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User's Guide

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Legal Notices
The CFdesign product is copyrighted and all rights are reserved by Blue Ridge Numerics, Incorporated. Copyright (c) 1992-2009 Blue Ridge Numerics, Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. The distribution and sale of CFdesign is intended for the use of the original purchaser only and for use only on the computer system specified at the time of the sale. CFdesign may be used only under the provisions of the accompanying license agreement. The CFdesign Help System may not be copied, photocopied, reproduced, translated or reduced to any electronic medium or machine readable form in whole or part without prior written consent from Blue Ridge Numerics, Incorporated. Blue Ridge Numerics, Incorporated makes no warranty that CFdesign is free from errors or defects and assumes no liability for the program. Blue Ridge Numerics, Incorporated disclaims any express warranty or fitness for any intended use or purpose. You are legally accountable for any violation of the License Agreement or of copyright or trademark. You have no rights to alter the software or printed materials. The development of CFdesign is ongoing. The program is constantly being modified and checked and any known errors should be reported to Blue Ridge Numerics, Incorporated. Information in this Help System is for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. The contents of this Help System do not construe a commitment by BRNI. Portions of this software and related documentation are derived from and are copyrighted by Symmetrix and Ceetron. CFdesign is based in part on the QWT project (http://qwt.sf.net). All brand and product names are trademarks of their respective owners.

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Table of Contents
Legal Notices ............................................................................................................................................................... 2 Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................................................... 3 Getting Started............................................................................................................................................................ 7 CFdesign User Interface ..............................................................................................................10 Design Study Automation ...................................................................................................................................... 12 Tool Bars .................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Design Study Bar ...................................................................................................................................................... 21 Control Bar: Task Dialogs...................................................................................................................................... 28 Output Bar ................................................................................................................................................................. 36 Convergence Plot..................................................................................................................................................... 37 Working with Files................................................................................................................................................... 38 User Interface Preferences .................................................................................................................................... 41 Setting Rules .............................................................................................................................................................. 44 Default Results Units............................................................................................................................................... 47 Importing Material Database ................................................................................................................................. 48 Transfer of Results to FEA..................................................................................................................................... 49 FEA System Details .................................................................................................................................................. 51 Display Menu ............................................................................................................................................................. 54 Window Menu .......................................................................................................................................................... 55 Review Menu ............................................................................................................................................................. 56 Summary File ............................................................................................................................................................. 58 Help Menu.................................................................................................................................................................. 61 Getting Help with the CFdesign Answer System............................................................................................. 63 The Right-Click Work Flow .................................................................................................................................. 68 Selecting Entities ....................................................................................................................................................... 70 Groups ........................................................................................................................................................................ 72 Entering Settings ....................................................................................................................................................... 75 Using the Mouse ....................................................................................................................................................... 78 Customization ........................................................................................................................................................... 87 CAD Connection ..........................................................................................................................88 Flow Geometry......................................................................................................................................................... 90 Wildfire ....................................................................................................................................................................... 92 Granite ........................................................................................................................................................................ 98 Mechanica .................................................................................................................................................................100 Flow Volume Creation..........................................................................................................................................101 Split Surfaces in Wildfire ......................................................................................................................................105 CATIA v5 .................................................................................................................................................................106 Parasolid and Acis-Based CAD ...........................................................................................................................110 Launching From CAD ...........................................................................................................................................114 Launching and Updating from CAD ..................................................................................................................116 CAD Environment Connection ..........................................................................................................................120 CAD Model Data Connection ............................................................................................................................121 Mesh Import ............................................................................................................................................................123 Geometry Tools..........................................................................................................................124 Edge Merging ...........................................................................................................................................................126 Small Object Removal ...........................................................................................................................................128 Void Fill .....................................................................................................................................................................130 External Volume Creation ...................................................................................................................................133 Materials and Devices ................................................................................................................136 Material Database...................................................................................................................................................138 Working with Fluid Materials ..............................................................................................................................140 Fluid Properties.......................................................................................................................................................142

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Working with Solid Materials..............................................................................................................................144 Solid Properties ......................................................................................................................................................145 Property Variation Methods................................................................................................................................147 Surface Parts ............................................................................................................................................................151 Additional Surface Part Models ..........................................................................................................................156 Surface Part Guidelines .........................................................................................................................................158 Distributed Resistances ........................................................................................................................................160 Creating and Editing Resistances........................................................................................................................163 Constant Loss Coefficient (K-Factor) ...............................................................................................................164 Free Area Ratio ......................................................................................................................................................166 Friction Factor.........................................................................................................................................................167 Head Capacity Curve ............................................................................................................................................168 Permeability .............................................................................................................................................................169 Using Surface Parts as Resistances.....................................................................................................................170 Internal Fans.............................................................................................................................................................175 Centrifugal Pump/Blower .....................................................................................................................................179 Check Valves ...........................................................................................................................................................181 Rotating Region Materials ....................................................................................................................................182 Using Compact Thermal Model Materials .......................................................................................................184 Compact Thermal Model .....................................................................................................................................186 Using Printed Circuit Boards ..............................................................................................................................188 Printed Circuit Boards ..........................................................................................................................................190 Using TEC Materials ..............................................................................................................................................192 Thermoelectric Devices .......................................................................................................................................196 Boundary Conditions .................................................................................................................198 Physical Boundaries................................................................................................................................................208 Transient Boundary Conditions .........................................................................................................................211 Initial Conditions ....................................................................................................................................................213 Meshing ........................................................................................................................................214 Diagnostics ...............................................................................................................................................................217 Part Suppression .....................................................................................................................................................223 Automatic Sizing .....................................................................................................................................................224 Adjusting Mesh Sizes .............................................................................................................................................225 Refinement Regions ...............................................................................................................................................229 Extrusion ..................................................................................................................................................................233 Example Extrusion Meshes ..................................................................................................................................237 Extrusion Guidelines..............................................................................................................................................238 Advanced_Parameters ..........................................................................................................................................241 Geometric Changes ...............................................................................................................................................243 Manual Mesh Sizing ................................................................................................................................................244 Mesh Enhancement ................................................................................................................................................247 Element Descriptions ............................................................................................................................................249 Motion ..........................................................................................................................................250 Linear Motion ..........................................................................................................................................................253 Defining User-Prescribed Linear Motion .........................................................................................................254 Defining Flow-Driven Linear Motion ................................................................................................................255 Assigning Linear Motion .......................................................................................................................................259 Angular Motion .......................................................................................................................................................261 Defining User-Prescribed Angular Motion ......................................................................................................263 Defining Flow-Driven Angular Motion..............................................................................................................264 Assigning Angular Motion.....................................................................................................................................268 Combined Linear-Angular Motion .....................................................................................................................270 Defining User-Prescribed Combined Motion .................................................................................................271 Defining Flow-Driven Combined Motion ........................................................................................................272 Assigning Combined Linear-Angular Motion ..................................................................................................274

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Combined Orbital-Rotational Motion ..............................................................................................................277 Defining User-Prescribed Orbital Motion .......................................................................................................279 Defining Flow-Driven Orbital Motion...............................................................................................................280 Assigning Combined Orbital/Rotational Motion ............................................................................................281 Nutating Motion .....................................................................................................................................................282 Defining User-Prescribed Nutating Motion.....................................................................................................284 Defining Flow-Driven Nutation ..........................................................................................................................285 Assigning_Nutating_Motion ................................................................................................................................287 Sliding Vane Motion ...............................................................................................................................................290 Defining Sliding-Vane Motion ..............................................................................................................................291 Assigning Sliding-Vane Motion ............................................................................................................................292 Free-Motion .............................................................................................................................................................294 Assigning Free-Motion ..........................................................................................................................................295 Defining Free-Motion ............................................................................................................................................298 Collision Detection................................................................................................................................................299 Geometry and Meshing for Motion ...................................................................................................................300 Moving Surface Parts .............................................................................................................................................304 Running Motion Analyses .....................................................................................................................................306 Solve .............................................................................................................................................308 Flow ...........................................................................................................................................................................310 Compressibility .......................................................................................................................................................311 Heat Transfer ..........................................................................................................................................................312 Quick Convection--Forced..................................................................................................................................314 Quick Convection--Natural/Free .......................................................................................................................316 Turbulence ...............................................................................................................................................................318 Advanced Button ....................................................................................................................................................320 Solar Heating Dialog ..............................................................................................................................................322 Analysis Mode .........................................................................................................................................................324 Transient Parameters ............................................................................................................................................325 Save Intervals ...........................................................................................................................................................327 Analysis Computer.................................................................................................................................................330 Continue From .......................................................................................................................................................331 Solve and Stop.........................................................................................................................................................332 Monitor Points ........................................................................................................................................................333 Result Quantities ....................................................................................................................................................334 Solution Control.....................................................................................................................................................335 Intelligent Solution Control .................................................................................................................................336 Automatic Convergence Assessment ...............................................................................................................338 Solver Selection ......................................................................................................................................................340 Manual Convergence .............................................................................................................................................341 Advection Schemes ................................................................................................................................................342 Results Visualization ..................................................................................................................343 Part Appearance .....................................................................................................................................................344 View Settings File....................................................................................................................................................348 Global Dialog ...........................................................................................................................................................349 Part Dialog ...............................................................................................................................................................351 Plane Dialog .............................................................................................................................................................352 Results Planes ..........................................................................................................................................................353 Results Surfaces ......................................................................................................................................................355 Particle Traces.........................................................................................................................................................360 Massed Particle Traces..........................................................................................................................................366 Bulk Data ..................................................................................................................................................................369 XY Plot......................................................................................................................................................................370 Point Dialog .............................................................................................................................................................372 Iso Dialog..................................................................................................................................................................373

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Wall Dialog ..............................................................................................................................................................374 Decision Center .....................................................................................................................................................376 Design Review Center ..........................................................................................................................................378 Critical Values .........................................................................................................................................................380 Summary XY Plots .................................................................................................................................................382 CFdesign 3D Viewer..............................................................................................................................................383 Guidelines ....................................................................................................................................390 Internal Incompressible Flow ..............................................................................................................................391 External Incompressible Flow .............................................................................................................................394 Basic Heat Transfer ...............................................................................................................................................396 Natural Convection ...............................................................................................................................................398 External Natural Convection ..............................................................................................................................400 Internal Natural Convection ...............................................................................................................................403 Combined Natural Convection ..........................................................................................................................405 Multiple Fluids .........................................................................................................................................................406 Boundary Layer Flows...........................................................................................................................................407 Periodic Boundary Conditions............................................................................................................................408 Transient Flows.......................................................................................................................................................412 Height of Fluid .........................................................................................................................................................414 Scalar Mixing ............................................................................................................................................................415 Humidity ...................................................................................................................................................................417 Steam .........................................................................................................................................................................418 Cavitation .................................................................................................................................................................419 Radiation ...................................................................................................................................................................421 Transmissivity ..........................................................................................................................................................424 Symmetry in Radiation Models ...........................................................................................................................426 Spectral Radiation...................................................................................................................................................428 Energy Balance with Radiation ............................................................................................................................430 Solar Heating ...........................................................................................................................................................432 Compressible Flow ................................................................................................................................................436 Internal Compressible Flow.................................................................................................................................439 External Compressible Flow ...............................................................................................................................440 Joule Heating ...........................................................................................................................................................442 Rotating: Turbomachinery ...................................................................................................................................444 Running Rotating Analyses ...................................................................................................................................447 Computing ...................................................................................................................................451 Fast Track .................................................................................................................................................................452 Queuing (Batch Mode)..........................................................................................................................................455 Server Manager .......................................................................................................................................................456 Solution Monitor ....................................................................................................................................................457

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Getting Started
CFdesign software turns your MCAD workstation into a fully interactive flow bench, thermal test rig, and wind tunnel. Your 3D assemblies become associative, zero-cost prototypes revealing critical engineering information not available from physical tests. Make a design change to your model and see the same change immediately in CFdesign.

Basic Process
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Prepare your CAD model for CFdesign. To learn more about CAD geometry... Launch from CAD into CFdesign. To learn more about Launching from CAD... Use the Design Study Manager to create the Design Study. To learn more about the Design Study Manager... For the first time user, now that you're in the CFdesign environment, it's a good time to familiarize yourself with the User Interface and the basic work flow. Repair or modify the geometry, if needed. To learn more about the Geometry tools... Assign materials to all parts in the model. You can do this in the Control Bar or the Design Study Bar (or both, your choice). To learn more about Materials... Assign boundary conditions. Again, you can use the Control Bar and/or the Design Study Bar. (Boundary conditions define where and what comes in and goes out.) To learn more about Boundary Conditions... Switch to the Meshing task, and click the Automatic Size button. There are other ways to assign the mesh, but this is the easiest. To learn more about Mesh Sizes... If some parts need to move, switch to the Motion task to assign motion. To learn more about Motion... Switch to the Solve task, set some parameters, and click Solve to start the analysis. To learn more about Solve... Go to the Results task, and look at your results (while it's running and after it's finished). Need to make a change? Clone the design or scenario in the Design Study Bar, make your change in your CAD tool. To learn more about cloning... Launch again, and update the design in the Design Study Manager. Run the new design, and compare results in the Decision Center. To learn more about the Decision Center (Design Review Center, Critical Values, XY Plots)...

Product Configurations The Base configuration of CFdesign contains a tremendous amount of analysis power, giving you a very high value for your investment. This configuration provides capability to analyze steady state flows that are incompressible, subsonic compressible, laminar, turbulent. Additionally, conduction and convection heat transfer are also included. This is functionality that allows engineers to: Study the flow within internal flow devices (such as valves and manifolds) to understand where improvements can be made to the design. Determine performance characteristics of heat exchangers, HVAC, and clean room installations. Run scenarios to determine temperature and flow distribution in electronic components and devices. Compare multiple scenarios to determine the design that best satisfies constraints and customer requirements.

For a more comprehensive list of applications, please check the CFdesign web site. The Advanced configuration adds compressible, radiation, transient, Joule heating, scalar models (including cavitation). This is functionality that allows engineers to: Study the behavior of compressible flow in internal flow devices (nozzles, diffusers, valves) and around high-speed aerospace applications.

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Identify and eliminate areas within valves and other high-performance liquid flow devices where cavitation may occur causing costly equipment damage. Account for the effects of thermal radiation within electronic assemblies and other high-temperature applications. Simulate the effect of solar heating on architectural applications and performance of devices subjected to extreme weather reliability testing Run scenarios to determine temperatures in electronic and process fabrication devices resulting from Joule (electrical resistance) heating. Determine the performance of design parameters such as flow rate, pressure, and temperature with time. Animate key results data to identify when critical design criteria are achieved.

The Motion configuration adds the capability to include moving objects. It allows engineers to: Understand the flow and temperature behavior of the flow as one or more objects move through a prescribed path at a certain rate. Determine how much flow is required to set an object in motion, or bring it to a stop. Understand the path of the object, and even simulate it bouncing off of other objects. View side-by-side design comparisons to determine appropriate spring sizes needed to prevent movement below a threshold flow. Run scenarios to compute the bearing forces due to Orbital (whirling) motion due to shaft imbalance in pumps. Evaluate the performance of turbomachinery devices such as pumps, turbines, blowers, and even multi-component devices such as automotive torque converters.

The UVCalc module provides the ability to simulate and validate UV reactor performance. It allows engineers to: Determine the distribution of UV dose along various flow paths in the reactors and determine the impact of other factors, such as the flow rate, flow distribution, and axial mixing, all which can affect the fluence or UV dose and the performance of the reactor. Run scenarios which include simulating the effect of inlet flow distribution changes (piping), different transmittance of the fluids, changes in flow rate or flow obstructions. See side-by-side design comparison and data results of multiple reactor concepts through contour plots, cut planes, isosurface, particle traces and vectors. Providing the ability to explore a broad spectrum of possibilities to achieve an optimal design before proceeding with the very expensive and time consuming certification process

How to Contact Us In North America...


Phone Support Fax Number Support e-mail License Request Sales e-mail web site Customer Portal 434.977.2764 (Support = Option 3) 434.977.2714 support@cfdesign.com licensing@cfdesign.com info@cfdesign.com http://www.cfdesign.com https://customerportal.cfdesign.com

In Europe...
Sales Phone Support Phone +44 (0) 1628 501 570 (Option 1) +44 (0) 1628 501 570 (Option 2)

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Admin Phone Fax Number European Support e-mail UK Support e-mail French Support e-mail German Support e-mail License Request Sales e-mail web site Customer Portal

+44 (0) 1628 501 570 (Option 3) +44 (0) 1628 826 768 eu.support@cfdesign.com uk.support@cfdesign.com fr.support@cfdesign.com DEsupport@cfdesign.com eu.licensing@cfdesign.com eu.sales@cfdesign.com http://www.cfdesign.com https://customerportal.cfdesign.com

In Asia...
Phone Support Fax Number Support e-mail License Request Sales e-mail web site Customer Portal +1 434.977.2764 (Support = Option 3) +1 434.977.2714 asia.support@cfdesign.com asia.licensing@cfdesign.com info@cfdesign.com http://www.cfdesign.com https://customerportal.cfdesign.com

Migrating from Previous Versions Only "cfd" files from CFdesign v10 can be imported into CFdesign 2010. To find out more about opening a v10 cfd file into 2010, click here. Note: The v10 analysis must not be open in CFdesign v10 when imported into CFdesign 2010. As part of the migration process, you may need to move your material database into CFdesign 2010. To find out more about migrating the material database, click here.

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CFdesign User Interface


This is the default layout of the CFdesign User Interface:

The Graphics Window displays the model. Click to learn more about: Selecting Entities Hiding Entities Groups Using the Mouse Customization

The Menu region contains several menus that control file manipulation, window appearance, model display, projects, and tools for getting Help: File Menu Display Menu Window Menu Review Menu Help Menu

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The Tool bars in the CFdesign Interface: The File Tool Bar controls file manipulation activities--Creating, Opening, and Saving files. The View Tool Bar controls the display of the interface and the model. The Window Tool Bar controls the number of views that are displayed. The Help Tool Bar contains tools for getting assistance.

The Control Bar contains the task dialogs. Use these dialogs to set up the scenario, run the analysis, and view the results. Click here to learn more about entering settings... Use the Design Study Bar to manage Designs and Scenarios. You can also use it to apply, modify, and remove settings. There are two work flows for assigning settings and interacting with models in CFdesign. One is based on the dialogs in the Control Bar, and the other uses right-mouse button menus and the Design Study Bar. Click here to learn more about these workflows. The Output Bar lists start-up status messages in the Message Window. Monitor analysis progress with the Convergence Plot. Compare summary results with the Critical Values tab. Compare visual results with the Design Review Center tab.

Check the Status Bar, located in the lower left corner, for values obtained from probing for results.

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Design Study Automation


Design Study Automation is a powerful tool to quickly assess the effects of design alternatives, to compare the effects of model and parameter variations, and to communicate your findings with others on your team. Design Study Automation is a comprehensive framework that benefits all types of CFdesign projects: From the individual, singlecase scenario to the detailed multi-parameter/multi-geometry design of experiments. The Design Study is a hierarchical structure that organizes the CFdesign process into three fundamental levels: Design Study o o o o o o Every time you use CFdesign 2010, you are in a Design Study. At its simplest, the Design Study contains a single analysis. The Design Study is a file system that organizes multiple variables critical to the design process. The name of the Design Study only appears on the top bar of the User Interface. The Design Study is the framework for the definition and comparison of the multi-level engineering design project. Design Studies contain Designs and Scenarios...

Design o o o o Every unique geometric model is a Design. Use Designs to understand the effects of geometry modifications made in CAD. Create a new design for each geometric variation from your CAD tool. Each Design can have one or more individual analyses (Scenarios) that reference it...

Scenario o o o A Scenario is an individual analysis within a Design All Scenarios in a design reference the same geometry To understand the effects of different settings (such as boundary conditions or materials), create a new scenario for each different settings case

The settings and structure of a Design Study are managed in the Design Study Bar.

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The four basic steps in the Design Study Automation Process:


1. Launch from CAD with the Design Study Manager The Design Study Manager is an interactive tool for coordinating your CAD models and Design Studies in real-time. It is a powerful tool for managing Design Studies, Designs, and Scenarios. It allows you to easily update them from your CAD tool without having to exit CFdesign.

For more about the Design Study Manager 2. Manage Designs with the Design Study Bar Introduced in CFdesign 2010, the Design Study Bar helps manage all aspects of the CFdesign process. It is a fully interactive tree-based tool for defining, changing, and interacting with every aspect of the CFdesign model. Use the Design Study bar at the Scenario level to assign and review settings. Use it at the Design Study level to create and clone scenarios and Designs. For more about the Design Study bar

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3. Compare and Assess Results with the Decision Center Use the Decision Center to make smart design decisions, quickly. Compare results from your designs and scenarios visually, in tables, and with graphical plots.

For more about the Decision Center 4. Collaborate with the CFdesign 3D Viewer The CFdesign 3D Viewer (formally the Design Communication Center) has been redesigned to improve collaboration across engineering groups. The User Interface is ideal for comparing results from multiple scenarios and designs, and the look and feel are more consistent with the CFdesign user interface.

For more about the CFdesign 3D Viewer

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Tool Bars
The tool bar icons in the File, View, Window, Help, Selection Mode, and Solve toolbars are described:

File
New: Create a new analysis or study. Open: Open an existing analysis or study. Open View Settings: Open a view settings file. (This is accessible when results are displayed.) Save: Save the current design study, including all designs and scenarios. Save Image: Saves several standard format image files (.gif, .tif, .bmp, .jpg) Save Dynamic Image: Saves a Dynamic Image (.vtfx) for use with the CFdesign 3D Viewer. It can also be viewed in PowerPoint. Unlike a traditional image, this format is navigable, and can contain animation. Save the view to a Summary Image by selecting Capture summary image. This adds it to the Design Review Center branch of the Decision Center. Save View Settings: Saves a results view settings file for future use. Print: Opens a dialog that allows specification of print settings, and then prints the contents of the Graphics window.

View

Previous (view) and Next (view): Undo and redo the orientation, zoom, and model position.

Shaded Image The model is shown filled.

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Outline Image The outline of the model is shown.

Transparent The model is shown transparently.

View Mesh as Wireframe The mesh lines are shown

Show Mesh Displays the mesh on surfaces. Blank outer parts to show the mesh on internal surfaces.

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Peel by Surface Toggles between hiding surfaces or volumes while results are displayed. Click for more information

Center of Rotation: Open the Rotation point Control dialog to change the center of rotation of the model. A sphere is drawn on the model to show the center of rotation while this dialog is open. Reset View: Click this to return the model to its default orientation and location.

Crinkle Cut Shows a three-dimensional interior view of the analysis mesh. Click for more information

Standard Views and Incremental Rotation: Open the Standard Views dialog to: Set standard orientations Rotate in discrete increments about the screen axes.

One-Time Zoom: After clicking this icon, hold down the left mouse button and drag a box around the region to zoom. Release the button when finished dragging. Click the icon to zoom again.

Navigation Cube: This is located in the lower-left corner of the Graphics window. Click sides, edges, and corners of the cube to orient the model. Click the arrows around the outside of the cube to rotate the model to a different position.

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Drop Shadow: Use the Drop Shadow to add an eyecatching accent to your results images. This provides the effect of a shadow below the model geometry.

Cut and Iso Labels: Every results plane and iso surface is displayed with a label. The number in the label matches the number in the Cut Surface and Iso Surface lists on the Results Task dialog.

Toggle Coordinate Axis and Number of Increments: Enable the display of the model coordinate axis and the axis bounding box. Control the number of increments with the up and down arrows.
Zoom to Fit: Rescale the model to fit entirely in the Graphics window. The orientation is preserved, and the model is centered.

Mirror Part Mirroring reflects the geometry about a plane. For more about Mirroring...

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Window
Multiple Views Control the number and orientation of viewports on the Graphics window. For more about multiple views

Help
Click to open the CFdesign Help System (which you are currently viewing).

Use the Search tool to locate information about using CFdesign. There are two modes--Online and Local: Use the Online mode to search content on the CFdesign User Portal. The Portal contains the latest CFdesign Help material, the Knowledge Base, and other resources. A Portal account and network connectivity are required. Use the Local mode to search the Help system contain with your CFdesign installation. This option provides access to the comprehensive CFdesign Help System, and does not require network connectivity. For more about getting Help

Selection Mode
Use this toolbar to set the selection mode (Volume, Surface, or Edge). The selection mode can also be set with the right-click mouse menu and on most of the task dialogs on the Control Bar.

Solve
Use the Solve Toolbar to open the Solve Quick Edit dialog. This is an alternative way to access the Solve dialog for starting the analysis. For more about the Solve dialog...

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Task Bar
Activate Task Dialogs by clicking on the corresponding tool buttons in the Task bar. A good sequence for setting up scenarios is to progress through the tool buttons in the order they are given in. For more about the Task Bar

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Design Study Bar


The Design Study Bar is a fully interactive tree-based tool for defining and managing all aspects of the CFdesign process. The Design Study Bar follows a hierarchical structure that organizes the CFdesign process into three fundamental levels: Design Study, Design, and Scenario. Use the Design Study bar to manage all aspects of the design study including renaming, copying (cloning), and deleting. It is not recommended to perform any of these tasks through the file system. For more about the structure of the Design Study

Branches of the Design Study Bar


Note Keeping accurate records about each scenario is very important, especially when comparing a large number of designs and scenarios. Recording specific conditions, as well as any adjustments and important findings, is key to repeatability and organization of a large project. A Note file is available for every Design Study. Use this file to record information about the Study that will be useful for future reference. There are two ways to open the Note dialog from the Note branch: Double-click on the Note branch, or... Right click on the Note branch, and click Edit.

The Note dialog is a Rich-Text editor. Your information is automatically saved when the dialog is closed, and can be reviewed anytime the Design Study is open. Design A design is a unique geometric model, and is referenced by one or more scenarios. At a minimum, there is one design in every design study. To activate a design, right click the design, and click Expand. Right click on a scenario within the design, and click Activate. (Note that it is not possible to create a new scenario in a design before first activating the design.) Copy a design by clicking Clone. See note below about cloning. Rename: When designs are created, they use a default naming system. Change a design name by selecting Rename. Designs in a Design Study cannot have the same name. New scenario: Create a new Scenario that references the geometry of the design. No settings are applied. To create a copy of an existing scenario within a study, right click on the scenario, and select clone. Lock: Apply a lock to a design to prevent the geometry from being updated. This ensures that the geometry model is not accidentally changed when adding geometry to the Study or when launching from CAD (through the Design Study Manager). The following symbol indicates that a design is locked:

A Design is locked while any scenario is running to prevent accidental modification of the geometry during an analysis.

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Delete: Remove a design from the study. Delete is grayed out if there is only design in the study.

Notes about Cloning Cloning copies the design and all scenarios in the design. It is very useful for quickly creating new designs with the Design Study Manager. Cloning is the foundation for leveraging the settings of an existing design when creating a new design. A design can be cloned before or after scenarios have been run, but not while one is running. If a scenario has been run, and the design cloned, no results will be available for visualization in the cloned scenario. The mesh on the scenario will be cloned, however. It is possible to continue running a cloned scenario from a saved iteration. Geometry The Geometry branch serves three primary functions: Accessing the Geometry tools Setting the analysis length units Specifying the coordinate system for 2D models.

Geometry settings made to a design apply to all scenarios within a design. Open the Geometry tools dialog (Edge merging, Small Object, etc.) by clicking Edit or by double-clicking the Geometry branch. Set the units for the Design by clicking Length Units. See the Notes below about Length Units-1233097647. Set the coordinate system for 2D geometry: Cartesian, Axisymmetric about the X or Axisymmetric about the Y.

Notes about Length Units The default units are meters unless the default was changed in the User Preferences dialog or when launching from CAD. For Pro/Engineer and CATIA v5 geometries, changing the units system only changes the analysis length unit; it does not change any dimensions in the model. For geometries originating in other CAD systems, changing the units system will open a dialog that contains a single check-box to Change Units. If this box is checked, the dimensions of the geometry are converted to the new units, and the physical sizes are unchanged. For example, if the object was 1 meter long, and units are changed to mm, it will be 1000 mm long. (Same size, different value). If this box is unchecked, the geometry will be resized. For example, if the object was 1 meter long, and units are changed to mm, it will become 1 mm long. (Different size, same value.) Note: All designs in a design study must have the same length units. The length units of each new design added to a design study are automatically set to be the same as the other design (or designs) within the study. Changing the length units of an individual design causes the length units of every design to be changed as well. Length units cannot be changed if any design in the study has a scenario that has been run (results have been computed).

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Scenario A scenario is an individual analysis. Every scenario that references a design is based on the same geometry model, but can have different settings (boundary conditions, materials, etc.). At a minimum, every design contains one scenario. There are several menu items in the right click menu: Activate: Only one scenario is active at any time in a design study. Open a Scenario and make it available for edit and interaction by clicking Activate from the right mouse button menu. To activate a scenario in a different design: right click on the design, click Expand, then right click on the scenario and click Activate. Clone: Copy a scenario by clicking Clone. See note below about cloning. Rename: When scenarios are created, they use a default naming system. Change a scenario name by selecting Rename. It is not possible to have scenarios with the same name in the same design. Delete: Remove a scenario from a design. Delete is grayed out if there is only scenario in the design. Solve: Opens the Solve Quick Edit dialog. For more information about the Solve option Preview Mesh: Constructs the mesh on the scenario, but does not compute the solution. For more information about the Preview Mesh option

If a setting is changed after a scenario is run, the results do not match the settings and that the Scenario needs to be run again to update the results. The Warning icon is shown on the Scenario and Results branches:

Notes about cloning: Cloning copies the scenario within the Design, and is very useful for quickly creating a new scenario that is similar to an existing one. After cloning, you might want to keep most settings while modifying only a few. Cloning is the foundation for leveraging the settings of an existing scenario when creating a new scenario. A scenario cannot be cloned while running. If a scenario has been run before being cloned, no results can be visualized in the cloned scenario. However, the cloned scenario will contain the mesh. A cloned scenario can be continued from a saved iteration on the Solve dialog. Material The right-click menus vary depending on where they are opened from (Material branch, Material assignment branch, or Part branch). Menu items that need explanation are described: Material Branch: Open the Material Quick Edit dialog with Edit. This contains the same functionality as the Material task dialog. Select entities by clicking on them before or after clicking Edit. Re-assign the default (unassigned) material to all parts by clicking Remove all. After clicking Select all (to select all parts), select Edit to assign or modify material settings.

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Material Assignment Branch: Click Edit to open the Material Quick Edit dialog. This will automatically select all parts that are assigned that material. Control the appearance of all parts assigned a material by clicking either Shaded, Transparent, or Outline.

Part Branch: Modify a material setting on a part by clicking Edit. This will open the Material Quick Edit dialog with the part selected. Prevent a part from being in the analysis by clicking Suppress. This will cause the part to not be meshed. Control the appearance of all parts assigned a material by clicking either Shaded, Transparent, or Outline.

Boundary Conditions and Initial Conditions The boundary condition branch is organized by condition, with each condition or combination of conditions listed as separate branches. Entities that are assigned each condition are sub-branches. The right-click menus vary depending on where they are opened from (Boundary Conditions branch, Condition assignment branch, or Entity branch). Menu items that need explanation are described: Boundary Conditions Branch: Open the Boundary Condition Quick Edit dialog with Edit. This contains the same functionality as the Boundary Condition task dialog in the Control bar. Select entities by clicking on them before or after clicking Edit. Delete all applied boundary conditions by clicking Remove all.

Condition Assignment Branch: Open the Boundary Condition Quick Edit dialog with Edit. All entities listed below a selected condition branch will be automatically selected.

Entity Branch: Modify a boundary condition on an entity by clicking Edit. This opens the Boundary Condition Quick Edit dialog with the part or surface selected. Control the appearance of an entity by clicking either Shaded, Transparent, or Outline.

Note: The Initial Condition branch is not displayed by default. Change this by clicking File_User Interface Preferences_Display, and changing the setting for Show Initial Panel. Mesh Size Use the Meshing branch to manage mesh sizes and to access the Mesh Sizes dialog. When Automatic sizing is used, the word "auto" appears on the Mesh Size branch. No geometry-specific mesh settings are given: Open the Mesh Sizes dialog by clicking Edit. (Click the Automatic Size button on the Mesh dialog to apply mesh sizes.) Generate the mesh with Preview Mesh. See below for more about Preview Mesh. To open the Diagnostics dialog, right click on the Diagnostics branch, and click Edit. To open the Refinement Regions dialog, right click on the Refinement Regions branch, and click Edit.

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When Manual sizing is used, each size is listed on a separate branch. Entity types (volumes, surfaces, and edges) are sub-branches that in turn contain individual entities: To modify the mesh size of a particular entity, right click on its label, and click Edit (as shown). This will open the Manual Mesh sizing dialog. To modify the appearance of an entity, select Shaded, Transparent, or Outline. To modify the mesh size of every entity with a particular mesh size, right click the entity type (Volumes, Surfaces, or Edges) under the current size, and click Edit.

Notes on Preview Mesh A very useful technique for creating an efficient mesh is to examine it carefully prior to running the analysis. For large models or models with dense mesh distributions, this can be a lengthy process. It is always a good idea to check the Approximate element count on the Mesh dialog prior to previewing the mesh. This provides an opportunity to check for over-meshed regions and to ensure that areas of potentially high gradients are not under-meshed. After clicking Preview Mesh, the mesh is generated, and can be examined in the Results task. If the mesh is acceptable, it does not have to be generated again to run the analysis. Motion The Motion branch is organized so that each applied motion condition is listed as a separate branch, with a single entity as its sub-branch. Entities that are assigned the same motion condition are listed in separate motion sub-branches. To open the Motion Quick Edit dialog, right click on the Motion branch, and click Edit. To modify an applied motion condition, right click on the entity branch (shown), and click Edit.

Note: The Motion branch is hidden by default. Change this by clicking File_User Interface Preferences_Display, and changing the setting for Show Motion Panel. Groups Create, add to, combine, and remove groups using the Groups branch. To create a new group, right click on Groups, and select Create new group. To combine groups (containing the same entity type), right click on a group branch, and click Add to existing group. To add an entity to a different group, right click on it (shown), and select Add to existing group.

For more about managing groups Solve The Solve dialog contains two sections, Scenario settings and Output settings. To open the Solve dialog, right click on the Solve branch, and click Edit. This opens the Solve Quick Edit dialog that for specifying the number of iterations, output settings, and starting the analysis. To set the Scenario settings (heat transfer, compressible, etc.), open the complete Solve task dialog from the Control bar.

For more about the Solve dialog

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Results The primary uses of the Results branch are to manage view settings files, control part appearance, and to list visualization entities such as cutting planes and iso surfaces. Top-Level Results Branch: Open or save view settings files from the Results branch. A view settings file is a file that saves the attributes of a particular view. They are used for recreating a particular view quickly. For more about View Settings Files "!" Warning icon: If a setting is changed after a scenario is run, this symbol will appear on the Results branch. This means that the results do not match the settings in the scenario:

Part Appearance (Materials Branch): Control the appearance of individual parts by right-clicking on the part itself and selecting the option from the menu. Toggle the visibility of each part with the check box adjacent to each part branch. To hide a part from the results view, uncheck it in the Materials branch. For more about part appearance in Results mode

Visualization Entities: Cutting planes, iso surfaces, and summary points are listed in sub branches of the Results branch. This is for informational purposes For more about cutting planes For more about iso surfaces

Decision Center The Decision Center provides a simple way to narrow down alternatives to arrive at the design that satisfies known design objectives. It is a powerful tool for: Extracting specific results values Comparing results from the scenarios in a design study.

For more about the Decision Center

Lost Settings
When geometry is changed and a design updated, certain settings from the original may not be assigned to the new geometry if components were removed or relocated.
For example, a printed circuit board containing several chips and heat sinks is part of an electronic module. Heat generation boundary conditions and materials are applied to the chips. In a design iteration, one of the chips is removed from the CAD model. When the design is updated, the material and boundary conditions on the chip cannot be applied to the model.

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Such settings will appear on the Design Study bar as an orphan branch with the Lost icon:

To assign a lost setting to a component: 1. 2. 3. 4. Right click on the setting, and click Edit. The Quick Edit dialog opens. Select the part or surface from the model. Enter the appropriate settings on the Quick Edit dialog, and click Apply. Right click on the setting, and click Delete.

If the setting cannot be applied back to the model because the part was not replaced, delete it by right-clicking on the setting, and click Delete. Note: the scenario cannot be run if any lost settings are shown in the Design Study bar. You should either assign or delete all lost settings.

Relationship with Control Bar


The Control Bar contains the set of task dialogs, and can be used with the Design Study bar or instead of it, depending on personal preference. To control the visibility of either the Design Study bar or the Control Bar, right click anywhere in the toolbars, menu region, or task icon bar, and select the desired bar from the right click menu. A convenient User Interface configuration is to place the two bars on top of one another, and select the desired one using the appropriate tab. Clicking the space-bar will also toggle between the two dialogs. Alternatively, either dialog can be moved by left clicking on the title and dragging to a different location in the User Interface. The locations of the bars are remembered from one session to the next.

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Control Bar: Task Dialogs


The Task Dialogs are activated by clicking on the corresponding tool buttons in the Task bar. A good sequence to follow when setting up an analysis is to work vertically through the tool buttons.

Design Study The Design Study Tree lists all settings for each Scenario in the Design Study. Use the Design Study bar to manage all aspects of the design study including renaming, copying (cloning), and deleting. For more about the Design Study Bar The Decision Center allows comparison of results to facilitate selection of design alternatives. For more about the Decision Center

Geometry The Geometry Task contains four tools for geometry repair and modification. Edge Merge: Connect edges that share a vertex with an inflection less than a specified tolerance. Small Object: Remove very small surfaces and edges that are typically too small to be obvious when viewing the model, but can greatly affect meshing. Void Fill: Create caps at openings and fill the void with an internal volume. External Volume: Add a rectangular volume around the entire model. This is ideal for creating a surrounding air volume for external flow analyses.

For more about Geometry Tools

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Material Assign the physical material to each part with this task. A material database with fluid and solid materials is included with CFdesign. Select materials from the Name menu. Create and modify materials by clicking on the Edit button on the Edit Material line. Use this task to define and assign: Fluids Solids Distributed resistances Internal fans Centrifugal Pump/Blowers Check valves Rotating regions Compact thermal models, Printed circuit boards TEC devices

For more about Materials

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Boundary Apply boundary conditions with this task. Apply flow and heat transfer conditions (loadings) such as velocity, pressure, and temperature to the surfaces of a 3D models, and to edges in 2D models. Apply volumetric heat generation and total heat generation to volumes in 3D, and to surfaces in 2D models. Define and apply time-varying boundary conditions for transient analyses.

For more about Boundary Conditions

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Initial Apply initial conditions with this task. Initial conditions are settings that are effective at the beginning of the analysis, and do not persist (like boundary conditions). Use them primarily for setting conditions at the beginning of transient analyses. By default, the Initial Conditions task is not included in the Task bar or the Design Study Bar. To enable it, click File_Preferences_User Interface, and change the setting for Show initial conditions task icon to Yes. For more about Initial Conditions

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Mesh Size A mesh has to be constructed which divides the entire geometry into small pieces (elements). Use the Mesh task to: Automatically define a mesh Identify potential problem areas within the geometry. Adjust the mesh distribution for optimal performance Define extrusion mesh settings with the Extrude Mesh button. Construct Refinement Regions to focus the mesh on critical areas. Adjust Mesh Enhancement parameters

For more about Meshing

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Motion Define and assign several types of solid motion with this task: Linear Angular Combined linear-angular Combined orbital-rotational Nutating Sliding vane Free motion

Define parameters such as initial position, direction of travel, and the limits of motion as well if the flow is driving the motion. Open the Motion Editor by clicking the Edit button on the Edit Motion line. Specify non-geometric-dependent quantities such as velocity, displacement, and driving or resistive forces (springs). By default, the Motion task is not included in the Task bar or the Design Study Bar. To enable it, click File_Preferences_User Interface, and change the setting for Show motion task icon to Yes. For more about Motion

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Solve Select the physics to be analyzed in the Scenario Settings section. Enable flow, compressibility, heat transfer, and radiation. Define mixing, cavitation, steam, and humidity with the Advanced button. Define solar loading with the Solar Heating button.

Configure how the analysis will run in the Output Settings section: Set the Analysis Mode to Steady State (the default) or Transient. Set the Results and Summary save intervals. Select the Solver Computer to run the analysis with Fast Track. Start the analysis by clicking the Solve button. Stop by clicking the Stop button.

For more about Solve

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Results The Results dialog contains a lot powerful functionality for visualizing results during and after the analysis. Select the displayed result quantity Animate results from multiple time steps Create results surfaces to display scalar and vector results on slices in the model. Create particle traces, xy plots, and assess bulk data. Extract results from selected parts Extract results from points in the model Create iso surfaces to visualize flow and temperature distributions. An iso surface is a three dimensional surface of constant value. Assess flow-induced forces, convection coefficients, temperatures, and pressures on walls using the Wall Calculator.

For more about Results

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Output Bar
The Output Bar provides a convenient method to communicate errors, start-up notes, and the Convergence Monitor. The Output Bar is divided into several tabs: the Message Window, Convergence Plot, Critical Values, and the Design Review Center.

Message Window
The purpose of the Message window is to communicate the status of each analysis during the following phases: When a Design Study is opened When geometry tools are applied When the calculation is started (by clicking the Solve button) When the calculation finishes

Convergence Plot
The Convergence Plot tracks convergence of the calculation. The mean value of each degree of freedom is plotted for every iteration. For more about the Convergence Plot

Critical Values
Use Critical Values to compare and evaluate results from individual and multiple Scenarios. Its primary display tools are the data table and bar graphs. For more about Critical Values

Design Review Center


Use the Design Review Center to compare graphical results from multiple Scenarios. Use a single viewing pane to flip between results views or multiple view ports to compare results side-by-side. For more about the Design Review Center

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Convergence Plot
After the analysis is finished, display the convergence information by clicking the Convergence Plot tab on the Output Bar. The primary criteria for determining convergence is that the change of each degree of freedom is minimized over a large range of iterations. The curves shown in the Convergence Monitor are plots of the average value of each degree of freedom throughout the entire calculation domain. To learn more about Automatic Convergence assessment

Degrees of Freedom
A useful way to look at convergence data is to examine each degree of freedom individually. Select one from the Quantity drop menu (the default value is All). The maximum and minimum values of the quantity are shown on the Y-axis of the plot.

Iteration Range
Adjust the displayed range of iterations by changing the Start and/or End iteration values. Implement the change by clicking Enter on your keyboard. This is especially helpful for hiding the first 50 iterations from the convergence plot. Before iteration 50, the quantities are typically changing too much to be considered when assessing convergence. By default, the average value of each degree of freedom is plotted. To view the maximum and minimum values, select Min. or Max. from the menu at the right side of the dialog. Click the Table tab to view the values in the plot. Show values for a single degree of freedom by selecting it from the menu on the right.

Plot Quantities and Error Estimation


Several parameters can be plotted with the Convergence Monitor to aid in understanding analysis progress: These quantities are used by Intelligent Solution Control and Automatic Convergence Assessment to ensure the stability and convergence of the analysis. Select them from the second pull-down menu on the right side of the Convergence Monitor (the default value is All). Each quantity is described briefly: Avg: The average value of the plotted quantities. Min: The minimum value of each quantity over the displayed range of iterations. Max: The maximum value of each quantity over the displayed range of iterations. Resid In: This is the residual value of each degree of freedom, and is the measure of how much the quantity is changing. This is the residual quantity that was plotted in previous versions of CFdesign. Resid Out: This value should be quite small, and is the value of the residual over the entire field after the last iteration. Solv Iter: The number of sweeps per iteration required by the solver for each degree of freedom. Relax Parm: The under-relaxation value invoked by the Intelligent Solution Control for each quantity. If Intelligent Solution Control is not enabled, then these are the values specified on the Convergence Controls dialog. DPhi/Phi: The fluctuation value of each field variable. This is used by Intelligent Solution Control and Auto Stop to assess the analysis rate of change.

