∫ e Bu3 D Bu3 dV.Example y 1000 lb 300 psi 3 2 in Thickness (t) = 0.

are said to belong to the “Lagrange” family 7 . whose shape functions are generated by multiplying the shape functions of 1D elements.33 × 10 x ⎥ dxdy ⎣ ⎦ f 3 y = − 1000 + f S 3 y N 3 edge = N 3 4 −3 y =2 = 0.533 × 10 )( 6 ) + 3.1067 × 10 − 0.5)( − 300 ) ∫ 3 = − 150 × 2 = − 225 lb x =0 3 ⇒ f 3 y = − 1000 + f S 3 y = − 1225 lb How about a 9-noded rectangle? Corner nodes 2 b 6 b 3 y 5 a a 9 7 1 8 4 x ⎡ x(a + x) ⎤ ⎡ y(b + y) ⎤ ⎡ x(a − x) ⎤ ⎡ y(b + y) ⎤ N1 = ⎢ 2 2 ⎥⎢ ⎥ N 2 = ⎢− 2a 2 ⎥ ⎢ 2b 2 ⎥ ⎣ 2a ⎦ ⎣ 2b ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎡ x(a − x) ⎤ ⎡ y(b − y ) ⎤ ⎡ x(a + x) ⎤ ⎡ y(b − y) ⎤ − − N 3 = ⎢− N4 = ⎢ 2 ⎥⎢ ⎥ 2a 2 ⎦ ⎣ 2b 2 ⎦ 2b 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎣ 2a ⎥ ⎢ ⎦⎣ ⎦ Midside nodes 2 2 ⎡ a 2 − x 2 ⎤ ⎡ y(b + y) ⎤ ⎡ x (a − x ) ⎤ ⎡ b − y ⎤ N5 = ⎢ ⎥⎢ 2 2 ⎥ N 6 = ⎢− 2a 2 ⎥ ⎢ b 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎣ a ⎦ ⎣ 2b ⎦ ⎦ 2 2 ⎡ a 2 − x 2 ⎤ ⎡ y(b − y) ⎤ ⎡ x( a + x) ⎤ ⎡ b − y ⎤ − N7 = ⎢ N8 = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 2 2 2 ⎥ 2b 2 ⎦ ⎣ 2a ⎥ ⎣ b ⎦ ⎣ a ⎦⎣ ⎦ Center node ⎡ a 2 − x2 ⎤ ⎡ b2 − y 2 ⎤ N9 = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ 2 2 ⎢ a ⎥⎢ b ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ Question: Can you generate the shape functions of a 16-noded rectangle? Note: These elements.656 × 107 f S3 y = t ∫ 3 x =0 N3 along edge 3 − 4 3 ( − 300 ) dx x dx 3 4 x ⎡ xy ⎤ =⎢ ⎥ = ⎣ 6 ⎦ y =2 3 Similarly compute the other terms = ( 0 .5 ∫ 3 x=0 y=0 ∫ 2 2− y ⎡ 8 7 5 2⎤ ⎢(0.k11 = ∫ e Bu2 D Bu2 dV T V How do we compute f3y = 0.