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Working with Files


The File menu contains tools to help create, open, and save Design Studies and associated files. The menu contains a wide array of different file management tasks: To create a new design study: File_New design study 1. Click File_New design study 2. Click the Browse button and select a geometry file. This can be a Parasolid (".x_t"), Acis (".sat"), or Pro/Engineer Wildfire part (".prt) or assembly (".asm"). 3. Specify a name for the Design Study, and click the Create new design study button. This performs the same functions as the New icon on the File toolbar. Note: names of Design Studies, Designs, and Scenarios must not contain punctuation such as "<", ">", "?", ":", "/", "]", "[", "\", ".", ",", or " ' " When launching from CAD the Design Study Manager will open to help you create the design study. For more about the Design Study Manager To Add a Design to a Study: File_Add geometry to design study Use this to add a design (a new geometry model) or modify an existing design in a design study. This command is used when working with Parasolid, Acis, and Wildfire geometry files. To add a design to an open design study: Click File_Add Geometry to design study. Browse for and select the geometry file. This can be a Parasolid (".x_t"), Acis (".sat"), or Pro/Engineer Wildfire part (".prt) or assembly (".asm"). Select the design to update from the list of designs Click one of the buttons: o Update selected design to replace the geometry of the selected design with the new geometry o Create a new design to create a new design using the new geometry

The Design Study Manager performs these functions when launching from CAD. For more about the Design Study Manager To Migrate Analyses from v10: File_Import v10 Analysis Import the v10 analysis into either a new design study or into a new design in an open design study: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click File_Import v10 Analysis. Select the v10 ".cfd" file To create a new design study: enter a name in the Design study field, and click the Create new design study button. To create a new design containing the v10 analysis in the current Design Study: click the Add new design button.

Note: The v10 analysis must not be open in CFdesign v10 when imported into CFdesign 2010.

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To open a Design Study: File_Open Design Study If CFdesign is started from the Desktop, open a design study by clicking File_Open Design Study. The Design Study is the highest level in the CFdesign file structure, and the only level that can be directly opened from the disk. Designs and Scenarios are accessed by opening the Design Study. The file extension of the Design Study file is cfdst. This is the only file type that is opened from the CFdesign User Interface. When launching from CAD, the Design Study Manager opens and lists the Design Studies stored on the computer. Select the desired one to open from the list. For more about the Design Study Manager For more about the Design Study structure To Save the Design Study: File_Save Click File_Save to save the open design study. All scenarios and designs in the Design Study are saved as well. To Archive, Compress, and Share Design Studies: File_Open Share File & File_Save Share File The Share file is a reduced-size version of the Design Study file, and is useful for archiving and sending to others (including CFdesign Technical Support). To open a share file, start CFdesign, and click File_Open share file. If a Design Study was open, it will be closed and saved prior to opening the share file. To create a share file, click File_Save share file. You will be prompted to select which Designs and Scenarios to include in the Share File by selecting them from the Share File dialog. Specify the amount of content (from the selected scenarios) to be shared by selecting one of the Share File Contents options:
File Type Support Description Only set up parameters are included. Because no mesh or results data are saved, this is the most compact version of the share file Archive The set up parameters, mesh, and the last saved result set are saved. An Archive share file can be run without regenerating the mesh. All results Contains the set up parameters and all results sets, but not the sets mesh. Last results Contains the set up parameters and the last saved result set, but set not the mesh. Everything This is the most comprehensive of the options. It saves all contents (set up parameters, mesh, and all results sets) of the Design Study Use Ideal for sending to CFdesign Technical Support Ideal if results from many iterations had been saved throughout the analysis, but only the last one is needed to be saved. Use if you want to be able to examine results, but do not intend to run the analysis again. Use if you want to be able to examine the results from only the last saved iteration, but do not intend to run the analysis again. Use this if you need to examine intermediate results and continue the analysis.

To save a Results Image: File_Save Image Click File_Save Image to save an image of the current view. Select the desired file format: gif, tif, bmp, jpg. To save a Dynamic Image: File_Save Dynamic Image Dynamic Images are a power way to examine and share results data. Unlike traditional images (like gif and bmp), Dynamic Images can be navigated and animated. Use the Design Communication Center to view Dynamic Images.

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The CFdesign 3D-Viewer is a great marketing and communication tool, and is very powerful for ensuring collaboration across multiple engineering workgroups. For more about the 3D Viewer To save an Image for the Design Review Center: File_Capture Summary Image Use File_Capture summary image to save an image for comparing visual results from multiple Scenarios. Use this command to automatically apply the same view configuration (orientation, result quantity, visualization features, etc.) to all Scenarios in a Design Study. Open the Design Review Center to compare results from the selected scenarios. For more about the Design Review Center To Apply and Save a View Setup: File_Open View Settings & File_Save View Settings After configuring visualization elements (like results planes and iso surfaces), save a view settings file so that the same settings can be easily reapplied later (to the same or a different model). This allows you to easily recreate a particular results view, providing for consistency and less duplication of effort. For more about View Settings files To Save the Mesh or Results to Interoperate with Other Tools: File_Export CFdesign can write out the model and results in several formats for use in other tools. This menu contains the following output file formats:
_Universal Mesh _Tecplot Results _FieldView Results _Nodal Results Exports only the mesh in Ideas Universal file format Exports the results in Tecplot file format Exports the results in FieldView file format Exports results on every node in the model (csv format)

To Print the Active View: File_Print The background color is automatically set to white, and text is shown as black for visibility. There are several options on the Print dialog that allow printer selection, printing to a file, and the number of copies. Click the Preferences button for additional options controlling the page layout, size, and printer options. Click the Print button to send the job to the printer. To Open an Often Used Design Study: File_Recent Design Studies The most recently saved design studies are listed. Click to open the desired one.

Other Items in the File Menu:


_Preferences_User Interface _Preferences_Settings Rules _Preferences_Results Units _Import Material Database _FEA Mapping

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User Interface Preferences


The User Interface Preferences dialog contains several options that allow for a high degree of customization of the CFdesign User Interface to suit your work habits and your working environment. Display Perspective view Choose to enable or disable perspective view by default. Perspective view provides "depth" to the model, making objects that are further from the viewer appear smaller. Perspective is enabled on the left. It is disabled on the right:

Preserve blanking when changing selection mode Set this to Yes to cause blanking to persist when the selection mode is changed. Blank edges when blanking volumes Set this to Yes to cause edges to blank when the volume that owns them is blanked. This is very useful for complex geometries for being able to see internal details clearly when surrounding parts are blanked. Show coordinate axes Set this to Yes to display the coordinate axes by default. Number of legend levels Use this to set the default number of legend levels when visualizing results. The default is 24 for new models. Note that the legend level control on the Results task will override this setting for existing analyses. Background color Set to CAD Dependent to cause the background color to automatically change to that of the the launching CAD system. When an existing analysis is opened, the background color will be persistent from the previous session. The background color for a new analysis not launched from one of these CAD tools will be the default color specified in the Background Color dialog. Set to User Defined to make the background color be the value set in the Background Color dialog. Show Initial conditions task icon This hides the Initial Condition task icon and dialog, and is set to No by default. To show the Initial Conditions task: 1. Change the value to Yes

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2. 3.

Click Ok Exit and restart CFdesign.

Show Motion task icon This hides the Motion task icon and dialog, and is set to No by default. To show the Motion task: 1. 2. 3. Change the value to Yes Click Ok Exit and restart CFdesign.

Show Geometry tool if applicable If set to yes, the Geometry task on the Control Bar is opened automatically if a potential geometry issue is found when the model is loaded. Scenario Material database Specify the material database that is read by CFdesign. The default database is the one included in the CFdesign installation folder. If you use a custom material database, use this setting to make it the default. Some companies use a centrally-located material database. Use this option to make such a database the default. Startup length units The choices are the standard length units systems: meters, cm, mm, feet, inch-BTU/s, and inch-Watt. Note:When launching from a CAD tool, the units set in the model will override this setting. Navigation Navigate as wireframe If set to Yes, the model will show as an outline when navigated. The default setting is No, which will cause the model to retain its current display when navigated. Navigation mode This sets the default mouse mode when CFdesign is started. There are several to choose from: CFdesign Inventor Wildfire Solid Works ICAD/SX OSD CATIAv5 CAD Dependent, which automatically changes the mouse mode to correspond to the CAD tool from which the model was launched (Wildfire, Inventor, and Solid Works).

For more about Mouse modes

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Spaceball mode Enable to use a Spaceball navigation device with CFdesign. Hot Keys Toggle between DSA Tree and Control Panel This enables clicking the Spacebar to toggle between the Design Study bar and the Control bar.

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Setting Rules
Many analysis models are based on assemblies that contain multiple instances of the same part. In many cases, all (or most) instances of a part have the same settings, and are used repeatedly in numerous analyses. Use the File_Preferences_Settings Rules dialog to automate application of settings to multiple part instances. There are two kinds of rules: Part rules -- Part rules automate the assignment of a volumetric boundary condition and a material based on the part name. Material rules-- Material rules automate the assignment of materials to parts based on their material assignments in the CAD tool.

For many analyses, these rules greatly simplify and streamline the set-up process by automating the application of key settings to a large number of parts, eliminating the burden of having to apply a large number of settings manually. This feature should greatly impact electronics cooling analyses in particular due to the large number of repeated parts in electronic devices. All settings rules are stored in the settings .usr file contained in the Documents and Settings\Account\.cfdesign folder. Account is the name of login account. The mechanics of defining Part and Material rules are described below. They are very similar, and care should be taken to ensure that the desired type is created. Some of the basic actions are the same for both rule types: To modify an existing rule: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the desired rule from the Rule Name menu. Make changes as necessary. Click the Save button. Click Exit to close the dialog.

To copy an existing rule to a new rule: 1. 2. 3. Select the desired rule from the Rule Name menu. Click the Save As button. Enter a name for the new rule.

To delete a rule: 1. 2. Select it from the Rule Name menu. Click the Delete button.

Part Rules
Part Rules apply settings based on the part names from the CAD model. Settings that can be applied as rules include volumetric boundary conditions and materials that do not require directional inputs in their definitions (Fluids, Solids, Compact Thermal Models, and Printed Circuit Boards). Boundary conditions can be defined as steady state or transient, and can be assigned as temperature dependent. Note that temperature dependent conditions use the temperature of the local part (and not a remote location) as the sensing location.

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Note that materials must currently exist in the Materials database before they can be used in a setting rule. To Create a Part Rule: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Click File_Preferences_Settings Rules Click the New button. On the Settings Rule Name dialog, select Part, and specify the name of the rule. Click OK. In the Part Name field, specify the part name or a portion of the part name. The rule will be applied to parts that contain the specified name as a part of the complete name. Define the settings that will be applied to every part having or containing the specified part name Check the Apply box to automatically apply the rule when a new analysis is created. Click the Save button to save the rule Optional: Click the Apply Now button to apply the rule to the current model. Click the Exit button to close the dialog or specify an additional rule by clicking the New button to repeat the process. Click Exit to close the Settings Rules dialog.

Material Rules
Using a Material Rule, materials assigned to parts in the CAD model (Wildfire, Inventor, and SolidWorks) are read and automatically applied in the CFdesign model when launched from CAD. This is a very convenient way to connect CAD materials to components in the CFdesign model. Instead of using specific properties defined in CAD materials, this mechanism links the material name in the CAD system to the materials in CFdesign. This is a very powerful way to leverage material data that is often found in CAD models and to automate part of the analysis set-up. With this functionality, creation of the material mapping can be performed once and leveraged repeatedly for subsequent analysis studies. An example of the work flow:

The distinction between Part rules and Material rules is that Part rules are a mapping between the CAD part name to CFdesign material and loads while Material rules are a mapping between the CAD material (on the part) to CFdesign materials.

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To Create a Material Rule: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Click on File_Preferences_Settings Rules. Click the New button. On the Settings Rule Name dialog, select Material, and enter a name for the rule. Click OK. In the Material Name field, enter the name of the material as it is listed in the CAD tool. In the Material Assignment area, select the Type and Name of the material from the CFdesign material database. Check the Apply box to apply the rule when a model is launched. Click the Save button to save the rule. Close the dialog by clicking the Exit button.

When a CAD model containing mapped materials is launched into CFdesign, the corresponding materials will automatically be applied, and will appear in the Materials task. Assigning materials in CAD tools

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Default Results Units


Use the File_Preferences_Results Units dialog to specify the default units of result scalars. On the Global Results task dialog, the units for any result scalar can be selected from the units menu adjacent to the result quantity menu. Because many companies have guidelines for how results are communicated internally, it is convenient to set the default on this dialog so a manual change is not necessary with every analysis. On the Scalar Results Default Units dialog, the available units for each quantity are listed in a menu adjacent to the scalar name. The Default choice is the first item for every quantity, and is shown if no unit system is selected. Quantities with the Default selection are displayed using the default units of the current units system. Units selected for a quantity are applied to all related quantities as well. For example, if mm/h is selected as the default for velocity, then all velocity components as well as absolute velocity will be displayed in mm/h. Related quantities are shown in the table:
Velocity Velocity Magnitude U-Velocity V-Velocity W-Velocity Absolute Velocity Magnitude Absolute Velocity in X-dir Absolute Velocity in Y-dir Absolute Velocity in Z-dir Static Pressure Total Pressure Absolute Static Pressure Viscosity Effective Viscosity Conductivity Effective Conductivity Temperature Total Temperature Shear Stress Wall Shear Stress

Pressure

Viscosity Conductivity Temperature Shear Stress

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Importing Material Database


Use the material database migration tool to migrate materials from earlier versions of CFdesign to the current version. This is most useful for users and companies that have created a large number of custom materials. To use the tool, click File_Import Material Database. Click the Import button to browse for the material database file that is to be imported. This is likely the matprop.mdb file from your v10 installation folder, but it may be another file located elsewhere. The non-vendor supplied materials found in this file will be listed in the dialog. Click the OK button to add them to the active material database file. This is defined on the File_Preferences_User Interface dialog. When the migration is complete, a dialog will appear confirming the import. Note that custom materials in the imported database that also exist in the current database will not be overwritten during the migration. Use this tool to combine multiple database files as well.

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Transfer of Results to FEA


CFdesign results can be applied as boundary conditions for FEA analyses using several popular FEA tools. This capability showcases one of the strengths of the finite element approach, in that results can be shared across analysis platforms and used for subsequent calculations quickly and easily. This ability greatly strengthens the bond between flow and structural analysis, making for a more comprehensive and useful analysis suite. As a critical element in this suite, CFdesign allows flow analysis to be an integral part of the product design process. Pressure and temperature results are interpolated onto the FEA model so the FEA mesh does not have to coincide with the CFdesign mesh. In most cases, these two meshes will be very different because of the different requirements of analysis tools. The element types used in the FEA analysis do not have to be the same as in the CFdesign analysis. The procedure for converting CFdesign results to FEA boundary conditions is described. Specific details for each supported FEA tool are presented: Procedure Steps 1 through 4 need to be completed in the FEA tool. Steps 5 through 9 are performed in CFdesign. Step 10 is performed in the FEA tool. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Prepare the FEA geometry. The model geometry must be in the same position and orientation as the CFdesign design model. Build the appropriate finite element mesh for your structural analysis. The mesh does not have to have the same density or use the same element types as the CFdesign mesh. Only regions critical to the FEA analysis have to be meshed. Apply pressures or temperatures to the appropriate locations in the FEA model. The specified value does not matter; they will be overwritten with values calculated by CFdesign. Export an analysis deck. The file types for the supported FEA tools are listed below. In the completed CFdesign analysis, open the FEA Mapping dialog from File_FEA Mapping Select the FEA deck using the Browse button. Select the Results type to Map (pressure or temperature). Indicate if the direction of pressure should be reversed. (This is specific to FEA tools: some direct positive pressure inward, some outward.) Click the Map Results to BC button. A new deck will be written with results interpolated to the appropriate boundaries. This deck will have the words _new BC appended to the original name. Return to the FEA tool, and import the new deck. The boundary condition values will be the result values from CFdesign, and they will be interpolated to the new nodal and/or elemental locations.

File extensions for supported FEA tools:


FEA Tool Nastran Abaqus Ansys Pro/Mechanica FEMAP Cosmos/M I-deas Analysis Deck .nas (or.dat) .inp .ans (or cdb) No input file needed .neu .gfm .unv

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Transfer of Multiple Time Steps By default, only the results from the last saved result set or time step are converted to an FEA load set. To convert all saved result sets of a transient analysis to FEA load sets, add the following entry to your cfdesign_flags.txt file located in your CFdesign installation directory: load_xfer_all_res 1 Follow the procedure described above to create an FEA deck containing a mesh and applied (dummy) loads and to map the results using the Load Transfer dialog in the CFdesign interface. A separate file containing the interpolated results as loads for each time step will then be exported. Each resultant file follows the following naming convention: deckname_newbcs_t#.filetype deckname = the name assigned to the deck when it was saved from the FEA tool filetype = the appropriate extension of the deck (could be .inp, .ans, .nas, .unv, .neu, .gfm)

The conversion of results to Pro/Mechanica loads is not performed through this dialog. Instead, a Mechanica .fnf file is saved automatically at the conclusion of every Wildfire-based analysis that contains solid materials. If the flag mentioned above is enabled, then a Mechanica file for each time step is automatically saved to the disk.

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FEA System Details


Items such as supported element types, file extensions, and procedural issues are discussed for each supported FEA tool. NASTRAN Nodal temperatures and elemental pressures are supported. The output deck is the .nas or .dat file. The converted deck from CFdesign has the words _newBC appended to its name. Supported element types are: CTRIA (3 and 6 node triangles) CQUAD (4 and 8 node quadrilaterals) CTETRA (4 node and 10 node tetrahedra) CHEXA (8 node hexahedra) CPENTA (6 node prisms) When the converted deck is read back into Nastran, the new loads are added to the current load set. ABAQUS Nodal temperatures and elemental pressures are supported. The output deck is the .inp file. The converted deck from CFdesign has the words _newBC appended to its name. Abaqus files generated in Patran, Pro/E, FEMAP, I-DEAS, and Abaqus CAE are supported. Supported element types include most of the 2D and 3D solid, continuum elements including: 3D Solid Elements: C3D4*, C3D6*, C3D8*, C3D10* Axisymmetric Elements: CAX3*, CAX4*, CAX6*, CAX8* 2D Plane Strain Elements: CP3E*, CPE4*, CPE6*, CPE8* 2D Plane Stress Elements: CPS3*, CPS4*, CPS6*, CPS8* When the converted deck is read back into Abaqus, the new loads are added to the current load set. Ansys Ansys versions higher than 6.0 are supported. The output deck is the .ans or .cdb file. Use the command cdwrite in Ansys to create an .ans file. This command is entered in the command line. The arguments are: CDWRITE option, Fname, Ext Use All for Option. Enter the filename with directory (if not the working directory) for Fname. The default extension is cdb. Alternatively, enter ans as the extension. Nodal temperatures and elemental pressures are supported. Supported Ansys element types: o PLANE2, 13, 25, 35, 42, 55, 67, 75, 77, 78, 82, 83, 141, 145, 146, 162, 182, 183 o SHELL28, 41, 43, 57, 63, 93, 131, 132, 143, 150, 157, 163, 181 o SOLID5, 45, 46, 62, 64, 65, 69, 70, 72, 87, 90, 92, 95, 96, 97, 98, 117, 122, 123, 127, 128, 142, 147, 148, 164, 168, 185, 186, 187 Linear varieties of these elements are supported; additionally, 10-node tetrahedrals are supported. No other non-linear Ansys elements are support. The converted deck from CFdesign has the words _newBC appended to its name.

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When the converted deck is read back into Ansys, the new loads are added to the current load set.

Pro/Mechanica No input deck is required. An .fnf file with the same name as the analysis is output automatically for every analysis based on a Pro/E geometry. Import the .fnf file into your Pro/Mechanica model. Temperatures and pressure are included in this file. CFdesign will output two versions of the fnf file format: one that is compatible with Pro/E 2001 and one that is compatible with Wildfire. FEMAP neutral file version 7.1 is supported Nodal temperatures and elemental pressures are supported. Supported element types are: 2 (3 node triangles) 4 (4 node quadrilaterals) 6 (4 node tetrahedra) 7 (6 node prisms) 8 (8 node hexahedra) 10 (10 node tetrahedra) The output deck is the .neu file. The converted deck from CFdesign has the words _newBC appended to its name. When the converted deck is read back into FEMAP, the new loads are added to the current load set.

FEMAP

Cosmos/M Nodal temperatures and elemental pressures are supported. Supported element types are: 3 node triangles 4 node quadrilaterals 4 node tetrahedrals 5 node pyramids 6 node prisms 8 node hexahedrals 10 node tetrahedrals The output deck is the .gfm file. The converted deck from CFdesign has the words _newBC appended to its name. When the converted deck is read back into COSMOS, the new loads are added to the current load set. COSMOSworks does not support the use of the GFM file. An alternative procedure for working with COSMOSworks is to: 1. Set up & mesh the model in COSMOS (include dummy pressure BC) 2. Export GFM file with only the FEA info (not the geometry). (Note that a GFM file and a GEO file are basically the same thing. Change the extentension from .gfm to .geo) 3. Open GEO file in Geostar. 4. Edit the same GEO file by deleting all the top stuff in the file until you start seeing node (ND) and element (EL) info. 5. Save this as *.GFM, then run it through CFdesign.

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6. 7. I-deas

The output will be able to read back into Geostar after deleting out the ND & EL lines (so only the PEL boundary condition lines remain). Run the structural analysis in Geostar.

I-deas versions 9 and higher are supported. Nodal temperatures and elemental pressures are supported. Supported element types are: 40 (plane stress elements) 50 (plane strain elements) 80 (axisymmetric solids) 90 (thin shell elements) 110 (3D solid elements) The output deck is the .unv file. The converted deck from CFdesign has the words _newBC appended to its name. When the converted deck is read back into I-deas, the new loads are added to the current load set.

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Display Menu
The Display Menu contains several tools for customizing the appearance of the model. Every item in this menu is also found on the View toolbar. The following is a summary of each item: Previous and Next: Undo and redo the orientation, zoom, and model position. Reset: Click this to return the model to its default orientation and location. Zoom to Fit: Rescale the model to fit entirely in the Graphics window. The orientation is preserved, and the model is centered. View: Orient the model with these standard view orientations. Peel Surface: Toggles between hiding surfaces or volumes while results are displayed. Modify model center of rotation: Open the Rotation point Control dialog to change the center of rotation of the model. A sphere is drawn on the model to show the center of rotation while this dialog is open. Modify Z-Clip Settings: Shows a three-dimensional interior view of the analysis mesh. Click for more information Mirror: Mirroring reflects the geometry about a plane. For more about Mirroring...

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Window Menu
The Window menu provides tools for customizing the User Interface primarily by controlling the visibility of the different Toolbars and Usage bars (Control bar, Output bar, etc.) Control the visibility of toolbars using the Toolbars sub-menu. Additionally, toggle the visibility of the Status, Task, Control, and Output bars with this menu. Control the visibility of multiple viewports with the Multiple View controls. Use the Synchronous Navigation toggle to unify the movement in multiple view ports. When engaged, the orientation, locations, and zoom will be the same across all ports, and navigation commands will affect all ports simultaneously. Click Show Mesh Seeds to controls the visibility of mesh seeds while in the Meshing task. Check to make the seeds visible. Uncheck to hide them. Use the Perspective Projection toggle to control the depth view of the model. Perspective view provides "depth" to the model, making objects that are further from the viewer appear smaller. Perspective is enabled on the left. It is disabled on the right:

Use Set Background Color to set the background color of the Graphics window. The background color can also be controlled by the launching CAD system (for Wildfire, Inventor, and Solid Works). Use the File_Preferences_User Interface_Display dialog to set the background color to the launching CAD tool. In the default configuration, the Control Bar and Design Study Bar are positioned on top of one another. Use the tabs at the bottom of the Bar to select the desired panel. Alternatively, use Toggle Between Design Study Bar and Control Bar to switch between the two bars. Note that pushing the keyboard space bar also toggles between the two.

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Review Menu
The Review Menu contains several sources of information about the current scenario. Most of these files are a log of either the state of the calculation or of specific results. Status The status file contains messages displayed during startup as well as the residuals for each degree of freedom for each iteration. To create a separate text file for either file, click the Save button on the bottom of the dialog frame. Summary Component Thermal Summary The Component Thermal Summary file is automatically saved at the conclusion of every analysis. It contains the mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures for each solid part in the model. This data is provided for each time step in a transient analysis. Temperature and heat flux data for Compact Thermal models and Thermoelectric components are listed in this file. Setup Parameters The Setup Parameters File is automatically saved at the conclusion of every analysis. This file contains a listing of all applied analysis conditions such as mesh sizes, materials, and boundary conditions. Rotating Region Results This is a time history of the behavior of rotating regions in a Rotating analysis. The hydraulic torque, rotating speed, and hydraulic force components for each rotating object are listed. Hydraulic Torque is the torque the blades must overcome to push through the fluid. This is different from the torque required to move the blades (as imparted from a motor) which includes bearing friction, shaft losses, plus the hydraulic torque. Hydraulic Forces are the forces that fluid imparts to the rotating solid (impeller). This data is also written to a .csv file named after the analysis name with the word torque appended to it. For example, an analysis named Centrif-Pump would produce a torque file called: CENTRIF-PUMP_torque.csv Motion Results This is a time history of the behavior for every moving object in a Motion analysis. The linear and angular velocities, the linear and angular displacements, the force, and the torque for each time step are listed. This information is very useful for understanding the dynamic state of each part throughout the analysis. Each part is listed on a separate tab. Linear and angular displacements are relative to the initial position of the object as specified using the Initial Position slider on the Motion task dialog. Pay particular attention to this if the initial position differs from the as-built location in the CAD model. This file is also saved to the working directory, and is named using the analysis name and the part name and the word motion. For example, the motion file for an analysis called Heating-Process that contains a moving solid called Product would be called:

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HEATING-PROCESS_PRODUCT_1_motion.csv. Note that the force and torque values are the net values, and include driving, resistance, collision, contact forces as calculated in the Motion module. The hydraulic force and torque are just the force and torque imparted on the object by the fluid, and do not include any forces specified in the motion definition. The hydraulic values are reported in the Wall dialog. Monitor Points

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Summary File
The Summary File contains tabulated minimum, maximum, and average nodal values for selected variables. Global summary calculations at every inlet and outlet for mass flow, bulk pressure, temperature, and Reynolds number are provided. Wall heat transfer, the global energy balance and the fluid forces are reported for the entire model. Analysis run-time statistics and the amount of RAM used are listed. The summary file has a ".sum" extension, and can be viewed in any text editor. The analysis calculation units and the units for every variable are included in the file. Note: When working in the inch-lb-s and inch-Watt-K units systems, the mass flow rate will be given in both the consistent units as well as in lbm/s. Inlets/Outlets (Recall that for book-keeping purposes, any specified velocity boundary condition is labeled an inlet, and any specified pressure boundary condition is labeled an outlet. For a pressure-driven flow, with a pressure at the inlet and a pressure at the outlet, the summary file will report that there are zero inlets, and two outlets. The physical inlet will have a positive mass flow rate however, and the physical outlet will have a negative mass flow rate. Also note that the Total Mass Flow In and the Total Mass Flow Out will be 0. This is because there are no specified velocity conditions (no labeled inlets), and the total mass flow from the labeled outlets cancels (one is positive, and the other is negative). Temperature Statistics For analyses with heat transfer, statistics for temperature distribution are included in the summary file. These statistics show how much (as a volume percentage) of the model has a temperature within a given range. Summary of Fluid Forces on Walls (The cumulative force components are reported in the Summary file as Shear and Pressure results. These values are the summed force values from all walls in the model. Use the Wall Calculator in the Results task dialog to compute forces at individual surfaces. Shell Forces If an analysis contains shells (solid surface obstructions), then force, temperature, and heat transfer information for each surface is listed in the summary file. Energy Balance
Line 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fluid Energy Balance Information: Energy Out - Energy In Heat Transfer from Wall to Fluid Heat Transfer Due to Sources in Fluid Sum Radiant Heat Transfer to Fluid Walls Solid Energy Balance Information: Heat Transfer from Exterior to Solid Heat Transfer Due to Sources in Solid Heat Transfer From Fluid to Solid

Line 1: The difference in energy in the fluid from the outlet to the inlet. This is the sum of the residuals over the entire fluid domain. It represents the total energy needed to sustain all of the fluid boundary conditions. This should match up with the quantity: .

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Line 2: This is how much energy the fluid picked up from heat transfer boundary conditions on the wall, and is the sum of the residuals at all of the wall nodes, including those nodes on the interface of the solid materials. In the case where all of the external fluid walls (not touching any other volume or surface) are adiabatic, this represents the amount of energy the fluid gets from the solid materials. If there are thermal boundary conditions on these external fluid walls, Line 2 will include those conditions as well as the energy being transferred from the solid materials. Line 3: This is the summed energy from heat sources in only the fluid elements/volumes. Line 4: The residuals calculated in Lines 1-3 and Lines 5-7 do not include the radiative fluxes. This line sums the radiative fluxes from every wall surface. Line 5: This is how much energy is transferred to (or from) the solids to (or from) an exterior boundary. This is the sum of the residuals on the external faces of the solid materials. These are faces that do not touch any other material. In certain cases, where the solid material has say a heat generation applied to it and some external faces, this Line may contain a finite number which is the sum of the residuals on these external nodes. In this case, this number can be interpreted as the energy that would seep into the environment from that material. In the case where the external faces have a thermal flux-type condition or a specified temperature, this Line represents the amount of energy needed to sustain those boundary conditions. Line 6: This is the summed energy from the heat sources in only the solid material elements/volumes. Line 7: This is the energy that crosses the interface of the solid materials into the fluid elements. For adiabatic fluid external walls, this value should match up with Line 2. For the Fluid Energy Balance, the following values should match: Energy Out - Energy In = Heat Transfer from Wall to Fluid + Heat Transfer Due to Source in Fluid + Radiant Heat Transfer to Fluid Walls or Line 1 = Line 2 + Line 3 + Line 4 For the Solid Energy Balance, the following values should match: Heat Transfer Due to Sources in the Solid = Heat Transfer from Exterior to Solid + Heat Transfer From Fluid to Solid + (some radiation) or Line 6 = Line 5 + Line 7 + (some radiation) For radiation calculations, Line 7 will be larger than Line 6 because the radiative energy leaving the solids is not included. Why dont they exactly match? We are summing the residuals of the energy equation at every node in the model. If the energy equation is not converged, there will not be a balance. Even at convergence, the energy balance may still contain some errors due to numerical roundoff and mesh inaccuracies. Further, note that the goal of CFdesign is to obtain the most accurate solution in terms of temperature. Hence, the CFdesign solver is not using the energy balance to determine the best solution, but it is looking directly at the energy equation and the temperature solution, optimizing for the best temperature solution. If the energy equation was formed based on fluxes, you would always get an energy balance even for a non-converged energy solution. However, balancing these fluxes would require you to smear or diffuse the temperatures to maintain this energy balance. This heat flux balancing would cause temperature gradients to be less steep. In CFdesign, the temperature gradients are not artificially forced to conform to a flux or energy balance and therefore would maintain the steepness that the mesh and discretization would support. Since it is usually the temperatures that constrains the design, a more accurate solution of local temperatures would be desirable.

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Can you get an energy balance in CFdesign? Yes, but it may require a finer mesh and several 100 or more iterations. What we have found is that adding the extra mesh and iterations may not change the temperature more than a few tenths or even hundredths of a degree, but it may change the energy balance by 20% or more. As an example, for the heat transfer problem in the figure below, the expected temperature rise from inlet to outlet is 1 degree C with a mass flow of 1 kg/s and the energy input is 100 Watts (specific heat of the fluid is 100).

If the outlet temperature predicted by CFdesign is 31.1 C, the error in the energy balance is 10%. However, the error in the temperature solution is:

So, the error in the temperature solution is less than 1%. Furthermore, the temperature matrix is formed as an absolute temperature, so the real error in the temperature solution is:

Hence, the temperature solution has an error of 0.03%.

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Help Menu
The Help System is directly integrated with CFdesign, and is accessed in several ways: Click the Help icon on any dialog to open context-sensitive help Click CFdesign Help Topics from the Help menu to open the Help system From the Windows Start menu, select CFdesign Help from the CFdesign menu Enter a search string in the Search toolbar and click Enter. The Help system will open and be searched for relevant topics

CFdesign Help Topics Opens the Help system (which you are currently reading). The Help system is a comprehensive collection of information about using all aspects of CFdesign. It contains descriptions of all CFdesign functionality, guidelines for solving specific analysis types, and descriptions of common errors. Analysis Guidelines This is a topic-based collection of best practices for a wide array of different analysis types. Examples Opens the collection of CFdesign Examples in the Help system. This is a great resource for learning how to use CFdesign. Technical Reference Opens the Technical Reference section in the Help system. This contains the suite of Verification analyses as well as a detailed description of the theoretical foundation of CFdesign. What's New Opens the What's New section of the Help system, which contains detailed descriptions of new functionality in the latest version. Customer Portal Knowledge Base Connects to the on-line CFdesign Knowledge Base and User Portal. This highly useful resource contains up-to-date, topical information about using CFdesign as well as the current bug list. CFD TV Connects to a series of short videos that describe usage of key aspects of CFdesign. The CFD tv library is always growing, and is a great resource for learning about how to use the software. User Forum Connects to an on-line forum of CFdesign users. This is a great way to exchange ideas and ask questions of your fellow members of the CFdesign User Community.

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Contact Technical Support Connects to the Support area of the Customer Portal. Check for Updates Connects to the User Portal, and compares your current installed version with the latest in the Download Site. If your version is not the latest, you can download the new version. A user account is required to access the User Portal. If you do not have an account, please follow the instructions on the User Portal dialog. About CFdesign Shows the build number of the current installation. You may be asked for this by a CFdesign Technical Support Engineer. Licensing This item opens a dialog that shows the current license status. This is very useful for troubleshooting license problems. The dialog indicates which license server the software is looking to for a license. It also indicates the number of Interface and Solver licenses available. The dialog that allows selection of a specific functionality level if the floating (network) license contains a combination of different functional levels. To provide a high level of flexibility in licensing for larger installations with network licenses, CFdesign includes the ability to check out a specific funtionality tier from a mixed pool of licenses. For example, if a corporate site-license includes four Advanced licenses and one Motion license, this function allows the user to select a Motion license only when the Motion functionality is required. For analyses that do not include solid-body motion, the user would select an Advanced license. This would leave the Motion licenses available for other engineers that do need the Motion capability. For a heterogeneous CFdesign license (a license that contains seats with different funtionality levels), the License Preferences dialog will pop up automatically when CFdesign is started: This dialog lists the licenses that are available, and prompts the user to select which type of license they will use. If, for example, Advanced is selected, then the Motion functionality will be unavailable in the CFdesign interface. If Motion is selected, the Motion license is checked out, and the Motion functionality will be available. (Note that Motion includes the advanced functionality set as well.) By default, this dialog will appear every time CFdesign is started. Uncheck the check box to make the setting permanent (and to prevent the dialog from displaying every time). To change the setting simply click Help_Licensing. For node-locked licenses and homogeneous network license (meaning that all of the seats are at the same functionality level) the Licensing dialog does not appear. No input is required for such a license installation.

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Getting Help with the CFdesign Answer System


Finding answers to your CFdesign-related questions has never been easier. The CFdesign Answer System consists of several components; each delivers answers to your questions in a different way. All components of the System are located in the CFdesign Portal. In addition to the Portal, Help is also accessible from anywhere in the CFdesign interface. http://customerportal.cfdesign.com/Support/CustomerPortal.aspx The Points of the Answer System The CFdesign Answer System integrates the new Help System with several Components in the CFdesign User Portal: The vast collection of topical articles in the Knowledge Base. These topics are authored by CFdesign Support and Application Engineers, and cover techniques developed and learned in the Field. The collection of video-based CFD-Tv episodes. Delivered by CFdesign Technical experts, each video explores a specific application area or a particular aspect of CAD. CFdesign Forum entries posted by users. Often these posts lead to exchanges between users as well as Support Engineers, and contain specific and detailed information. The CFdesign Help System is a browser-based Help system that integrates the User's Guide, Examples Guide, Technical Reference, Release Notes, and Installation Notes from previous versions. The Help system is a unified, searchable information system that is directly integrated with both CFdesign and the CFdesign User Portal.

The entire system is searchable. To search these collections, simply type in key-words into the Search field in the CFdesign Help toolbar:

By default, this will initiate a search of the components in the System (including Help).

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Relevant information from the searched resources is listed. Browse through the search results to find material that answers your question, and click the link. If you do not have network access, simply change the target with the icon to the right of the Search field to Local. This searches the Help System installed with CFdesign:

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CFdesign Help system The Help System is easily accessible from anywhere in CFdesign. For help on a specific topic, click the Help icon on most dialogs: To open the Help System to the title page, click Help_CFdesign Help Topics from the Main Menu or the Help icon in the Help toolbar:

The Help System can also be launched from the CFdesign Windows Start menu.

The Help System opens in your default browser:

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Use the Contents list to guide you through the topics. To quickly find information about a specific topic, enter a key-word or phrase in the built-in Search tool. The Help System has been verified to work with Internet Explorer and FireFox browsers. The CFdesign Answer System is automatically activated when an error is encountered while using CFdesign. An Error dialog containing information about the specific condition and suggested steps for resolving the issue is presented. If you need more information, click the More Information button to Search across the entire Answer System. Expanded Error descriptions When errors are encountered, they are presented in a new, unified format that clearly describes the situation. Information is provided that describes how to resolve the issue. To learn more, simply click "More Information" to initiate a search within the CFdesign Answer System.

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If the Help toolbar Search Target is set to Online, all Points in the Multi-Point Answer System are searched. (Portal access is required.) If the Search Target is set to Local, then only the installed CFdesign Help System is searched.

Note that an active Portal account is needed to access all parts of the CFdesign Answer System except the installed Help.

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The Right-Click Work Flow


Similar to the work-flow in many CAD tools, the Right-Click Work Flow features right mouse-button context menus for applying settings. The Design Study Bar is an integral part of this work flow. Click the Design Study Bar tab in the lower left corner to see it. If the tab is not visible, right-click near the menus, and check Design Study Bar from the list.

The Right-Click Work Flow is a three-step process: 1. Select the task with either the Task bar (on the right side of the Interface) or by clicking a branch on the Design Study Bar. 2. Right click on the entity (surface or part), and click Edit from the right-click menu. 3. Apply the setting in the Quick Edit dialog. For more about the right-click menu options Note: Apply Geometry Tools and Results Visualization with the Task dialogs in the Control Bar.

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The Task-Dialog Work Flow


The Task-Dialog work flow is similar to previous versions of CFdesign. The Control Bar needs to be visible when using this work flow. Click the Control Bar tab to make it visible. The work process alternates between picking items on the model and applying settings in the task dialog on the Control bar:

The Task-Dialog Work Flow is a three-step process: 1. Select the task with the Task bar. Its default location is on the right side of the Interface, but you might want to move it to the left, as shown. 2. Left click on the entity (surface or part). 3. Apply the setting in the Task dialog. CFdesign 2010 offers the flexibility of both methods as well as any combination of the two. You can customize the CFdesign environment to suit your personal preferences.

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Selecting Entities
There are several ways to set the selection mode to volume, surface, or edge: From the Control Bar on the Materials, Loads, Mesh, and Motion tasks From the right click menu on the Graphics window From the Selection Mode toolbar

When the mouse hovers over an entity, its color changes to green. Select an entity by left clicking on it. When an entity is selected, its color changes to red. When the mouse hovers over an already selected entity, its color changes to yellow. To deselect an entity, simply click on it again, or highlight it in the Selection List and click the Deselect icon. To be selectable, an entity must not be occluded by another entity. If there is an entity blocking the line of sight to the desired entity, use the right mouse button to blank its display (see the next section). When an item is selected, its label is added to the Selection List. Select multiple items by highlighting them in the list using the Windows standard selection methods: Multiple Items: Hold down the Range: Hold down the key while clicking on items key while clicking on items

To select entities from the Design Study Bar, simply right click on their label in the appropriate branch. To add or modify a setting, right-click, and select Edit.

Selection Icons
The four icons on the Control Bar (below the Selection method menu) simplify selecting and deselecting multiple entities:

Select All entities of the current selection mode by clicking: Deselect an item by highlighting in the selection list, and clicking: Deselect all selected items by clicking: Select the previously selected entities by clicking:

Note that Select All and Deselect All are also available in the right-click menu.

Selection Method
On the Control bar, the Selection Method allows for associative selection. Associativity is based on geometry, and provides a quick way to select multiple entities that are related to the Selection Method type (surfaces owned by a volume, for example).

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Entities of the type shown in the Selection Method menu will highlight as the mouse is moved over them. When selected, all of the items of the current selection mode that are associated with the picked item will be selected. The Selection Methods for each selectable entity are:
Entity Volume Surface Edge Selection Method Direct -- Volumes are highlighted and are selected By Material -- All volumes that have the same material are highlighted and selected together. Direct -- Surfaces are highlighted and are selected By Volume -- Volumes are highlighted, and all surfaces touching a picked volume are selected. Direct -- Edges are highlighted and are selected By Surface -- Surfaces are highlighted, and all edges touching a picked surface are selected. By Volume -- Volumes are highlighted, and all edges touching a picked volume are selected.

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Groups
A group is a homogeneous collection of entities consisting of volumes, surfaces, or edges. A group cannot contain more than one type of entity (such as a mixture of volumes and surfaces, for example). Use groups to simplify applying settings to large numbers of entities. Volumes, surfaces, and edges can be grouped based on part name, material, mesh size, or boundary condition. Groups of entities can then be selected with a button click to add additional settings. Creating Groups To create a group: 1. 2. 3. Set the selection mode (Volume, Surface, or Edge) to the entity type to be added to the group. Right click on the Groups branch in the Design Study bar, and select Create new group. A dialog will prompt for a name.

To group geometric entities (parts, surfaces, edges), leave the Type at its default value of Geometric. To group parts by Motion (for linked motion): set the Type to Motion. To Add Entities and Create Groups on the Fly To Add Entities Graphically 1. 2. 3. Select entities from the model To create a group for the selected entities, right click, and select Group_Create Group. Enter a name for the group . To add selected entities to an existing group, right click, and select Group and the name of the group.

To Add Entities from the Design Study Tree 1. 2. 3. 4. Right click on parts, surfaces, or edges in a branch of the Design Study tree, and select Add to existing group To select multiple entities with the same applied setting, expand the setting branch, hold down the Shift or Ctrl keys, and select them. A menu will list available groups. Select the desired group from the list. To create a new group, select Create new group. Enter a group name on the Create Group dialog when prompted.

To Add Parts by Name 1. 2. Add parts to an existing volume-based group by right clicking on a group name in the Groups branch, and selecting Add by name. Use a regular expression to specify part of the name that is common to the parts to be added to the group.

Be sure to check the Regular Expression box. For example, to add multiple parts with the word chip in their name, enter *chip*. All parts that have the word "chip" somewhere in their name will be added to the group.

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To Add Selected Entities When applying loads, mesh sizes, or materials, the currently selected entities can be added to a group by clicking the Group Operation button on the Task dialog:

In the Add to Group dialog, either create a new group or select an existing group. (Note that this button does not exist on the Quick Edit dialogs.)

To Remove Entities from a Group In the Design Study bar, right click on the entities under the Group branch, and select Remove. To Remove Groups Delete an individual group by right clicking on it in the Group branch of the feature tree, and click Remove. Delete all groups by right clicking on the top level Groups branch of the Design Study bar, and selecting Remove All. To Combine Groups Combine the contents of groups by right-clicking on a group, and select Add to existing group. The other groups containing the same entity type are listed. Click one of the groups from the list to add its contents into the current group. The group that is selected from the pop-out menu is not altered. (Only the group that was right-clicked is modified.) For example, to add the volumes of Group2 into Group1, right click on Group1, select Add to existing group, and then select Group2 from the list. Group 1 will then contain all of its original entities plus those in Group2. Note that Group2 will not be changed. To Select a Group To select a group, right click in the Graphics window, click Group, and select the group from the list. Only groups containing entities of the current selection mode are shown. Alternatively, on the Loads, Mesh, Motion, and Materials dialogs, list groups by clicking the arrow on the Group Operation button.

Only groups containing the type of entity of the current selection type are listed. Select a group by clicking on its entry in the list. When a group is selected, its entities are added to the Selection List. Individual items can be deselected or additional items added.

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Wall Calculator Groups of surfaces can be selected for use with the Wall Calculator. The group must have existed during the last run (if it did not exist, simply run 0 iterations prior to examining wall results). In the Wall dialog, select a group of surfaces by clicking the Group Operation button, and selecting the appropriate group. The surfaces in the group will be added to the Selection list, and wall results on those surfaces will be reported when the Calculate button is pressed.

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Entering Settings
The Boundary Conditions, Initial Conditions, Manual Meshing, Materials, Motion, and Analyze dialogs use a Property Table to enter settings. In every task, the table is divided into two columns: The left column contains Properties The right column contains Values

The Property Table is designed to provide a very consistent approach for specifying analysis data which is also very space efficient. The conventions are used on the Task dialogs are discussed here. There are several types of menu or selection items that are found on the Task dialogs: Menu List Menus contain several choices for a property, and are always marked with the down arrow symbol. Click anywhere in the field to expand the menu list:

Buttons Buttons are action items that either apply a command directly (such as to Reverse the direction of the normal velocity) to the entry or launch another dialog (such as the Material Editor). They appear as a word without any symbol in the value field. When clicked, the button appears, and the command is invoked:

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Pop-Out dialog Several settings require a direction or a graphical input. Examples include the flow direction for an internal fan in Materials or the bounds location for flow-driven motion on the Motion dialog. These entries are made using a pop-out dialog, and are marked with a ... symbol in the value field. Click anywhere in the value field to bring up the pop out dialog:

Use the pop-out to specify the required direction or other input. Several have a way to graphically select a direction by picking on the model. This is activated with the Select Surface... button. When finished, simply click anywhere in the property table to close the pop up. Entry Field Entry fields require the user to key-in a value. The text in the property column is red and bolded. Simply click in the field, and key in the desired value. Click elsewhere in the dialog to finish the entry:

Check Box Check boxes are used as a toggle between two choices for a setting: Unchecked = Off Checked = On

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Expanding Menus In several dialogs, menus expand and collapse, based on the selections. The Free Motion dialog in the Motion task is a good example:

In some cases, checking an option will expand the menu. The Heat Transfer selection on the Solve dialog is an example:

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Using the Mouse


Mouse modes are set on the Navigation Mode menu of the File_Preferences_User Interface dialog. Select CAD Dependent to automatically set the mode to match the CAD tool from which the model was launched. A summary of the mouse modes is presented in the following tables. The convention in this table refers to the mouse buttons and the roller wheel as follows: LMB = Left mouse button MMB = Middle mouse button RMB = Right mouse button Scroll Wheel = rotate the scroll wheel Many of methods involve the keyboard Ctrl and Shift keys

Navigation Modes
There are several mouse navigation modes: CFdesign

Model Navigation
Zoom Rotate Pan Roll about Center Z Rubber-Band Zoom Align Cancel Wheel zoom Replay navigation history Ctrl + LMB Ctrl + MMB Ctrl + RMB Shift + MMB Shift + LMB Shift + RMB RMB during rubber-band zoom or select Scroll wheel Ctrl + Shift + Scroll wheel

Results Probe
Probe on model surface Probe on planar cut plane Shift + Ctrl at desired location Shift at desired location on cut plane

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Entity Visualization
Select / Deselect Multiple select (rubber-band) Hide entity Show hidden entity Show all hidden entities Hide surface in Results Show hidden surface in Results Show all hidden surfaces in Results Replay Show/Hide history LMB LMB + drag around objects to select MMB Ctrl + Scroll wheel MMB off model Peel Surface icon engaged + MMB Ctrl + Scroll wheel MMB off model Ctrl + Scroll wheel

Cutting Plane Navigation


Rotate Pan Ctrl + Shift + MMB Ctrl + Shift + RMB

External Volume and Mesh Refinement Region Navigation


Resize Rotate Pan Ctrl + Shift + LMB Ctrl + Shift + MMB Ctrl + Shift + RMB

Inventor Model Navigation


Zoom Rotate Pan Roll about Center Z Rubber-Band Zoom Align Cancel Wheel zoom Replay navigation history F3 + LMB F4 + LMB (or Shift + MMB) F2 + LBM (or MMB) Shift + MMB Shift + LMB Shift + RMB RMB during rubber-band zoom or select Scroll wheel Ctrl + Shift + Scroll wheel

Results Probe
Probe on model surface Probe on planar cut plane Shift + Ctrl at desired location Shift at desired location on cut plane

Entity Visualization
Select / Deselect Multiple select (rubber-band) Hide entity Show hidden entity Show all hidden entities Hide surface in Results Show hidden surface in Results Show all hidden surfaces in Results Replay Show/Hide history LMB Ctrl + LMB + drag around objects to select Ctrl + RMB Ctrl + Scroll wheel Ctrl + RMB off model Peel Surface icon engaged + MMB Ctrl + Scroll wheel Ctrl + RMB off model Ctrl + Scroll wheel

Cutting Plane Navigation


Rotate Pan Ctrl + Shift + MMB Ctrl + Shift + RMB

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External Volume and Mesh Refinement Region Navigation


Resize Rotate Pan Ctrl + Shift + LMB Ctrl + Shift + MMB Ctrl + Shift + RMB

Wildfire Model Navigation


Zoom Rotate Pan Roll about Center Z Rubber-Band Zoom Align Cancel Wheel zoom Replay navigation history Ctrl + MMB MMB Shift + MMB n/a Shift + LMB Shift + RMB RMB during rubber-band zoom or select Scroll wheel Ctrl + Shift + Scroll wheel

Results Probe
Probe on model surface Probe on planar cut plane Shift + Ctrl at desired location Shift at desired location on cut plane

Entity Visualization
Select / Deselect Multiple select (rubber-band) Hide entity Show hidden entity Show all hidden entities Hide surface in Results Show hidden surface in Results Show all hidden surfaces in Results Replay Show/Hide history LMB Ctrl + LMB + drag around objects to select Ctrl + RMB Ctrl + Scroll wheel Ctrl + RMB off model Peel Surface icon engaged + Ctrl + RMB Ctrl + Scroll wheel Ctrl + RMB off model Ctrl + Scroll wheel

Cutting Plane Navigation


Rotate Pan Ctrl + Shift + MMB Ctrl + Shift + RMB

External Volume and Mesh Refinement Region Navigation


Resize Rotate Pan Ctrl + Shift + LMB Ctrl + Shift + MMB Ctrl + Shift + RMB

SolidWorks Model Navigation


Zoom Rotate Pan Roll about Center Z Rubber-Band Zoom Shift + MMB MMB Ctrl + MMB Alt + MMB Shift + LMB

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Align Cancel Wheel zoom Replay navigation history

Shift + RMB RMB during rubber-band zoom or select Scroll wheel Ctrl + Shift + Scroll wheel

Results Probe
Probe on model surface Probe on planar cut plane Shift + Ctrl at desired location Shift at desired location on cut plane

Entity Visualization
Select / Deselect Multiple select (rubber-band) Hide entity Show hidden entity Show all hidden entities Hide surface in Results Show hidden surface in Results Show all hidden surfaces in Results Replay Show/Hide history LMB LMB + drag around objects to select Ctrl + RMB Ctrl + Scroll wheel Ctrl + RMB off model Peel Surface icon engaged + Ctrl + RMB Ctrl + Scroll wheel Ctrl + RMB off model Ctrl + Scroll wheel

Cutting Plane Navigation


Rotate Pan Ctrl + Shift + MMB Ctrl + Shift + RMB

External Volume and Mesh Refinement Region Navigation


Resize Rotate Pan Ctrl + Shift + LMB Ctrl + Shift + MMB Ctrl + Shift + RMB

ICAD/SX

Model Navigation
Zoom Rotate Pan Roll about Center Z Rubber-Band Zoom Align Cancel Wheel zoom Replay navigation history MMB + LMB MMB + RMB MMB n/a Shift + LMB Shift + RMB RMB during rubber-band zoom or select Scroll wheel Ctrl + Shift + Scroll wheel

Results Probe
Probe on model surface Probe on planar cut plane Shift + Ctrl at desired location Shift at desired location on cut plane

Entity Visualization
Select / Deselect Multiple select (rubber-band) Hide entity Show hidden entity Show all hidden entities LMB Ctrl + LMB + drag around objects to select Ctrl + RMB Ctrl + Scroll wheel Ctrl + RMB off model

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Hide surface in Results Show hidden surface in Results Show all hidden surfaces in Results Replay Show/Hide history

Peel Surface icon engaged + RMB Ctrl + Scroll wheel Ctrl + RMB off model Ctrl + Scroll wheel

Cutting Plane Navigation


Rotate Pan Ctrl + Shift + MMB Ctrl + Shift + RMB

External Volume and Mesh Refinement Region Navigation


Resize Rotate Pan Ctrl + Shift + LMB Ctrl + Shift + MMB Ctrl + Shift + RMB

Curser Types
When assigning settings to a model, it is helpful to know the current selection mode. The curser type indicates this:

Volume Mode

Surface Mode

Edge Mode

Change the selection mode using any of these methods: 1. 2. 3. Open the Control bar, and select the mode from the top of the dialog Right click in the graphics window (not on the model), and select from the right-click context-sensitive menu. Select the desired mode from the Selection Mode Toolbar.

Navigation Cube
The Cube is a graphical navigation tool located in the lower left corner of the Graphics window. Click sides, edges, and corners of the cube to orient the model. Click the arrows around the outside of the cube to rotate the model.

Enable the display of the Navigation cube from the Navigation Cube icon in the View Toolbar:

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Right Click Menus


Many frequently used controls are available from the right-mouse button menu. These controls are accessible from other places in the User Interface, but having them also available with the mouse makes CFdesign easier to learn and to use. Model Setup These commands help make setting up the model easier. Open the menu by right-clicking on or off the model. They are context-sensitive, and will show commands based on the current task mode and the entity that was clicked on. The available right-mouse button commands are described:
Selection type

Volume, Surface, Edge Note that the Selection Type can also be set on the Task dialogs and the Selection Type tool bar.

Select All / Deselect All


Group

Acts on the active Selection Type For more about selecting entities

Create a group of selected items Select a group containing items of the same type as the current Selection Type For more about groups

Shaded, Outline, Transparent

Edit

Available while a part is selected

With an entity selected, opens a Quick Edit dialog for assigning settings The Quick Edit dialog that opens is based on the active task Apply and modify conditions such as materials, boundary conditions, and mesh settings:

Remove

Deletes settings from the selected object The active task determines which settings are removed

Remove All


Hide

Deletes all settings from the Scenario The active task determines which settings are removed

Hiding entities is very useful when applying settings as it allows easy access to objects in the background Blanks the selected object from view

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Alternatively, use the mouse to hide an object as described above for the various mouse navigation modes. Only entities of the type in the current selection mode are blanked. A model is shown with some surfaces blanked. Note that the surface underneath are now visible, and therefore can be selected:

Viewing Results Controlling part appearance is very important when viewing results. These commands are available by right-clicking while visualizing Results.
Shaded, Outline, Transparent, Wireframe, Shaded mesh

Standard visibility options Select one option from the list Available when a part is selected

Show Result, Show Color, Show Texture

Standard visibility options Select one option from the list Show Texture maps an external texture map to the model:

Textures are surface images that can be assigned to parts. They are different from simple colors in that they change the appearance of a part to look like a real-world object or substance. They are a great way to give your model a real world appearance, making for a visually provocative results images. To impose a texture, right click on a part, and select Show Texture from the menu. A file browse dialog will appear containing several dozen textures that are included with CFdesign. The outer part is assigned a chrome texture map:

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Set Transparency


Hide

Active only if the model or part is shown with transparency Move the slider toward 100% to make the model more transparent (easier to see through).

o o o o

Hides the selected entity from view Alternatively, use the mouse to hide an object as described above for the various mouse navigation modes. To hide surfaces, push the Peel Surface icon: An unobstructed view of an object must exist to hide it.

To display suppressed parts, open the Control bar, and expand the Results branch. In the Materials sub-branch, check the box adjacent to the part name. For more about displaying suppressed parts...

Results Probing
Probe for result values on any surface including results planes, walls, openings, slip faces, internal fluid surfaces. To probe on a geometric surface: 1. 2. Hover the mouse over the area of interest Hold down the shift and control keys simultaneously.

The value of the active scalar is displayed on the Status bar. To probe on a results plane:

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1. 2.

Hover the mouse over the area of interest on the plane Hold the shift key.

The value of the active scalar is displayed on the Status bar.

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Customization
The CFdesign environment is fully customizable, allowing elements within the CFdesign User Interface to be moved and repositioned to suit personal preferences. Customized placement of objects is persistent from one session to the next.

To change the location of toolbars:

1. 2.

Hover the mouse over the left edge of the toolbar. When the cursor changes to the move arrows, left click and drag the toolbar to the desired location

To dock a toolbar along any edge of the interface:

Drag it near an edge and drop it into place. Alternatively, drop it outside of the interface.

To move the Design Study Bar, Control Bar, or Output Bar:

1. 2.

Left click in the title region of the dialog (in the area adjacent to the words "Control Bar" or "Output Bar." While holding the mouse button, drag the window to the desired location.

To re-dock the Design Study Bar, Control Bar, or Output Bar:

1. 2.

Drag the bar near the desired edge of the User Interface. Double click with left mouse button in the title region.

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CAD Connection
CFdesign has very strong ties to the leading CAD tools used in industry. By using the same geometry engines as the CAD systems, CFdesign reads the native model without the need for STEP or IGES translations. Parametric changes to the geometry are read directly into CFdesign (as Designs are updated within the Design Study), and model settings from similar analyses are automatically applied when Designs and Scenarios are cloned. This functionality delivers two significant benefits: 1. 2. Multiple designs and scenarios are easily studied without having to go to great lengths to fix IGES or Step translations for each design alternative. Corporate PLM/PDM initiatives are supported because geometry manipulation occurs ONLY in the CAD system, where it can be tracked and archived. When geometry is manipulated in a third party system (such as many of the other CFD tools), changes often are lost, or have to be re-created back in the CAD system.

The Geometry Process and Related Links


Step 1: Flow geometry

An effective analysis starts with good CAD techniques both in terms of model integrity and proper creation of the flow region. The first step is to design your CAD model for the flow analysis. For basic information about the flow volume
Step 2: CAD Tool Specifics

Due to the differences in CAD tools, we have developed specific guidelines for several of them. These techniques help you to create geometry that works well with CFdesign: Wildfire CATIA v5 Parasolid/Acis based CAD

Step 3: Launch from CAD

The CFdesign launcher is integrated into the User Interface of each CAD tool. For more about CAD launchers
Step 4: Design Study Manager

After launching, the Design Study Manager helps you place your model into a Design Study. The Design Study Manager is an interactive tool for coordinating your CAD models and Design Studies in real-time.

Additional Information
Automatic transfer of CAD Environment and Settings

The launchers transfer several environment and model attributes from your CAD tool to the CFdesign Design Study: CAD environment CAD model data

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These connections streamline the analysis process and simplify the workflow transition between the CAD tool and CFdesign.
Direct Import of Mesh

This allows import of a mesh generated in a tool other than CFdesign.

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Flow Geometry
Geometry for a typical fluid flow analysis is different than that used for structural analysis. The two broad classifications of flow geometry are internal and external. Examples of internal flows include: flow in pipes flow in valves flow in electronic enclosures

Examples of external flows include: flow over a car flow over an airplane wing or missile flow around an electronic device exposed to the environment

Internal Flows
For internal flows, a flow core must be created from the existing surrounding geometry. The outer walls of the volume are omitted (unless they are to be used as part of a heat transfer calculation) and the interior volume of the pipe is modeled.

In contrast, in a structural analysis the walls of the pipe would be meshed and the interior would be omitted from the calculation domain:

Another way to think of this is:

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A pipe is filled with water and the water is allowed to freeze. Now, imagine that the pipe walls are removed, and all that remained was the solid volume of ice. This volume is where the fluid exists, and is the geometry that would be created and meshed for a CFD analysis of flow through that pipe. The flow volume can be created directly in the CAD tool1 or with the CFdesign Void Fill Geometry Tool.

External Flows
For external flows, it is customary to invert the geometry. This means that the object is made stationary and the flow is blown over it at the equal and opposite velocity of the physical object. To implement this as analysis geometry, two pieces of geometry are needed: the object itself (missile, car, bullet, etc.) and a large calculation domain in which the object is positioned:

The external flow volume can be created directly in the CAD tool2 or with the CFdesign External Volume Geometry Tool. The shape of the domain is usually not very critical, and can be a circle, semi-circle, rectangle, sphere, or box. Because the flow all around the object is being modeled, it is a good idea to make the computational domain substantially larger than the object itself. More information about domain size.
1 2

Wildfire, Inventor, CoCreate, Solid Edge, SpaceClaim, UGNX, SolidWorks, CATIAv5 Wildfire, Inventor, CoCreate, Solid Edge, SpaceClaim, SolidWorks, CATIAv5

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Wildfire
There are four primary steps necessary to ensure that a model in Pro/E Wildfire is ready to be a CFdesign simulation model: 1. 2. 3. 4. All components must be in the same units system. The same value of absolute accuracy should be assigned to all components. (In some models relative accuracy is sufficient, but absolute is required for many.) Component interferences must be removed. Prescribe the launch method (Granite or Mechanica).

All of these steps are accomplished manually within the Wildfire user interface. However, to facilitate the model preparation process, the CFdesign launcher within Wildfire includes tools to accomplish the steps listed above.

This tool is called AutoPrep because it automates the preparation of the geometry for analysis. Click Applications_CFdesign to launch from Wildfire. AutoPrep checks for consistent units, accuracy values, and interferences. This information and tools for repairing problems are presented in the AutoPrep interface (shown above). Note that changes made with AutoPrep are saved to the Wildfire model prior to launching into CFdesign.

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Step 1: Units When Applications_CFdesign is first pressed, the assembly is scanned to ensure that all components have the same units. If parts with different unit systems are found, AutoPrep opens with the Units dialog:

All parts and assemblies and their corresponding units systems are listed for reference. The available units systems are also listed, and those with an * are included in the assembly. 1. 2. 3. Select the desired units system from the list Click the Unify All button.(If a mistake was made, click the Reset button to return the assembly to its original units.) Once all components have the same units, click the Continue button.

Note that this dialog will not appear if all components are assigned the same units system. Step 2: Auto-Accuracy In many assemblies, it is necessary that all components be assigned a consistent value of absolute accuracy. This is not always the case, and some assemblies will launch without a problem if all parts have relative accuracy. The process of manually changing accuracy values can be a big job, especially for large assemblies. If some trial-and-error is needed to get the optimal value, then the process is even harder. The Auto-Accuracy tab of AutoPrep provides a tool-kit for changing accuracy values on all components that is very easy and quick:

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The range of absolute accuracy values is first computed, and provides the bounds for the slider. The geometry will regenerate at any value on this slider. (There are occasional exceptions, but the model will be restored to its previous setting without causing any damage.) 1. 2. 3. Select a value with the slider. Note that the default accuracy value is the largest value (the far right position of the slider). Click the Auto-Accuracy button to set the specified value of absolute accuracy to all components in the model. Proceed to the Interference Removal tab or start CFdesign by clicking the CFdesign button.

If the geometry is such that the specified value of absolute accuracy does not allow a successful launch, reduce the value with the slider bar, click the Auto-Accuracy button, and launch again. To reset all accuracy values to their original state, click the Reset All button. To change all accuracy values to relative, click the Set Relative Accuracy button.

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Step 3: Interferences Click the Interference Removal tab to locate and fix part interferences. A list of all interfering parts is displayed:

1.

Click on an interfering pair from the list, and the graphical display will zoom in on the interference. The two parts will be colored to correspond to the colors listed in the columns (blue and green). The interference region will be colored red.

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2. 3.

4. 5.

Click the Single Cutter button, and a dialog will open which prompts for which of the pair should be the cutter. Select the part that will cut the other part, and click the Apply button. (In this case, if we select the board part, 04012401.prt, it will cut material away from the cylinder, resulting in a shorter cylindrical chip. If we select the cylinder, it will cut material away from the board, resulting in a cylindrically-shaped pocket in the board.) Repeat for the other interferences. When finished, click the CFdesign button to launch the model.

If several interference pairs include a common part, and that part is to be the cutter (as in the board in this example), then click the Multiple Cutouts button. A dialog will open prompting for the cutter part. This part will cut material away from all interference pairs of which it is a part. Note that the changes made with these tools are saved to the Wildfire assembly.\

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Step 4: Launcher Configuration All of the functions in the AutoPrep launcher tool-kit are applicable for both Granite and Mechanica-based analyses. As part of the launch process, it is necessary to select which method will be used:

The default is Granite unless the model is two dimensional (or has 2D quilts). Both methods have their benefits and limitations, and the type of model should guide the configuration choice. Unless a model contains aspects that are limitations for the Granite method, it is recommended to select Granite. If a geometry is not suitable for Granite, then use the Mechanica method. When the geometry is ready to launch, select the Launcher Configuration (Granite or Mechanica), and then click the CFdesign button at the bottom of the dialog to start CFdesign.

Related Topics
Granite Mechanica Creation of flow volumes Split Surfaces

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Granite
There are two ways to launch models from Wildfire. One uses the Granite kernel, the other uses the underlying analysis structure built into Mechanica. Granite is the fundamental geometry kernel in Pro/Engineer Wildfire. It is the basis of the default launch mechanism from Wildfire to CFdesign.

Launch Process
1. 2. 3. From within Wildfire, click Applications_CFdesign. AutoPrep will open. Select the Granite Launcher Configuration option, complete any necessary steps in AutoPrep, and click the CFdesign button to launch. The Design Study Manager will open. Create a new design study or update an existing one.

Note: The method that is used to launch an analysis is stored within the design study, and becomes the launch method for that particular design. When a model is launched with a certain method, the design cannot be re-launched using the other method. A new design can, however, be launched using the other method.

Benefits
The Granite process provides several important benefits: After launching into CFdesign, the Wildfire interface is still accessible. It is possible to interact with Wildfire and even close the interface if desired. (This is a huge benefit in that it releases memory and resources that can be used by the CFdesign analysis process.) Wildfire does not have to be open when the analysis is meshed. During the meshing process, CFdesign does not minimize. Granite does not require a Pro/Mesh or Pro/Mechanica license. Granite allows manipulation of the geometry using the Geometry Tools. Granite has been shown to be more robust for a number of geometric models that had problems launching with the Mechanica method. Wildfire-based scenarios that are Fast Tracked can be meshed on the remote machine. Likewise, scenarios that are queued will be meshed when their turn comes up. They do not have to be meshed prior to launching. The Granite mechanism handles automatic void filling better in many cases. It is more tolerant of caps that extend past the internal void:

A design study can be created or an existing design updated directly by reading a Wildfire part or assembly file. For more about creating a design study with Wildfire geometry

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Note: Opening Granite geometry outside of Wildfire does not assure associativity if the geometry is changed (such as for a design study). If there are errors in the geometry, it does not provide a way to address them (such as AutoPrep), and CAD attributes are not transferred to the simulation model. This method is a convenience, but we recommend that the model be launched directly from Wildfire.

Limitations
There are some limitations within the Granite method that will sometimes require that the Mechanica method be used: The master instance will always be read. Family Tree entries and instances will not be opened when the model is launched with Granite. Under most circumstances, a model with simplified reps cannot be launched directly from Granite. The reason is that there is not a way to distinguish between the different reps through Granite, so the result is that the Master rep will come into CFdesign as the analysis model.

There is an exception to this: if a simplified rep of the top level assembly is used to exclude parts, and all remaining parts are in their master rep, the simplified rep will be the analysis model when launched from Granite. However, if the simplified rep of the assembly consists of simplified reps of parts (that are substituted for the part master rep), then only the master rep of the assembly will be the simulation model when launched from Granite. Assemblies that contain blank parts will not come into CFdesign using the Granite method. Mechanica Simulation features (volumes and surfaces) are not included in the simulation model. (Note that Mesh Refinement Regions provide a way to control mesh density in much the same way that Simulation Volumes are used.) Two dimensional models and three dimensional models containing quilts (such as for surface parts) are not supported. The working directory set in Wildfire must be the same directory where the geometry is stored. If the working directory is not set correctly, the launch into CFdesign through Granite will not occur. Wildfire geometry launched with the Granite method (or by directly opening into CFdesign) must exist locally on the computer. This means that the Granite method cannot be used with geometry accessed through Pro/Intralink. There are three alternative actions for this: o Within Wildfire, set the working directory to be inside Intralink. This will cause all of the CFdesign-generated files to be written to Intralink. o Place a copy of the geometry into a local folder outside of Intralink. This will allow the geometry and analysis to exist in the same local working directory. o Use the Mechanica launch method when launching from Intralink.

For more about the alternative launch method, Mechanica

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Mechanica
There are two ways to launch models from Wildfire. One uses the Granite kernel, the other uses Mechanica. The Mechanica method does not actually use functionality in Mechanica. It uses the underlying analysis structure built into Mechanica to provide CFdesign access to the geometry.

Launch Process
1. 2. 3. From within Wildfire, click Applications_CFdesign. AutoPrep will open. Select the Mechanica Launcher Configuration option, complete any necessary steps in AutoPrep, and click the CFdesign button. The Design Study Manager will open. Create a new design study or update an existing one.

Guidelines for using the Mechanica-based launch method


For a new analysis, CFdesign MUST be launched from Wildfire. Upon launching, Wildfire minimizes, and is in a sleep state. When you click the Solve button on the CFdesign Solve task dialog, Wildfire maximizes, but is working. The mesh is being generated by CFdesign by reading the part geometry from the Wildfire database. It is accessing the part and assembly information in the same way that Pro/Mesh accesses it. For this reason, CFdesign must be launched from Wildfire when the goal is to generate a mesh. Once CFdesign returns, the analysis proceeds automatically. Wildfire returns to a sleep state, and cannot be accessed. To access Wildfire, do one of the following: 1. 2. Set the number of iterations to 0, so that after meshing and pre-processing, the analysis does not proceed. Exit out of CFdesign, and then exit out of Wildfire. Start CFdesign from the Desktop, open the analysis, and run it. While the analysis is running, shut down the CFdesign interface. (Note that the analysis will continue to run.) Wildfire can then be accessed or shut down as required.

If a mesh exists, and if the goal is to run more iterations or view results, CFdesign can be started from the Desktop or Start Menu. Open the "cfdst" file. If a mesh exists, and if the goal is to modify boundary conditions, materials, or generate a new mesh, CFdesign must be launched from Wildfire using the Granite method. On the Design Study Manager, you must click Update Design. Note that Mechanica Simulation Features will be included in the model when launched using the Mechanica method. Two dimensional geometry can be launched this way as well.

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Flow Volume Creation


Many models constructed in Wildfire consist of just the physical solids (the pipe wall, for example). There are three methods of creating the internal flow volume: 1. 2. 3. Manually create it using tool within Wildfire. Create capping geometry at the openings. This method is described in this topic. Create the void fill in the CFdesign environment using the Geometry Tools. (Note that this method is not available when launching with the Mechanica method.)

Example of cap creation in Wildfire


In the following example, the pipe wall and two internal parts were created in Wildfire:

To prepare this for a flow analysis, simply add a cap to both ends of the pipe:

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The Wildfire geometry shown above consists of five parts: the pipe wall, the two internal components, and the two end caps. In this example, the caps are constructed using the inner diameter of the pipe wall, and extruded into the pipe. Alternatively, the caps could have been extruded out of the pipe, or have been built using the outer diameter of the pipe wall. When brought into CFdesign, the internal volume is automatically created:

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The two internal parts are automatically cut from the newly created flow volume.

Mechanica-Specific Guidelines
Components built in Wildfire must not interfere, so care must still be taken to eliminate part interferences from the Wildfire model. There are a few guidelines that should be observed when launching with the Mechanica method. (The Granite method does not require these guidelines): 1. Parts that are inside of the void must not protrude through the outer wall of the geometry. If this occurs, the void filling will fail. This is shown:

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2.

When using the Mechanica launch method, end caps must not extend beyond the geometry surrounding an opening. In this pipe example, the cap must not extend beyond the outer diameter of the pipe. An example that will fail is shown:

3.

Note that this void fill successfully when using the Granite launch method.

Note: The Void Fill Geometry tool is not available when launching using the Mechanica-based method.

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Split Surfaces in Wildfire


When a three dimensional part is divided by another part into multiple volumes, the result will be split surfaces. The problem with split surfaces is that they are considered by Wildfire to be a single surface (even though there are disconnected). When a boundary condition is applied to one of these surfaces, it may be lost or will jump to the other surface when the analysis is saved. In the following example, the original part is on the left. On the right, an additional part splits the original. The two surfaces on either side of the additional part are considered to be the same surface. Settings applied to one side may jump to the other or simply be lost.

An easy fix is to add a protrusion or cut feature to one of the volumes so that the surfaces are unique. This prevents conditions from jumping or being lost.

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CATIA v5
The CFdesign interface for CATIA is designed to work with V5R17, V5R18, and V5R19. This is an associative interface that reads the geometry directly from the CATIA database--it does not rely on file translations. Meshing is performed by CFdesign directly on the CATIA geometry. After launching CFdesign from CATIA, the CATIA interface will minimize (but CATIA will continue to run). The Design Study Manager will start, and will prompt for an Design Study name. When the analysis is started, the CFdesign interface will minimize and the CATIA interface will reappear. Meshing status messages are written to the Status bar in the CATIA interface. After meshing is completed, the CFdesign interface will reappear, and the analysis will proceed.

Part Names
The names assigned to CATParts remain with them when the model is brought into CFdesign.

Interferences
Interferences between CATIA geometry are not supported in the CFdesign interface. Please ensure that all interferences are removed before launching into CFdesign. The result of not removing them is likely a crash either when CFdesign is first launched or when the mesh is generated. Clash Detection These are some general steps to detect for interferences between parts in CATIA: 1. 2. 3. Click Analyze_Clash. The Clash Detection dialog will appear. Select Contact+Clash as the Type, and select Between all Components. Click Apply. Interfering parts will highlight in orange, and will be listed in the Check Clash dialog.

Removing Interferences This is a simple procedure to cut interfering parts from one another: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Insert_Assembly Features_Remove Select the part that is to be cut out. A dialog will appear that lists all parts that may be affected by this cut out. Select the desired part to be cut from, and move it from the Parts Possibly Affected area to the Affected Parts area. Click OK on the Remove dialog (to verify the cut out).

Automatic Flow Volume Creation


Many models constructed in CATIA consist of just the physical solids (the pipe wall, for example). To analyze the flow, however, the volume comprising the flow volume must also exist in the analysis. To reduce the amount of time and effort needed to prepare a solid-only geometry for analysis, CFdesign has the ability to convert a fully enclosed void into a meshable volume automatically. In the following example, the pipe wall and two internal parts were created in CATIA:

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To prepare this for a flow analysis, simply add a cap to both ends of the pipe:

The CATIA geometry shown above consists of five parts: the pipe wall, the two internal components, and the two end caps. In this example, the caps are constructed using the inner diameter of the pipe wall, and extruded into the pipe. Alternatively, the caps could have been extruded out of the pipe, or have been built using the outer diameter of the pipe wall. In many cases, it has been found that extending the outer edges of the cap beyond the outer edge of the flow vessel is the recommended method of automatically generating the flow volume. When brought into CFdesign, the internal volume is automatically created:

The two internal parts are automatically cut from the newly created flow volume.

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Automatic Flow Volume Creation is enabled by default. To disable it, add the following entry in your cfdesign_flags.txt file. A value of 1 enables volume creation, a value of 0 disables it: CATIA FILLVOIDS 0 Note: The Void-Fill Geometry Tool is not available for models launched from CATIA.

Multi-Body Parts
The use of multiple-body parts is not supported. Only the geometry from the first body will be read into CFdesign. The following graphic shows a CATIA feature tree with both an empty part body and multiple part bodies in the same part:

Alternatively, it is possible (and allowed) to create a part body consisting of several separate regions (volumes). An example is a sketch consisting of several non-touching outlines that is then extruded. The resulting single part body will consist of several volumes that will then be recognized properly by CFdesign.

Face/Edge Intersections and Tangency


The intersection of a face and only an edge is not supported. The following geometrical situation should be avoided:

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In this case, only the edge of one volume contacts the surface of another volume. This will cause an error in transferring the geometry from CATIA to CFdesign, and should be corrected by the user prior to launching CFdesign. The surfaces of two (or more) volumes can touch one another without error:

A similar geometric situation that should also be avoided is a perfect tangency. An example is shown:

In this example, a work-around would be to offset the cylinder slightly into the block, and cut off the interfering piece.

Units
The default units system in CATIA is mm. Additionally, mm is the underlying units system for the geometry engine in CATIA. Because of this, geometry read by CFdesign from the CATIA database is always in mm, even if the geometry was constructed in any other units system. In the Units branch of the CFdesign feature tree, left click on mm to set the units system to mm. Doing this will not convert any dimensions in the model, however. A future enhancement to the CATIA CFdesign launcher will be to allow units conversions of geometry constructed in other units systems.

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Parasolid and Acis-Based CAD


Parasolid and Acis-based CAD systems include: Inventor (Acis) Solid Edge (Parasolid) Unigraphics (Parasolid) SpaceClaim (Acis) UGNX (Parasolid) Solid Works (Parasolid) CoCreate (Acis).

The Internal Flow Volume


The internal flow volume is created when the openings of an internal flow geometry are capped with either a surface or volume and then read into CFdesign or within CFdesign by using the Void Filling Geometry Tool.
Capping within the CAD model is illustrated below:

Step 1: Pipe geometry--only the physical solids exist (pipe wall and poppet):

Step 2: Pipe geometry with newly-created volumes at the ends (pipe wall, poppet, and two end caps). The end caps were created by extruding the inner-radius curves of the pipe. This extends the flow volume slightly, but they can be suppressed from meshing if necessary.

Note: For Acis geometries, it is recommended that the end caps be larger than the ends. The following graphic shows this:

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Step 3: Geometry read by CFdesign--the flow core has been created automatically, and is shown as the highlighted volume. There will now be five parts listed in the Material branch of the Design Study Bar: the pipe wall, the poppet, the two end caps, and the flow volume. If there are objects inside of the flow volume, they will automatically be embedded into the flow volume. This means that it is not necessary to cut out submerged objects from their surrounding geometry. If a internal core volume of a Design is changed, the material assignment will be lost from that part. Such a change would be the addition or removal of a part or features of a part that are inside the void. The reason for this is that core volumes are not created in the CAD tool, they are created by CFdesign when the geometry is read in. Because of this, there is no direct geometric link between the core volume and the original CAD model. For more about Lost settings If it is not necessary to mesh a part (the pipe wall and poppet, for example), then suppress it from the mesh. For example, in the preceding example, because the flow volume was created based on the solid geometry, the poppet is cut out from the flow volume, and fluid will not pass through this region even if the poppet is not meshed.

Submerged Objects and External Flows


Many analysis models are built with physical solids submerged in the flow. These often are part of a heat transfer analysis, and may carry a heat load. The method for dealing with submerged objects is very simple: Place them in the desired location within the surrounding volume. It is not necessary to remove interferences or to cut an internal part from the surrounding volume. CFdesign will do this automatically. The following graphics illustrate this: Step 1: An empty box representing the air in an electronics box.

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Step 2: Components are simply placed inside the box in the appropriate locations.

Step 3: As the model is read into CFdesign, the components are automatically cut from the air to remove all geometric interferences. Proper connectivity between all contacting parts is automatically ensured. In our example, the air volume in the CAD system was only a box. As CFdesign read the geometry, voids for the internal components were cut into the air. This is why the internal curves highlight when the air volume is selected. This applies to both internal flows with submerged objects (examples include valves with poppets and electronic packages), and for external flows simulating the flow over a moving object. To include the obstruction as a meshable volume in the analysis model, simply place it in the surrounding volume at the desired location. Note: Interferences are allowed in Parasolid and Acis-based CAD tool. The External Volume Geometry tool can also be used to create a surrounding volume around a component.

Two Dimensional Geometry


Often two dimensional geometry is useful for simulating axisymmetric geometry or for simply an initial attempt at an analysis. A Parasolid or Acis surface in the XY plane is necessary for such an analysis. Axisymmetric geometries must be constructed relative to the x or y axis properly. If the geometry is axisymmetric about the x axis, it cannot cross the x axis. If it is axisymmetric about the y axis, it cannot cross the y axis.

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Note: we recommend that axisymmetric geometry be constructed in the first quadrant of the coordinate axis.

Part Names
Part names assigned in Parasolid- and Acis-based CAD tools appear in the Design Study Bar. The naming convention of a part is based on the parent assembly and parts that surround it. For example, a part called smallchip is a member of a sub-assembly called left-board_asm. This part is immersed in a part called test-box. The part name in the Design Study Bar would be: TEST-BOX_U_SMALL-CHIP-4@LEFT-BOARD_ASM The U indicates that the part SMALL-CHIP is surrounded by the part TEST-BOX. If a part is used multiple times in an assembly, an instance number is attached to the part name. In the example above, this part was the fourth instance of the part SMALL-CHIP. If the geometry was not launched from a CAD tool, the part names are a combination of the CAD part name and any part that completely surrounds it. The name of the part listed above would be: TEST-BOX_U_SMALL-CHIP^4 In some cases, the actual part name (without the surrounding part or assembly) is listed in the Design Study Bar. This is typically because the part is surrounded by an automatically-created flow volume. Note that internal core parts that are created by CFdesign will be assigned the generic name volume. This is because such parts were not created in the native CAD tool, and hence did not have a name. Also, the name of internal core parts are not used within the names of other parts they completely surround.

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Launching From CAD


Direct launchers for Inventor, Wildfire, , CATIA v5, Solid Edge, UGNX, One Space Designer (CoCreate Modeling), SpaceClaim, and Solid Works are included in the CFdesign installation.
Launch Method CAD (Click link for launcher installation information) Inventor Tools_InventorCFdesign_Launch CFdesign

Launch CFdesign icon (in Inventor 2010)

Wildfire
Solid Works

Applications_CFdesign AutoPrep will then start.

Solid Edge CFdesign Icon UGNX

Analysis_Launch CFdesign:

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CATIA V5 CFdesign Icon CoCreate One Space Designer

Tools_Toolbox_CFdesign Launcher A dialog will appear containing two modes: Selection Mode: Solid parts and assemblies must be selected to be exported. Note that face parts and wire parts will not be launched to CFdesign. As Displayed Mode: All solid parts in the selected viewports drawlist will be exported.

SpaceClaim

CFdesign icon (in the CFdesign ribbon tab):

Parasolid (.x_t) or Acis (.sat) Start CFdesign from the Desktop using the CFdesign shortcut icon: file

Create a new analysis from a Parasolid or Acis file by launching CFdesign from the Desktop or Start Menu. When launching from CAD, the Design Study Manager opens to help you perform the following tasks: Create a new Design Study Add a new Design to a Design Study Modify the geometry of an existing Design Open without changing a Design

For more about the Design Study Manager

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Launching and Updating from CAD


The Design Study Manager is an interactive tool for coordinating your CAD models and Design Studies in real-time. It is a powerful tool for managing Design Studies, Designs, and Scenarios. It allows you to easily update them from your CAD tool without having to exit CFdesign. The Design Study Manager opens automatically when you launch CFdesign from CAD. Its functions are: To create a new Design Study... 1. Launch from CAD into CFdesign using the installed launcher. 2. Specify a name for the Design Study in the Design study name field. 3. Optionally, change the Design and Scenario names from the defaults. 4. The default location of the study is the same path as the CAD model. To change this, click the Set path... button, and select (or create if necessary) the desired path. 5. Click the Create new design study button. CFdesign starts, and the Design Study is created. The first Design and Scenario are listed in the Design Study Bar.

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To compare the effects of geometry changes... This is the recommended process for comparing the effects of geometry changes 1. In CFdesign, on the Design Study bar, right click on an existing Design, and click Clone. Assign a unique name to the new Design. Note that all scenarios of the Design will also be cloned. In the CAD tool, modify the geometry as needed, and launch into CFdesign. On the Design Study Manager, select the new Design from the list. Click the Update design button.

2. 3. 4.

The results of this procedure: A new Design is created containing the modified geometry The new Design contains all of the Scenarios from the original Design The settings in each Scenario are transferred to the new geometry Scenarios in the new design that had been run (before they were cloned) are marked with the Warning icon to indicate that the results do not match the model:

To change the geometry of an existing design, follow steps 2-4.

Note: It is not possible to update a Design with a different kind of geometry. For example, if the Design was originally launched through Granite from Wildfire, that design cannot be updated by launching through Mechanica from Wildfire. Likewise, it is not possible to update a Parasolid-based design with an Acis-based geometry.

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To create a new Design... Use this procedure to create a new Design that does not use settings from any other Design in the Study 1. In the CAD tool, launch into CFdesign. 2. Select the Design Study from the Design Study list. 3. Click the Add to design study button. The results of this procedure are: In CFdesign, a new Design will be added to the Design Study A new Scenario is created for this Design, but its settings are the defaults

To launch into an existing Design Study... Use this procedure to simply open a CFdesign Design Study without changing any geometry. 1. In the CAD tool, launch into CFdesign. 2. Select the desired Study 3. Click the Open design study button. The results of this procedure are: CFdesign starts, and no Designs are changed. If the geometry was to be changed, use the Update design button instead.

If launching with the Mechanica method from Wildfire or from CATIA, this option will not allow the model to be meshed (or remeshed). If a new mesh is to be generated, click the Update design button instead.

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Notes
You do not have to exit from CFdesign to perform these tasks. All CAD geometry launched into a design study must exist in the same directory. Launching a CAD model from a different directory from the other designs in a design study is not supported. All designs in a Study should have consistent dimensionality (all 2D or all 3D).

Managing Design Studies


The Design Study Manager lists all of the Design Studies that it finds on the local computer. They are presented in a tree view that shows the Designs and associated Scenarios when expanded. To prevent the list from becoming too crowded (and hard to read), use the Remove design study from list button to remove selected Design Studies from the view. These Studies are not removed from the computer. To add a Design Study back to the list, click the Add design study to list button, and select it from the Browse dialog.

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CAD Environment Connection


Attributes from the CAD environment are applied to the CFdesign session when a model is launched: Background color Mouse navigation mode

These provide consistency between the CAD and the CFdesign environments.

CAD Background Color


The background color in the CFdesign Graphics window is set by the background color in the CAD tool. To override this, open File_Preferences_User Interface_Display dialog, and change the setting for Background Color to User Defined.

CAD Mouse Navigation Mode


The CFdesign mouse navigation mode is automatically set to the navigation mode from the launching CAD tool. To change this, open the File_Preferences_User Interface_Navigation dialog, and change the setting for Navigation Mode. If a Design Study is created by directly opening a Parasolid or Acis file, the mouse mode is automatically set according to SolidWorks or Inventor, respectively. Note that only the mouse controls are applied in the CFdesign user interface. Specific mouse sensitivities are not currently read from the CAD tool. For more about mouse navigation modes

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CAD Model Data Connection


Several CAD model attributes are automatically applied to the CFdesign Design Study: Part Colors and Model Orientation Parts in the CFdesign model are colored the same as in the CAD model. The CAD part colors are visible when the Solve task dialog is active. The other task dialogs use a neutral color and colored stripes to show Boundary and Initial Conditions, dots to represent mesh distribution in Meshing or use colors that are settings-specific in Materials and Motion. The orientation of the model when launched from CAD is used as the initial orientation of the CFdesign simulation model. Model Units The unit system for the CAD model is automatically applied to the CFdesign analysis model when launching from CAD. The CAD units system will override the default system specified in the User Preference dialog. If using inches, be sure to confirm whether inch-BTU/S or inch-Watt is the desired units system. It may be necessary to manually change this if the other system is desired. If the CAD model uses a unit system that is not supported by CFdesign, the units are automatically set to the default (either meters or the default set in the User Preferences dialog). For more about setting Units Materials Materials assigned to parts in the CAD model are read and automatically applied to the parts in the CFdesign model when launched from CAD. This provides a very convenient way to connect materials assigned in a CAD model to components in the CFdesign model. Specific properties defined in CAD materials are not used, but rather this mechanism links the material name (from CAD) to the materials in the CFdesign material database. This is a very powerful way to leverage material data that is often found in CAD models and to automate part of the analysis set-up. With this functionality, creation of the material mapping could be performed once and leveraged repeatedly for analysis studies. Assigning Materials in CAD Wildfire From the assembly, open the part, and click Edit_Setup. From the Part Setup menu, select Material. On the Materials dialog, select the desired material, and move it to the Materials in Model group. Click Ok. SolidWorks Right click on the part in the Feature Tree, click Appearance, then Material. Select the desired material from the list, and click the green Check to confirm. Inventor From the assembly, right click the part in the Browser bar, and click Edit. Right click the part name again, and select iProperties. Click the Physical tab. Under Material, select the desired material. Click Apply, and then Ok.

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Creating Materials Rules This mapping is supported with a new type of Rule that has been added to Settings Rules. This rule type is called a Material Rule, and maps material names assigned in the CAD model to materials in the CFdesign material database:

The distinction between Part and Material rules is made when the rule is created. (Recall that Part rules create a mapping between the CAD part name to CFdesign material and loads settings.) To create a Material Rule: 1. Click on File_Preferences_Settings Rules. 2. Click the New button. 3. On the Settings Rule Name dialog, select Material, and enter a name for the rule. Click OK. 4. In the Material Name field, enter the name of the material as it is listed in the CAD tool. 5. In the Material Assignment area, select the Type and Name of the material from the CFdesign material database. 6. Check the Apply box to apply the rule when a model is launched. 7. Click the Save button to save the rule. 8. Close the dialog by clicking the Exit button. When a CAD model containing mapped materials is launched into CFdesign, the corresponding materials will automatically be applied, and will appear in the Materials task.

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Mesh Import
This feature allows the import of an Ideas (.unv) and a Nastran (.nas and .dat) mesh: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click File_New design study Click the Browse button, and navigate to the working directory. Change the Files of type menu to CAD Mesh Files (*.unv, *.nas, *.dat) Select the unv, nas, or dat file. Enter a design study name on the New Design Study dialog, and click the Create new design study button.

The model will come into CFdesign and appear as it did in the meshing tool. Separate parts in an assembly must be meshed with unique material IDs in the meshing tool. This is needed to ensure that parts are differentiated from one another. In CFdesign, set up of the scenario with materials, boundary conditions, etc. The Mesh task dialog is not available because the mesh is already generated. Mesh Enhancement does not occur on an imported mesh.

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Geometry Tools
In many design studies, CAD geometry requires modification before they are suitable for simulation. In some cases, problematic entities such as sliver surfaces or unneeded edge divisions can greatly complicate meshing. In other cases, additional geometry either inside or surrounding the original geometry is needed for simulation. Geometry Tools address these problems with a collection of four geometry modification tools that prepare CAD models for simulation: Edge Merging: Joins edges that meet at a common vertex at an inflection angle less than a specified tolerance. Small Object Removal: Remove very small surfaces and edges that are typically too small to be seen. Void Fill Creation: Create a volume for the flow that is surrounded by physical solids. External Volume Creation: Create a part for the surrounding flow. The Geometry Tools are located in the Geometry Task of the Control Bar.

When to Use Geometry Tools


The tabs are arranged in the recommended order of their use: Edge Merging --> Small Object Removal --> Void Fill --> External Volume Note that using the tools in a different order may lead to unexpected results and possibly errors. Geometry tools should be used prior to assigning any other model settings (boundary conditions, mesh sizes, etc.). This is because these tools add and remove geometric entities from the model. Settings applied before applying geometry tools will be removed.

CAD and Model Requirements


The Geometry Tools are available for all Parasolid- and Acis-based geometry models as well as for Pro/Engineer geometry that has been launched using Granite. The Geometry Tools are not available for Wildfire launched with the Mechanica method and CATIA. The reason is that the Geometry Tools change the underlying geometry. When the two methods are used, CFdesign does not have direct access to the geometry, and cannot change it. Geometry Tools are not available for meshed models imported into CFdesign. These are fully meshed models that are either in Nastran (.nas or .dat) or Ideas universal (.unv) formats. They do not contain any geometry, so modification of the model is not possible at this time. The Void Fill and External Volume tools are not available for 2D models.

The Undo Button


An Undo button is found on each tab. There are two levels of undo:

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Click the Undo button once to remove the most recent modification. (For example, if Small Object Removal was applied followed by a Void Fill region, clicking Undo will remove the Void Fill region and leave change made by small object removal.) Click the Undo button a second time to remove all other geometry changes, and to restore the geometry to its original state.

Note that after the mesh is generated, the Undo button has only a single level, and will restore the geometry to its original state.

Portability of Geometry Modifications


The modified geometry is stored in the Design Study in addition to the original geometry. A share file contains both as well.

Geometry Tools in a Design Study


Changes made to a geometric model persist when the design is cloned in the Design Study bar. The copied design has the same modifications as the original.

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Edge Merging
Edge Merging unifies edges that meet at a common vertex at an inflection angle less than a specified tolerance. This tool provides the benefit of reducing the number of edges, especially small ones, which leads to reduced overall mesh density, and faster analysis times. The inflection point is determined by the included tangency angle which has an upper limit in the Edge Merging dialog of 15 degrees. About Edge Merging

Edge Merging will have no effect if more than two edges meet at a vertex (as shown on the left). Likewise, it will not merge edges that meet at an included angle larger than the specified angle (shown on the right):

Using Edge Merging When the Edge Merge tab is entered, edges that can be merged are marked with an arrow. The mesh that is created on the geometry without merged edges is also shown.

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Edges to be merged are identified by selection of the included angle; there is no provision for direct selection of edges. The process is described: 1. 2. 3. The default included angle is 5 degrees. Vary this value as needed, but be careful not to select a value that will remove intentional vertices. The number of edges to be merged is shown. Click the Merge button to invoke the command.

Image of mesh after edges are merged:

CFD-Tv Video about Edge Merging

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Small Object Removal


Small Object Removal is a geometry repair tool, not a part suppression tool. It is better to suppress parts from the model in the CAD tool. This tool is designed to remove very small surfaces and edges that are typically too small to be seen. Sliver surfaces often either prevent successful mesh generation or result in an excessive mesh density.

The box on the left has a very tiny sliver loop in the middle of the top surface. With this loop, the mesh density was very high in this region. The box on the right shows the effect after it was removed by Small Object Removal. The mesh density was considerably less. About Small Object Removal An example of an exaggerated sliver surface is shown, before and after Small Object Removal:

The sliver surface is shown on the left. The result is shown on the right as a tiny gap that will be paved over when the model is meshed. Note that after Small Object Removal is applied, there may still be visual artifacts of the removed entity. These indicate where the removal occurred, but are largely ignored when the mesh is generated. Some edges (shown dashed above) may represent a constraint for the mesher, depending on the nature of the removed entity. Entities are considered for removal based on their sizes relative to the minimum refinement length and their comparative size distributions throughout the geometry. The slider range is determined using the same mechanisms as in Edge and Surface mode Model Diagnostics. Objects are considered for removal if they are within a certain range of the minimum refinement length. Note, manual modification of the Minimum Refinement Length diagnostics quantity does not influence the tolerance used in Small Object Removal. Using Small Object Removal When the tool is first opened, arrows are drawn on the model to indicate candidates for removal:

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We recommend that Small Object Removal be invoked before any analysis settings are applied. In the event that settings are present when SOR is run, they will be removed from the model (after a warning is provided). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Surface and Edge highlight mode is only for visualization. If a surface is identified for removal, associated edges will be removed as appropriate. Usage of Small Object Removal is based on a tolerance, not direct selection of entities. Use the slider bar to vary the Tolerance. Reducing the value will identify fewer items for removal. The number of surfaces and edges to be removed are listed. Click the Remove button to finish the command.

After applying Small Object Removal, the candidate entities are removed, and will not be a part of the simulation model:

CFD-Tv Video about Small Object Removal

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Void Fill
The typical CAD model consists of the solid parts, but not fluid parts. The fluid region is usually contained within and around the solids, but in most cases is not explicitly constructed as part of the geometric model. Geometry that consists only of solid parts will typically have openings where the working fluid (air, water, etc.) will enter and leave:

In this state, such a model is not suitable for a flow analysis (because of the lack of a flow part). The Void Fill tool provides a facility to create capping surfaces that bound a water-tight internal void. The surfaces and volume that are created are actual geometry that can have boundary conditions, materials, etc., and are meshed as part of the simulation model. Note, the void fill volume must not overlap any other volumes (although it may completely surround other parts).

Using Void Fill


There are two steps in using the Void Fill Geometry Tool. The first is to create the capping surfaces. The second is to complete the volume when it is water tight. Step 1: Create the Capping Surfaces Starting with a geometry consisting of solid parts, the procedure to create a void fill region consists of two parts: Create the capping surfaces that completely bound the internal region. Capping surfaces must be planar, and cannot overlap any other surfaces. For each opening, select the edges that bound the opening. Only edges that contact the first selected edge of an opening and are co-planar with it can be selected.

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A function called Auto-Close will attempt to automatically identify any remaining edges needed to close the surface loop if such can be done unambiguously. In the image above, the loop is ambiguous because there are two edges that share each vertex with the selected edge. After selecting the first edge, there are two possible loops that could be taken and still maintain a planar surface. At this point, the loop is ambiguous, so the loop is not automatically closed yet... By selecting the next edge, the entire loop is then automatically completed:

A bounding surface is completely defined when the Build Surface button is active. Click it to build the surface, and then repeat the process for the remaining openings. Step 2: Complete the Internal Volume When all bounding surfaces are complete, click the Fill Void button.

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If the void fill region was constructed, the following message will be written to the Output bar: Fill Void Successful; there were 1 part(s) created. (The actual number of created parts will be written in the message.) Regions created with the Void Fill tool are added to the Parts branch, but are named Volume. At this point, they are considered part of the analysis, and can be meshed.

Note: The Void Fill tool cannot be applied after the External Volume tool is applied. CFD-Tv about Void Filling

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External Volume Creation


Some devices are immersed in air or water, and the design is dependent on how the flow external to the device behaves. Examples include: Motorcycles and bicycles Aircraft Automobiles Electronic devices subject to external natural convection

In all of these cases, the air volume surrounding the device is rarely included as part of the production CAD model. To analyze the flow, it is necessary to either add a surrounding volume to the model. With the External Volume tool, the surrounding air (or fluid) can be constructed directly on the simulation model within CFdesign, without having to add it to the CAD geometry.

Using External Volume Creation The External Volume tool creates a rectangular volume that completely surrounds the original geometry. The volume cannot contact or intersect any part of the model, and the minimum size (imposed by the creation tools) is 5% larger than the geometry in all three Cartesian directions. When the External Volume tab is first opened, a red outline of the external volume is displayed surrounding the model:

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To change the size, hold the Ctrl and Shift keys, and drag the Handle in the desired direction:

To change the orientation, size, or location, hover the mouse on the region, and use these mouse navigation controls: Resize (grow or shrink): Ctrl + Shift + Left mouse button Rotate: Ctrl + Shift + Middle mouse button Pan: Ctrl + Shift + Right mouse button

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When finished, click the Create button. An external volume becomes part of the analysis, and can have boundary conditions, materials, etc., applied to it.

Notes: Only one external volume can be created within a session. External volumes cannot touch the original geometry.

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Materials and Devices


Materials are physical substances, and are the foundation of the CFdesign analysis. There are two distinct material types available in an analysis: fluids and solids. Devices are models of physical devices, and include internal fans, centrifugal fans, resistances, check valves, rotating regions, Printed Circuit Boards, Compact Thermal Models, and Thermoelectric Coolers. Materials and devices are assigned and created using the same processes and dialogs.

Work Flow
Each material type and device uses a slightly different work-flow. The basic work-flow is summarized as follows: With the Control Bar 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click the Material task icon from the Task Bar. Choose the Selection type (Surface or Volume in 3D and Edge or Surface in 2D). Select the entity. Set the Type of material. If the material exists, select it from the Name menu. If the material does not exist, click the Edit button on the Edit Material line to open the Material Editor. Create the material or device by specifying the relevant parameters. After closing the Material Editor, select the material from the Name menu. If applicable, specify model-specific settings such as flow directions and inlet/outlet surface for blowers. Click Apply to assign the material.

7. 8.

With the Design Study Bar and Right Click Menus 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click the Materials branch on the Design Study bar. Right click on the Graphics window, and set the Selection type (Surface or Volume in 3D and Edge or Surface in 2D). Right click on the entity, and click Edit. (This opens the boundary condition Quick Edit menu.) Set the Type of material. If the material exists, select it from the Name menu. If the material does not exist, click the Edit button on the Edit Material line to open the Material Editor. Create the material or device by specifying the relevant parameters. After closing the Material Editor, select the material from the Name menu. If applicable, specify model-specific settings such as flow directions and inlet/outlet surface for blowers. Click Apply to assign the material.

7. 8.

Material Database
As part of the installed CFdesign package, the Material Database includes numerous fluid and solid materials. Add additional materials to the database by clicking the Save button (on the Save to Database line). The materials database file can be placed anywhere in a companys network to allow easy standardization for all CFdesign users to company-specific materials. Note that any non-default location must be set on the User Interface Preferences dialog of every user's machine. Do this by:

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1. 2. 3. 4.

Click File_Preferences_User Interface Click the Scenario tab Set the location of the material database file in the Material database line. Click OK to close the dialog. Exit CFdesign and start again for the change to take effect.

Material Colors
Parts are colored by the applied material or device. The legend in the lower left corner indicates the color assigned to each material. Material colors are automatically assigned, and can be changed on the Material Editor. To change the color of a material: Click Edit on the Material task dialog to open the Material Editor Click the Color Change... button Select the color from the Select Color palette

Colors cannot be changed for materials that are shipped with the software. To modify the color, assign a new Name before clicking Apply. This is very useful for standardizing the appearance of materials in a material database.

Design Study Bar


All applied materials are listed on the Design Study bar. Use the material branches to modify part appearance, material settings, and even to suppress parts from the model.

Default Material Assignment


The default Material setting for every part in a new Scenario is "Unassigned". This is not a valid material setting for an analysis, so all parts must be assigned a material prior to running. The purpose of this is to make it obvious if a material assignment is lost after updating the geometry of a Design. Additionally, assigning materials with Rules on Parts is simplified because it is clear which parts have materials, and which do not. Before a Scenario can be run, a material must be assigned to all parts. An error is given if one or more parts are unassigned when the analysis is started.

Related Topics
Fluids Solids Surface parts Distributed Resistances Internal Fans Centrifugal Pump/Blowers Check Valves Rotating Regions Compact Thermal Models Printed Circuit Boards Thermoelectric Devices Property Variations Material Database

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Material Database
The Material Database contains materials and devices in the same file. It is controlled with three buttons under the Material Database group: Edit Material, Remove from Database, and Save to Database. To add a material or change properties, click the Edit button. This opens the Material Editor. To delete a user-defined material from the database, click the Remove button. Note that materials that come with CFdesign cannot be deleted. To store a new material to the Materials Database, click the Save button on the Save to Database line. Materials that are not saved to the database have a * added to their names. They are saved with the Design Study, but are not available for other Studies unless they are saved to the Materials Database. If a material saved to the database is edited, a * appears before the name, indicating that the material is different from the one in the database. When the Save button is clicked, a prompt will ask for confirmation that you want to save the edited material. When an existing analysis containing a material not stored in the Material Database is opened, the word "local" is appended to the material name. This material exists in the Design Study, and can be assigned. Click the Save button to add it to the Materials Database. The word "local" is then removed from the material name the next time the Study is opened. If an analysis is opened that contains a material that has the same name as a database material, but has different properties, the name of the analysis is appended to the material name to prevent the two different materials from conflicting. The default location of the Materials Database is in the CFdesign installation folder. To share the database with multiple users, place the database in an accessible location on the network. Use File_Preferences_User Interface_Scenario to indicate the location of the database file.

Importing Material Databases To assist the process of migrating from earlier versions of CFdesign or importing other material databases, a material database migration tool is available from the File Menu. This is most useful for users and companies that have created a large number of custom materials and need to share or consolidate databases. To import a material database: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click on File_Import Material Database. Click the Import button to browse for the material database file that is to be imported. The non-vendor supplied materials found in this file will be listed in the dialog. Click the OK button to add them to the active material database file (defined in the File_Preferences_User Interface_Scenario). A message window indicates when the database import is complete.

Note that custom materials in the imported database file that are also in the local database file will not be overwritten during the import.

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This tool can also be used to combine multiple material databases from the same version. Follow the procedure given above, and select the desired material file after clicking the Import button.

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Working with Fluid Materials


To Assign a Fluid Material
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select the parts to which the fluid will be applied. On either the Materials task of the Control Bar or the Material Quick Edit dialog, select Fluid from the Type pull-down menu. Select the specific material from the Name pull-down menu. If the desired fluid does not exist, create a new fluid material by clicking the Edit button, and use the Material Editor to enter the necessary properties. If a new material was created or modified, save it to the Material Database (optional). Click the Apply button to assign the material.

Note: Care should be taken to avoid placing two different fluids in direct contact. Different fluids can exist in the same analysis if they are separated by a solid.

To Create a Fluid Material


Fluid Materials are defined using the Fluid Material Editor. Access this dialog by clicking the Edit button on the Materials task dialog. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The Type is set on the main Materials dialog. To create or edit a fluid, select Fluid as the type. Assign a name to the material. The names of the default database materials cannot be used for new materials. To modify a default database material, save it to a new name. Click the property button that is to be defined. Select the Variation Method from the Input Region, and enter the appropriate Values and units for the selected property. Optionally, change the color of the material by clicking the Color Change button. Click the Apply button. Modify the Reference Properties, if necessary. If these parameters are modified, care should be taken to modify them for all fluids in a model. When all properties are defined, click the OK button. This makes the new material available for the current Design Study.

Note: Spaces are not permitted in material names. Note: A convenient starting-point for creating new materials it is select a similar material from the Read From drop menu, assign a new name, and modify the settings as needed. Installed Database Fluid Materials Air, water, oil, and several commonly used liquids and gases are included in the Material Database. These materials cannot be edited or deleted, but each can be selected as the "Read From" material on the Material Editor when to help create a new material that is similar. There are several states of air and water included in the database. These are summarized:
Material Air Constant Air Buoyancy Description The properties do not change. Use this for scenarios which use constant property air. Density changes with temperature using the equation of state variation method. Use this for natural convection analyses.

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Air Moist

Air Not STP H2O Buoyancy H2O Buoyancy Vapor H2O Constant H2O Constant Vapor H2O Not STP H2O Not STP Vapor H2O Steam/Liquid H2O Vapor

Useful for humidity (moist air) calculations. These properties are only of the gas, not the gas/liquid mixture. (The liquid properties are determined using the steam tables.) If a new material is created based on moist air, pay special attention to the gas constant, the reference properties, and the specific heat. Density, Viscosity, and Conductivity vary. Use this material when the current operating state is quite different from Standard Temperature and Pressure. Density changes with temperature. A buoyancy property should be selected when solving for natural convection--where the density of the fluid changes with the temperature. This is used for simulating cavitation. Assign the H2O Buoyancy material for applications using buoyany water that cavitates. The properties do not change. Use this for scenarios which use constant property water. This is used for simulating cavitation. Assign the H2O Constant material for applications using constant property water that cavitates. A Not STP property should be used when temperature and/or pressure are far from standard conditions. TThis is used for simulating cavitation. Assign the H2O Not STP material for applications using water at non-standard conditions that cavitates. Useful for analyses of steam/water mixtures. Change the Reference Pressure if your operating conditions are at a different pressure. Vapor state of water needed for cavitation analyses.

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Fluid Properties
The Material Editor is used to create materials different from those supplied with the software. There are six basic properties that are needed to define a fluid. Most of these properties can be made to vary with temperature, pressure or scalar, in several different ways. The following table lists the properties and the available variation methods.
Property Density: the amount of mass per volume Viscosity: dynamic (absolute) viscosity is used Variation Methods Constant, Equation of State, Polynomial, Inverse Polynomial, Arrhenius, Steam Table, Piecewise Linear, and Moist Gas Constant, Sutherland, Power Law, Polynomial, Inverse Polynomial, NonNewtonian Power Law, Hershel-Buckley, Carreau, Arrhenius, Piecewise Linear, and Steam Table, First Order Polynomial, Second Order Polynomial Constant, Sutherland, Power Law, Polynomial, Inverse Polynomial, Arrhenius, Steam Table, Piecewise Linear Constant, Polynomial, Inverse Polynomial, Arrhenius, Steam Table, Piecewise Linear

Conductivity: the thermal conductivity Specific Heat Compressibility

Choice of: Cp/Cv (gamma, the ratio of specific heats) -- useful only for compressible gas analyses or Bulk Modulus -- useful only for compressible liquid analyses. See note below about Bulk Modulus. Emissivity -- useful for radiation analyses. The emissivity specified on Constant, Piece-wise Linear variation with temperature. (This is a fluid is assigned to contacting walls. Note that the emissivity useful for spectral radiation analyses.)
assigned to a solid will override the value assigned to a contacting fluid. Wall Roughness -- useful for applying variable roughness height to include effects of friction

Constant. See note below about the Wall Roughness property.

Bulk Modulus The bulk modulus and the density of a liquid are key to determining the speed of sound through that liquid: The definition of bulk modulus is:

Given that the speed of sound, a, is defined as:

This works out to be:

Source: White, F. M., Fluid Mechanics, McGraw Hill, New York, New York, 1986. The bulk modulus is used only for compressible liquid (water hammer) analyses. The value of bulk modulus is automatically set for the liquid materials included in the Material Data Base. For user-defined materials, the correct value of bulk modulus is only required if liquid compressibility is to be analyzed. An example of a liquid compressibility, water hammer, is described: Water is flowing through a straight pipe at 10 in/s. At a certain time, a valve at the end of the pipe is suddenly closed. A pressure pulse will move through the water at the speed of sound through water. This phenomena is called a water hammer, and is analyzed with a transient analysis to predict the movement of the pressure wave through the water. Instead of using the Ideal Gas Law and the ratio of specific heats to determine the sound speed, we will use the density and the bulk modulus of the water.

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Wall Roughness Enter a physical dimension (in the units available in the drop menu) of the roughness height. Such heights are typically very small-cast iron pipes, for example, have a typical wall roughness height of 0.0102 inches. A value of wall roughness height specified on a fluid is automatically applied by the Solver to the wetted walls touching that fluid. A value of wall roughness height specified on a solid is applied to all wetted surfaces (surfaces contacting a fluid) of the part. A non-zero wall roughness height applied to a solid will prevail over a wall roughness applied to a fluid that touches it. Wall roughness heights are implemented into the turbulence wall model, and do not affect the geometry. The flow must be turbulent for wall roughness heights to take effect. They will be ignored for laminar flows. Specified wall roughness heights work best when closely adhered to the Turbulent Law of the Wall. This means that the nondimensional distance (y+) from the wall node to its near-wall node must be between 35 and 350. The easiest way to enforce this constraint is by checking the Automatic Layer Adaptation box on the Mesh Enhancement dialog (found on the Meshing task). This will allow the Solver to adjust this near wall node distance along all walls in the model, based on the local flow conditions. Reference Properties The Reference Temperature is only used at start up to calculate an initial reference density. The field value of temperature is used during the calculation to determine density. The Reference Pressure is used both to calculate an initial reference density and also throughout the calculation to determine the absolute pressure. See the Technical Reference Guide for more information. For adiabatic compressible analyses, the static temperature used to calculate density is determined from both the local stagnation and dynamic temperatures. See the Technical Reference for a discussion of Adiabatic Compressible Flow. Real Gas Effects To simulate real gas effects while still using the Ideal Gas Law, modify the gas constant on the material property window according to the consistency of the real gas. For a multi-species gas, the calculate the density using:

where P is the absolute static pressure, Ru is the Universal Gas Constant,T is the absolute static temperature, MWi is the molecular weight of species i and fi is the mole fraction of species i. To incorporate this gas into CFdesign, modify the Gas Constant on the Fluid material editor according to:

where RT is the value that you would enter on the CFdesign window for the Gas Constant.

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Working with Solid Materials


To Assign a Solid Material
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select the parts to which the solid will be applied. On either the Materials task of the Control Bar or the Material Quick Edit dialog, select Solid from the Type pull-down menu. Select the specific material from the Name pull-down menu. If the desired solid does not exist, create a new material by hitting the Edit button, and use the Material Editor to enter the necessary properties. If a new material was created or modified, save it to the Material Database (optional). Click the Apply button to assign the material.

To Create a Solid Material


Solid Materials are defined using the Solid Material Editor. Access this dialog by clicking the Edit button on the Materials task dialog. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The Type is set on the main Materials dialog. To create or edit a solid, select Solid as the type. Assign a name to the material. The names of the default database materials cannot be used for new materials. To modify a default database material, save it to a new name. Click the property button to be defined. Select the Variation Method from the Input Region, and enter the appropriate Values and units for the selected property. Optionally, change the color of the material by clicking the Color Change button. Click the Apply button. When all properties are defined, click the OK button. This makes the new material available for the current Design Study.

Note: Spaces are not permitted in material names. Note: A convenient starting-point for creating new materials it is select a similar material from the Read From drop menu, assign a new name, and modify the settings as needed.

Installed Database Materials


Several solid materials are included with CFdesign. These materials cannot be edited or deleted, but each can be the "Read From" material when creating a similar new material.

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Solid Properties
The Material Editor is used to create additional materials not supplied with the software. There are four basic properties that are necessary to define a solid for use with CFdesign. Most of these properties can vary with temperature, pressure or scalar, in several different variation methods. These properties and methods are listed in the following table:
Property Variational Methods Conductivity -- the same value for thermal conductivity can be used for all three Constant, Polynomial, Inverse Polynomial, Piecewise directions, or each component can be different. Linear.

Y and Z directions also have: Same as X-Dir.

Density -- only needed for transient analyses. Specific Heat -- only needed for transient analyses. Emissivity -- useful for radiation analyses. The emissivity specified on a solid will override the value assigned to contacting fluid. Transmissivity -- useful for radiation analyses; see note below Electrical Resistivity -- only needed for Joule heating analyses. Wall Roughness -- useful for applying variable roughness height to include effects of friction

Constant, Polynomial, Inverse Polynomial, Piecewise Linear. Constant, Polynomial, Inverse Polynomial, Piecewise Linear. Constant, Piecewise Linear variation with temperature (useful for spectral radiation analyses.) Constant, Piecewise Linear variation with temperature Constant, Polynomial, Inverse Polynomial, Piecewise Linear (varies with temperature). Constant. Please see section about Wall Roughness.

Transmissivity Transmissivity is a measure of how much radiative energy can pass through an object. A value of 1 indicates that the object is completely transparent, and that radiative energy can pass completely through it. A value of 0 means that the object is opaque. The permissible range of transmissivity values is between 0 and 1. Two variation methods are available for transmissivity: Constant and as a Piecewise Linear table varying with temperature. Transmissivity is a unitless parameter. The default value is 0. The sum of Transmissivity and Emissivity must be less than or equal to 1. If the sum of these two values exceeds 1, an error message will be displayed when the analysis is started. Transmissivity can only be assigned to solids. The radiation model considers fluids to be non-participating, so it is not possible to simulate radiative heat transfer through dark or muddy fluids. To simulate a transparent object completely immersed within a fluid: Model the object as a solid and mesh it (it cannot be a suppressed part). Assign a transmissivity value between 0 and 1 to the solid material to allow radiation to pass through the object. To simulate radiative heat exchange between a transparent solid and the environment, such as a window: Model the window as a solid in the model. Assign a transmissivity value to the material for that solid. Assign a Transparent boundary condition to that surface. This boundary condition includes a background temperature Surface parts cannot be used to simulate transparent media. A non-zero value of transmissivity applied to surface parts will be ignored. Likewise, non-zero values of transparency assigned to moving solids are ignored--transparency is not supported for moving solids or within rotating regions. Note that absorption of radiation energy by transparent solids is not included in the radiation model.

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For more about Transmissivity in Radiation Studies Electrical Resistivity The resistance per area multiplied by the length of the device. A value for resistivity is required for any solid that is heated by the Joule effect. The relationship between resistivity and resistance is: R = resistance (ohms) r = resistivity (ohms-length unit) L = length of the device A = cross sectional area For more about Joule Heating

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Property Variation Methods


Constant Enter the value and units as appropriate. Power Law

Specify: Reference Value (of the property) Power Law Exponent = n

Also enter a Reference Temperature in the Reference Properties area of the Material Editor. Note: The Reference Temperature is only used at start up to calculate an initial reference density. The field value of temperature is used during the calculation to determine density. Equation of State

Enter a Reference Pressure, P, in the Reference Properties group. Enter the Gas Constant, R, in the Reference Properties group Enter the Reference Temperature, T, in the Reference Properties group

The Reference Pressure is used both to calculate an initial reference density and also throughout the calculation to determine the absolute pressure. For adiabatic compressible analyses, the static temperature used to calculate density is determined from both the local stagnation and dynamic temperatures. See the Technical Reference for a discussion of Adiabatic Compressible Flow. Arrhenius

Enter a property Reference Value = Enter the Activation Energy = E

Sutherland

Enter a property Reference Value = Enter the Sutherland constant = S Enter a Reference Temperature (in the Reference group)

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Non-Newtonian Power Law

1. Cutoff Viscosity: This is the viscosity of the fluid as a Newtonian fluid. 2. Cutoff Strain Rate: The strain rate at which the fluid becomes Non-Newtonian. 3. Viscosity Coefficient: The viscosity of the fluid when the fluid becomes Non-Newtonian. 4. Power Law Exponent: Determines whether the fluid is shear thickening (P > 0) or shear thinning (P < 0). A Power Law Exponent of 0 is a Newtonian fluid. (The power law exponent is related to the power law index as p = n-1.) If a viscosity cutoff is not applicable: 1. 2. 3. Enter values for the Viscosity Coefficient and the Power Law Exponent Leave the Cutoff Strain Rate at the default. Make the Cutoff Viscosity = the Viscosity Coefficient.

Example: A non-Newtonian fluid has a viscosity = 0.0033 Pa-s. The Power Law index is known to be 0.62. This fluid does not have a cutoff viscosity, meaning that it behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid through its range of properties. The material is defined by specifying the following properties:
Cutoff Viscosity = 0.0033 Pa-s Cutoff Strain Rate = 0 Viscosity Coefficient = 0.0033 Pa-s Power Law Exponent = -0.38 (= 0.62-1)

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To model a constant viscosity that starts to vary at a given strain rate:

Enter this viscosity as the Cutoff Viscosity Enter the strain rate in the Cutoff Strain Rate Enter the constant k in the Viscosity Coefficient field.

For the mathematical background of non-Newtonian fluids Hershel-Buckley Enter the following: Yield Stress = Flow Behavior Index = Consistency Factor=

Carreau

Enter the following: Zero Strain Viscosity = Infinite Strain Viscosity = Time Constant = Power Law Index = n

First Order Polymer (Viscosity)

Enter the following: Viscosity factor = A Shear factor = B Temperature factor = C

= shear rate calculated during the analysis T = temperature calculated during the analysis Note: the coefficients must be entered in SI units, regardless of the analysis length units system. Second Order Polymer (Viscosity)

The constants A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, and A6 are constants that define the material. = shear rate calculated during the analysis T = temperature calculated during the analysis

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Note: the coefficients must be entered in SI units, regardless of the analysis length units system. To properly set up a bivarient non-Newtonian Fluid, you first need to curve fit your data to fit the following model:

When curve fitting data, ensure that the resulting surface is well defined beyond the extremes of the data set. This is typically difficult with natural logs in the equation without the addition of artificial (non physical) data points added to the original data set. With the data set in metric units, a linear regression can be performed using each multiplier of the equation to determine the coefficients for input into CFdesign. For example in Excel, create columns for the natural log of the viscosity in Pa-s, the natural log of the shear rate in inverse seconds, the temperature in C, the natural log of the shear rate in inverse seconds squared, the natural log of the shear rate in inverse seconds multiplied by the temperature in C, and the temperature in C squared. Use the add-in for data analysis and select Linear Regression with the y value as the first column, and the x values as the remaining columns. The six coefficients will be output. Polynomial and Inverse Polynomial Data points are required for a polynomial or inverse polynomial property variation. Density, conductivity, and specific heat can vary with temperature, pressure, or scalar. Viscosity can vary with temperature, pressure, scalar, or strain rate. Each data point is entered on a separate line. To insert a data point between two existing lines, click on the point after the desired new point and click on the Insert button. All the subsequent data points will be pushed down one row. The range of values should encompass the range of the independent variable (temperature, pressure, or scalar) of your analysis. CFdesign will automatically clip the property value if it exceeds the upper or lower values of the independent variable. The polynomial order is specified in the Order field. The order should be less than the number of data points to get a good fit. It is always a good idea to plot the property values to ensure they follow the expected trends using the Plot button. Polynomial orders greater than 3 are generally not useful because of unexpected inflection points. To import data from a .csv file, click the Import button. To save data to a .csv file, click the Save button. Piecewise Linear The Piece Wise Linear variation uses a linear interpolation between entered data points. Data points are entered into the table in the same manner as polynomial and inverse polynomial data. Density, specific heat, and conductivity can be varied with temperature, pressure, or scalar. Viscosity can vary with temperature, pressure, scalar, and strain rate. The choice of independent variable is made using the drop menu . Use the Plot button to check the data. To import data from a .csv file, click the Import button. To save data to a .csv file, click the Save button.

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Surface Parts
Surface Parts are two dimensional surfaces incorporated into three dimensional geometry. They are typically used to simulate very thin objects such as guide vanes or sheet metal that the flow must pass around. Surface Parts are useful because they eliminate the need to model very thin geometry with three dimensional volumes. Meshing such volumes can be very difficult and can result in very large model sizes. The reason is that an element that is small enough to represent the thickness will be so small that a huge number of them are required across the other dimensions of the object. By representing such objects only with surfaces, the elements only need to be small enough to represent the shape of the object, eliminating the thickness from the model. The following model contains a thin-walled obstruction that is modeled as a volume. The element size needed to represent this volume is quite small (because the part is so thin), so the element count is large (about 158,000 elements).

This model, however, uses a Surface Part to represent the thin obstruction. The element size on the surface part is not vastly different from that of the surrounding air, and the overall element count (model size) is considerably smaller (about 38,000 elements):

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Another application for Surface Parts is the analysis of thin-bladed turbomachinery devices using Rotating Regions. Surface Parts can greatly simplify the modeling of thin sheet-metal fan blades. Instead of meshing around very thin three-dimensional blade volumes, represent the blades as surfaces within the rotating region, and assign a Surface Part material to them. To Assign Surface Parts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Select Surface as the Selection type (either from the Selection Mode toolbar or by right clicking, and selecting Surface as the Selection mode). Select the surfaces from the model. Either right click in the graphics window and select Edit, or open the Control Bar. Set the Type to Solid. Select or create a solid material. Specify a Shell Thickness. Select the units for thickness. Click Apply.

Note: The Shell Thickness value is required, but is only used in the calculation of conduction heat transfer. The thickness value will not modify the geometry in any way, and there will be no graphical representation of the thickness value. Surface Parts on Surfaces of Volumes In some situations, it is easier to include a volume within an assembly, and assign one or more surfaces to be Surface Parts. The part is a fluid, and the surface or surfaces are solids which block the flow.

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An a surface that is part of a volume:

The volume is assigned a fluid material, but because the two front surfaces are assigned a solid material, they are considered to be Surface Parts, and will obstruct the flow:

When assigning Surface Parts to represent an epoxy layer in an electronic chip set, it is not necessary to create a separate surface in the CAD model. Simply select an appropriate surface on one of the chips, and assign a solid material to it. The thermal resistance and the physical thickness are then included in the analysis, without having to complicate the geometry with very thin volumes or creating a huge finite element mesh. For more about thermal applications for surface parts Assigning Surface Parts Using CAD Surface Features Surface parts are always assigned to surfaces. In many cases, it is practical to construct floating surfaces within the three dimensional model. Some CAD tools allow such surfaces to be separate components in an assembly. Others require that these surfaces just be features within a part. An example of a surface feature or part is shown:

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The surface is not part of a closed region, but if a solid material is assigned to it (as described above), it will obstruct the flow:

Visualizing Surface Parts The standard visualization tools in CFdesign work with Surface Parts. Cutting planes and iso surfaces will display results caused by the presence of Surface Parts. Using shift+ctrl, results on Surface Parts can be probed by hovering the mouse. The displayed value of pressure on Surface Parts depends on which side of the Surface Part is viewed. The leading side of a Surface Part will show high pressure, and the wake side will show lower pressure:

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When visualizing results, Surface Parts are listed in the Feature Tree under the Materials branch. They are listed separately from volume parts--even those with the same material. Surface Parts can be used as the source surfaces for non-planar cutting surfaces. This is discussed in more detail in the Results Visualization chapter of this manual. Wall results are assessed on Surface Parts by selecting the appropriate side of the surface. In the example above, selecting the leading side would show a higher wall force than selecting the drag side.

Related Topics
Thermal applications for surface parts Several additional guidelines are discussed in detail...

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Additional Surface Part Models


In addition to thin obstructions, surface parts can be used to model thermal layers between chips and contact resistances between thermal components (such as a chip and a PCB or heat sink). Thermal Layers Surface Parts can be used to conduct heat as well as obstruct flow. They will exhibit the same heat transfer characteristics as three dimensional volumes in that they will conduct heat in all directions. For this reason, a thickness value is required when defining Surface Parts. This is discussed in the Specifying Surface Parts section. Surface Parts can be used to simulate thin layers of material between or within chip packages. Layers of epoxy or other substances are commonly used between thermal components, and the effect of their contact resistance must be included. A Surface Part material can be applied to a surface that represents an epoxy layer, eliminating the need to model the substance with a thin three dimensional volume. This approach will still account for the thermal conduction between the chip components, but will greatly simplify the modeling process and reduce the size of the mesh (analysis model size).

The Solid Material Editor dialog allows specification of thermal conductivity or resistance. If the conductivity of the layer is known, select Conductivity in the dialog, and enter the appropriate value. Alternatively, if the resistance is known, select Resistance, and enter the value. Contact Resistance The Contact Resistance material is used to simulate the resistance to heat transfer at the interface of two parts (typically a chip and heat sink or chip and board) due to imperfections and tiny gaps in the mating surfaces in 3D models.

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Unlike the other surface part applications, Contact Resistance does not require a thickness. The only required parameter is the Resistance. When a contact resistance is applied between two solids, only the temperature gradient normal to the surface part is considered. In-plane temperature gradients are disregarded. To create a Contact Resistance material, set the selection mode to Surface, and set the Type to Contact Resistance. Click the Edit button, and the Material Editor will open. 1. 2. 3. 4. Begin by specifying a material name in the Name field. Enter a Resistance value and associated units. Click the Apply button. Click the OK button to close the dialog.

Distributed Resistance (Filters) Surface parts can also be used to very thin filters, using a distributed resistance material. Click here for more information.

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Surface Part Guidelines


Edges in two dimensional models cannot be used as surface parts. It is not necessary to assign a Surface Part material to surfaces that are walls. If a surface is on a solid part, it is a wall. If a surface is on an external boundary (no material on one side of it), then it is wall. CFdesign does not support a Surface Part material assigned to the external surfaces of a flow volume. (Some attempt this in an effort to simulate a sheet metal thickness.) Application of external heat transfer boundary conditions (such as heat flux and film coefficient) is also not recommended. The reason is that Surface Parts that are on external boundaries are not completely incorporated into the calculation--their material and thickness information will not be included. Because of this, there will not be a thermal gradient calculated across external Surface Parts. An alternative to applying Surface Parts for external wall surfaces is to leave the external surface unspecified, making it a wall by default. When this is done, externally-applied heat transfer boundary conditions will then be properly incorporated into the simulation. Multiple layers of material cannot be represented by applying multiple layers of Surface Parts. To represent a laminate of thin materials, apply a single Surface Part material that uses an effective thermal conductivity based on the conductivity values of the laminate materials. Surface Parts must be completely enclosed in a 3D volume. Surface Parts cannot extend outside of the 3D model. It is not possible to change the mesh on a model containing surface parts and continue the analysis from a saved iteration. When the mesh is changed, the analysis must be started back at the beginning (iteration 0). Surface parts must not contact parts that are extrusion meshed.

CAD-Specific Guidelines
Wildfire Surfaces that are to be Surface Parts should be created as separate parts and added to an assembly consisting of the surrounding flow volume part and any other Surface Part and 3D parts. If a Surface Part is included as a quilt feature in a part, the part may either not come into CFdesign correctly or it will incur meshing difficulties. Also, Surface Parts must not interfere, and must not cross one another. Multiple Surface Parts can meet along an edge, however. Surface Parts that are not connected (completely disjointed) must be created as separate parts, and included as components in the assembly. Note that quilts are not supported when launching with the Granite launch method. They are only supported when launching using the Mechanica method. Solid Works Surface Parts can be created as either separate parts in an assembly or as surface features in a 3D part. Surface Parts can interfere with one another, and disjointed surfaces can be included in the same part. Solid Edge and Inventor A convenient way to include Surface Parts is to create a 3D part with the surface shape of the desired Surface Part. Mesh the volume as a fluid, and assign a Surface Part material to the surface, as described in the preceding section called Surface Parts on Surfaces of Volumes. CATIA v5 A convenient way to include Surface Parts in CATIA models is to create a 3D part with the surface shape of the desired shell.

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Mesh the volume as a fluid, and assign a Surface Part material to the surface, as described in the preceding section called Surface Parts on Surfaces of Volumes.

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Distributed Resistances
In some analyses, the actual flow geometry may contain a large number of holes or obstructions. For example, baffles are used in many electronics packages, and often have hundreds of holes through which the air must pass. To model each and every hole would be tedious, expensive and unnecessary. The alternative is to simulate the presence of such holes or obstructions with a distributed resistance region. In this method, the mesh elements in this region are assigned a resistance parameter usually using either the free area ratio (proportion of free to total area) or a loss coefficient based on the known pressure drop. This resistance simulates the effect of the obstructions without using an inordinate number of elements. Other examples of porous media include radiators, vents, screens, filters and packed beds.

To Assign Resistances
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select the parts to which the resistance will be applied. On either the Materials task of the Control Bar or the Material Quick Edit dialog, select Resistance from the Type pulldown menu. Select the specific material from the Name pull-down menu or create a resistance material if needed, and then select it. Select the flow direction through the resistance using the pop-out dialogs. Select the two directions normal to the flow direction. See below for more details. If a new material was created or modified, save it to the Material Database (optional). Click the Apply button to assign the material.

Creating and Editing Distributed Resistance Materials Guidelines Distributed resistance regions should not contact an external boundary condition. Boundary conditions should not be applied to any surface of a distributed resistance material. Doing so may cause convergence difficulties and will affect the flow rate reported in the summary file. If a distributed resistance contacts an external boundary, it is good practice to add an extension onto the region (so that the boundary condition is not applied directly to it). Assignment Methods There are three different methods of assigning the flow direction through a resistance region: Aligned with a Cartesian direction To align the flow through the resistance region with a Cartesian direction, open the pop-out dialog on the Flow Direction line, and select one of the Cartesian directions (Global X, Global Y, or Global Z). Select the remaining directions for the other two directions. Not aligned with a Cartesian direction To align the flow with a selected surface, open the pop-out dialog, and click the Select Surface button.

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Resistance values for the normal directions specified on the Resistance Material Editor will be used by the Solver. The following image shows flow passing through a resistance object that is inclined at an angle to the flow. In this example, the Flow and Normal Direction 1 resistances were set to the same value. Obviously, the values can be different if desired:

The flow is turned slightly, but is not completely realigned to be normal to the resistance object. To force the flow to be normal to a resistance (to produce a vent resistance), set the Normal Direction resistances to be at least three orders of magnitude greater than the Through Flow K. This will cause the flow to turn so that its direction is normal to the resistance object.

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Through a Cylindrically Shaped Region Use Radial for the Flow Direction to simulate a cylindrically-shaped resistance. The other two directions will automatically be set to Axial and Tangential. Specify the direction of Normal Dir 1 to set the direction of this component. This is required for correct calculation of the orientation of the material object.

Another application for the Radial flow direction resistance is for a bank of resistive cylinders over which the flow must pass. In this case, the flow direction is again Radial, and an axial direction (select a surface normal to the axis of the cylinder) must be selected:

Surface parts can also be used as resistances.

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Creating and Editing Resistances


No resistance materials are included in the installed Materials Database, so it is necessary to create at least one using the Material Editor. The Variation Method and Value for each component is entered separately, but it is recommended that the same variation be used for all three components. Creating Resistance Materials is similar to creating fluid and solid materials: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The Type must be set to Resistance (this is set on the Materials task dialog). Click Edit to open the Material Editor. On the Material Editor, enter a material name. Click the button of the component to define from the Properties group. Select the Variation Method. Enter the Value(s). Click the Apply button. Click OK when all information is entered.

Note: Spaces are not permitted in material names.

Guidelines
A Resistance material definition does not reference specific Cartesian components. Instead, the values are saved as the ThroughFlow, and the two Normal Components. The specific Cartesian orientation of the material is specified when a resistance material is applied to a part. A thermal conductivity can also be assigned to a resistance material. This can be different from the surrounding fluid, and is important for heat transfer analyses in which the material will play a thermal role. No other fluid property information is required to define a resistance. The Solver automatically applies the fluid property information from the surrounding fluid to the resistance. For this reason it is very important that a resistance region only contact one fluid material type. If, for example, a resistance contacts air on one side and water on the other, an error will result, and the analysis will not run.

Resistance Variation Methods


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Constant Loss Coefficients Free Area Ratio Friction Factor Pressure-Flow Rate Curve Permeability Coefficient (Darcy equation)

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Constant Loss Coefficient (K-Factor)


Losses through a media can be expressed in terms of an additional pressure gradient:

where Ki is the loss coefficient in the global i coordinate direction. Each global coordinate direction can have its own unique loss coefficient.

Assigning Loss Coefficients


Loss coefficients in CFdesign are expressed without units, and are independent of the length of the resistance in the model. The equation describing these losses is written in terms of a pressure drop instead of a pressure gradient: To input a constant loss coefficient: Select the desired direction and choose Constant as the Variation Method. Enter the appropriate value of (as described below) as the Through-Flow K Value.

Through-Flow Loss Coefficients Values for loss coefficients are found in many fluids texts and the hydraulic resistance reference, Handbook of Hydraulic Resistance, 3rd Edition by I.E. Idelchik, published by CRC Press, 1994 (ISBN 0-8493-9908-4).

Alternatively, if measured data for pressure drop versus flow rate is available. Solve the equation, using the known values of pressure and velocity to determine the value of Enter this value for the Through-Flow K. Normal Direction Loss Coefficients .

, for

In many situations, such as in a flow straightener, the loss in the normal directions will be significantly higher than the loss in the normal direction. To represent this, enter Normal Direction K values four or five orders of magnitude higher than the through-flow value. This will allow the flow to go in the desired direction, and impede it in the normal directions. Permeability The Permeability value can be specified in conjunction with the Constant resistance method as well as the Friction Factor method. This allows a resistance to be specified in the form:

Where

is the viscous resistance term, which is the reciprocal of permeability.

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To Specify a Permeability with a constant loss coefficient Enter the value of permeability in the resistance Material Editor. It is used in the pressure drop equation in the following manner:

where

is the value of permeability. The unit of permeability is the Darcy, and is expressed in terms of length squared.

The combined pressure drop equation is then:

Where: is the permeability, in units of length squared. V is the velocity L is the length over which the resistance acts is the viscosity is the loss coefficient is the fluid density

Note: The value of permeability specified for one component is automatically applied to the other components. To Specify a constant loss coefficient or friction factor without a permeability To enter a constant resistance or a friction factor without the contribution of a permeability, leave the Permeability value 0. To Specify a Permeability without a constant loss coefficient To apply a permeability value without a constant loss coefficient or friction factor, change the Variation Method to Permeability, and enter the appropriate value of permeability. Check the Permeability Topic for more information

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Free Area Ratio


An easy way to represent a perforated plate or a baffle that has a known open (free) area is to use a free area ratio. The free area ratio is the ratio of the open area to the total area of an obstruction:

To input a free area ratio: Select the desired direction and choose Free Area Ratio as the Variation Method. Enter the appropriate ratio in the Value field. A value of 1 indicates that the region is completely open, and the flow will encounter low resistance. The two normal directions are typically closed, so use a value of 0 to indicated a completely closed, high resistance condition.

The relationship between loss coefficient, K, and free area ratio, FAR, is given as:

Note that this equation is valid for flow with Reynolds number greater than 105. The ratio of hole length to hydraulic diameter is between 0 to 0.015.

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Friction Factor
The friction factor method can be used to simulate a long length of tube or pipe. In this method, the excess pressure drop is written as:

where f is the friction factor and DH is the hydraulic diameter. On the Material Editor, select the desired direction, and choose Friction Factor as the Variation Method. Enter the Hydraulic Diameter, the simulated Pipe Length and the desired units.

Note that the hydraulic diameter and the simulated pipe length are required properties for both methods. Select the friction factor Correlation method, Moody or :

Method 1: Moody
The Moody formula is used to calculate the friction factor. Enter the Obstruction Roughness Height in the correct length units.

Method 2:
The friction factor is determined from: Enter the coefficients a and b. . The Reynolds number is based on the hydraulic diameter of the pipe.

Note that the friction factor is dimensionless but the hydraulic diameter should be entered in the correct length units.

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Head Capacity Curve


A head capacity table controls the flow rate based on the calculated pressure drop. To define a head capacity curve: 1. Select the desired direction and choose Head Capacity Curve as the Variation Method. 2. Enter the pressure and flow rate values in the table. 3. Click the Insert button to create a new line between two existing lines. 4. Use the Import button to bring in data in Excel .csv format. 5. Save a table of data to a .csv file using the Save button. A set of controls on the dialog allows the selection of the driving (independent) variable: Pressure or Flow Rate. For the other distributed resistance methods, the pressure is determined as a function of the velocity. By default, this toggle is set so that the pressure is a function of the flow rate (making flow rate the independent variable). This variation method is more consistent with the other resistance variation methods, and will produce pressure drop results that are consistent with expected values.

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Permeability
A permeability can be input using the Darcy equation. Unlike loss coefficients which have different resistance values in the three directions, a permeability provides a constant resistance in all directions. An example is a packed bed of stones. The governing equation for pressure drop as a function of permeability is:

where C is the viscosity coefficient, direction.

is the viscosity (of the surrounding fluid) and ui is the velocity in the global i coordinate

To represent a porous media, select Permeability from the Variation pull-down menu, and enter the value of the permeability, , as shown in the following equation:

The units of permeability are length squared. Note that the length over which a permeability acts must be represented accurately in the geometry. The reason is that the Length term in the above equation is determined from the meshed geometry. Unlike the loss coefficient (K) variation method, the length over which a permeability acts is not divided out of the equation.

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Using Surface Parts as Resistances


Surface parts can also be used as distributed resistance regions. Applications include very thin baffles, perforated plates, and any type of very thin obstruction that would be very cumbersome and computationally expensive to model as a volume. Assigning Distributed Resistance to Surface Parts On the Materials task, the Resistance material type is available when Surface selection mode is invoked. 1. Set Surface as the Selection Mode 2. Select the surface(s) from the model. 3. Change the Type to Resistance. 4. Select a resistance material from the Name menu or click the Edit button to create one. 5. Specify a Shell Thickness. 6. Click Apply The flow direction through a surface part will automatically be normal to the part, so no further directional assignments are necessary. Cross-flow resistance is automatically set very high so that all flow is aligned normal to the surface. Unlike volumes, Surface parts cannot be used to simulate pressure drop within the plane of the object (secondary losses). All pressure loss will be in the direction normal to the plane, and the flow will be constrained to be normal to the surface. To allow for secondary-direction flow through a resistance, a volume must be used for the resistance region. Continuing the Analysis After Changing the Mesh A nodal reorganization is performed during startup processing to ensure connectivity between the distributed resistance region and the surrounding mesh. This means that it is not possible to change the mesh and continue the analysis from a saved iteration. If the mesh is changed in a model containing a distributed resistance surface part, the analysis must be started back at the beginning (iteration 0). Geometric Guidelines Distributed resistance surface parts are very flexible, and can contact the surrounding wall on one or more edges and even be completely submerged within the fluid:

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It is very important that the fluid mesh between the edge of a floating resistance surface and the neighboring wall have at least a single row of nodes between them. If no nodes exist in this region, an error will be issued: In the following case, the region between the edge of the surface part resistance (in blue) and the wall must have more than one row of nodes.

Distributed resistance surface parts can be planar or arbitrarily shaped. The flow direction will always be locally normal to the surface part. Note that there are limitations to the shape of a surface part. Very high curvature surfaces are not suitable for use as distributed resistances, and an error may be given. Some recommended shapes for resistance surface parts include planes and hemispheres:

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An example of an unsuitable surface due to excessive curvature is shown:

Multiple resistance surface parts cannot be joined together to form a composite resistance region, and cannot touch other surface parts. A resistance must be composed of a single surface part. Surface parts that share an edge will cause an error in the analysis processing:

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Note: surface parts are not available for 2D models. Examples of a baffles modeled with surface parts

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Internal Fans
Internal fans simulate an axial momentum source within the interior of the geometry. Fans can have a constant flow rate, or the flow rate can vary with a head-capacity curve so that the fan operating point depends on the pressure drop through the device.

To Create and Edit an Internal Fan


No internal fans are included in the installed Materials Database, so it is necessary to create at least one before using a fan. To create a Fan material: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The Type must be set to Internal Fan/Pump (this is set on the Materials task dialog). Click Edit to open the Material Editor. Enter a material name. Click the button of the Property to define. Select the Variation Method. Enter the appropriate Value(s). Click the Apply button. Click OK when all information is entered.

Note: Spaces are not permitted in material names.

Guidelines A Fan material definition does not reference specific Cartesian components. Instead, the Through-Flow-Rate is entered. The specific Cartesian orientation of the fan is specified when a fan material is applied to a part. No other fluid property information is required to define an internal fan. The Solver automatically applies the fluid property information from the surrounding fluid to the fan. For this reason it is very important that a fan part contact only one fluid material type. If, for example, a fan contacts air on one side and water on the other, an error will result, and the analysis will not run. Variation Methods Flow Rate The two ways to specify the flow are as a constant value or a head-capacity (PQ) curve. Additionally, a velocity profile can be prescribed through the device. Constant: Enter the Flow Rate Value and appropriate units. Fan Curve: Enter the Flow Rate and Pressure into the table. This information often comes from fan manufacturer data. Data in .csv format can be imported using the Import button. Data is saved to a .csv file using the Save button. Velocity Profile The table allows input of radius, axial velocity, swirl velocity (circumferential), and radial velocity.

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Enter velocity profile data in the table. Values for Radius and Axial Velocity are required. Values for Swirl Velocity and Radial Velocity are optional. Alternatively, data can be read in from a comma-separated file (.csv). Data can be prepared in an Excel spreadsheet and saved to a .csv format. In some instances, certain fans such as large industrial units deliver a non-standard velocity distribution. When several such fans are present, the default uniform velocity distribution provided by the internal fan material does not adequately predict the flow profiles and the interaction between the fans. This information, however, is required for a complete understanding of the overall flow distribution throughout the enclosure. The Velocity Profile flow variation method allows the specification of the velocity profile for an internal fan. It provides a mechanism to apply the velocity distribution computed from a detailed rotating region fan analysis to a simple geometric representation of that fan in a subsequent system-level analysis. A velocity profile distribution can be computed from a separate rotating region analysis by creating a radial line of monitor points from the center to the outer edge of the fan. These monitor points should be created prior to running the analysis so that a time history of velocity is generated.

Create the line of monitor points along a Cartesian axis, if possible. This will greatly facilitate determining the radial position of each point. In the example shown above, the points all have the same y and z coordinates, and the origin is at the center of the fan. The radial position of each point is its x coordinate. If the points are aligned along a Cartesian axis, then each velocity component will directly correspond to a component needed for the fan profile: axial, radial, and swirl. In the example above: x coordinate = radius x velocity component = radial velocity y velocity component = swirl z velocity component = axial After the analysis is complete (so that the velocity values are converged on a time averaged basis), save the velocity components for each monitor point from the Convergence Motor table into an Excel spreadsheet, and save as a .csv file. Rotational Speed The rotational speed is an optional parameter, and can only be entered as a constant value. Slip Factor The slip factor is the ratio of the flow rotational speed to the fan blade rotational speed. Due to inefficiencies in the fan, slip can cause the tangential velocity of the flow to be slower than that of the fan blades. CFdesign will determine the tangential velocity of the flow by multiplying the slip factor by the specified fan rotational speed.

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The default slip factor is 1.0. This will cause the rotational speed of the flow to be the same as the rotational speed of the fan. The permitted range of slip factor values is between 0 and 1. Values outside of this range are not allowed by the User Interface.

To Assign an Axial Fan


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Select the part or parts. On either the Materials task of the Control Bar or the Material Quick Edit dialog, select Internal Fan/Pump from the Type pull-down menu. Select the device from the Name pull-down menu. If the material does not exist, create one by following the steps described above. Select the Flow Direction of the fan by selecting either a Cartesian direction or by selecting Pick on Surface. If Pick on Surface is selected, you will be prompted to pick a planar surface on the fan part that is normal to the flow direction. Use the Reverse button to change the flow direction if necessary. If the fan is to be temperature dependent, click the Thermostat button, and define the temperature behavior as described below. Click the Apply button to assign the material.

To specify the flow direction, open the pop-out dialog on the Flow Direction line, and select either the Global X, Y, or Z axes to choose a Cartesian direction as a flow direction. To graphically set the direction, click the Select Surface button, and select a surface. The flow direction will be normal to the selected surface. Internal axial fans should not be placed on an external boundary. Likewise, it is not good practice to apply boundary conditions to any surface of an internal fan material. Doing so may cause convergence difficulties and will affect the flow rate reported in the summary file. If an internal fan contacts an external boundary, it is better to either create an extension onto the fan inlet (so that the boundary condition is not applied directly to the fan) or simply use an external fan boundary condition instead of an internal fan material. Parts assigned an internal fan material should not be extrusion meshed. The Solver does not support internal fans with extruded elements. Thermostatic Controls This feature allows internal fans (and blowers) to be dependent on a temperature within the model. The fan will run as long as this trigger temperature is above (or below) a pre-defined cut-off. When the temperature at the thermostat location is below (or above) the cut-off, respectively, the fan will not run. Check the Thermostat box on the Internal Fan/Pump Materials task to expand the Internal Fan Thermostat controls. This dialog allows for specification of a Trigger temperature and a thermostat location. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click the Thermostat box to activate an internal fan thermostat. Set the thermostat location by opening the Location pop-out, and selecting a surface on the model. Click the Select Surface, and pick a surface in the model. The centroid will be the sensing location. Specify the Trigger Temperature and units. Select the fan dependence on temperature: Below Trigger (to keep things warm) or... Exceed Trigger (to keep things cool). Click Apply to finish.

The average temperature on the surface is used as the sensing temperature. (Any surface in the model can be used.) While this dialog is open, the interface allows for the selection of a surface. Only one surface can be used as a sensing surface, so selecting a

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new surface will update the selection list. The surface ID is written in the space called Location, and the surface in the model is highlighted.

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Centrifugal Pump/Blower
A complement to the axial fan device, this is a material type that changes the flow direction from axial to radial. The user specifies a flow rate (constant or a fan curve) as well as an optional rotational speed. This device models the flow through the impeller of a centrifugal device, so the volute geometry is required. Flow can also be made to enter radially/tangentially and exit axially (as in a radial in-flow turbine).

To Create a Centrifugal Pump/Blower


No centrifugal pumps are included in the installed materials, so it is necessary to create at least one before using a pump. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The type must be set to Centrifugal Pump/Blower (this is set on the Materials task dialog). Click Edit to open the Material Editor. Enter a material Name. Click the button of the Property to define. Select the Variation Method. Enter the appropriate Values. Click the Apply button. Click OK when all information is entered.

Note: Spaces are not permitted in material names.

Guidelines The Flow Rate and the Rotational Speed are necessary inputs. The specific direction of flow and rotational direction are not part of the material definition. These settings are entered on the Material task dialog, making them particular to the assigned geometry. No other fluid property information is required to define a centrifugal pump. The Solver automatically applies the fluid property information from the surrounding fluid to the pump. For this reason, it is very important that a pump contact only one fluid material type. Variation Methods Flow Rate There are two methods for specifying the flow rate: as a constant value and with a fan curve. Constant: Enter the Flow Rate Value and the appropriate units. Fan Curve: Enter the Flow Rate and Pressure Head data into the table. This information often comes from fan manufacturer data. Data in .csv format can be imported using the Import button. Data is saved to a .csv file using the Save button. Rotational Speed The rotational speed is an optional parameter, and can only be entered as a constant value.

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To Assign a Centrifugal Pump/Blower


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Select the part or parts. On either the Materials task of the Control Bar or the Material Quick Edit dialog, select Centrifugal Pump/Blower from the Type pull-down menu. Select the device from the Name pull-down menu. Select the Axis of Rotation by clicking the Axis of Rotation pop-out button. Select the inlet surface or surfaces by clicking on the Inlet pop-out dialog button. Select the outlet surface or surfaces by clicking on the Outlet pop-out dialog button. If the blower is to be temperature dependent, click the Thermostat button, and define the temperature behavior as described in the Axial Fan section. Click the Apply button to assign the material.

To specify the axis of rotation, open the pop-out dialog on the Axis of Rotation line, and select either the Global X, Y, or Z axes to choose a Cartesian direction as the axis direction. To graphically set the direction, click the Select Surface button, and select a surface. The axis will be normal to the selected surface. Select the inlet and outlet faces of the blower by opening the pop-out, clicking the Select Surface button, and selecting the surface from the blower device. This must be done for both the inlet and the outlet. The inlet is typically the axial surface. Care should be taken when constructing the geometry that the inlet surface does not touch the outlet surface. This is shown:

Alternatively, the device may be an annulus, like a squirrel cage. In this case, the inlet would be the interior annular surfaces, and the outlet would be the exterior cylindrical surfaces (as shown above). Parts assigned a centrifugal blower material should not be extrusion meshed. The Solver does not support centrifugal blowers with extruded elements.

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Check Valves
Check valves shut when the flow rate reaches a user-specified minimum value, and are often used to prevent back flow. Check valves can be represented using a resistance parameter, reducing the need to model the geometry.

To Create and Edit a Check Valve


No check valves are included in the installed Materials Database, so it is necessary to create at least one before assigning one. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The Type must be set to Check Valve (this is set on the Main Materials dialog). Click Edit to open the Material Editor. Enter a material name. Hit the button of the Property to define. Select the Variation Method. Enter the appropriate Value(s). Click the Apply button. Click OK when all information is entered.

Note: Spaces are not permitted in material names. A Check Valve material definition does not reference specific Cartesian components. Instead, the flow direction is specified when a check valve material is applied to a part. No other fluid property information is required to define a check valve. The Solver automatically applies the fluid property information from the surrounding fluid to the check valve material. For this reason it is very important that a check valve material contact only one fluid material type. If, for example, a check valve contacts air on one side and water on the other, an error will result, and the analysis will not run. Two parameters are required to define a check valve: the Full Open K Factor and the Cutoff Flow Rate. The Full Open K factor is used to simulate the fact that even a wide open valve causes loss to the flow. This value can be very small, but it is not recommended to use a value of 0. The Cutoff flow rate is the flow rate at which the valve begins to close.

To Assign a Check Valve


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select the part or parts. On either the Materials task of the Control Bar or the Material Quick Edit dialog, select Check Valve from the Type pull-down menu. Select the device from the Name pull-down menu. Select the Flow Direction of the check valve with the Flow Direction pop-out. Click Apply to apply the material.

To specify the flow direction, open the pop-out dialog on the Flow Direction line, and select either the Global X, Y, or Z axes to choose a Cartesian direction as a flow direction. To graphically set the direction, click the Select Surface button, and select a surface. The flow direction will be normal to the selected surface. Parts assigned a check valve material should not be extrusion meshed. CFdesign does not support check valves with extruded elements.

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Rotating Region Materials


Rotating Regions are part of the Motion Module, and allow for the analysis of rotating machinery such as pumps, turbines, and mixers. The rotating region is an envelope that surrounds a spinning device. Throughout the analysis, the rotating region rotates about its center-line, and any solids within the region will rotate as well. There are numerous ways to define rotation with a rotating region: user-defined rotational speed specified driving torque flow driven

For more about setting up and running Rotating analyses

To Create and Edit a Rotating Region


No rotating region materials are included in the installed Materials Database, so it is necessary to create at least one before designating a part as a rotating region. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The Type must be set to Rotating Region on the Main Materials dialog. Click the Edit Material button to open the Material Editor. Enter a material name. Select the Analysis type: Known Rotational Speed, Known Driving Torque, or Free Spinning. Click the Property button to define. Select the Variation Method. Enter the appropriate Values. Click the Apply button. Click OK when all information is entered to close the dialog.

Note: Spaces are not permitted in material names. Analysis Types The parameters that define a Rotating Region are based on the type of analysis to be run. There are three different scenarios: Known Rotational Speed, Known Driving Torque, and Free Spinning. The type is selected from the drop menu as described in Step 3, above. Analysis Type--Known Rotational Speed Enter the rotational speed of the rotor in either radians per second or RPM. A variable rotational speed can be entered by changing the Variation Method to Table, and entering data points for rotational speed vs. time. Analysis Type--Known Driving Torque This method is useful for modeling a device that is rotated by a known driving torque (such as from a motor). Torque can be entered as a constant value or as varying with time or RPM using a piece-wise linear data table.

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(The direction of applied torque is set as the rotational direction on the main Material Task dialog.) If there is a resistive torque acting on the device, subtract that from the Known Torque value. For example, if the known motor torque is 100 N-m, and the resistive torque is 5 N-m, then apply a value of 95 N-m. In addition to torque, enter the inertia of the rotating device. This is commonly the rotational inertia of the rotor and shaft and anything that is connected to the shaft (such as a motor or flywheel if the rotating device is a turbine). An easy way to determine an approximate inertia is to multiply the combined mass of the rotor, shaft, and shafted accessories by the average radius squared. This approach is reasonable if the intent of the analysis is to run the device to a steady state condition. If the intent of the analysis is to obtain a detailed time history of the rotational speed, then a more precise value of inertia is necessary. Analysis Type--Free Spinning In this case, the rotor starts with no rotational speed, and will spin up based on the applied fluid loading. Specify the inertia of the mechanical components and the rotor. The steady rotational speed will occur when the net hydraulic torque is zero. If the device is free spinning, but a known resistive torque exists: 1. 2. Set the Analysis Type to Known Driving Torque, Apply the resistive torque as a negative value.

This will cause the device to spin up due to the surrounding flow, and will find a steady rotational speed when the net hydraulic torque is zero.

To Assign a Rotating Region


To assign a rotating region, select Rotating Region from the Type drop down of the Material Task dialog. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Select the part or parts. On either the Materials task of the Control Bar or the Material Quick Edit dialog, select Rotating Region from the Type pull-down menu. Select the device from the Name menu. (If the material does not exist, create one using the Create/Edit button.) To specify the axis of rotation, open the pop-out dialog on the Axis of Rotation line, and select either the Global X, Y, or Z axes to choose a Cartesian direction as the axis direction. To graphically set the direction, click the Select Surface button, and select a surface. The axis will be normal to the selected surface. Click Apply to apply the material to the part.

The center of rotation is calculated automatically based on the geometry of the rotating region. For this reason, it is important that the rotating region and the solid (or cut-out) rotor have the same center. Note: Physical solids embedded in a rotating region should be assigned a solid material. All solids embedded in a rotating region will rotate.

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Using Compact Thermal Model Materials


To Create a Compact Thermal Material
Only two parameters are required to define a two resistor Compact Thermal Model on the Material Editor: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Theta JB: the resistance between the junction and the board Theta JC: the resistance between the junction and the case Select Compact Thermal Model as the Type on the Material Task dialog. Click Edit to open the Material Editor. Enter a name for the material in the Name field on the Material Editor. Click either the Theta JB or Theta JC button. Enter a value and appropriate units. (Note that the only available variation method is Constant.) Click Apply. After specifying both values, click OK to close the dialog.

Note: Spaces are not permitted in material names. Note: Values for the resistances (Theta JB and Theta JC) can often be obtained from the component manufacturers specifications.

To Assign a Compact Thermal Material


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select the component part or parts from the model. On either the Materials task of the Control Bar or the Material Quick Edit dialog, select Compact Thermal Model from the Type pull-down menu. Select the device from the Name menu if it exists. If the material does not exist, see above for how to create Compact Thermal Materials. Click Apply to apply the material.

A requirement of the compact thermal model implementation is that the device must contact either a PCB material or a solid material with PCB in its name. From this, the orientation of the device is determined automatically. The side of the component touching the PCB material is the board side, and the board node is at the center of the board surface of the component. The opposite side is the case side.

Note: CTM materials must contact a part that is assigned a fluid material. CFdesign does not support CTM modules completely embedded in a solid object.

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Data Extraction and Visualization For visualization purposes, the device is divided into two regions--the junction and the case. Each region of the component has its own temperature which is governed by the resistance values and the surrounding conditions. A single rectangular element comprises each layer, and is shown:

For every two resistor component, the following data is available: Board Temperature Junction Temperature Case Temperature Heat flux between the junction and the board (board-side heat flux) Heat flux between the junction and the case (case-side heat flux)

Results are viewed using these methods: In the Results task, click the Global icon. Hover your mouse over the desired chip. A window will appear listing the results data. Open the Component Thermal Summary from Review_Component Thermal Summary.

More information about Compact Thermal Model materials

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Compact Thermal Model


The Compact Thermal Model material type allows the simulation of integrated circuits using a two resistor compact thermal model. Compact models provide a geometrically simple way to simulate the performance of electronic components using a resistor network. This modeling method uses very simple geometry to represent a very complicated device. A more rigorous method uses the entire geometry of the device, and is often referred to as a detailed model. Detailed models typically produce the highest degree of accuracy, but due to their complexity, require a large mesh and hence require long analysis times. The following chip configurations are supported by this type of modeling: BGA (ball grid array) PBGA (plastic ball grid array) TBGA (taped ball grid array) FC-BGA (flip chip ball grid array) QFP (quad flat pack) PQFP (plastic quad flat pack) NQFP (no-lead quad flat pack) SOIC/SOP (small-outline IC/ small-outline package)

Note that vertical chips such as the TO200 are not supported by this model. It is recommended to model such chips using a detailed model. The typical two resistor compact thermal model consists of just three nodes: the junction, the case, and the board. The junction is also referred to as the die or the chip. The case is the top surface of the package, and is where a heat sink may be mounted to the package. The board node is a single point of contact between the board and the package. The nodes are connected by a thermal resistance between the case and junction (Theta jc), and a resistance between the junction and the board (Theta jb). The resistor network is shown:

In the two resistor compact model, heat transfer is only computed at the three nodes (case, junction, and board). The sides of a two resistor compact model are considered adiabatic. Only the case and board sides allow heat transfer to their surroundings. The case and board sides of the device are isothermal, and are modeled with a high conductivity in the in-plane direction. Note that the two resistor compact model is a simplified representation of an actual device, and the literature indicates that they are typically accurate to about 10-30%. This model is a simplification, but one that is acceptable for many design-level what if analyses. The resultant quantities of a two resistor compact model analysis are the temperatures at the board, junction, and case. In addition, the heat flux to the case and the board are provided. Unlike a detailed component model, the two resistor compact model is modeled as a simple cuboid. The device must contact a PCB part, and a heat sink may be attached to the case side of the component. In this example, the chip is positioned directly on the PCB:

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Heat loading on a two resistor compact model is typically applied as a total heat generation boundary condition. Note that a transient heat generation condition can be applied, but because the specific heat and density of the component are not included in the material definition, a time-accurate solution will not be available. Because the heat transfer computation is only performed on the three nodes of the network, a finite element mesh is not constructed through the device. The outside surfaces are meshed to provide connectivity between the two resistor device and the surrounding geometry. Using Compact Thermal Materials...

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Using Printed Circuit Boards


To Create a Printed Circuit Board Material
No PCB materials are included in the installed Materials Database, so it is necessary to create at least one prior to applying a PCB material. There are three steps necessary to create a PCB material: 1. 2. Specify the Total PCB Thickness. In this step, the total physical thickness of the circuit board is specified. Define the trace layers. In this step, the solid material that makes up the traces is selected from the Solid Material library. This material is typically copper, and is available by default in the Solid Material library. Additionally, the thickness and percentage of metal of each layer are specified. Define the dielectric material. The solid material that makes up the dielectric is selected from the Solid Material database. This material is listed in the Solid Material database under the name: PCB_Plastic_for_Laminate

3.

Note: Spaces are not permitted in material names. Each step is described in detail below: Step 1: Total PCB Thickness 1. Click the Total PCB Thickness button. 2. Enter the thickness of the printed circuit board in the Thickness field as well as the units. Constant is the only variation method for PCB thickness. 3. Click Apply to save the value. The thickness can easily be obtained from the CAD model or from the actual device. Using this value and the sum of the trace layer thicknesses, the thickness of the dielectric layer is automatically computed. Step 2: Traces and Planes In this step, the solid material that makes up the traces and planes is selected from the Solid Material library. Additionally, the thickness and percentage of metal of each layer are specified. 1. 2. Click the Traces and Planes button. Select the trace material from the Material drop-down menu. This menu lists all of the solid materials stored in the material database. Copper is the most commonly used material for PCB trace layers. If a material that has variable properties is selected, a median value will be used for the PCB material. This property value will be constant throughout the analysis. (See note below.) Enter a line for each layer, and specify the Thickness and the Percent Metal Content. For example, if the 35% of the layer is copper, enter 35 in the % Metal column. Add additional rows by clicking the Insert button; remove rows with the Delete button. A two-column table of data in .csv format can be imported by clicking the Import button. Likewise, input data can be saved to a .csv file by clicking the Save button. The Coverage Exponent is a weighting function used to account for the effect of the configuration and concentration of copper within the board on the in-plane conductance. The default value is 2. A value of 1 is most applicable for strips or grids; a value of 2 is applicable for spots or islands. Click Apply to save the values and to activate them with the equivalent properties calculation.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

To use a material not in the list, close this dialog, and switch to Solid Materials on the Material task dialog. Create the desired solid material using the Solid Material Editor. This material will then be available on the PCB Material drop-down menu.

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Step 3: Dielectric The dielectric layer is typically a glass-reinforced polymer that gives the PCB its rigidity, and surrounds the copper layers. In this step, the solid material that makes up the dielectric layer is selected from the Solid Material database. 1. 2. 3. 4. Click the Dielectric button. Select the trace material from the Dielectric Material drop-down menu. This menu lists all of the solid materials stored in the material database. FR4 is the most commonly used material for PCB trace layers. Click the Apply button to activate the material. Click OK to finish.

If a material that has variable properties is selected, only the value for the x-direction conductivity will be used for the PCB dielectric material. This property value will be constant throughout the analysis. Note: anisotropic dielectric conductivity is not supported. To use a material that is not in the list, close this dialog, and switch to Solid Materials on the Material task dialog. Create the desired solid material using the Solid Material Editor. This material will then be available on the PCB Material drop-down menu.

To Assign a Printed Circuit Board Material


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select the PCB part or parts from the model. PCBs should be modeled as three dimensional volumes having the same physical size and shape as the actual PCB. No internal layers should be modeled within the PCB. On either the Materials task of the Control Bar or the Material Quick Edit dialog, select Printed Circuit Boards from the Type pull-down menu. Select the material from the Name menu if it exists. If the material does not exist, see Creating a PCB Material (above). No direction data is required when assigning a PCB material. CFdesign automatically determines the through and planar directions based on the relative dimensions of the part. Click Apply to apply the material.

As with all materials, PCB materials are stored with the analysis file, even if the material is not saved to the material database. Clicking the Save Database button on the Material Task dialog will save existing PCB materials to the database for use with later analyses. More information about PCB Materials

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Printed Circuit Boards


Printed circuit boards (PCB) are used in a wide variety of electronics applications. Because PCBs play an important role in the temperature and heat flux distribution within a device, it is important to accurately represent their thermal characteristics accurately. PCBs are typically constructed of multiple layers of copper foil and a dielectric material (a glass-reinforced polymer called FR4): Example: Total thickness = 1.6 mm

Because of the complexity of these components, it is often desirable to model them using simple geometry in conjunction with effective properties to simulate the heat transfer. Two conductivity values are needed: the normal conductivity (K-normal) and the in-plane conductivity (K-in-plane). These values are computed as shown:

N = the maximum number of layers k = layer conductivity t = thickness C = metal content E = coverage exponent

The Printed Circuit Board material type, is available to simulate the presence of a PCB within a simulation. The PCB is represented as a simple geometric volume (even though physically PCBs can be quite complicated). The geometric physical specifications of the PCB such as the layer thickness and the amount of metal per layer are specified as material attributes, and the effective conductivities are then computed automatically and applied to the geometry throughout the analysis. This material type provides a convenient way to include the thermal effects of a PCB in a simple, homogeneous geometry without having to include the geometric details of the various layers, traces, and planes:

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How to use PCB Materials...

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Using TEC Materials


To Create a TEC Material Device
A few sample TEC material devices are included in the Material/Device database. To modify any of these parameters, change the Name of the material. Changes cannot be applied to material devices that are shipped with CFdesign. There are four steps needed to create additional devices using the Material Editor: 1. Define the TEC Geometry This is the Geometry Factor (G), the units of G, and the number of couples contained within the device. G is the ratio of a pin cross-sectional area to the couple height. i. ii. iii. iv. v. Click the TEC Geometry button. Enter the units of the Geometry Factor. Enter the value of G. Enter the Number of Couples. Click Apply to save the value.

2. Define the Control Method This defines the mode of operation of the TEC device. The default choice is "Tcold", which defines the TEC device to have a cooling effect with a target cold temperature. i. ii. iii. Click the Control Method button. Select the control method: TCold: target cold temperature. The TEC device removes heat from the user-defined TEC surface to maintain this temperature. This is the control method for cooling a device. THot: target hot temperature. The TEC device adds heat to the user-defined TEC surface to maintain the temperature. This is the control method for heating a device. Voltage: Use if only the Voltage going to the TEC device is controlled. Current: Use if only the current going to the TEC device is controlled. Power: Use if the power going to the TEC device is controlled. Click Apply to save the value.

3. (Optional Step) Define Material Parameter Coefficients Seebeck Coefficient, Electrical Resistivity, and Conductivity: These values are temperature-dependent, and are defined with polynomials. The coefficients in the sample devices are a good starting point, but check with the TEC manufacturer for coefficient values for specific devices, as needed. i. ii. iii. iv. Click the Seebeck Coefficient button. Either use the coefficients from the sample devices or input different coefficient values. Click Apply to save the values. Repeat with Electrical Resistivity, and click Apply. Repeat with Conductivity, and click Apply.

These expressions are second order polynomials that vary with the average temperature, Tav. The coefficient values vary by manufacturer, and the default values supplied in v10 are published in the reference below.

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Seebeck Coefficient, a, (units of V/K): a = 0.000210902 + 3.4426e-07(Tav - 23) - 9.904e-10(Tav - 23)2 Electrical Resistivity, r, units of Ohm-m: r = 1.08497e-05 + 5.35e-08(Tav - 23) + 6.28e-11(Tav - 23)2 Conductivity, k, units of W/m-K: k = 1.65901 - 0.00332(Tav - 23) + 4.13e-5(Tav - 23)2 4. Specify the TEC Parameter Limits These are the manufacturer supplied limiting performance parameters for specific devices. It is very important to use the correct parameter values for the specific device in the analysis model. i. ii. Click the TEC Parameter Limits button. Specify the manufacturer-supplied TEC parameter limits. These parameters limit the performance of the device within the CFdesign analysis. If the system is such that a target temperature can only be maintained by surpassing the maximum values, a warning will be given to indicate that the TEC device parameters have been exceeded. QMax is the maximum heat load the device can absorb through the cold side. It is the power that corresponds to a temperature difference across the module of DT = 0, at the maximum current (Imax). IMax is the DC current that results in a maximum temperature difference (DTMax). It is not the highest value of current the module can accept, but rather the current that results in DTMax. (It is the maximum current that can be applied to the device before the resultant Joule-heating surpasses the cooling effect. TEC devices operated above their maximum rated current will add more heat to the system than they will remove through the Peltier effect.) VMax is the maximum voltage for Imax with no heat load. DTMax is the maximum temperature differential that can be maintained across the module at Imax, with no heat load.

iii.

Click Apply to save the values.

Note: Spaces are not permitted in material names. Reference: Rowe, D.M., CRC Handbook of Thermoelectrics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1995.

To Assign a TEC Material Device


1. 2. 3. 4. Select the part or parts. On either the Materials task of the Control Bar or the Material Quick Edit dialog, select Thermoelectric Component from the Type pull-down menu. Select the material from the Name menu if it exists. If the desired device does not exist, click the Edit button, and input the parameters in the Material Editor as described above. Select the TEC surface, which is the surface where the target temperature is maintained. Activate the pop-out by clicking in the right-side column of the Cold Side Surface field. Click on the sensing surface of the device. (Surfaces co-planar to the sensing surface will be selected as well.) Click Apply to apply the material device to the part.

5.

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Note: TEC devices cannot contact a Compact Thermal Model material. Note:TEC devices can only be applied to six-sided cuboid shaped objects. Results Extraction and Visualization The physical performance of the TEC device within the assembly is best visualized by plotting temperature:

In the case shown above, heat is moved from the chip to the heat sink, and the sensing surface of the TEC device is maintained at 25 C. By hovering the mouse above the TEC device, a pop-up window will appear, showing a collection of data:

This data is also saved in the Component Thermal Summary file, accessible from Review_Component Thermal Summary in the main menu.

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The output quantities are: Number of Couples Control Mode Status (Normal if operating limits are not exceeded. Otherwise, the status indicates if the limits of the device were exceeded. This indicates that the device would not be able to satisfy the desired target temperature within the system.) Cold side temperature Cold Side heat transfer Hot Side temperature Hot Side heat transfer Electric power consumption Operating Current Coefficient of Performance (Qc / Pin) Figure of Merit More information about TEC Devices

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Thermoelectric Devices
Thermoelectric Cooler devices, also known as Peltier modules, are solid-state, semiconductor-based electronic heat pumps that move heat away from critical components to keep them cool. They come in a wide variety of sizes and capacities, and are used in a wide assortment of applications including electronics, medical (transport devices to keep tissue cool), and food and beverage handling (coolers). The Peltier effect is the driving phenomena behind TEC devices. This effect is found when a temperature differential occurs as a result of a DC current applied across two dissimilar materials. TEC devices typically consist of two ceramic plates that sandwich a series (from one to several hundred) of thermoelectric couples. The couples consist of N- and P-type semiconductor material doped with bismuth-telluride. The N type material contains an excess of electronics, and the P type material has an electron deficit. The couples of a TEC devices are connected in series electrically and in parallel thermally. TEC devices are often used for cooling, but can be also used for heating. Either way, they are well suited for applications in which precise temperature control is needed. A DC power supply is needed to operate a TEC, and the polarity determines the direction of heat movement (from cold to hot or hot to cold). A simple schematic of a TEC device is shown:

In this diagram, the TEC device is used as a cooling device. The typical inputs to define a TEC device are: I = current V = voltage Tc = cold-side temperature Th = hot-side temperature DT = delta T = Th - Tc Pin = power into the device = I*V Qc = heat pumped by the module (heat drawn into the cold side) Qh = heat rejected from the device = Pin + Qc COP = coefficient of performance = Qc / Pin a = Seebeck Coefficient r = electrical resistivity k = thermal conductivity h = TEC device height A = device hot or cold surface area G = geometry factor (ratio of pin cross sectional area to couple height) N = number of couples (provided by manufacturer) TEC devices can be used in a single-stage or a multi-stage configuration for increased thermal capacity.

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Note that only single stage devices are supported. Using TEC Devices...

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Boundary Conditions
Boundary conditions are the loads on a model. Some conditions, like velocity and volumetric flow rate, define how a fluid enters or leaves the model. Other conditions, like film coefficient and heat flux, define the interchange of energy between the model and its surroundings. Boundary conditions are very important to the definition of the analysis model. Without them, the analysis cannot proceed. Boundary conditions are persistent throughout an analysis, and can be either constant or transient.

To Assign a Boundary Condition


Each boundary condition type has slightly different parameters, and are described below. The basic work-flow is summarized as follows: With the Control Bar 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Click the Boundary Condition task icon from the Task Bar. Choose the Selection type (Surface or Volume in 3D and Edge or Surface in 2D). Select the entity. Set the Type of condition. Set the Units (if applicable). Set the Time Variation (Steady State or Transient). Apply condition-specific settings such as Normal or Component for Velocity or Static or Gage for Pressure. Change the flow direction for velocity, volume flow rate, or mass flow rate. Specify the value. Click Apply to assign the condition.

With the Design Study Bar and Right Click Menus 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Click the Boundary Conditions branch on the Design Study bar. Right click on the Graphics window, and set the Selection type (Surface or Volume in 3D and Edge or Surface in 2D). Right click on the entity, and click Edit. (This opens the boundary condition Quick Edit menu.) Set the Type of condition. Set the Units (if applicable). Set the Time Variation (Steady State or Transient). Apply condition-specific settings such as Normal or Component for Velocity or Static or Gage for Pressure. Change the flow direction for velocity, volume flow rate, or mass flow rate. Specify the value. Click Apply to assign the condition.

To Remove a Boundary Condition


There are a several ways to remove a boundary condition: To remove a condition from all entities, expand the Boundary Condition branch in the Design Study Bar, right click on the specified condition, and select Remove. To remove a condition from a specific entity, expand the Boundary Condition branch in the Design Study Bar, right click on the specific entity sub-branch of a specified condition, and select Remove

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Right-click on the entity on the model, click Remove. (This removes the conditions in the order they were applied.) Select the entity, and on the Control Bar, set the Type to that of the condition to be deleted, and click Remove. Click the Remove All button to delete all boundary conditions.

Surface Boundary Conditions


Loads that are applied to surfaces are described in this section. These are typically conditions that pass into or out of the device (in the form of flow, temperature, or heat). These conditions are available when Surface is the selection mode for 3D models and Edge is the selection mode in 2D. Velocity Velocity is commonly used as an inlet boundary condition. It can be specified as normal to the selected surface or in Cartesian coordinates. A velocity can be applied to an outlet, if the direction is defined as out of the model. To assign a Velocity normal to the selected surface: Set the Method to Normal Enter the value in the Velocity Magnitude field. Reverse the flow by clicking the Reverse Normal button. Click the Apply button.

To apply velocity components: Change the Method to Component, Check the desired components (Vx, Vy, and Vz). Enter the velocity values in the Magnitude field. Click the Apply button.

Rotational Velocity This condition applies a rotating velocity to a wall, and is used for simulating a rotating object surrounded by a fluid. An example is the rotating disk in a computer hard drive. This condition does not induce flow caused by rotation (as in a pump impeller), and is not a turbo-machinery condition. (Use a rotating region for such applications.) To assign a Rotational Velocity condition: Enter the velocity in the Rotation Speed field. To set the Rotational Axis, first set the Point on Axis. Click the pop-out, and select a surface. The centroid of the selected surface will be a point on the axis. To set the Axis Direction, click the pop-out. Choose the Global X, Y, or Z axes to choose a Cartesian direction as an axis direction. To graphically set the direction, click the Pick on button, and select a surface. The axis will be normal to the selected surface. Click the Apply button.

Volume Flow Rate A Volume Flow Rate is applied to a planar openings. It is most often used as inlet condition, and is particularly useful if the density is constant throughout the analysis. A volume flow rate can be applied to an outlet, if the flow direction is out of the model.

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To assign a Volume Flow Rate condition: Enter the value in the Volume Flow Rate field Change the flow direction with the Reverse Normal button. Click the Apply button.

When applying to multiple surfaces at the same time, the flow direction must be the same. Mass Flow Rate A Mass Flow Rate is applied to a planar inlets or outlets. It is most often used as an inlet condition. A mass flow rate can be applied to an outlet, if the flow direction is out of the model. To assign a Mass Flow Rate condition: Enter the value in the Mass Flow Rate field Change the flow direction with the Reverse Normal button. Click the Apply button.

When applying to multiple surfaces at the same time, the flow direction must be the same. Pressure The Pressure boundary condition is typically used as an outlet condition. The recommended (and most convenient) outlet condition is a static, gage pressure with a value of 0. When applied, no other conditions are needed at an outlet. A non-zero pressure condition can be applied as an inlet condition. If the pressure drop through a device is known, specify the pressure drop at the inlet (as a static gage pressure), and a value of 0 static gage at the outlet. To assign a Pressure condition: Enter the value in the Pressure field. Select either Gage or Absolute. Select either Static or Total. Click the Apply button. Gage is a relative pressure, and is the default. Absolute pressure is the sum of the gage and the reference pressures (set in Materials). Total pressure is the sum of the static pressure and the dynamic pressure, and is often useful for compressible analyses. For certain analyses, such as some turbomachinery applications, the total pressure is physically constant and the static pressure and velocity vary. For these analyses, applying a non-zero total pressure boundary condition is a recommended strategy. Temperature A temperature boundary condition should be specified at all inlets when running heat transfer. To assign a Temperature condition: Enter the value in the Temperature field. Select either Static or Total

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Click the Apply button.

A static temperature condition is recommended for most heat transfer analyses. Use total temperature as an inlet temperature for compressible heat transfer analyses. Slip/Symmetry The slip condition causes the fluid to flow along a wall instead of stopping at the wall, which typically occurs along a wall. Fluid is prevented from flowing through the wall, however. Slip walls are useful for defining symmetry planes. The symmetry surface does not have to be parallel to a coordinate axis. To assign a Slip condition: Select the surfaces Click the Apply button.

There is no value associated with the Slip condition. The slip condition can be used with a very low fluid viscosity to simulate Euler (inviscid) flow. For axisymmetric analyses, the symmetry condition along the axis is automatically set, and does not need to be applied manually. Unknown This is a natural condition meaning that boundary is open, but no other constraints are applied. This is most used for outlets on compressible flow analyses. If the flow is supersonic, the outlet pressure or velocity is not known; applying either condition could result in shock or expansion waves at the outlet. To assign an Unknown condition: Select the surfaces Click the Apply button.

There is no value associated with the Unknown condition. Scalar This is a unitless quantity ranging between 0 and 1 that represents the concentration of the scalar quantity for tracking concentrations. To assign a Scalar condition: Select the surfaces Specify the value (between 0 and 1) in the Scalar field. Click the Apply button.

Humidity This is a unitless quantity ranging between 0 and 1 that represents relative humidity (1 corresponds to a humidity level of 100%).

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To assign a Humidity condition: Select the surfaces Specify the value (between 0 and 1) in the Humidity field. Click the Apply button.

Steam Quality This is a unitless quantity ranging between 0 and 1 that represents the steam quality (1 corresponds to a quality of 100%--pure steam). To assign a Steam Quality condition: Select the surfaces Specify the value (between 0 and 1) in the Steam Quality field. Click the Apply button.

Heat Flux Heat flux is a surface condition that imposes a given amount of heat directly to the applied surface. It is a heat value divided by area. To assign a Heat Flux condition: Select the surfaces Specify the value in the Heat Flux field. Click the Apply button.

For example, if the heat input is 10W, and the area is 5 sq. inches, then the applied value will be 10W/5 sq. inches = 2 W/sq. inch. Heat flux can be applied to outer walls, to solid-solid interfaces, and to fluid-solid interfaces. Total Heat Flux Total Heat flux is a surface condition that imposes heat directly to the applied surface. To assign a Total Heat Flux condition: Select the surfaces Specify the value in the Total Heat Flux field. Click the Apply button.

Apply the total heat flux condition directly without dividing by the surface area. This is very useful because the value does not have to be recalculated if the area of the applied surface is changed. Total heat flux can be applied to outer walls, to solid-solid interfaces, and to fluid-solid interfaces. Film Coefficient Also known as a convection condition, this is often used to simulate a cooling effect for heat transfer analyses. To assign a Film Coefficient condition:

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Select the surfaces. Specify the value in the Film Coefficient field Specify the value of the surrounding temperature in the Ref Temperature field Click the Apply button.

Assign film coefficients to external surfaces to simulate the effect of the environment that is external to the device. The film coefficient boundary condition can only be applied to external surfaces. Note: External walls that do not have any applied heat transfer conditions (temperature, film coefficient, radiation, heat flux, etc.) are considered perfectly insulated. Radiation The Radiation boundary condition simulates the radiative heat transfer between the selected surfaces and a source external to the model. It is a radiation film coefficient in that it exposes a surface to a given heat load using a source temperature and a surface condition. To assign a Radiation condition: Select the surfaces Specify the surface emissivity in the Emissivity field. Specify the background temperature in the Ref Temperature field. Click the Apply button.

Note: The radiation boundary condition must be assigned to external surfaces only. External Fan External fan is another way to move flow in or out of a device. An external fan is defined as a head-capacity curve, resulting in an inlet flow rate that varies with the pressure drop of the device. This is a convenient way to determine the operating point of a fan for a particular flow path. To assign an External Fan condition: Select the inlet or outlet surfaces Enter the rotation speed of the fan in the Rotational Speed field. If needed, change the rotational direction by clicking the Reverse Direction button. The direction is drawn with an arrow. Enter the fan curve by clicking the Fan Characteristic Edit button. o Click Insert to add rows between defined rows. o Click the Plot button to view the plot. o The Import button imports a comma separated variable (CSV) file, and the Save button saves the curve information to a CSV file. o To enter a fan that pulls flow (at an outlet), enter all flow rate and pressure values as negative. Enter a slip factor (between 0 and 1) in the Slip Factor field. Click the Apply button.

The slip factor is the ratio of the true rotational speed of the flow to the rotational speed of the fan blades. Due to inefficiencies in the fan, slip can result in a slower flow tangential flow velocity than expected. CFdesign determines the flow tangential velocity

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component by multiplying the slip factor by the user-supplied fan rotational speed. The default slip factor is 1.0. This means that the rotational speed of the flow is the same as the rotational speed of the fan. Current Current is used to define a Joule heating analysis. Joule heating is the generation of heat by passing an electric current through a metal. Also known as resistance heating, this feature allows the simulation of stove-top burner elements as well as electrical resistance heaters. To assign a Current condition: Select the surface on the solid. Enter the current in the Current field Click the Apply button.

Current is a total current, not a current density. Voltage Voltage is used to define a Joule heating analysis. Joule heating is the generation of heat by passing an electric current through a metal. Also known as resistance heating, this feature allows the simulation of stove-top burner elements as well as electrical resistance heaters. To assign a Voltage condition: Select the surface (opposite to the applied current). Enter the Voltage in the Voltage field. (A value of 0 is typical.) Click the Apply button.

Alternatively, a voltage difference can be applied to the solid to represent a potential difference. In this mode, do not specify a Current condition. Periodic Periodic boundary conditions (cyclic symmetry) enable the simulation of a single passage of an axial or centrifugal turbomachine or of a non-rotating device with repeating features (passages). Periodic boundaries are always applied in pairs; the two members of a periodic pair have identical flow distributions, and must be geometrically similar. Periodic pairs are used at the inlet and outlets of repeating devices:

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To assign a Periodic condition to Pair 1: Select the first surface of pair 1. Set the Pair ID to 1 and the Side ID to 1. Click Apply. Select the second surface of Pair 1. Set the Pair ID to 1 and Side ID to 2. Click Apply.

Repeat for the remaining pairs. Periodic boundary conditions are a convenient way to include the effect of multiple repeating features in a simplified model. Because of the repeating geometry, the flow upstream and downstream of a device will be the same for each passage. Transparent The radiation model allows for the computation of radiative heat transfer through transparent media. The level of transmissivity is defined as a material property on the Materials Task dialog. To simulate transparent media that is completely immersed in the working fluid, only the material transmissivity needs to be specified. To simulate transparency through surfaces on an exterior solid, the Transparent boundary condition is also required. This boundary condition is used to indicate that an exterior surface of a solid part is transparent (such as a window), allowing radiative energy to pass through it . Exterior wall surfaces that do not have this condition are considered opaque, and will not allow radiative energy to pass, regardless of the value of transmissivity assigned to the material. More about external transparency. To assign a Transparent condition: Select the surface Specify the Background Temperature. This is the temperature of the environment outside of the analysis domain. Click the Apply button.

Note that radiation must be enabled (on the Settings dialog) for the Transparent boundary condition to work. The Background Temperature can be varied with time by clicking the Transient bullet, and specifying the time function.

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Volume Boundary Conditions


Loads that are applied to volumes (parts) are described in this section. These are loads that generate heat, and are used in many heat transfer analyses. These conditions are available when Volume is the selection mode for 3D models and Surface is the selection mode in 2D. Heat Generation Heat Generation condition is a volumetric heat load assigned to a volume. The specified value must be divided by the volume of the part. This is most often used to simulate the presence of heat-dissipating components in electronics assemblies. To assign a Heat Generation condition: Select the volume. Indicate if the heat generation is to be temperature dependent. *See below to learn more about this. Specify the value in the Heat Generation field. Click the Apply button.

For axisymmetric models, divide by the volume of the revolved part (2 x Pi x Radius). Total Heat Generation The Total Heat Generation condition is a heat load that is not divided by part volume. This is the recommended condition for most heat-load applications as the value does not have to be adjusted if the part volume changes. To assign a Total Heat Generation condition: Select the volume. Indicate if the heat generation is to be temperature dependent. *See below to learn more about this. Specify the value in the Total Heat Generation field. Click the Apply button.

Note: For axisymmetric models, the volume is based on 1 radian, so divide the intended value by 2 Pi. Temperature Dependent Heat Generation This allows the heat generation to vary with temperature. Physically, such a condition is a thermostat, and allows for the simulation of a heating device that shuts off (or greatly de-powers) once a target temperature is reached. Temperaturedependent heat generation is available for both volumetric and total heat generation boundary conditions. The location of the sensing temperature can be set to be either the centroid of the part or at some other user-selected location. To assign a temperature dependent heat generation: Change the Temperature Dependent setting to Enabled. Open the Sensing Location pop-out menu. To choose the part centroid as the sensing location, simply click the Part Centroid button. To select a different location, click the Select Surface button, and click on a surface. The centroid of that surface will be the sensing location.

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A temperature-dependent heat generation allows for the simulation of industrial processes that operate within a narrow temperature band by adjusting the heat input to maintain the target temperature. Heat Generation cannot vary with temperature and time simultaneously.

Graphical Indications
Colored stripes are drawn on every entity with an applied boundary condition. A legend in the lower left corner of the Graphics window defines the meaning of each color. Entities with multiple conditions have multiple stripes drawn on them.

Related Topics
For more about the physical meaning of boundaries For more about Initial conditions

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Physical Boundaries
This topic describes the different kinds of physical boundaries and relates them to the boundary condition types available in CFdesign. For more about applying Boundary Conditions Inlets There are three primary classifications of inlet conditions: flow, temperature, and scalar (for mixing). The specific type of boundary condition to apply depends on the type of analysis (incompressible or compressible): Flow Incompressible For incompressible flow, specify either the pressure or velocity components. Specifying both velocity and pressure overconstrains the problem and numerical difficulties can be expected. Specify one of the following boundary condition types to inlets: Normal Velocity or non-zero velocity components Gage static pressure External fan: the inlet flow rate varies with the pressure drop through the device Volumetric flow rate Mass flow rate To include swirl (an out of plane velocity component) in a 2D axisymmetric analysis, specify the third component of velocity (usually the z-component). It is not necessary to specify turbulence quantities at any inlet. The inlet turbulence intensity used for calcuating the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent energy dissipation is set in the Turbulence dialog on the Solve dialog. Compressible For compressible or supersonic inlets, we often specify both velocity and pressure. This is necessary only if the inlet is nearly sonic or faster. Because compressible analysis strategy is very sensitive to the physics that are simulated, please see the compressible section for information about applying boundary conditions. Temperature For heat transfer analyses, specify the temperature at all inlets. Scalar To simulate mixing, specify a scalar value at all inlets, even if the value is zero. Outlets At the outlet, CFdesign assumes that fully developed profiles exist for the flow quantities, U, V, W, T, K, . This condition implies that the gradient of these quantities normal to the outlet boundary is zero. This condition is applied automatically in CFdesign.

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The recommended (and most convenient) outlet condition is a gage static pressure equal to 0. No other boundary conditions should be applied to an outlet with a Pressure = 0 condition. If the velocity, mass flow rate, or volumetric flow rate is known at an outlet, then any of these conditions can be applied to the outlet. Be sure to specify a pressure at the inlet. An external fan boundary condition pulling flow from the model can be applied to an outlet. If the outlet flow is supersonic, the Unknown boundary condition is often the recommended condition. Unknown is a natural condition meaning that such an outlet is simply open, and no other conditions (velocity or pressure) are enforced.

Outlet conditions should be positioned far enough downstream from sudden turns or contractions to allow the flow to reach a fully developed state, which is the condition assumed by CFdesign. Furthermore, if the outlet is too close to a sudden expansion, flow will come back in through the outlet. This may cause convergence difficulties:

Walls Automatic Wall Specification sets wall conditions automatically on all surfaces that are not defined as inlets, outlets, symmetry, slip, or unknown. It is not necessary to set a zero velocity (no-flow) condition at any fluid/solid interface. Wall turbulence conditions are set automatically by CFdesign. The boundary condition types for heat transfer analyses are: Temperature Heat flux Film coefficient Radiation condition

It is generally not recommended to apply more than one heat transfer boundary condition to a wall. Wall with no heat transfer conditions are considered to be insulated.

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Symmetry and Slip Conditions To simulate a slip or a symmetry condition, apply the Slip/Symmetry boundary condition. This condition prevents flow from crossing the boundary, but allows the flow to move along the boundary. CFdesign assumes that the gradients normal to the symmetry plane for the scalar quantities T, K, Periodic Boundaries Unlike all of the previous boundary conditions which operate on particular solution variables, periodic boundaries are actually a geometric condition which affect all of the solution variables identically. In particular, all solution variables are identical at periodic nodes; i.e., the value at the slave node is exactly the same as that at the master node. Periodic boundary conditions can be used in geometrically similar geometries like multi-bladed vaned diffusers, for example. They allow a greatly reduced problem size. are zero.

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Transient Boundary Conditions


Most of the boundary conditions in CFdesign can be made to vary with time. This is useful for simulating the effects of increasing or decreasing the amount of flow, pressure, or energy is coming into the device. To make a boundary condition vary with time: 1. 2. 3. Change the Time to Transient on the boundary condition dialog. Select the Time Curve method and specify the parameters on the pop-out dialog. There are seven methods for varying a load with time. Check the variation by clicking the Plot button. This is helpful to ensure that the variation works as intended.

Constant The Constant variation method keeps the value constant throughout the analysis. This is equivalent to assigning a steady-state boundary condition. A typical use for Constant would be as a place-holder for a different transient condition later in the analysis. One might initially assign a constant value as a transient condition and later change it to a different variation method. Ramp Step The Ramp-Step function combines a linear ramp function with a flat step function:

The T values are the times that inflections occur. The F values are the min and max of the variables. Specify the function so that the maximum value (F1) occurs first at time T1. At time T2, the value starts to ramp down. At time T3, the function hits its minimum value (F2). At time T4, the value starts to ramp up.

One cycle of this function goes from T4 to T4. Periodic The Periodic type of boundary condition is exponential in time. The functional form is: F(t) = A1 * e(B1*t + C1) + A2 * e(B2*t + C2)

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Only one set of values is required: specify either A1, B1, and C1 or A2, B2, and C2. The function can be decaying in time by entering negative values for B1 or B2. The default for all parameters is zero. Harmonic The functional form of the Harmonic variation is: F(t) = A1 * cos(B1*t + C1) + A2 * sin(B2*t + C2) Harmonic varies the quantity with time as a function of sine and cosine functions. Only one set of values is required: specify either the cosine values (A1, B1, and C1) or the sine values (A2, B2, and C2). Note that it is possible for the cos and sin functions to change sign. Negative values of the variable can result if improper parameters are specified. Polynomial and Inverse Polynomial A Polynomial function fits a curve between the data points according to the specified order. Enter the Value and Time data on the table. (Time is always in seconds.) Specify the Order of the curve fit. Check the curve fit by clicking the Plot button.

Care should be taken with higher order functions as they can contain inflection points which may cause the data to change sign unexpectidly. Power Law The Power Law function raises time to an exponent value using this functional form: F(t) = A0 + A1*t(X) Enter the values for the A0 and A1 coefficients and the exponent X.

Piecewise Linear A Piecewise Linear function connects the data points with linear segments, and interpolates between them. Enter the Value and Time data on the table. (Time is always in seconds.) Check the curve fit by clicking the Plot button.

By default, a Piecewise Linear funtion will occur only through the defined time. To make a function repeat for all time, check the Repeating box. For more about transient analyses

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Initial Conditions
Unlike boundary conditions, initial conditions are only enforced at the beginning of the analysis. They are primarily used for transient analyses, but sometimes they are useful for steady state analyses (temperature, in particular).

Initial Condition Task Visibility


By default, the Initial Condition task is not included in the Task bar or the Design Study Bar. To enable it, click File_Preferences_User Interface, and change the setting for Show initial conditions task icon to Yes.

Initial Conditions Types


There are seven quantities that can be assigned as initial conditions: Velocity Pressure Temperature Scalar Humidity Steam Quality Height of Fluid

All can be applied to surfaces or volumes, except Height of Fluid, which is only a volumetric condition. The Height of Fluid condition marks a region as containing fluid, and activates the Height of Fluid function. More information about these quantities is available in the Boundary Conditions section.

To apply an initial condition


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Choose the Selection Mode (volume, surface, or edge). Select the entity. Set the Type of condition. Set the Units (if applicable). Check to Re-initialize the condition if necessary. Specify the value. Apply condition-specific settings such as Static or Total for Temperature or Static or Gage for Pressure. (Different initial condition types require different numbers of entries.) Click the Apply button.

The Remove button deletes the selected initial condition type from the selected entities. The Remove All button deletes all initial conditions. It is generally not recommended to apply a velocity initial condition to a steady-state flow analysis. Studies have shown that the best initial velocity for most steady-state flow calculations is the default of 0.

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Meshing
Prior to running a CFdesign analysis, the geometry is broken up into small, manageable pieces called elements. The corner of each element is a node, and it is at each node that a calculation is performed. These elements and nodes comprise the mesh. In three dimensional models, each element is a tetrahedral: a four sided, triangular-faced element. In two dimensional models, each element is a triangle:

Work Flow
There are two ways to access the Mesh Sizes dialog: Open the Control Bar, and click the Mesh Size task icon from the task bar. Open the Design Study Bar, right click on the Mesh Size branch, and click Edit...

To locate problem areas in CAD geometry, click the Diagnostics button. This set of tools interrogates the geometry to determine the location of potential problem areas. These areas may cause difficulty in the determination of mesh sizes, the mesh generation, and in the solution stability of the analysis. Sometimes it may be necessary to use the Geometry Tools to modify or repair the geometry to facilitate meshing. Use the Suppress tool to prevent one or more parts from being meshed. Part Suppression eliminates parts from the analysis, but they will appear (unmeshed) in the results. To assign the mesh distribution, click the Automatic Size button. A geometry-based, automatic mesh sizing facility creates the mesh distribution. This facility performs a comprehensive topological interrogation of the geometric model, and assigns mesh sizes based on curvature, geometric gradients, and neighboring features.

Graphical Indications
Example Mesh Distributions

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The mesh distributions on each of these cases were computed automatically simply by clicking the Automatic Size button. The dots drawn on the model indicate how the actual mesh will appear on the model. The location and spacing of the dots does not change if the Selection Mode is changed. Surfaces and edges with high curvature are meshed finer, and those with little or no curvature are meshed coarser. Edges that are close to other edges are assigned smaller element sizes which can even vary along the span of the edge. If there are edges in a model that do not have dots, this is a sign that the surfaces are not meshable. This is usually caused by extremely thin surfaces or some other geometric flaw. This should be corrected in the CAD model prior to running the analysis. Toggle the display of the mesh dots with the Show Mesh Seeds command in the Window menu. Manual Sizing Mesh seeds are displayed for each selection mode: When mesh sizes are applied to volumes, reference points are drawn on all edges of the volumes. If a smaller size is applied a few surfaces or edges, then only the reference points for those surface or edge definitions appear when the selection mode is set to Surface or Edge.

All applied mesh sizes are listed in the Mesh branch of the Design Study Bar.

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Generating the Mesh


The mesh is generated when the analysis is started. When the Solve button on the Solve dialog is clicked, CFdesign constructs the mesh according to the prescribed element distribution. If a mesh already exists (and you are simply continuing the analysis), then a new mesh is not created. To view the mesh prior to running the analysis: 1. 2. Right click on the Scenario branch or the Mesh size branch in the Design Study bar. Click Preview mesh.

This is a good opportunity to check the mesh to ensure that it resolves the geometry adequately.

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Diagnostics
The Diagnostics function searches for surfaces that are extremely thin and edges that are extremely small relative to the rest of the model. In many cases, these entities are caused by poor geometry creation practices, a lack of design intent, or are the result of multiple format conversions throughout the life of the design model. Open the Diagnostics dialog by clicking the Diagnostics button on the Meshing task. The controls for surface and edge modes perform different actions, but are designed to help identify problems and/or simplify the analysis model. Surface Mode Diagnostics Surface mode Diagnostics identifies potentially problematic surfaces that may lead to meshing difficulties. Examples of such surfaces include slivers (left), very thin annular surfaces (middle), and surfaces with a cusp or tangency region (right):

Surfaces are deemed problematic based on the separation distance between edges. The variation of separation distances is assessed to determine a minimum threshold. All surfaces with an edge separation distance below this threshold are considered potentially problematic, and are shaded. Extremely high-aspect ratio surfaces such as slivers and annuli have edges that are very close to each other within the separation distance. Surfaces that contain tangencies may be mostly well formed, but can be considered problematic because of the tangency between two or more edges. Problematic surfaces have been the reason for many meshing failures or solution problems due to a badly distorted mesh. Identifying and locating them before attempting to run the analysis is essential to reducing wasted time and effort. This dialog provides two ways of dealing with problematic surfaces: identification and refinement. Identification The first function, identification, is performed by coloring the surfaces orange. Use the slider on the dialog to vary the edge separation distance from the threshold to the minimum. When the slider is moved to the left, the display is restricted to progressively smaller surfaces until the far left position--which shows the very smallest surface or surfaces. Displayed problematic surfaces can then be added to a group and saved to an external text file for reference. The text file makes it convenient to locate the surfaces in the CAD model and apply a fix.

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Keep in mind that the principal objective of Surface Diagnostics is to locate the smallest surfaces in the model. Such surfaces are often unintentional that will make meshing difficult or impossible. However, there are situations in which small surfaces are intentional, and cannot be removed. In some cases, surfaces may be identified that are simply the smallest surface in the model, without having any inherent flaw. They will likely be ignored by the Automatic Refinement. In other cases, very small surfaces are identified that are truly high aspect- ratio slivers, and will be refined automatically to ensure the successful creation of a quality mesh. Refinement The second function is Automatic Refinement. This is an attribute that is assigned to high aspect-ratio surfaces that causes them to be refined automatically by the Automatic Mesh Sizing facility. This is used primarily for surfaces that fit the following criteria: Very high aspect-ratio (longer and thin) Close proximity to larger surfaces

This function is fully automatic, and only affects high aspect-ratio surfaces. Its purpose is to ensure that such surfaces are meshed finely enough so that the specified mesh sizes do not significantly exceed the dimensions of the surface. These reduced length scales are then propagated to the surrounding entities, resulting in a smooth transition. After Automatic Mesh sizing has occurred, surfaces that will be automatically refined are shaded in an olive color. Extreme transitions have been found to have a detrimental effect on both the generation of the mesh as well as the solution accuracy. Surface Diagnostics Process When the CAD model is first read into CFdesign, the geometry is scanned and problematic surfaces are identified. If found, the controls in the dialog are available to identify and store them to a text file or group: The Status group indicates if any problem surfaces are found. Only problem surfaces are then displayed, and are colored orange for clarity. These surfaces are considered for automatic refinement. Right clicking in the Graphics window will redisplay all surfaces; clicking on the slider will blank all but the problem surfaces again. The Arrows check box toggles arrows that point to the small surfaces.

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Use the Highlight Surfaces slider to vary the edge separation distance. Moving to the left reduces the separation distance, and shows the smallest surfaces. Change the displayed maximum edge separation by keying a new value in the Max Size field. This is useful for showing more surfaces. Restore the default value with the Restore Default Max button.

Save the displayed surfaces to an external text file with the Save to a Text File button. The filename of the text file containing small surfaces is the analysis name followed by the word surface. If the analysis name is run1, then the text file will be run1-surface.txt. Add surfaces identified as problematic to a group with the Save to a Group button.

CFD-Tv Video about Surface Diagnostics Edge Mode Diagnostics Edge Mode Diagnostics locates edges that are extremely small relative to other edges in the geometry. Variations in edge length greater than several orders of magnitude are often indicative of a geometric problem which may cause difficulty for the mesher. The distribution of edge length values throughout the model is also calculated, and is then used to determine the Minimum Refinement Length as used by the mesher. The Minimum Refinement Length is the threshold edge size that will be allowed to influence the mesh in neighboring features. Edges that are below this size will be meshed, but will only have a node at each end. Such small edges are meshed with a single small element, but that small element size will not propagate to other features in the model. The Edge Mode dialog provides two mechanisms for dealing with extremely small edges: Small Edge Identification and Adjustment of the Minimum Refinement Length. Small Edge Identification When the model is first opened, all edges that are three orders of magnitude or more smaller than the largest edge in the model are identified, and the slider can be used to vary the highlighted size. A default Minimum Refinement Length is automatically determined based on relative edge lengths throughout the model. This value is shown in the Min Refinement Length field in the dialog, and is the default slider position. When the slider is at this position, all highlighted edges fall below this value, and will only be meshed with two nodes. If a large number of edges are smaller than the Minimum Refinement Length, it may be necessary to reduce its value. In such cases, the Mesh task dialog will open directly to the Edge Diagnostic panel, and many edges will be marked with arrows. Reducing the Minimum Refinement Length will improve the chances of successfully generating a mesh.

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Edges that are the current size indicated by the slider and smaller are highlighted. If no edges are less than three orders of magnitude smaller, then the slider will be grayed out. Adjustment of the Minimum Refinement Length The Minimum Refinement Length provides control over whether (and to what extent) smaller length scales propagate throughout the mesh. This feature does not remove small features, but can limit their effect upon local length and mesh scales. As an example, the model shown has four very small edges at the corners of the cut-out. Each edge is highlighted, and is identified with an arrow:

To increase the refinement on small edges, and hence INCLUDE their effect in the model:Reduce the Minimum Refinement Length to a value smaller than the length of the particular edge... This improves the mesh on very small features, but may increase the number of nodes and elements in your analysis model. This is necessary if important edges fall below the default Minimum Refinement Length. In the following image, the Minimum Refinement Length is set to be smaller than the length of the four small edges. Note their effect on the mesh:

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Edges that are longer than the default Minimum Refinement Length are meshed finer, and affect neighboring geometry. To decrease the refinement on such an edge, and hence EXCLUDE its effect on the model:Increase the Minimum Refinement Length to a value greater than the length of the particular edge... Edges that are shorter than the default Minimum Refinement Length are meshed coarsely, and do not affect neighboring geometry. In the image below, the Minimum Refinement Length is set to be larger than the small edges. The mesh distribution will be considerably more coarse. The edges will be meshed, but will not strongly affect the mesh on surrounding geometry:

Changes to the Minimum Refinement Length affect the model globally, and are not isolated to a particular location. Care must be taken so that the Minimum Refinement Length is not accidently made larger than other important edges elsewhere in the model. Doing so will effectively remove their influence on the mesh, and may lead to accuracy issues. Note that if the Minimum Refinement Length is changed after applying Automatic Mesh Sizing, the mesh distribution must be reapplied by clicking the Automatic Size button. Otherwise, the new Minimum Refinement Length will not affect the mesh distribution.

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CFD-Tv video about the Minimum Refinement Length Edge Diagnostics Process When the CAD model is first loaded, all edges are scanned and a Minimum Refinement Length is determined. If any edges are shorter than this length, the controls in the dialog are active, and the edges are highlighted. The Status group indicates that edges three orders of magnitude smaller than the longest edge exist with the message Potential Problems Found. The Arrows check box toggles arrows that point to all small edges to help locate them. Use the Highlight Edges slider to vary the edge length. Move to the left to reduce the length; the far left position shows the smallest edge in the model. Change the maximum displayed edge length by keying a new value in the Max Size field. This is useful for showing more edges. Restore the default value with the Restore Default Max button. Save the displayed edges to an external text file with the Save to a Text File button. The text file containing edges will be automatically named: analysisname-edges.txt. Add the displayed edges to a group with the Save to a Group button. If necessary, change the Minimum Refinement Length by either keying in a new value or by clicking the Use Highlight Length button. The default value can be restored with the Restore Minimum Length Scale button.

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Part Suppression
Omit parts from an analysis by Suppressing them in the Mesh dialog. Suppressed parts are not meshed. To Suppress a part: Select it, and click the Suppress button on the Mesh Sizes dialog. Alternatively, expand the Materials branch, right click on the part, and click Suppress from the menu.

Suppressed parts are listed in the Material branch with a strike-through line. They are colored light blue to differentiate them from active parts. To Resume a part: Select it, and click the Resume button on the Mesh Sizes dialog. Alternatively, expand the Materials branch, right click on the part, and click Resume from the menu.

If a part is suppressed or resumed after Automatic Mesh Sizing and size adjustments have been applied, it will be necessary to reapply Automatic sizing. Do this by clicking the Automatic size button on the Mesh task dialog. (This reapplies automatic sizing.) If the Minimum Refinement Length is affected, then a message will come up indicating this, and the mesh distribution will not be recalculated until another task is opened or the analysis is saved. This allows modification of the Minimum Refinement Length on the Edge mode. The mesh distribution can be rebuilt by opening the Automatic tab, and clicking either the Automatic Size or Play Macro button or by changing tasks. Suppressed parts are visible when visualizing results. To display suppressed parts, open the Control bar, and expand the Results branch. In the Materials sub-branch, check the box adjacent to the part name. For more about displaying suppressed parts...

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Automatic Sizing
To assign a mesh distribution, click the Automatic Size button on the Mesh task dialog. In some cases, some additional modification is needed. Use the controls on the Mesh dialog to: Locally adjust mesh sizes to accommodate flow details that need additional mesh density Extrude linear parts that have uniform cross sections Create refinement regions for concentrating the mesh locally

Benefits Greatly simplified set-up of analysis models resulting in less time spent assigning mesh sizes. More efficient mesh distributions--the mesh is fine where required, and coarse where it can be. Improved solution accuracy due to better mesh quality and mesh transitions. Improved solution robustness--good mesh transitions lead to a well-posed mathematical model.

CFdesign performs a comprehensive topological interrogation of the analysis geometry and determines the mesh size and distribution on every edge, surface, and volume in the model. Geometric curvature, gradients, and proximity to neighboring geometry are all considered when assigning element sizes and mesh distributions. It does not matter which selection mode (volume, surface, or edge) is active when this button is clicked. This process is fast, but can take a few minutes for larger geometries containing 3000 or more edges. Completely Automatic Mesh Sizing CFdesign provides a completely automatic mode of mesh definition. By completely skipping the Mesh dialog from your analysis set-up, the mesh distribution is automatically computed when the analysis is started. The process is automatic and seamless. Specifically, the Interface detects that the Automatic Size button has not been pressed, and that no mesh sizes were assigned manually. The default Minimum Refinement Length is used, and all critically small surfaces will automatically be compensated for in the mesh (using the Surface Refinement scheme described in Surface Diagnostics).

Related Topics
Adjusting the Mesh Sizes Creating Refinement Regions Extrusion Meshing Advanced Parameters Mesh Enhancement Geometric Changes

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Adjusting Mesh Sizes


The underlying driver for the Automatic Mesh Sizing facility is the geometry. Mesh is automatically concentrated in regions of high curvature and rapid size variation. In certain situations, significant flow gradients in a simple geometry may require that the mesh be finer than assigned by Automatic Mesh Sizing. An example is a volume constructed in the wake of an aerodynamics study. The volume is simple, so its automatically-defined mesh will be coarse. Because the flow is quite energetic and will have high gradients, a finer mesh is required in the wake region:

A mechanism is provided that allows for the local adjustment of automatically assigned mesh sizes on volumes, surfaces, and edges after Automatic Sizing has been invoked:

Work Flow
1. Adjust sizes with the Size Adjustment Slider Set the selection mode (Volume, Surface, or Edge), then select the desired entities. The slider uses a parametric scale that extends between 0.2 and 5, with a default position of 1.0. This allows the mesh size to be reduced to 1/5th or increased to as much as 5 times the original size. To apply a value that exceeds the minimum or maximum range, (smaller than 0.2 or larger than 5), type the scaling value into the field to the right of the slider. As the slider is moved, the modified distribution updates dynamically. After deciding on a desired slider position, click the Apply button. This ensures that the setting will be available in the replay Macro file (used for rebuilding the mesh distribution and when settings are applied to modified geometry). The Cancel button will return the slider position to 1--effectively undoing any adjustments made to an entity after either the automatic size specification or since the last Spread Changes command. Note that the mesh quality constraints embedded in this system may override adjustments that excessively coarsen the mesh. This is done to prevent a mesh definition that will result in a poor-quality or failed mesh. 2. Smooth mesh sizes with the Spread Changes Button When the Spread Changes button is pushed, all modified settings are resolved with neighboring settings to ensure proper element transitions. The slider position for each adjusted entity resets to 1--the middle of the slider range. This means that the newly assigned size becomes the default size for subsequent adjustments. Note that the slider does not reset when the Apply button is pressed.

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In general, however, the Spread Changes button should be used sparingly because pushing it initiates a complete recalculation of the mesh distribution. If Spread Changes is not pressed prior to leaving the Meshing dialog, the function will be invoked automatically when the analysis is started or when the analysis is saved. 3. Optional: Apply Uniform Sizing with the Use Uniform Button A uniform mesh distribution can be applied to an entity by selecting it, and clicking the Use Uniform button. This command modifies the underlying length scales throughout the entity to be the same, based on the smallest length scale on the object. It is not necessarily persistent, however, and subsequent changes to neighboring entities can cause the mesh to vary again. For this reason, we recommend that Uniformity is applied after other adjustments have been made. After the Use Uniform button is clicked, the slider will reset to 1. This allows subsequent modification of the size on the entity. Uniformity can be removed from an entity by selecting it and clicking the Cancel button IF this is done prior to hitting the Spread Changes button. After Spread Changes is clicked, Uniformity cannot be removed directly from the model.

The results are shown. The original mesh size is shown on the left. The mesh refined to 0.4 is shown on the right:

General Guidelines
This is a summary of the areas in which manual refinement is often recommended:
Distributed Resistance Regions

In general, three elements through the width of a distributed resistance is recommended for best accuracy. For very thin geometry, this may not be practical.
Internal Fans

The mesh distribution in an internal fan should be adjusted to produce at least two elements in the flow direction of the fan.
Wake Regions

As illustrated above, geometry constructed in high-velocity or high-gradient regions should be refined to ensure adequate representation of the flow physics. In some models, a uniform mesh distribution is useful, especially if the default distribution has a lot of variation. Use the Use Uniform button to apply a uniform mesh.

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Motion Path

The mesh distribution in the path of a moving object should be refined. This will allow the velocity and pressure distributions to be calculated properly and prevents mesh bleed-through. A uniform mesh is often recommended for the motion path, and is prescribed using the Use Uniform button.
Rotating Regions

A uniform mesh should be used when possible on a rotating region. This is recommended because the default automatic sizing will often cause the initial position of the impeller to influence the mesh on the rotating region, potentially causing problems as the impeller rotates. With a uniform mesh on the region, the mesh will not skew the results. Play Macro The relationship between size adjustment on entities and the recalculation of neighboring length scales when the Spread Changes button is selected is quite complex. This makes it potentially difficult to exactly recreate a mesh distribution on a complicated model if multiple adjustments occurred. To facilitate this process, a log file containing all size adjustment commands is automatically recorded when Automatic Sizing is invoked. Every size adjustment and instance of the Spread Changes button is recorded, and can be played back to exactly reproduce a mesh distribution on a given model. The file is first created when the Apply button is clicked after adjusting a size, and commands are automatically appended as they are issued. When the Delete All button is hit, the mesh distribution is removed from the model, and the Play Macro button becomes active. Click it to re-assign the mesh distribution to the model. Invoke the file by clicking the Play Macro button. The button is available when a mesh distribution containing adjustments did exist, but was deleted. It is also available if the distribution is deleted, and the Automatic Size button is pressed, and will overlay saved adjustments over the default mesh distribution. This assigns the exact mesh distribution that was previously saved. Note that a specific macro should only be applied to the same geometry. Applying this file to a different geometry will lead to unexpected results. The file is named with the analysis name with the extension .meshlog. To use a mesh log with another analysis based on the same geometry, copy the meshlog file to the new analysis name, and click the Play Macro button. The macro file is stored with the analysis file, and a copy is extracted to the working directory when the analysis is opened. If a macro file exists for that analysis, it will be overwritten by the one extracted from the analysis file. When an analysis is closed, the macro file in the working directory is copied into the analysis file. If there is no macro file in the working directory, then any macro file in the analysis file will be deleted. If the analysis is closed but not saved, the external copy of the macro file is not packed into the analysis file. A macro file can be deleted through the CFdesign interface in these three ways: Click the Automatic Size button when the model has a distribution that has been adjusted with the Size Adjustment slider. This resets the distribution throughout the model to the default, deleting the macro file. After deleting the mesh distribution, click the Automatic Size button, and adjust sizes. The first click of the Automatic Size button can be followed by clicking the Play Macro button to overlay it on the model. If, however, sizes are adjusted after hitting the Automatic Size button but prior to hitting the Play Macro button, the macro will be removed because a new adjustment strategy is assumed.

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After deleting the mesh distribution, click the Automatic Size button twice. As mentioned above, the first click of the Automatic Size button can be followed by clicking the Play Macro button. If the Automatic Size button is clicked again, however, the macro is removed.

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Refinement Regions
A basic guideline for a high-quality analysis model is that the mesh distribution is sufficient to resolve the flow and temperature gradients efficiently. In regions where the flow moves in a single direction with little gradient, a coarser mesh will suffice. In regions where the flow circulates or experiences large gradients (such as in wakes, vortices, and separation regions), a finer mesh is required. Locally refining the mesh is not difficult if there are geometric features within the high-gradient flow. Simply refine the mesh on the volumes or surfaces. If there is no geometry in a particular region, create a mesh refinement region to These regions provide control of the mesh distribution, without the need to create additional geometry in the CAD model. Mesh Refinement Regions are available as rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical volumes, and can only be used to make the local mesh finer. It is important to note that Refinement Regions are not real geometry, and as such cannot hold any other settings (such as materials or boundary conditions). Refinement Regions are available for models from all CAD types and launch methods.

Process
In this model, a wake downstream of the car requires a locally finer mesh. There is no geometry on which a finer distribution can be specified, so the resulting mesh is too coarse to accurately resolve the wake:

To create a Refinement Region in the anticipated wake area downstream of the car, follow this procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. Assign a mesh distribution to the model (Automatic Size button on the Mesh task). Click the Regions button on the Mesh Sizes task dialog. Click the Add button to create a region. To change the size in a single direction, press the Ctrl and Shift keys, and drag the grab-handle in the desired direction:

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5.

To move or resize, hover the mouse on the region, and use these mouse navigation controls: Resize (grow or shrink): Ctrl + Shift + Left mouse button Rotate: Ctrl + Shift + Middle mouse button Pan: Ctrl + Shift + Right mouse button

Note: It is a good idea to verify the location by rotating the model and looking at it from a couple of different directions. This will ensure that the region is placed as intended. 6. 7. 8. Click the Get local mesh size button. This initializes the mesh size on the region to be the smallest length from its surroundings that is included within the region. Refine the mesh density with the slider. Click the Spread changes button to see the effect of the region on the surrounding mesh distributions.

If manual mesh sizing is used, key in an element size, and click Enter on your keyboard.

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Cylindrical- and Spherical-Shaped Refinement Regions Refinement regions can also be defined as cylinders and spheres. This is very useful for focusing the mesh in areas with high curvature or that are not uniform. On the Mesh Refinement Regions dialog, select the shape from the Define Region menu.

If a Refinement Region is moved or resized after sizes are assigned, the sizes will be removed, and the distributions will no longer appear on the region. This is to ensure that the relative sizes (between the region and the surroundings) are always consistent with each other. Note that multiple regions can exist within a model, and they can overlap and even extend outside of the original model (although no elements are created outside of the original geometry). Example showing Refinement Region, refined mesh, and results

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Example using Mesh Refinement Regions CFD-Tv Video about Mesh Refinement Regions

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Extrusion
Extrusion meshing stretches triangular faces into multiple layers of wedge (prism) elements through the length of three dimensional parts with a uniform cross section. Extrusion meshing greatly reduces the element count in high aspect-ratio parts, and improves flow accuracy in models dominated by form drag, such as pipe flow. Extruded meshes are structured meshes, but can contact or even be immersed in regions meshed with unstructured tetrahedrals. This is called non-conformal meshing, and is a condition in which the nodes in the extruded section do not line up automatically with the surrounding mesh. CFdesign detects and deals with this situation automatically. It is not possible to change the mesh in a model containing extruded regions and continue from a saved analysis. When the mesh is changed, it is necessary to start the analysis back at the beginning. Assuming the geometric constraints are met, extrusion meshes can be used on moving objects and for solids in rotating regions (such as fan blades), but not the rotating region itself. Extrusion meshes cannot be used for models with radiation. The default advection scheme is recommended when using extrusion.

Assigning Extrusion
In its most automatic form, the Extrusion capability computes both the end mesh distribution and layer growth based on the geometry. Manual controls are also provided that enable control of layer growth, end biasing, and the number of extrusion layers. Available after Automatic Mesh Sizing has been invoked, select one or more volumes for extrusion, and click the Extrude mesh button. The Extrude Mesh button is active only when at least one volume eligible for extrusion is selected. Automatic Enabled (checked) The Automatic check box controls the operation of the dialog: when it is checked, the Automatic Sizing controls the number of layers and the end layer sizes. When unchecked, additional controls are available. In Automatic mode, the Automatic Sizing feature matches the layer sizes originating at each end of the part with the length scales used in the surface mesh at each respective end. 1. 2. 3. 4. Modify the growth with the Growth slider if more or less layer stretching is desired. The default is 1.3. Select the Extrusion Direction, if applicable. While this dialog is open, the interactive Extrusion Preview line shows on the model. Click OK to close the dialog and assign extrusion to the selected part.

Before applying extrusion to multiple identical parts in which it is critical that the mesh be identical, select the end surfaces of each channel, and click the Use Uniform button. This will help ensure that the mesh through passages such as heat sink channels or pipe rows is equivalent. Automatic Disabled (unchecked) When Automatic is disabled, more control is provided over the number and size of extrusion layers.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Modify the growth with the Growth slider if more or less layer stretching is desired. The default is 1.3. Select the Extrusion Direction, if applicable. Select the type of End Layering. Select the number of Layers. While this dialog is open, the interactive Extrusion Preview line shows on the model. Click OK to close the dialog and assign extrusion to the selected part.

Extrusion Preview A Preview Line is drawn through the part to indicate the layers. This is interactive, and updates as settings in the Extrusion dialog are adjusted. While this dialog is open, surfaces will blank on the active parts by right clicking on them to allow visibility of the preview. The Preview line below shows the extrusion for a Growth setting of 1:

Growth The Growth slider controls the degree of layer stretching through the part. When Automatic is enabled, the amount of acceptable growth also determines the number of layers. The growth value is a constraint which governs the maximum rate which the element layers can grow from one element to the next. The range of this slider is from 1.0 to 2, with a default of 1.3. At the minimum setting (1.0), the layers will be nearly the same size:

At the default growth (1.3), the layers will be approximately 30% larger in the part center:

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The amount of growth from one layer to the next can be described with this equation:

This means that the amount of growth of the next layer (y) is less than or equal to product of the growth parameter (g) and the amount of growth of the current layer (x). At the maximum setting (2), the layers will be quite large relative to the ends:

When Automatic is unchecked, the number of layers is controlled with the Layers slider. The Growth parameter behaves differently than when Automatic is enabled, and does not represent a constraint. Growth values in the range of 20-50 are not considered extreme in many cases. Extrusion Direction The Extrusion Direction menu is available if: A single part is selected AND There are multiple possible extrusion directions, such as in a box.

If multiple parts with more than one potential extrusion direction are selected, CFdesign will automatically select the extrusion direction that is most closely aligned with the longest dimension of the part bounding box. If the variation in part bounding box dimensions is minimal, then the direction most closely aligned with the maximum dimension of the assembly bounding box is used. The Extrusion Direction menu lists each possible direction, and the preview line updates to correspond to the selected direction. Direction 1 is shown on the left, and Direction 2 is on the right:

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End Layering Available only when Automatic is unchecked, the End Layering menu controls the biasing of layers through the extrusion path. When a single part is selected, the options are: Uniform Small at End Small at Start Small at Both Large at Both

The determination of the Start and the End of the part is based on the internal topological direction of the part, and is not usercontrollable. The Preview line graphically indicates on which end the layers will be smaller. When multiple parts are selected, only the Small at Both and Large at Both options are available. Layers Available only when Automatic is unchecked, the Layer slider controls the number of extrusion layers. The slider range is between 10 and 100. To specify a value outside of this range, simply type it in the field adjacent to the slider. For more Extrusion guidelines

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Example Extrusion Meshes


A pipe with extruded mesh contacting a tet-meshed block. The element faces on the circular end of the pipe that contacts the block are extruded down the length of the pipe.

This heat sink is extrusion meshed:

It is immersed in air that is tet meshed. The nodes do not line up, but the two parts are automatically linked computationally:

A rectangular box is extrusion meshed. There are three extrusion directions available for this box, and the Extrusion dialog allows selection of the desired one.

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Extrusion Guidelines
The Extrusion button on the Mesh task dialog is active only when the following conditions are met: Automatic Sizing has been invoked One or more extrudable parts have been selected.

An extrudable part contains the following attributes: A uniform cross-section The topology of the part must be invariant in the extrusion direction. For a part to be extrudable, it must have the same crosssection in at least one direction. If a part consists of an extrudable region connected to another region with a different cross section, the part is not extrudable:

In this example, because all three regions are in the same part, the part is not extrudable. The pipe and channel protruding out from the box would be extrudable if they were separate parts forming an assembly. Linear extrusion path Only parts that have a linear extrusion path are eligible for extrusion. Parts that bend, even if the cross section is uniform, are not extrudable:

Three dimensional Only three dimensional parts are supported by extrusion. Two dimensional surfaces in 2D analyses must be free meshed.

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Uniform surfaces in at least one extrusion direction It is not possible to extrude in a direction if edges on a surface are normal to that direction:

The edge on the top surface of this box prevents extrusion in the two directions marked No because the surface is not uniform in those directions. The other direction is fine because the edge is uniform through the entire extrusion direction. Ends are parallel to each other The surfaces at the ends of an extrudable part must be parallel to each other. This is an extension of the uniform cross-section rule, and explicitly applies the rule to the ends of the volume:

The part must be topologically identical between the endcaps. It must have the same number and orientation of bounding edges on both surfaces There are some analysis types that extrusion cannot be used with: Rotating Regions Objects within a rotating region that have a uniform cross-section that satisfy the requirements for mesh extrusion can be extruded. The mesh inside of the rotating region, however, cannot be extruded because the interface between the rotating region and the adjacent stator must be a conformal (matching) mesh.

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Radiation Extruded meshes are not compatible with radiation calculations. An error will be issued if objects are extrusion meshed and Radiation is enabled. Surface parts Surface parts cannot touch parts that are extrusion meshed. This limitation applies to surface parts used as obstructions (solids), contact resistance, and distributed resistances. Material Models (internal fans, blowers, etc.) Parts with embedded-physics materials such as internal fan, centrifugal blower, and check valve materials cannot be extrusion meshed.

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Advanced_Parameters
Several additional parameters are contained on the Advanced dialog, accessible by clicking the Advanced button. These define constraints that affect the behavior of the Automatic Mesh Sizing facility globally. These parameters should be used with caution as they may have a significant impact on the resulting mesh. Resolution Factor The Resolution Factor controls the relative fineness of the mesh in response to the curvature of model entities. Though this parameter has global scope, the effects are localized to regions of high curvature. Smaller values result in a finer mesh on model entities with curvature. Regions with no curvature are not affected by this parameter. The default value is 1.0, and the acceptable range is between 0.1 and 3.0. Values outside of this range are rejected. Local Stretching This controls the quality of the distribution computed by Automatic Sizing. It constrains the rate at which point distributions may expand or contract along an edge. Smaller values cause slower variation in the distribution from regions of high to low curvature. A value of 1.1 represents a permissible growth rate of 10% between adjacent elements within a distribution on a model edge. A value of 1.5 represents a growth rate of 50%.

This parameter influences distributions along individual edges as well as distributions between edges. The net effect is that controlled blending is introduced along and across model entities. The default Local Stretching value is 1.1, and the acceptable range is 1.01 to 2.0. Minimum Points on Edge For entities lacking curvature, a minimum level of resolution is guaranteed by this parameter. Increasing this value increases the minimum number of nodes on an edge. This is a constraint and not a prescription on the computed resources. If a small edge is in close proximity to a highly curved entity, these smaller length scales may drive the resolution on the small edges to be higher than the prescribed minimum value. Points on Longest Edge This parameter controls the minimum number of points on the longest edge in the model. It is most relevant for geometry with no curvature such as the surrounding box for an external flow. This setting may be superseded by the influence of length scales on other model edges in conjunction with how the local stretching constraint dictates a smaller length scale. This may cause more points on the longest edge than the value specified by the Points on Longest Edge parameter.

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Surface Limiting Aspect Ratio Used during Automatic Sizing, this affects the distributions on edges bounding high aspect-ratio surfaces. During Automatic Sizing, surfaces identified by the Diagnostics facility are examined to ensure that the distributions generated for the bounding edges reflect length scales whose size is no greater than the product of the computed separation distance and the Surface Limiting Aspect Ratio. This limiting length scale may be smaller than that derived from the local curvature, and if so, the distributions are based on this constraint. Use this parameter to introduce a further constraint on length scales to ensure they are not larger than a specified factor of the dimensions of the surface. This can significantly enhance the robustness of the meshing operation. Any value greater than or equal to 1 is permitted for this parameter.

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Geometric Changes
When geometry is changed in the CAD tool and launched back into an analysis or when settings are transferred between analyses in a project, the entire model will be Automatically Sized, and any customizations to the mesh distributions will be applied back to the model. This process is performed by automatically sizing the modified geometry, and then replaying the Macro mesh file. Automatically sizing the model accounts for dimensional changes and ensures that newly introduced parts will have a mesh distribution. Replaying the macro ensures that adjustments to the mesh distribution on any parts, surfaces, or edges are also preserved. Additionally, when transferring settings in a project, the minimum refinement length is adjusted proportionally based on the modified geometry and the value set in the source analysis. The following mesh attributes are also transferred between analyses in a project: The Minimum Refinement Length, but may be scaled from the source value based on the geometry modifications in the target model The fact that the mesh was defined using Automatic Sizing. Extrusion data if the corresponding source surfaces can be determined.

The entire process is automatic, and is designed to ensure that the mesh distribution is preserved as much as possible when modifications are made to the model. There are three potential status messages that can occur: Model entity map was complete. Full Macro played This means that a complete one-to-one correspondence existed between the original and the modified geometry. All adjustments to the original model were transferred to the modified model. Model entity map was partially complete. Partial macro played This means that the number of components differs between the original and the modified geometries. Mesh distribution adjustments are transferred, but there are either new parts that have the default mesh distribution or parts were removed. Model entity map failed. Macro deleted This means that none of the original components were found in the model after updating the geometry. The result of this is that the model will be auto-sized, but no size adjustments from the original model will be transferred to the new one.

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Manual Mesh Sizing


CFdesign contains powerful tools for automatically determining the mesh distribution based on the geometry. But in the interest of flexibility, the mesh distribution can also be manually defined. This topic describes the strategy and techniques for manually assigning mesh sizes. Leaning how to create a "good" mesh definition can sometimes be the most intimidating part of the analysis process. It does not need to be. There are two fundamental rules that should always be considered when defining the mesh on any model:

Fundamental Guidelines
The first rule is that the geometric shapes must be adequately defined. It is very important that the mesh sizes that you define on a model be such that none of the geometric features are misrepresented. An example is the mesh definition on a round tube. Too few elements (too large an element size) and that round tube will be approximated as a square duct:

The second rule is that elements need to be concentrated where flow gradients occur. Elements need to be concentrated where there is a lot of fluid movement. The mesh can be coarser where there is little fluid activity (all the fluid moving in one direction, for example).

Basic Strategy
To ensure that a mesh definition is fine enough without being so fine that computational resources are wasted, the following steps are recommended when performing any CFD analysis: First, determine if there are any symmetries, and divide the geometry in the CAD system as appropriate. Look for geometric symmetries, but be sure that the flow will be symmetric as well. Determine if the analysis can be modeled as a 2D or an axisymmetric geometry. A 2D approximation may be a good place to start, especially if you are unsure of how to solve a particular type of flow problem. Examine the geometry, identifying probable high and low gradient regions for all solution variables. Identify solid material zones and fluid zones and keep them as separate geometric entities or parts. If there are areas with small, repeating geometric details (such as perforated plates or baffles), replace with distributed resistances to model these zones, instead of meshing the detail. Assign mesh sizes to all volumes in the model, and then apply finer sizes to surfaces and edges where necessary in order to capture strong flow gradients or to represent complicated geometric features. Perform an analysis on a coarse mesh (no more than 50,000 nodes) to qualitatively assess the flow features present and identify meshing needs in high gradient regions without a severe time penalty. Looking at the results on the coarse mesh, refine the mesh in the high gradient regions. To ensure that the final solution is not "mesh-dependent," compare the two solutions from the coarse and fine meshes. If they are substantially different, then it is a good idea to construct a mesh that has at least 10% fewer nodes than the fine mesh, obtain a solution and compare. The idea is to have two meshes that vary in number of nodes by 10% or more and that give the same solution. This solution is then said to be mesh-independent.

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In any finite element analysis, more elements are required in areas where spatial gradients of the solution variables are high. In CFD, an additional physical phenomenon called velocity-pressure coupling must also be accurately represented on the mesh to ensure continuity of fluid mass over the entire solution domain. This distinction elicits the following two requirements: Many more elements must occupy the domain than in a typical structural analysis. Transitions in element size must be relatively smooth so that the area or volume of adjacent elements does not vary substantially.

Locations of Mesh Refinement


This section contains information about where you should pay close attention to your mesh definitions. The underlying theme of this discussion is that the mesh should be fine enough to capture gradients and changes in the flow. Gradients may be due to geometric features, boundary conditions, or distributed resistance areas. Solid Boundaries Spatial gradients for velocity, pressure, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent energy dissipation will generally be highest near a solid boundary, typically a containment wall or the surface of an immersed body. This is particularly true if the flow is constrained by a tight clearance, forced to turn around a sharp corner or suddenly brought to rest at a stagnation point. Accordingly, mesh density must be greatest in these regions. When analyzing turbulent flow, the element size adjacent to a solid boundary is particularly important for accurate prediction of shear stress. This ultimately affects the calculation of pressure drop across the solution domain. The k-epsilon and RNG turbulence models compute a non-dimensional distance from the wall, y+, at all nodes adjacent to a solid boundary. This value is useful in determining whether the elements adjacent to solid boundaries are sufficiently sized. The y+ values may be viewed as a results quantity. In general, they should be kept within the range 35<y+<350. It is impractical and unnecessary for all y+ values to be within this range, but it is a good general guideline. This range is most critical for flows that experience a great deal of pressure drop due to shear. Examples of such situations are the flow through long pipes and flow over aerodynamic bodies. In flows where form drag dominates the pressure drop, the y+ criteria is not nearly as important. The use of Boundary Mesh Enhancement and Boundary Mesh Adaptation is strongly recommended to ensure that the mesh is fine enough near all walls of the domain. Inlet/Outlet Passages In general, elements should be concentrated at inlet openings to allow solution gradients to develop. In some situations (compressible flows, for example), the regions near outlets should also have a fine mesh. If the outlet has been placed far enough out from the solution domain, no refinement is necessary. The goal is that the outlet should not strongly affect the solution. Thermal Boundaries Similar to the inlet passages, elements should be concentrated near walls with thermal boundary conditions. Usually near these boundaries, the heat transfer rate (which is the temperature gradient) is the highest. You should also try to concentrate nodes at the edges of these boundaries so the discontinuity in heat transfer can be captured accurately. Sudden Change in Boundary Conditions The area surrounding the separation point between two boundary condition types must have a refined mesh to adequately resolve the discontinuity. An example is the point at the intersection of an insulated wall and a specified heat flux boundary in a convection analysis.

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Near Distributed Resistances/Porous Media Elements Because of the extra pressure drop across distributed resistance/porous media elements, you should refine the mesh in and around these regions to resolve the velocity and pressure gradients. Rotating Regions It is good practice to concentrate the mesh on rotating regions and solids enclosed within a rotating region. The flow gradients are typically quite high within rotating regions, and the geometric shapes are often very intricate. Moving Solids The fluid region surrounding a moving solid (and in the intended path of the solid) are areas in which the mesh should be focused. The fluid gradients that occur as a result of a moving solid can be quite severe, and the mesh must be fine enough to capture them. More about the meshing strategies for Motion.

Manually Applying Sizes


Volume and Surface Mesh Sizes 1. 2. 3. 4. Set the Selection Mode, and select only the Surfaces or Volumes to which the intended mesh size will be applied. Enter the Element Size (in the length units of the analysis). As mesh sizes are applied to the geometry, the approximate number of elements to be generated is shown.This estimate updates automatically as element sizes are added, removed, and modified. Click the Apply button.

It is always good practice to assign volume sizes to ALL volumes in the model. Use surface and edge sizes to refine the mesh as necessary. Other commands: Click the Delete button to remove the mesh size on selected entities Click the Delete All button to remove all mesh sizes from the model The procedure for applying mesh sizes on surfaces is the same as for volumes. Note that it is not necessary to apply mesh sizes to all surfaces in a model. Edge Mesh Sizes 1. 2. 3. 4. Set Edge as the selection type, and select the edges in your model. Select to enter either an Element Size or the Number Of Elements. If the Number of Elements is entered, elements biasing can be used along the edge. Enter a Bias Factor (a value greater than 1.0). When biasing, elements can be concentrated at the Start, End, in the Middle, or at Both Ends of the edge. Click Apply.

Which Size Wins? Because an edge can have several different element sizes (from the volume, surface, and directly to the edge), the smallest size on an entity will be used by the mesher.

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Mesh Enhancement
Mesh Enhancement adds element layers along all fluid-wall and fluid-solid interfaces. It augments the original mesh to produce a smooth distribution along all walls, which is critical for accurate flow and temperature prediction. Mesh Enhancement ensures adequate mesh across small gaps, which can be very difficult manually. Mesh Enhancement creates layers before the 3D mesh is constructed. Diagnostic algorithms detect and avoid element clashes in small gaps automatically. Element layer height across each surface is uniform, and is based on the smallest length scale on a surface. Gradual transitioning between surfaces ensures gradual variations in element height throughout the model.

Layer uniformity is important for accuracy in certain analyses. Examples include flows in which the turbulence is very sensitive to the flow near the walls and within long, narrow channels. In the latter case, meshes that have been enhanced have been shown to be significantly less disruptive than non-enhanced meshes to the flow near the walls, resulting in improved flow uniformity throughout the channel. Note that because the enhancement layers are added before the mesh is generated, it is not possible to add layers to meshes imported as nas or unv formats.

Using Mesh Enhancement


The Enhancement button on the Mesh task dialog accesses the Mesh Enhancement dialog.
Enable mesh enhancement

Toggles Mesh Enhancement (on by default)

Automatic layer adaptation

Toggles automatic layer thickness adjustment that ensures proper layer height based on the turbulent law of the wall y+ parameter. This is most useful for external aerodynamic studies.

Number of Layers

Controls the number of layers of prismatic elements. Up to five layers can be created. The default is three.

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In some rotating-region analyses, reducing the number of layers to 1 improves solution stability.

Layer Factor

Controls the layer thickness. The layer height is determined by multiplying this factor by the local isotropic length scale for that surface. Reduce this factor for thinner layers and reduced total thickness.

Effect of Changing Settings on Restart


Because Mesh Enhancement layers are constructed prior to the 3D mesh, changing certain analysis settings after the mesh has been generated will require the entire mesh to be regenerated. If the analysis is continued from a saved iteration or time-step, the results are mapped to the new mesh. Changes to analysis settings that will cause the mesh to be regenerated include: Changing a material type. An example is changing a solid to a fluid. Changing a material but not its type (example: air to water) will not cause the model to re-mesh Adding or removing a flow boundary condition (such as velocity, pressure, volume flow rate, mass flow rate, external fan, slip, unknown, periodic, and external fan). Changing the value of an applied condition will not cause a re-mesh Adding or removing a motion assignment Modifying a boundary mesh enhancement parameter

Automatic Layer Adaptation


An extension of Boundary Mesh Enhancement, Automatic Layer Adaptation is useful for high speed aerodynamic flows where the distance between the near-wall node and the wall-node is critical for accuracy. This is ideal for external flows such as vehicle aerodynamics and hydrodynamics, but is not so useful for slower speed internal flows. To enable, check the Enhance Boundary Mesh and Automatic Layer Adaptation boxes. Starting at iteration 37 (after the flow has had a chance to become established), the y+ values throughout the domain are inspected. The near wall node positions are then moved closer or away from the walls in order to make the y+ value fall within the optimum range for turbulent flow. The near-wall nodal positions are adjusted with every successive iteration. There is only a slight time penalty for this adjustment scheme. Automatic Layer Adaptation can be enabled any time during an analysis. Be sure to run the analysis for at least another 50 iterations after enabling it. A minimum of three Enhancement layers is required when using Automatic Layer Adaptation. CFD-Tv Video about Mesh Enhancement

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Element Descriptions
The following elements are available in CFdesign for the analysis of fluid flow and thermal problems.

Quadrilateral Element
The 4 node quadrilateral element can be used to model either 2D cartesian or axisymmetric geometries. Each node has 4 degrees of freedom for laminar flow: U, V, P, T and 6 degrees of freedom for turbulent flows: U, V, P, T, K, . All of the elements must be defined in the x-y plane.

Triangular Element
The 3 node triangular element can be used to model either 2D cartesian or axisymmetric geometries. Each node has 4 degrees of freedom for laminar flow: U, V, P, T and 6 degrees of freedom for turbulent flows: U, V, P, T, K, . All of the elements must be defined in the x-y plane.

Tetrahedral Element
Both the 4 node and 10 node tetrahedral element can be used to model 3D geometries. Each node has 5 degrees of freedom for laminar flow: U, V, W, P, T and 7 degrees of freedom for turbulent flows: U, V, W, P, T, K, .

Hexahedral Element
The 8 node hexahedral element can be used to model 3D geometries. Each node has 5 degrees of freedom for laminar flow: U, V, W, P, T and 7 degrees of freedom for turbulent flows: U, V, W, P, T, K, .

Wedge Element
The 6 node triangular prism or wedge element can be used to model 3D geometries. Each node has 5 degrees of freedom for laminar flow: U, V, W, P, T and 7 degrees of freedom for turbulent flows: U, V, W, P, T, K, .

Pyramid Element
The 5 node prism element can be used to model 3D geometries. Each node has 5 degrees of freedom for laminar flow: U, V, W, P, T and 7 degrees of freedom for turbulent flows: U, V, W, P, T, K, .

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Motion
The CFdesign Motion Module provides the ability to analyze the interaction between solid objects in motion and the surrounding fluid. The effect of the motion on the fluid medium as well as the flow-induced forces on the object can both be analyzed efficiently and quickly. There are seven types of supported motion: Linear Angular Combined Linear/Angular Combined Orbital/Rotational Nutating Sliding Vane Free Motion

For all but two of the motion types, movement is either prescribed using input parameters or is driven by the flow. (Sliding Vane is user-prescribed only, and Free Motion is flow-driven only.) Each motion type is defined by specifying only the applicable properties and directions, but does not require definition of all six degrees of freedom. The displacement, velocity, or location of objects in motion is either explicitly prescribed by the user or is driven by the forces imparted from the surrounding flow. In the case of the latter, externally applied driving and resistive forces (such as springs) can be defined that influence the motion of the object. Parts with assigned motions are color-coded in the display window for clarity.

Motion Task Visibility


By default, the Motion task is not included in the Task bar or the Design Study Bar. To enable it, click File_Preferences_User Interface, and change the setting for Show motion task icon to Yes.

Basic Process
Only objects that are solids (as assigned on the Materials dialog) can be assigned motion. Solids are shaded in the Motion task, and all other materials will appear in outline mode. This is an overview of the steps necessary to assign motion to a solid object: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Choose the Selection Mode (Volume or Surface) Select the part that will move. Select the Type of motion. The choices are: Linear, Angular, Combined Linear/Angular, Combined Orbital/Rotational, Nutating, Sliding Vane, and Free Motion. Click the Edit button. This brings up the Motion Editor for defining the motion. Set the needed Axes, directions, Center of Rotation (or Center of Nutation). Pop-out dialogs contain controls for graphical selection of these values. Set an Initial Position, if needed. If the motion is flow driven, check the Flow Driven box, and set the Bounds as necessary. Preview the motion by clicking the Preview button. Click Apply to finish the command.

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Note that a moving solid cannot pass through more than one fluid type. Previewing Motion The path of motion is verified prior to the analysis by clicking the Preview button. The Preview function is available as soon as the motion is defined, and can be used prior to clicking the Apply button on the task dialog. To preview the motion of all defined moving solids in a model, click the Preview button when no parts are selected. Use the slider bar to step the object through the defined path to ensure that the specified parameters satisfy the analysis intent. The time span is given based on the defined motion. A pseudo-time span is used for flow-driven motion so that the defined path can be examined. Groups of Motions (Linked Motions) In many devices, two or more objects that are driven by the flow are physically connected in some manner so that their motions are related. Examples include Hydraulic rams that slide linearly together through multiple cylinders Gears in a gear pump rotate in opposite directions at the same rotational speed

Because of a mechanical linkage between the object, the motion of one is dependent on the motion of the others. To link the motion of two or more objects, use the Group functionality to add the parts whose motions are to be linked. When creating the group, select Motion as the type on the Group Creation dialog. Grouping is only applicable to flow-driven motions that are assigned the same motion type. If a linear and an angular motion are grouped together, for example, the linking is not possible, and will hence be ignored. The linking functionality depends on the direction(s) of motion for the relevant parts being fully defined. Objects with linked motions can move in different directions or even rotate in opposite directions. In the case of a gear pump, for example, the two gears rotate in opposite directions from one another. Assign the directions for both objects as appropriate, and add the two motions to the same group. As the flow moves them, they will move with the same rotational velocity, but in the assigned directions. Objects with linked motions do not have to physically touch one another in the CFdesign analysis. Visual Dominance When visualizing results for some motion analyses, the moving solid will appear behind another part as it is animated through it. This other volume is often the flow volume, so this situation makes it very difficult to see the moving part. An example of this is shown:

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The result is that moving solids appear over non-moving solids. This allows a clear view of the moving solid and the flow surrounding it:

Related Topics
Geometry Meshing Surface Parts in Motion Solid Motion Solution Strategy Radiation for Moving Parts Mathematical foundation

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Linear Motion
Linear motion is the motion of a solid in a straight line. It can be fully prescribed, or can be driven by the flow. Examples include: a piston moving in a cylinder a hydraulic ram in a chamber objects on a conveyor belt moving through a curing process valves opening and closing

Defining User-Prescribed Linear Motion Defining Flow-Driven Linear Motion Assigning Linear Motion

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Defining User-Prescribed Linear Motion


In this topic, methods to define linear motion are described. When an object moves according to a fully-prescribed linear motion, it does not react to the flow. The object will move in the direction and across distances that are explicitly specified. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. On the Motion task dialog, set the Type to Linear, and be sure Flow-Driven is unchecked. The only property for user-prescribed linear motion is the Distance. Select the Variation Method (reciprocating or by table) Enter the appropriate values. Click the Apply button. Click OK when all information is entered to close the dialog.

Distance Variation Methods


Reciprocating This method causes the object to oscillate linearly along a prescribed distance, in a specified time. The Half Period Time is the time it takes the object to move from the start position to the end of the stroke. The Distance is the length of the stroke:

Table The Distance is relative to the Initial Position prescribed on the Motion task Dialog. Enter Distance and Time data into the table. Click the Cyclical box to repeat only forward passes through the distance table. Click the Reciprocating box to alternating forward and reverse passes through the distance table.

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Defining Flow-Driven Linear Motion


In this topic, methods to describe objects in motion that respond to the surrounding fluid flow are described. The motion of such objects is influenced by the flow as well as user specified driving and resistive forces. The origins of such forces do not have to be included in the analysis model--the forces act on the object in a user-prescribed manner to either push the object in its prevailing direction or to impede its progress. In several places in this section, the Direction Vector of the object is referenced. This is the direction specified on the Motion task dialog. Because the true direction of flow-driven motion is not always known prior to the analysis, this direction is really the Reference Positive Direction. Directions of driving and resistance forces are then relative to this direction. Flow-driven objects may start off moving at a known velocity, and either speed up or slow down based on their interaction with the surrounding fluid (and applied forces). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. On the Motion task dialog, set the Type to Linear, and be sure Flow-Driven is checked. Three properties are available, but entries are not required for all: Initial Velocity, Driving Force, and Resistive Force. For each desired property, select the Variation Method, and enter the appropriate values. The Variation Methods are described for each property. Click the Apply button. Click OK when the motion is defined to close the dialog.

Initial Velocity If the object is in motion at the beginning of the calculation (and not starting from a dead-stop), the initial velocity should be specified. The object will travel at this velocity at the on-set of the calculation, and will react to the flow forces appropriately. Note that the only variation method for Initial Velocity is Constant. Driving Force Driving forces are forces that are positive when acting in the direction of motion specified on the Motion task dialog. A negative driving force will act in the opposite direction. Examples of driving forces include electromagnetic and other body forces as well as forces imposed by objects omitted from the analysis geometry. The force will act in the same direction as the direction of motion (as specified on the Motion task dialog):

A driving force can be used to represent the force of gravity on an object by specifying the weight of the object as the driving force, if gravity is acting in the direction of travel. The variation methods for Driving Force are described: Constant Variation Method Enter a constant force value to apply an unchanging force to the object throughout the entire analysis.

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Table Variation Method If a driving force is to vary with time, enter the time history as a table of driving force and time. As with all table entries, the values can be retrieved from or saved to an Excel .csv file. Resistive Force Applied resistive forces affect the motion of the object by acting against its specified direction of travel, impeding its progress. A positive value of a resistive force acts in the opposite direction of travel; a negative value acts in the direction of travel. In addition to constant and tabular specification, resistive forces can be specified as a spring. This is a virtual spring, and does not exist in the geometry model.

A resistive force can be used to represent the force of gravity on an object by specifying the weight of the object as the resistive force, if gravity is acting opposite the direction of travel. The variation methods for Resistive Force are described: Constant Enter a constant force value to apply an unchanging resistive force to the object throughout the entire analysis. Table If a resistive force is to vary with time, enter the time history as a table of resistive force and time. As with all table entries, the values can be retrieved from or saved to an Excel .csv file. Spring Four parameters are required to specify a spring: Engagement Displacement: the distance traveled before touching the spring Compression Displacement: the distance traveled before fully compressing the spring (relative to the starting point). This is the limit of travel, and is considered a hard stop. Engagement Force: the amount of force the spring exerts at the engagement displacement. (This is the spring preload. If none exists, enter 0). Compression Force: the amount of force the spring exerts at the compression displacement.

Recall that the Direction Vector specified for flow-induced motion is the reference positive direction. Depending on the flow, the true direction of the object may change. However the Direction Vector specified on the Motion task dialog is really a Reference Direction for the signs of applied forces and displacements. Because springs are typically a resistive force, a positive spring force will act in the direction opposite of travel of the objects reference direction; a negative spring force acts in the reference direction.

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Likewise, a positive displacement is in the reference direction; a negative displacement value is opposite to the reference direction. Note that all spring displacements are relative to the initial position defined using the Initial Position slider on the Motion task dialog. The following diagrams describe setting up several scenarios involving springs. If the object is not touching the spring at time = 0, then the configuration may appear as:

Forces and Displacements are positive values. If the object is touching the spring at time=0, then the engagement displacement is 0:

Forces and Displacements are positive values. If at time = 0 the spring is fully compressed by the object, then the compression displacement is zero, and the engagement displacement is the distance to where the spring is no longer compressed:

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Spring forces are negative because they act in the Reference Direction. If the object has to travel in a direction opposite of its Reference Direction to contact a spring, then the displacements should be applied as negative values:

Displacements are entered as negative values. Spring forces are also negative because they act in the Reference Direction. Note that only one spring is allowed on a moving part. Because of this, a forward and backward spring cannot be applied to the same part. The relationship between the required parameters and the spring constant is given as:

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Assigning Linear Motion


Process
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select the object or objects that are to move. (Objects that are assigned motion simultaneously will have the same motion.) Select Linear as the type of motion from the Type pull-down menu. Click the Edit button. This brings up either the User-Prescribed Motion Editor or the Flow-Drive Motion Editor. The parameters of the motion are entered on this dialog. Specify the Linear Motion Parameters: Direction, Initial Position, Max and Min bounds (for flow-driven only), and if the motion is to be Flow-Driven. Click Apply.

Direction Either key in a vector or use the pop-out to set the direction of travel of the object. Choose the Global X, Y, or Z axes to choose a Cartesian direction as the motion direction. To graphically set the direction, click the Select Surface button, and select a surface. The motion direction will be normal to the selected surface. Click the Inverse button to switch the direction. Only planar surfaces may be selected. An example of assigning linear direction:

The specified direction of travel is the reference direction, and all directional-dependent parameters are relative to it. Specified positive displacements will move the object in the reference direction. Negative displacements will move the object in the opposite direction. Flow-driven parameters such as driving forces and resistive forces reference this direction as well. Positive values of a driving force will act in the direction of the Direction Vector; negative values will act in the opposite direction. In contrast, positive resistance forces will act in the opposite direction of the Direction Vector; negative resistance forces will act in same direction as the Direction Vector. Initial Position Either key in a value or use the pop-out slider dialog to modify the initial position of the object from the as-built location in the CAD model. This is very useful for fine-tuning the model if the position of the object in the CAD is different from the true starting position.

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The positive direction of adjustment is in the Direction of Travel. Use the slider to move the object in the Direction of Travel in both the positive and negative directions. Minimum and Maximum Bounds Use the Minimum and Maximum fields to set the bounds of motion for flow-driven motion. (This is only required, and available, for flow-driven motion.) Bounds can be set by keying in a bounding position or using the slider to graphically set the position. The default state is that the motion is unbounded. To key-in a location in the field, click in the field, and specify the desired coordinate. For example, if 1.5 inches is entered as a minimum value, then the object cannot go beyond 1.5 inches in the negative direction of travel. This distance is relative to the initial position of the object. To specify the value graphically, use the pop-out dialog to position the plane at the desired boundary with the slider. The graphical plane moves normal to the direction of travel. All locations are relative to the initial position.

The Min and Max boundaries can be specified using different methods. Note that the bounds are relative to the initial position specified with the Initial Position Slider.

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Angular Motion
Angular motion is the rotation of an object about a centerline. Examples of applications that use the Angular Motion functionality include: Positive displacement pumps Gear pumps Trichodal pumps Check valves Reed valves

Unlike rotating regions (applied as a material with the Materials task dialog), objects with an angular motion can have paths that interfere--such as gear teeth in a gear pump or multiple mixing blades in an egg-beater. Assigning Angular Motion Defining Flow-Driven Angular Motion Defining User-Prescribed Angular Motion The following describes which method (angular motion or rotating region) is recommended for a variety of device types: The lobed cam rotates about its center. Its lobes mesh with the static lobes of the surrounding piece. Flow is induced through a positive displacement mechanism by changing the volume of the flow region. Use Angular Motion to define this motion.

Turbomachinery devices (centrifugal, mixed-flow, and axial pumps and turbines) should be analyzed using Rotating Regions:

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The impeller in this centrifugal compressor rotates, but does not touch any other solid object. It induces flow by transferring energy to the fluid (through a momentum transfer, in the classic turbomachinery sense.) Use a Rotating Region to define this motion.

Assign Angular Motion to devices that move fluid (liquid or gas) using a volume displacement or that simply move through fluid. Conversely, surround a rotating device with a rotating region that moves fluid through an energy transfer. Such devices rely on the Coriolis effect and centripetal acceleration. Rotating regions will produce a more accurate answer, and typically require less computational resources. Moving solids (specified angular motion) are more versatile, and can solve a wider variety of applications. The following table lists several devices, and how the rotational motion should be specified:
Pump Turbine Compressor Fan Blower Gear Pump Positive-Displacement Pump Cammed Lobes Egg-beater Check Valve Rotating Region Rotating Region Rotating Region Rotating Region Rotating Region Angular Motion Angular Motion Angular Motion Angular Motion Angular Motion

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Defining User-Prescribed Angular Motion


In this section, methods to define angular motion are described. When an object moves according to a fully-prescribed angular motion, it does not react to the flow. The object will rotate in the specified direction at the prescribed angular velocity. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. On the Motion task dialog, set the Type to Angular, and be sure Flow-Driven is unchecked. The only property for user-prescribed angular motion is the Angle through which the object will sweep. Select the Variation Method (described below). Enter the appropriate values. Click the Apply button. Click OK when all information is entered to close the dialog.

Angle Variation Methods


Constant Enter the Angular Speed at which the object will rotate throughout the analysis. The units pull-down menu allows selection of either radians per second or RPM. Oscillating This method causes the object to oscillate angularly through a prescribed angle, in a specified time. The Half Period Time is the time it takes the object to rotate from the start position to the end position of the angular displacement. The Angular Displacement is the included angle of the stroke:

Table The table allows for specification of an angular position at specific times. The Angle is relative to the Initial Position prescribed on the Motion task dialog. Enter Angle and Time data into the table. Check the Cyclical box to repeat only forward sweeps through the angle table. Check the Reciprocating box to repeat forward and reverse sweeps through the angle table.

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Defining Flow-Driven Angular Motion


In this topic, methods of defining angular motion of objects responding to the surrounding fluid flow are described. The motion of such objects is influenced by the flow as well as user-specified driving and resistive torques. The origins of such torques do not have to be included in the analysis model--they act on the object in a user-prescribed manner to either accelerate the rotation of the object or to slow it down. In several places in this topic, the direction of rotation of the object is referenced. This is the rotational direction specified as part of the axis of rotation on the Motion task dialog. Because the true rotational direction of flow-driven motion is not always known prior to the analysis, this direction is really the reference positive direction. Directions of driving and resistance forces are then relative to this direction. Flow-driven objects may start off rotating at a known velocity, and either speed up or slow down based on their interaction with the surrounding fluid (and applied forces). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. On the Motion task dialog, set the Type to Angular, and be sure Flow-Driven is checked. Three properties are available for specification, but entries are not required for all three: Initial Angular Velocity, Driving Torque, and Resistive Torque. For each property, select the Variation Method, and enter the appropriate values. The Variation Methods are described for each property. Click the Apply button. Click OK when all information is entered to close the dialog.

Variation Methods
Initial Angular Velocity If the object is rotating at the beginning of the calculation (and not starting from a dead-stop), the initial velocity can be specified. The object will rotate at this velocity at the on-set of the calculation, and will react to the flow forces appropriately. Driving Torque A driving torque is positive when applied in the reference direction of motion (as specified on the Motion task dialog). A negative driving torque will act in the opposite direction. Examples of driving torque include electromagnetic and other body torque as well as torque imposed by objects omitted from the analysis geometry. The torque will act in the same direction as the direction of motion (as specified on the Motion task dialog).

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A driving torque can be used to represent the force of gravity on an object if gravity is acting in the direction of travel. Specify a driving torque that is the product of the weight of the object and the length of the moment arm connecting the centroid to the center of rotation. The variation methods for Driving Torque are described: Constant Enter a constant torque value to apply an unchanging torque to the object throughout the entire analysis. Table If a driving torque is to vary with time, enter the time history as a table of driving torque and time. As with all table entries, the values can be retrieved from or saved to an Excel .csv file. Resistive Torque Applied resistive torque affects the rotation of the object by acting against its specified rotational direction, impeding its progress. A positive value of a resistive torque acts in the opposite direction of rotation; a negative value acts in the direction of rotation. In addition to constant and tabular specification, resistive torque can be specified as a torsional spring. This is a virtual spring, and does not exist in the geometry model.

A resistive torque can be used to represent the force of gravity on an object if gravity is acting opposite the direction of travel. Specify a resistive torque that is the product of the weight of the object and the length of the moment arm connecting the centroid to the center of rotation. The variation methods for Resistive Torque are described:

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Constant Enter a constant torque value to apply an unchanging resistive torque to the object throughout the entire analysis. Table If a resistive torque is to vary with time, enter the time history as a table of resistive torque and time. As with all table entries, the values can be retrieved from an Excel .csv file or likewise saved to one. Spring Four parameters are required to specify a torsional spring: Engagement Angle: the rotation before touching the spring Compression Angle: the rotation before fully compressing the spring (relative to the starting point). This is the limit of travel, and is considered a hard stop. Engagement Torque: the amount of torque the spring exerts at the engagement angle. (This is the spring pre-load. If none exists, enter 0). Compression Torque: the amount of torque the spring exerts at the compression angle. Recall that the angular direction defined by the Axis of Rotation is the reference positive direction. Depending on the flow, the actual rotational direction may change. Note, however that the signs of applied torque and angular displacement values are defined by this rotational direction. Because torsion springs are considered a resistive force, a spring force with a positive value will act in the direction opposite to the objects reference rotational direction (it is impeding the forward progress of the object, therefore it is a resistance). Likewise, a negative spring torque acts in the objects reference rotational direction. (The spring is aiding the forward progress of the object, and is hence acting not as a resistance but as a driver, so its sign is negative). A positive spring angle is in the reference direction; a negative angle value is opposite to the reference direction. The following diagrams describe setting up several scenarios involving torsional springs. Note that all specified displacements will act relative to the initial position specified with the Initial Position slider on the Motion task dialog. If the object is not touching the spring at time = 0, then the configuration may appear as:

Spring torque and angles are positive values. If the object is touching the spring at time=0, then the engagement angle is 0:

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Spring torque and angles are positive values. If at time = 0 the spring is fully compressed by the object, then the compression angle is zero, and the engagement angle is the angle to where the spring is no longer compressed:

As shown, Spring and Angles are negative values. If the flow is such that the object rotates in an angle opposite of its reference angle to contact the spring, then the engagement and compression angles should be applied as negative values:

Spring Torque and Angles are negative values Note that only one torsional spring is allowed on a moving part. Because of this, multiple torsional springs acting in different directions cannot be applied to the same part. The relationship between the required parameters and the spring constant is given as:

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Assigning Angular Motion


Process
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select the object or objects that are to move. (Objects that are assigned motion simultaneously will have the same motion.) Select Angular as the type of motion from the Type pull-down menu. Click the Edit button. This brings up either the User-Prescribed Motion Editor or the Flow-Drive Motion Editor. The parameters of the motion are entered on this dialog. Specify the Angular Motion Parameters: Axis of Rotation, Center of Rotation, Initial Position, Minimum And Maximum Bounds (for flow-driven only), and if the motion is flow-driven. Click Apply.

Axis of Rotation Either key in a vector or use the pop-out to set the axis of rotation. The rotational direction uses the right hand rule convention. Choose the Global X, Y, or Z axes to choose a Cartesian direction as the axis of rotation. To graphically set the direction, click the Select Surface button, and select a surface. The axis will be normal to the selected surface. For example: The desired axis of rotation is the Global Z, and the rotation direction is positive. Either enter a unit vector of 0,0,1 or open the pop-out and click the Z button, or select the surface normal to the Z button.

The Direction of Rotation is the reference direction for all directional-dependent parameters. For user-prescribed rotation, a positive angular rotation will rotate the object in the Direction of Rotation. A negative angular rotation will rotate the object in the opposite direction. Flow-driven parameters such as driving torque and resistive torque reference this direction as well. Positive values of a driving torque will act in the direction of the Axis of Rotation; negative values will act in the opposite direction. In contrast, positive resistance forces will act in the opposite direction of the Direction Vector; negative resistance forces will act in same direction as the Direction Vector. Center of Rotation The center of rotation is the point through which the axis of rotation passes. There are two ways to specify it: as the centroid of a selected surface by keying-in coordinates.

To specify the centroid of a surface, open the pop-out, click the Select Surface button, and select the surface.

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The axis of rotation will pass through the centroid of the selected surface:

Initial Position Use this to modify the initial angular position of the object from the as-built location in the CAD model. It is very useful for finetuning the model in case the initial position of the object in the model is not quite correct. The positive direction of adjustment is in the direction defined by the Axis of Rotation. Either key in an angular value or use the slider on the pop-out dialog to rotate the object about the axis of rotation in both the positive and negative directions. Minimum and Maximum Bounds Use the Minimum and Maximum fields to set the bounds of rotation for flow-driven angular motion. (This is only required, and available, for flow-driven rotation.) Bounds can be set by keying in an angular bounding position or using the slider on the popout dialog to select an angular position. The default state is that the motion is unbounded. The minimum and maximum boundaries can be specified differently, if necessary. Note that the bounds are relative to the initial position specified with the Initial Position Slider.

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Combined Linear-Angular Motion


In Combined Linear/Angular motion, the object translates linearly along the path specified on the Motion task dialog. The instantaneous linear position of the object is determined either by user-specification or as a result of flow-induced forces. As the object translates, it will also rotate about a user-specified axis. The direction of rotation is either determined by the user or is a result of flow-induced forces. For flow-induced rotation, developed torque is used to compute angular accelerations. If both motions are flow induced, it is assumed that the two motions are uncoupled and work independently. The linear translation equations update the center of rotation over time and the rotation equations update the directional cosines over time, thus yielding a combined motion. The location of the axis of rotation is determined by the translation of the object. Conversely, the direction of translation is not affected by the rotation. (This kind of motion is implemented using the Sliding Vane motion type, described later in this chapter.) Examples of combined motion include an object sliding along a path and rotating about its center axis. The center of rotation is translating with the object:

Another example is an oscillating piston whose axis of rotation is its direction of travel. This is a typical configuration found in many flow meters.

The two elements of Combined motion, Linear and Angular, are defined independently as User-prescribed or Flow-driven. The Flow-Driven check boxes on the Motion task dialog govern how each element is defined on the Material Editor. The possible combinations of user-prescribed and flow-driven are listed: User-Linear/User-Angular Flow-Linear/User-Angular User-Linear/Flow-Angular Flow-Linear/Flow-Angular

The following sections describe how to set up User-prescribed and Flow-driven motions. The variation methods described are applicable to the two user-defined/flow-driven combinations: Defining Flow-Driven Combined Motion Defining User-Prescribed Combined Motion Assigning Combined Motion

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Defining User-Prescribed Combined Motion


In this topic, methods to prescribe linear and angular motions are described. When an object moves according to a fullyprescribed motion, it does not react to the flow. The object will move and rotate only in the specified directions, across distances that are explicitly specified, and at prescribed angular velocities. If one of the two motion elements is to be user-prescribed, then only that one will be defined using the User-prescribed properties (as discussed here). The other will be defined using the Flow-Driven properties. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. On the Motion task dialog, set the Type to Combined Linear/Angular. (If Flow-Driven is unchecked for both types of motion, then both types will be User-prescribed.) On the Motion Editor, click the Distance property button for Linear Properties. Select the Variation Method for Distance. Enter the appropriate values. Click Apply. Click the Angle property button for Angular Properties. (This defines the angle through which the object will sweep.) Select the Variation Method for Angle. Enter the appropriate values. Click Apply. Click OK when all information is entered to close the dialog.

Variation Methods
Linear: Distance Click here for the Reciprocating method Click here for the Table method Angular: Angle Click here for the Constant method Click here for the Oscillating method Click here for the Table method

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Defining Flow-Driven Combined Motion


In this topic, methods of defining combined linear/angular motion of objects responding to the surrounding fluid flow are described. The motion of such objects is additionally influenced by user-specified driving and resistive forces and torque. The origins of such forces do not have to be included in the analysis model--they act on the object in a user-prescribed manner to either accelerate the object in its direction and angle travel or to slow it down. In several places in this topic, the Direction Vector and the Direction of Rotation of the object are referenced. These are the directions specified on the Motion task dialog. Because the true direction of flow-driven motion is not always known prior to the analysis, this direction is really the Reference Positive Direction. Directions of driving and resistance forces are then relative to this direction. Flow-driven objects may start off moving at a known velocity, and either speed up or slow down based on their interaction with the surrounding fluid (and applied forces). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. On the Motion task dialog, set the Type to Combined Linear/Angular. (If Flow-Driven is checked for both types of motion, then both types will be flow-driven.) Define each of the Linear properties by clicking on the desired property button: Initial Velocity, Driving Force, and Resistive Force. (It is not required to specify any or all of the properties.) For each property, select the Variation Method. Specify the appropriate values. Click the Apply button. Define each of the Angular properties by clicking on the desired property button: Initial Angular Velocity, Driving Torque, and Resistive Torque. (It is not required to specify any or all of the properties.) For each property, select the Variation Method. Enter the appropriate values. Click the Apply button. Click OK when all information is entered to close the dialog.

Variation Methods
Follow the links to learn more about the flow-driven linear and angular variation methods: Linear Initial Velocity: Constant Driving Force: Constant Driving Force: Table Resistive Force: Constant Resistive Force: Table Resistive Force: Spring Angular Initial Angular Velocity: Constant Driving Torque: Constant

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Driving Torque: Table Resistive Torque: Constant Resistive Torque: Table Resistive Torque: Spring

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Assigning Combined Linear-Angular Motion


Process
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select the object or objects that are to move. Select Combined Linear/Angular from the Type menu. Click the Edit button. This brings up either the Motion Editor for User Defined or for Flow Driven. The parameters of the motion are entered on this dialog. Specify the Linear Motion Parameters: Direction, Initial Position, and Maximum and Minimum bounds (for flow-driven only), and if the motion is Flow-Driven. Specify the Angular Motion Parameters: Axis of Rotation, Center of Rotation, Initial Position, and Minimum And Maximum bounds (for flow-driven only), and if the motion is Flow-Driven. Click Apply.

Linear Motion Parameters Direction Vector Either key in a vector or use the pop-out to set the direction of travel of the object. Choose the Global X, Y, or Z axes to choose a Cartesian direction as the motion direction. To graphically set the direction, click the Select Surface button, and select a surface. The motion direction will be normal to the selected surface. Click the Inverse button to switch the direction. Only planar surfaces may be selected. An example of assigning linear direction:

The specified direction of travel is the reference direction, and all directional-dependent parameters are relative to it. Specified positive displacements will move the object in the reference direction. Negative displacements will move the object in the opposite direction. Flow-driven parameters such as driving forces and resistive forces reference this direction as well. Positive values of a driving force will act in the direction of the Direction Vector; negative values will act in the opposite direction. In contrast, positive resistance forces will act in the opposite direction of the Direction Vector; negative resistance forces will act in same direction as the Direction Vector.

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Initial Position Either key in a value or use the pop-out slider dialog to modify the initial position of the object from the as-built location in the CAD model. This is very useful for fine-tuning the model if the position of the object in the CAD is different from the true starting position. The positive direction of adjustment is in the Direction of Travel. Use the slider to move the object in the Direction of Travel in both the positive and negative directions. Linear Minimum and Maximum Bounds Use the Minimum and Maximum fields to set the bounds of motion for flow-driven motion. (This is only required, and available, for flow-driven motion.) Bounds can be set by keying in a bounding position or using the slider to graphically set the position. The default state is that the motion is unbounded. To key-in a location in the field, click in the field, and specify the desired coordinate. For example, if 1.5 inches is entered as a minimum value, then the object can not go beyond 1.5 inches in the negative direction of travel. This distance is relative to the initial position of the object. To specify the value graphically, use the pop-out dialog to position the plane at the desired boundary with the slider. The graphical plane moves normal to the direction of travel. All locations are relative to the initial position.

The Min and Max boundaries can be specified using different methods. Note that the bounds are relative to the initial position specified with the Initial Position Slider. Angular Motion Parameters Axis of Rotation Either key in a vector or use the pop-out to set the axis of rotation. The rotational direction uses the right hand rule convention. Choose the Global X, Y, or Z axes to choose a Cartesian direction as the axis of rotation. To graphically set the direction, click the Select Surface button, and select a surface. The axis will be normal to the selected surface. For example: If the desired axis of rotation is the Global Z, and the rotation direction is positive, do one of the following: Enter a unit vector of 0,0,1, or Open the pop-out and click the Z button, or Select the surface normal to the Z button.

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The Direction of Rotation is the reference direction for all directional-dependent parameters. For user-prescribed rotation, a positive angular rotation will rotate the object in the Direction of Rotation. A negative angular rotation will rotate the object in the opposite direction. Flow-driven parameters such as driving torque and resistive torque reference this direction as well. Positive values of a driving torque will act in the direction of the Axis of Rotation; negative values will act in the opposite direction. In contrast, positive resistance forces will act in the opposite direction of the Direction Vector; negative resistance forces will act in same direction as the Direction Vector. Center of Rotation The center of rotation is the point through which the axis of rotation passes. There are two ways to specify it: as the centroid of a selected surface or by keying-in coordinates. To specify the centroid of a surface, open the pop-out, click the Select Surface button, and select the surface. The axis of rotation will pass through the centroid of the selected surface:

Initial Position Modify the initial angular position from the location as built in the CAD model. This is very useful for fine-tuning the model in case the as-built initial position is not quite correct. The positive direction of adjustment is in the direction defined by the Axis of Rotation. Either key in an angular value or use the slider on the pop-out dialog to rotate the object about the axis of rotation in both the positive and negative directions. Angular Minimum and Maximum Bounds Use the Minimum and Maximum fields to set the bounds of rotation for flow-driven angular motion. (This is only required, and available, for flow-driven rotation.) Bounds can be set by keying in an angular bounding position or using the slider on the popout dialog to select an angular position. The default state is that the motion is unbounded. The minimum and maximum boundaries can be specified differently, if necessary. Note that the bounds are relative to the initial position specified with the Initial Position Slider.

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Combined Orbital-Rotational Motion


Combined Orbital/Rotation motion is another combination motion mode--the object rotates about its axis of rotation, and also orbits about an axis parallel to its axis of rotation. Rotational motion is described in the Angular Motion section of this chapter. Orbital motion is the circular displacement of an object about an axis. The orientation of an object in pure orbit (with no rotational component) does not change. This is shown below:

The combined rotation and orbital motion is shown below (in this graphic the rotation and orbital speeds are the same):

The orbital speed is usually slower than the primary rotational speed. A typical application for Combined Orbital/Rotational motion is a pump shaft with an eccentric orbit (or whirl) component. The shaft rotates about its centerline, but also has an eccentric rotation about an additional axis. By specifying an orbit on an object, it is possible to understand the force imbalance imparted on bearings and other fixtures as a result of a shaft orbit:

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Both motions can be either user-prescribed or flow-driven. If the orbit is flow-driven, then the forces acting on the moving object are summed and appropriate accelerations are computed. Velocities and displacements are limited to the circular orbital path using the following relationships. The two elements of Orbital motion, the rotation and the orbit, are defined independently as User-Prescribed or Flow-Driven. The Flow-Driven check boxes on the Motion task dialog govern how each element is defined on the Material Editor. The possible combinations of user-prescribed and flow-driven are listed: User-Prescribed Rotation/User-Prescribed Orbit Flow-Driven Rotation/User-Prescribed Orbit User-Prescribed Rotation/Flow-Driven Orbit Flow-Driven Rotation/Flow-Driven Orbit

The following sections describe how to set up User-Prescribed and Flow-Driven Orbital motion. The variation methods described are applicable to the two user-prescribed/flow-driven combinations: Defining User-Prescribed Combined Orbital/Rotational Motion Defining Flow-Driven Combined Orbital/Rotational Motion Assigning Combined Orbital/Rotational Motion

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Defining User-Prescribed Orbital Motion


In this topic, methods to prescribe both angular motions (the orbit and the rotation) are described. When an object moves according to a fully-prescribed motion, it does not react to the flow. The object will orbit and rotate only about the specified axes, and at prescribed angular velocities. If one of the two motion elements is to be user-prescribed, then only that one will be defined using the User-Prescribed properties (as shown below). The other will be defined using the Flow-Driven properties. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. On the Motion task dialog, set the Type to Combined Orbital/Rotational. (If Flow-Driven is unchecked for both types of motion, then both types will be User-prescribed.) Click the Angle property button for Orbital Properties. Select the Variation Method for Orbit. Enter the appropriate values. Click Apply. Repeat for the Angular Rotation property. Click OK when finished to close the dialog.

Since both elements in an orbital motion are angular rotations, both use the same angular property variations described in the Angular Rotation topic. The following lists these variation methods for User-Prescribed Orbital motion, and lists where to find more details and illustrations about each:

Variation Methods
Angle: Constant Angle: Oscillating Angle: Table

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Defining Flow-Driven Orbital Motion


In this topic, methods of defining orbital and angular motions that respond to the surrounding fluid flow are described. The motion of such objects is influenced by the flow as well as user-specified driving and resistive forces and torque. The origins of such forces do not have to be included in the analysis model--they act on the object in a user-prescribed manner to either accelerate the object or to slow it down. In several places in this topic, the Direction of Rotation of the object are referenced. These are the directions specified on the Motion task dialog. Because the true rotational direction of flow-driven motion is not always known prior to the analysis, this direction is really the Reference Positive Direction. Directions of driving and resistance forces are then relative to this direction. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. On the Motion task dialog, set the Type to Orbital. (If Flow-Driven is checked for Orbital and Angular, then both types will be flow-driven.) Define each of the Orbital properties by first clicking on the desired property button: Initial Angular Velocity, Driving Force, and Resistive Force. (It is not required to specify any or all of the properties.) For each property, select the Variation Method. Enter the appropriate values. Click the Apply button. Repeat for the Rotation properties. Click OK when all information is entered to close the dialog.

Note that forces (instead of torques) are used to describe the Orbital motion. This is done because the orbit is really a displacement motion, so force, displacements, and velocities are more applicable than torque, angular displacements, and angular velocities. The relationship between torque and force for the orbit is expressed in terms of the eccentricity radius (eps): Torque = force * eps Omega = velocity / eps Theta = displacement /eps

Variation Methods
The orbital motion element uses forces, and the angular rotation element uses torque. Follow these links for information about the variation methods for Flow-Driven Orbital motion: Orbital Initial Angular Velocity: Constant Driving Force: Table Resistive Force: Table Rotational Initial Angular Velocity: Constant Driving Torque: Table Resistive Torque: Table Springs are not available for either motion element in combined orbital/rotational motion.

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Assigning Combined Orbital/Rotational Motion


Process:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select the object or objects that are to move. Select Combined Orbital/Angular from the Type menu. Click the Edit button. This brings up either the Motion Editor for User Defined or for Flow Driven. The parameters of the motion are entered on this dialog. Specify the Orbital Parameters: Orbit Axis, Center of Orbit, Initial Position, Maximum/Minimum Bounds (for FlowDriven), and if the orbital motion if Flow-Driven. Specify the Rotational Parameters: Axis of Rotation, Center of Rotation, Initial Position, Maximum/Minimum Bounds, (for Flow-Driven), and if the rotational motion is Flow-Driven. Click Apply.

Click the links for details about specific Orbital and Rotational parameters.

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Nutating Motion
Nutation is a type of motion used in several types of liquid flow meters. A nutating object is inclined at an angle to a reference axis. As the normal vector of the object rotates about the reference axis, the angle between the normal vector and the reference axis remains constant. The result is that the object actually wobbles about the reference axis, but does not change angular position relative to it. Assigning Nutating Motion Defining User-Prescribed Nutation Defining Flow-Driven Nutation A coin wobbling along its edge as it slows from a spin is a good example of nutating motion.

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The image above describes nutating motion. The three quantities that are defined through the User Interface are the Tilt Axis, the Axis of Nutation (Nutating Axis), and the Center of Nutation. The Tilt axis is normal to the disk, and rotates about the Nutating axis through the Nutating Angle. The Nutating Axis is typically a global Cartesian axis, but is not required to be one. The Center of Nutation is typically the center of the disk. This point is often constructed at the origin or some other easily defined point. The other quantities shown in the graphic above are determined automatically, and do not require explicit definition. The series of images below show a nutating disk. The disk wobbles about its axis, but it does not actually rotate. The angular position of the slot in the disk does not change throughout the nutation:

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Defining User-Prescribed Nutating Motion


In this section, methods to define nutating motion are described. When an object moves according to a fully-prescribed nutating motion, it does not react to the flow. The object will nutate in the specified direction at the prescribed nutation velocity. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. On the Motion task dialog, set the Type to Nutating, and be sure Flow-Driven is unchecked. The only property is the Nutating Angle through which the object will sweep. Select the Variation Method (described below). Enter the appropriate values. Click the Apply button. Click OK when all information is entered to close the dialog.

Nutation Angle Variation Methods


Constant Nutating Angular Speed Enter the angular speed at which the object will nutate. The units pull-down menu allows selection of either radians per second or RPM. Table The table allows for specification of a Nutation Angle position at specific times. The angle is relative to the Initial Position prescribed on the Motion task dialog. Enter Nutation Angle and Time data into the table. Check the Cyclical box to repeat only forward sweeps through the angle table. Check the Reciprocating box to repeat forward and reverse sweeps through the angle table.

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Defining Flow-Driven Nutation


In this topic, methods to define nutation that responds to the surrounding fluid flow are described. The motion of such objects is influenced by the flow as well as user-specified driving and resistive torques. The origins of such torques do not have to be included in the analysis model--they act on the object in a user-prescribed manner to either accelerate the object or to slow it down. In several places in this section, the direction of nutation of the object is referenced. This is the nutation direction determined by the direction of the Tilt Axis or the Axis of Nutation (as defined on the Motion task dialog.) Because the true nutation direction of flow-driven motion is not always known prior to the analysis, this direction is really the reference positive direction. Directions of driving and resistance forces are then relative to this direction. Flow-driven objects may start off with an initial nutation velocity, and either speed up or slow down based on their interaction with the surrounding fluid (and applied forces). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. On the Motion task dialog, set the Type to Nutating, and be sure Flow-Driven is checked. Three properties are available for specification, but entries are not required: Initial Nutation Velocity, Driving Torque, and Resistive Torque. For each property, select the Variation Method, and enter the appropriate values. The Variation Methods are described below. Click the Apply button. Click OK when all information is entered to close the dialog.

Initial Nutation Velocity


The object will nutate at this velocity at the beginning of the analysis, and will react to the flow forces appropriately. If the object is to start from rest, leave this value specified as 0.

Driving Torque Variation Methods


A driving torque is positive when applied in the reference direction of motion (as applied on the Motion task dialog). A negative driving force will act in the opposite direction. Examples of driving torque include electromagnetic and other body torques as well as torque imposed by objects omitted from the analysis geometry. The torque will act in the same direction as the direction of motion (as specified on the Motion task dialog). Constant Enter a constant torque value to apply an unchanging torque to the object throughout the entire analysis. Table A driving torque that varies with time is specified using the table of torque vs. time. As with all table entries, values can be retrieved from an Excel .csv file or saved to one.

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Resistive Torque Variation Methods


Applied resistive torque affects the nutation of the object by acting against its specified nutation direction, impeding its progress. A positive value of a resistive torque acts in the opposite direction of nutation; a negative value acts in the direction of nutation. Constant Enter a constant torque value to apply an unchanging resistive torque to the object throughout the entire motion. Table If a resistive torque is to vary with time, enter the time history as a table of torque and time. As with all table entries, values can be retrieved from an Excel .csv file or saved to one.

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Assigning_Nutating_Motion
Process
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select the object or objects that are to nutate. Select Nutating as the type of motion from the Type menu. Click the Edit button. This brings up the Motion Editor for either User Prescribed or for Flow-Driven. Specify the Nutating Motion Parameters: Tilt Axis, Axis of Nutation, Center of Nutation, Initial Position, Minimum And Maximum bounds (for flow-driven only), and if the motion is Flow-Driven. Click Apply.

Tilt Axis The tilt axis is the axis normal to the disk. As the disk nutates, this is the axis that is pinned at the Center of Nutation and rotates about the Axis of Nutation. Key in the vector representing the Tilt Axis, or open the pop-out dialog. Select the Global X, Y, or Z axis to define a Cartesian direction. To graphically set the direction, click the Select Surface button, and select a surface. The axis will be normal to the selected surface.

The Tilt Axis on an actual nutating device is shown:

Using the Pick Option, select the surface indicated in the graphic as the surface normal to the Tilt Axis. The resultant Tilt Axis is shown on the disk. The absolute orientation of the tilt axis will change as the object nutates, but the orientation relative to the object will remain constant. The direction of this axis determines the direction of Nutation according the right hand rule convention. Axis of Nutation The Axis of Nutation is the axis that remains constant throughout the nutation process. Key in the vector representing the Axis of Nutation, or open the pop-out dialog. Choose the Global X, Y, or Z axes to choose a Cartesian direction.

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To graphically set the direction, click the Select Surface button, and select a surface. The axis will be normal to the selected surface.

Because this axis does not move, it is often convenient to construct the model such that a Cartesian axis is the Axis of Nutation. This allows easy specification of the axis. The Axis of Nutation is shown:

In this case, the Axis of Nutation is the Global Y axis. Center of Nutation The Center of Nutation is the center point of the nutating object. There are two ways to specify this: Key in the coordinates or open the pop-out dialog, or Click the Select Surface button. After selecting a surface, the centroid of the selected surface will be the Center of Nutation. The center point is the center of motion, and is typically the center of the object. Because of this, it is often convenient to construct the CAD model such that the center of the nutating object is at a known coordinate. In the example shown below, the Center of Nutation is actually the origin (0,0,0), which made defining it very easy:

The Center of Nutation in this model is at the origin.

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Initial Position This slider on the pop-out dialog is used to modify the initial angular position of the object from the as-built location in the CAD model. This is very useful for fine-tuning the model in case the initial position of the object in the model is not quite correct. The positive direction of adjustment is in the direction defined by the Axis of Nutating. Use the slider to rotate the object about the axis of nutation in both the positive and negative directions. Minimum and Maximum Bounds Use the Minimum and Maximum fields to set the bounds of rotation for flow-driven nutating motion. (This is only required, and available, for flow-driven nutating.) Bounds can be set by keying in an angular bounding position or using the slider on the popout dialog to select an angular position. The default state is that the motion is unbounded. The minimum and maximum boundaries can be specified differently, if necessary. Note that the bounds are relative to the initial position specified with the Initial Position Slider.

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Sliding Vane Motion


Sliding Vane is a variation of Combined Linear/Angular motion. In the Combined Linear/Angular motion type, the path of linear translation is user-specified, and is not changed by the rotational motion. Sliding Vane motion is the opposite: the location of the axis of rotation is specified by the user, does not change, and controls the direction of linear translation. The most common application of this type of motion is found in sliding-vane positive displacement pumps. Vanes or pistons rotate about the center-line of the impeller, but translate radially. The direction of linear travel changes at every angular position. The axis of rotation, however, remains constant. This diagram shows how the direction of translation changes based on angular position:

Sliding vane motion is specified only as a user-prescribed motion. Flow-driven sliding vane motion is not currently supported. Assigning Sliding Vane Motion Defining Sliding Vane Motion

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Defining Sliding-Vane Motion


In this topic, methods for defining the linear and angular components of Sliding Vane motion are described. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. On the Motion task dialog, set the Type to Sliding Vane. Click the Distance property button for Linear Properties. Select the Variation Method for Distance. Enter the appropriate values. Click Apply. Click the Angle property button for Angular Properties. (This defines the angle through which the object will sweep.) Select the Variation Method for Angle. Enter the appropriate values. Click Apply. Click OK when all information is entered to close the dialog.

Objects with sliding vane motion move according to a fully-prescribed motion, and do not react to the flow. They move and rotate only in the specified directions, across distances that are explicitly specified, and at prescribed angular velocities.

Variation Methods
The following links describe the variation methods for the linear and angular components of Sliding Vane motion: Linear Distance: Reciprocating Distance:Table Angular Angle: Constant Angle: Oscillating Angle: Table

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Assigning Sliding-Vane Motion


Process
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select the object or objects that are to move. Select Sliding Vane as the type of motion from the Type menu. Click the Edit button. This brings up the Motion Editor. The parameters of the motion are entered on this dialog, and are described in the next sections. Specify the Linear Motion Parameters: Direction Vector and Initial Position. Specify the Angular Motion Parameters: Axis or Rotation, Center of Rotation, and Initial Position. Click Apply.

Linear Motion Parameters Direction Vector Either key in a vector or use the pop-out to set the direction of travel of the object. Choose the Global X, Y, or Z axes to choose a Cartesian direction as the motion direction. To graphically set the direction, click the Select Surface button, and select a surface. The motion direction will be normal to the selected surface. Click the Inverse button to switch the direction. Only planar surfaces may be selected. An example of assigning linear direction:

Select either a Global direction or the Select Surface button, and select the surface normal to the direction of travel. The specified direction of travel is the reference direction, and all directional-dependent parameters are relative to it. Specified positive displacements will move the object in the reference direction. Negative displacements will move the object in the opposite direction. Initial Position Either key in a value or use the pop-out slider dialog to modify the initial position of the object from the as-built location in the CAD model. This is very useful for fine-tuning the model if the position of the object in the CAD is different from the true starting position. Angular Motion Parameters Axis of Rotation Either key in a vector or use the pop-out to set the axis of rotation. The rotational direction uses the right hand rule convention. Choose the Global X, Y, or Z axes to choose a Cartesian direction as the axis of rotation.

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To graphically set the direction, click the Select Surface button, and select a surface. The axis will be normal to the selected surface.

For example: The desired axis of rotation is the Global Z, and the rotation direction is positive. Either enter a unit vector of 0,0,1 or open the pop-out and click the Z button, or select the surface normal to the Z button. The Direction of Rotation is the reference direction for all directional-dependent parameters. For user-prescribed rotation, a positive angular rotation will rotate the object in the Direction of Rotation. A negative angular rotation will rotate the object in the opposite direction. Center of Rotation The center of rotation is the point through which the axis of rotation passes. There are two ways to specify it: as the centroid of a selected surface or by keying-in coordinates. To specify the centroid of a surface, open the pop-out, click the Select Surface button, and select the surface. The axis of rotation will pass through the centroid of the selected surface:

Initial Position This is used to modify the initial angular position of the object from the as-built location in the CAD model, and is very useful for fine-tuning the model in case the initial position of the object in the model is not quite correct. The positive direction of adjustment is in the direction defined by the Axis of Rotation. Either key in an angular value or use the slider on the pop-out dialog to rotate the object about the axis of rotation in both the positive and negative directions.

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Free-Motion
Unlike the other motion types (linear, angular, combined, etc.), Free Motion allows for motion in any direction. This is the most flexible of the motion types, and can be used to simulate unconstrained (or partially constrained) movement of objects within an active flow field. Free-Motion is always flow driven, and is defined by enabling or disabling any of the six degrees of freedom. Limits can be defined for each degree of freedom, but collisions with walls, static and other moving solids are automatically detected. Forces can be applied to objects in free motion as well as gravity. Freely-moving solids can be subjected to initial linear and/or angular velocities as well. Assigning Free-Motion Defining Free-Motion Click for more details about collisions Objects in free motion cannot pass through other solids, walls, symmetry or surfaces with periodic conditions. They can, however, pass through openings (such as fluid boundaries with specified velocities, flow rates, or pressure conditions).

Meshing Considerations
Care should be taken when defining the mesh for free motion analyses. For the constrained motion types, the path of the object is known, and the mesh can be refined within that path. This often reduces the mesh requirements on other areas of the model that do not directly influence the motion. In a free motion analysis, however, the path is often less certain, so a higher mesh density may be required throughout more of the model in order to adequately resolve the motion of the object.

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Assigning Free-Motion
Process
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select the object or objects that are to move. Select Free Motion as the type of motion from the Type menu. Click the Edit button. This brings up the Motion Editor, which allows specification of initial linear and angular velocities of the object. Specify the applicable Free Motion Parameters: Active Degrees of Freedom (DOF), Applied Force, and Gravity . Click Apply.

Active Degrees of Freedom By default, objects in free motion can move in any direction. Expand the Active DOF menu to view the six degrees of freedom. There are two type of degrees-translation and rotation. None of the components are enabled by default, meaning that movement is prevented in all directions and about all axes. Check a degree of freedom to allow translational motion in that direction or rotational motion about that axis. For two-dimensional models, the Z translation, X and Y rotations are inactive because motion in these directions is not possible for models oriented in the xy plane. Translation Use the Minimum and Maximum pop-out dialogs to set the bounds of motion. Bounds can be set by keying in a bounding position or using the slider on the pop-out dialog to graphically set the position. The default state is that the motion is unbounded. To key-in a location in the field, click in the field, and specify the desired coordinate. For example, if 1.5 inches is entered as a minimum value, then the object can not go beyond 1.5 inches in the negative direction of travel. This distance is relative to the initial position of the object. To specify the value graphically, use the pop-out dialog to position the plane at the desired boundary with the slider. The graphical plane moves normal to the direction of travel. All locations are relative to the initial position.

The Min and Max boundaries can be specified using different methods. Rotation Use the minimum and maximum fields to set the bounds of rotation. Bounds can be set by keying in an angular bounding position or using the slider on the pop-out dialog to select an angular position. The default state is that the motion is unbounded. The minimum and maximum boundaries can be specified differently, if necessary. Applied Force This set of controls provides a way to specify an optional force acting on the object. There are three basic parameters required to specify a force on an object in free motion: The Force Direction, the Force Magnitude, and the Location of force application on the object:

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Force Direction The Force Direction is specified by either keying-in a direction vector, or using the pop-out dialog to select a Cartesian direction or a surface that is normal to the force direction. It is necessary to select the Type of force application. This can either be a Constant Vector or Vary by Orientation with position of the object. Constant Vector If Constant Vector is selected, the direction of force will not change even as the object orientation changes. The force direction remains constant, even if the object rotates about an axis. This is shown:

On the left, the initial position is shown. Force is applied in the negative x direction. On the right, the object rotates because of the torque about the object center. Force is still directed in the negative x direction. The resultant torque will vary as the the object changes orientation. Vary by Orientation If Vary by Orientation is selected, the direction of force will vary relative to the coordinate system, but will remain constant relative to the object. This is the recommended way to apply a constant torque to an object in motion. This is shown:

On the left, the initial position is shown. Force is applied in the negative x direction. On the right, the object rotates because of the torque. The force is constant relative to the object, but varies relative to ground. The resultant torque remains constant as the object moves. Force Magnitude Select if the force is Steady State or if it is Transient from the Time Dependent line. If the force is steady state, enter the value in the Magnitude field. If the force is transient, open the pop-out dialog to specify a piece wise linear relationship between force and time. Be sure to select the units of force in the Unit field.

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Location The final step is to specify the location of the applied force on the object. There are two methods: Key-In a location or open the pop-out dialog, and select a planar surface. The centroid of the surface will be the point of application of the force. This point must be on or in the moving object. A specified point of application that does not contact the object in its initial location will cause the force to not act on the object throughout the analysis. Gravity The Gravity menu allows for specification of a gravitational acceleration to act on the object. Expand the Gravity menu, and check the Earth box to indicate that the object is subjected to the Earths gravitational pull. Enter a unit vector to indicate the direction of the gravitational force (or select one graphically using the pop-out dialog). To define a gravitational pull that is different from that of Earth, uncheck the Earth box, and enter the gravitational acceleration in the appropriate direction. The units of this value will be in terms of the analysis length unit.

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Defining Free-Motion
Most of the parameters governing free motion are defined directly on the Motion Task dialog. The exception are the initial linear and angular velocity components. These values are assigned on the Motion Editor, which is accessed by clicking the Edit button on the task dialog. By default objects in free motion start from rest. To define a free motion state that has an initial velocity or rotation: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select the velocity or angular velocity component from the Properties list. The variation method for all initial velocity values is Constant. Enter the appropriate value and select the units. Click the Apply button. Click the OK button to close the dialog.

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Collision Detection
Objects in Free Motion react with walls and solids when they collide, thereby preventing penetration with other objects. As an object in free motion moves through a flow field, CFdesign tracks the forces and torque acting on it, and uses this information to update its position. When a collision occurs, the forces, torque, and location of impact are computed, and are used to determine the reaction. A coefficient of restitution of 0.5 is used to compute the momentum exchange between objects as they collide. Reactions include bouncing, glancing, and spinning:

Collision detection is enabled only for collisions involving at least one object in free motion. If a free motion object strikes another object in free motion, both objects will adjust their paths to avoid penetration. The impulse exchanged during the collision as well as a contact path are calculated. The contact force (which is the impulse divided by the time step) is applied to both objects at their respective contact points. If a free motion object strikes an object in user-specified motion, the free motion object will adjust to avoid penetrating the other object. The forces from the collision are applied to both objects, respectively, but will not affect the motion of the object in user-specified motion. (The collision force is included in the motion output data for both parts, however.) If a free motion object strikes an object in fluid-driven motion, the free motion object will adjust to avoid penetrating the other object. Forces from the collision are applied to both objects, and will move the fluid-driven part in its constrained path of motion. The mesh must follow the guidelines described in the Users Manual for the motion path. If the mesh is too coarse, the moving object may pass through an obstruction instead of colliding with it. Collision detection is sensitive to the time step size. If the time step is too large, moving objects may pass through an obstruction instead of colliding. A good guideline is the time step size indicated by the Estimate function on the Analyze dialog.

If an object in free motion strikes a wall or static solid, a collision will also occur, and the object will bounce or deflect appropriately.

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Geometry and Meshing for Motion


Geometry
Because the initial position of moving objects can be set in the Motion task dialog, objects can be constructed in the CAD model where it is convenient. When preparing the analysis model in CFdesign, the object can then be moved to its correct starting location. Note that all bounds information (for flow-driven analyses) will be relative to the selected starting position. Moving objects can start completely inside the flow volume, partially inside, or completely outside. Moving objects can pass through the flow volume, and exit completely. If the moving solid starts outside of the flow volume but overlaps or even touches it, then the volume outside of the flow volume will be maintained as part of the flow volume, even after the solid leaves that region. This is illustrated:

When an object moves through the fluid volume, the mesh of the object will appear to overlap the flow mesh. The solid elements will block out the fluid elements, and the velocity of the moving solid will be transferred to the nodes of the underlying fluid. If heat transfer is of interest, then the energy equation is solved between the fluid and the solid nodes. Obviously the heat transfer between the moving solid and the fluid will be a function of the respective materials as well as the velocity of the solid and of the fluids. The motion of a moving solid can be described such that the solid will collide with static solids. The solver will allow this type of motion, and care should be taken to ensure that physically real solid motion is defined. A Preview function is provided that allows the motion to be practiced prior to running the analysis. This is described in the Motion section. Meshing CFdesign uses a masking technique to model the interaction between moving solids and the fluid through which the solids move. As a moving solid passes through fluid, its elements mask the fluid nodes, meaning that the velocity on those nodes is governed by the motion of the solid. The mesh density of a moving solid and the fluid in its path must be fine enough to adequately represent the interaction between the solid and the fluid.

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This image shows a fluid mesh that is much too coarse. As the solid moves through the fluid, there are times when the solid elements do not mask any fluid nodes. The result is that the solid has no effect on the fluid.

If the fluid mesh is refined so that there is one row of masked nodes within the solid, the mesh is still too coarse. Because of the motion of the solid, a pressure gradient will exist through it. With only one row of masked fluid nodes, only one pressure value can be transferred to the fluid at any given location. The gradient will be lost.

The velocity results are shown for this mesh. The velocity field along the solid object is very irregular, and should appear all blue. The red areas are the fluid results bleeding through because of an inadequate fluid mesh.

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The pressure field with this mesh is highly irregular as well.

To adequately mesh the moving solid and fluid path in this example, a minimum of two rows of masked nodes throughout the fluid path are required. A more universal guideline is that the moving solid must be meshed finely enough to resolve gradients through it, and the fluid path must be meshed with a similar element size. Such a strategy will allow proper masking of fluid nodes, and will support gradients within the pressure field.

The velocity field for this finer mesh is shown. No bleed-through occurred, and the results appear quite plausible.

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The multiple layers of masked nodes allow the pressure gradient to be resolved well, as shown on the right. As the object moves upward, high pressures on the top surface and lower pressure on the bottom surface are apparent.

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Moving Surface Parts


When thin volumes are set into motion, the mesh requirements in the part itself and in the motion path in the flow can be quite severe. The moving volume must have a mesh that is fine enough to resolve the gradients through its thickness, and the flow path must have a correspondingly fine mesh. To provide a more convenient method of analyzing the motion of thin objects, the Motion Module support moving surface parts. This reduces the meshing requirements on both the moving part (because it is a surface part) and the motion path in the surrounding fluid:

On the Materials task dialog, create a surface part by assigning a solid material to the intended surface. The properties of the material and the shell thickness are used to compute the mass of the part, and influence the movement for flow-driven motion. For user-prescribed motion, the physical properties do not influence the motion. On the Motion dialog, change the selection mode to Surface, and select the surface or surfaces that are to move. Guidelines Any of the motion types can be applied to moving surfaces. The motion can be user-prescribed or flow-induced. Surface parts cannot be coupled with moving solids using Motion Groups. Surface parts can, however, be grouped with other surface parts in Motion groups. Moving surface parts cannot contact moving solids at their starting location. Moving surface parts can fully enclose a region. Moving surface parts do not have to be planar--they can be arbitrarily shaped. Moving surface parts must not come into contact with parts that are extrusion meshed. The interaction between surface parts and extrusion meshed parts is not supported. While moving surface parts can initially touch non-moving solid parts, they should not be in complete contact with a solid at their starting point. The reason is that after a small amount of movement, fluid will be trapped between the surface and the solid, and the pressure in the fluid may be very high. To add clarity when visualizing the results of a motion analysis with a moving surface part, the moving surface is shown with a virtual thickness. This thickness is purely graphical, and does not influence the motion or the flow around the part. The meshing requirements in the path of a moving surface are significantly reduced compared to the path of a moving volume. Unlike moving volumes, the solid elements do not mask the underlying fluid elements, and the fluid mesh does not have to be fine enough to resolve the solid.

The mesh should, however, be fine enough to resolve the pressure gradients on the surface. Likewise, the mesh within the fluid surrounding the moving shell should be fine enough to allow flow to pass around the surface as it moves. In the image on the left, the 3D mesh surrounding the moving shell is quite coarse. As the valve opens due to the force of the fluid, very little fluid can pass around it until it has opened about half way. In reality, fluid would leak past such a valve at the onset of motion, and is shown in the model with a finer mesh on the right:

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Keep in mind that the amount of bookkeeping necessary to track the motion of a moving surface is similar to that of a moving solid. Because of this, moving surface motion analyses are as resource intensive as moving solid analyses, for a given mesh density. The advantage of moving surfaces is that the mesh in the motion path does not have to be as dense as for a moving solid analysis.

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Running Motion Analyses


Automatic Time Step Determination
CFdesign determines and adjusts the time step size (shown on the Solve dialog) if Intelligent Solution Control is enabled (which it is by default). Click the Estimate button on the Solve dialog to compute an initial time step size. To manually set the time step size, disable Intelligent Solution Control on the Solution Control dialog. When Intelligent Solution Control is enabled, the time step for user-prescribed motion is calculated and set automatically based on the specified distance and/or velocity. The time step for flow-driven motion is calculated automatically by initially using a value based on the surrounding flow velocity and/or the initial velocity of the object. As the object accelerates, the time step will automatically decrease to satisfy the basic criterion that an object in motion should not move through more than one element per time step. Adjusting the time step in this way has been shown to balance calculation efficiency with solution accuracy. Intelligent Solution Control will automatically adjust under-relaxation parameters to remove instabilities from the calculation. We have found that doing this does not affect the time accuracy of the solution appreciably, and that solution stability can be greatly improved. Solid Motion Solution Strategy Motion analyses are always run transient. When a motion is assigned to a part, certain solution settings are automatically set: Switching the analysis to transient Setting the time step Setting the number of internal iterations to one per time step. Disabling Mesh Enhancement

We have found that for some Solid Motion analyses, the presence of Mesh Enhancement can cause stability problems during the analysis. Because it is disabled, additional care should be taken when defining the mesh size to ensure that the mesh density is adequate for the flow. Setting the time step save interval and the number of times steps are left to the user. Be careful not to set a save interval that fills the hard disk with time step results sets. As an object moves through a fluid, the space that was once occupied by the object is converted to a fluid. With this in mind, it is recommended that when applying slip conditions to a symmetry wall that cuts through a moving solid, that they be applied to the surface of the object that will become a fluid boundary after the solid has moved away. Not applying a slip condition to the surface of the solid (at its starting location) will result in a wall surface within the slip plane. In most devices with a moving solid, there will be regions of fluid that are isolated from other regions during some point in the movement. An incompressible fluid will not allow pressure waves to travel throughout the medium, and may cause solution instabilities. Additionally, objects that are to move due to flow-induced forces may not move at all. For this reason, the use of compressibility is recommended for flow-induced motion analyses. Enable Compressible in the Solve dialog. For liquids and gases, this will cause pressure waves to move throughout the device, and will produce a much more realistic solution for flow-induced motion. If Intelligent Solution Control is not used, then it is recommended to apply convergence controls to pressure on the Solution Controls dialog. Use of a value of 0.25 for pressure helps stability, and will damp out noise from the calculation. Use the default advection scheme, ADV1. The flux-based advection scheme, ADV3, cannot be used for a motion analysis.

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Continuing after Making Changes Due to the organization of motion data, it is not generally possible to continue a motion analysis from existing results if changes have been made to the mesh, boundary conditions, or motion parameters. If settings of a motion analysis are modified and the analysis continued from a saved time step, a warning will be given, and the analysis will be prevented from continuing. In particular, Motion changes that cannot be made mid-run include: Type of motion (linear, angular, etc.) Direction of motion (user-prescribed) Velocity or displacement with time (for user-prescribed) Whether the motion is Flow-Induced or not Removing a motion assignment from a solid

To stop a part with a user-prescribed motion from moving part-way through an analysis, either construct a motion table so that after a certain time its displacement does not change (or its velocity is 0). For a flow-driven part, a part can be stopped mid-run by modifying its bounds so that it cannot move from its current location. Alternatively, modify its material density so that it is so heavy that the flow cannot continue to move it. Obviously, if none of the changes described above are made to the Motion analysis, the solution can be stopped and continued. There are some parameters, however, that can be changed mid-run, and the analysis made to continue: Max and Min Bounds (for flow-driven) Forces (driving and resistance, including spring parameters, for flow-driven) Material properties (particularly the solid density) Note that it is possible to run an analysis without motion assignments, stop it, assign motion, and then continue without losing field results. The saved results files, however, will be deleted from the analysis directory after the field results are interpolated onto the analysis mesh. Output Tables For every moving solid, a table is produced that contains a time history of the linear and angular velocity, linear and angular displacement, force and torque. Open this table by clicking Review_Motion Results from the main menu. This table lists the linear and angular velocity, the linear and angular displacement, the force, and the torque for each time step of the analysis. This data is very useful for understanding the dynamic state of each part throughout the analysis. The linear and angular displacement values are relative to the initial position of the object as specified using the Initial Position slider on the Motion task dialog. Pay particular attention to this if the initial position differs from the as-built location in the CAD model. Note that the force and torque values are the net values, and include driving, resistance, collision, contact forces as calculated in the Motion module. The hydraulic force and torque are just the force and torque imparted on the object by the fluid, and do not include any forces specified in the motion definition. The hydraulic values are reported in the Wall dialog. If a motion analysis contains multiple moving parts, the data for each part is displayed on a separate tab, and is selectable from the lower-left side of the dialog.

Related Topic
For more about Intelligent Solution Control.

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Solve
The Solve dialog is divided into two sections: Scenario Settings and Output Settings. Scenario Settings contains options that define the physics of the analysis. This is where heat transfer, compressibility, and mixing models are enabled. The Output Settings section is where to define if the solution is steady-state or transient. Set the number of iterations or time steps, the Save intervals, and the Solver Computer for Fast Track. Start the analysis by clicking the Solve button.

Scenario Settings
Set conditions and parameters of the analysis in the Scenario Settings section. The Scenario Settings part of the Solve dialog is only available in the Solve task on the Control bar. The default settings define an incompressible, turbulent flow analysis, with no heat transfer. The parameters are all engineering in nature, and are listed below: Flow Compressibility Heat Transfer Radiation Gravity Quick Forced Convection Quick Natural/Free Convection Turbulence Solar Heating Scalars (in the Advanced dialog) Cavitation (in the Advanced dialog)

Output Settings
The Output Settings section is available on the Solve task on the Control Bar and on the Solve Quick Edit dialog. Open the Quick Edit dialog by clicking on the Solve toolbar or by right-clicking on the Solve branch of the Design Study Bar. Set the Solution Mode to Steady State or Transient. If Transient, set the Transient Parameters (time step size, etc.) Set the Save Intervals for Results and/or Summary Select the Solver Computer (the local computer is the default). If continuing an analysis, select the Iteration or Time Step to Continue From. Enter the number of Iterations to Run (or Time Steps to Run) Optional: select additional Result Quantities. Click Solve to start the analysis.

Monitor Points

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Solution Control
The Solution Control tools provide control over how quickly the calculation progresses to ensure a robust, converged solution. In addition to the manual controls, CFdesign contains a great deal of Analysis Intelligence which automatically controls the rate of convergence as well as determines when the analysis is converged (no longer changing). For more about the Solution Control tools

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Flow
Enable the pressure and momentum equation for the fluid by turning Flow On. Turn Flow Off for conduction-only heat transfer analyses. For forced convection scenarios, the flow and heat transfer calculations can be run separately (although it is not required). After the flow analysis finishes, turn flow to Off, and turn Heat Transfer On. Note that this process is automated by enabling Auto Forced Convection. For natural convection, flow and heat transfer must be enabled at the same time.

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Compressibility
Incompressible Characterizes any flow for which the maximum Mach number is less than 0.3. For more about Incompressible Flow Subsonic Compressible Subsonic compressible flows are flows that are compressible but contain no shocks. In particular, the fluid velocity must be low enough so that heat generation due to viscous shearing work on the fluid is negligible. Typically, a Mach number of 0.7-0.8 is the maximum for which this is true. If there is heat transfer, the static Temperature equation is solved. This equation neglects viscous dissipation and pressure work effects. If there is no heat transfer, the total temperature is held constant and the static temperature is determined from:

Be sure to specify a value for Total Temperature for subsonic compressible flows that do not include heat transfer. This constant value of total temperature will be used in the equation shown above. Additionally, be sure to define a material in which density varies with Equation of State . Compressible Compressible flows are flows that have a Mach number greater than 0.8 with or without heat transfer and shocks. If there is heat transfer, the total Temperature equation is solved. This equation includes terms for viscous dissipation and pressure work. The static temperature is determined from the equation shown above. For compressible flows without heat transfer, enter a value for Total Temperature. Additionally, the density of the fluid must vary with Equation of State. If water is chosen as the material and compressible is selected, then the water hammer problem will be solved. For more about running Compressible Flows

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Heat Transfer
The default setting of Off causes the simulation to be adiabatic, and will not solve for any heat transfer effects. When Heat Transfer is set to On, conduction are convection are solved for. To include internal radiation, check the Radiation box on the Radiation group. If Joule heating boundary conditions (current and/or voltage) are applied, heat transfer must be enabled. For more about running Heat Transfer analyses Automatic Forced Convection In forced convection analyses, flow and heat transfer can be run separately because the flow does not depend on the temperature distribution. This is an efficient approach because it saves time by not having to run flow and heat transfer together throughout the entire analysis. Auto Forced Convection controls this the automation of forced convection analyses To automatically run a forced convection analysis in separate flow and heat transfer stages: 1. 2. 3. 4. Enable Flow and Heat Transfer. Check the Auto Forced Convection box. Specify the number of iterations for the flow-only solution in Output Options. Click GO to start the analysis.

Note that both Flow and Heat Transfer must be enabled on the Settings dialog. The Staged Forced Convection check box will not be active if any properties vary with temperature or if thermostatically-controlled internal fans are used. The following occurs after pressing the Solve button: 1. 2. The analysis will run as Flow-only (heat transfer is disabled) until either the analysis converges (as determined by the Automatic Convergence Assessment) OR the prescribed number of iterations is complete. Flow will then be disabled and heat transfer enabled, and the analysis will run an additional hundred iterations (heat transfer only) or until the solution reaches convergence.

To change the number of thermal-only iterations, add this entry to your CFdesign flags file: FORCED_EXTRA # where # is the number of thermal-only iterations the Solver should run. Note that this entry is case sensitive. If the Stop button is pressed during the flow-only portion, the analysis will end after the current iteration, and will not run the heat-transfer portion of the calculation. Radiation Turn Radiation On to include surface-to-surface radiation effects in a heat transfer analysis. Radiation is typically most relevant when the field temperatures are very high. The radiation model is a non-participating model, meaning that radiation occurs between the walls and the fluid medium (the air) is not directly affected by the radiation. When radiation is activated, the startup processing of the analysis will generally take longer due to the view factor calculation. Radiative heat transfer through transparent media is supported, as well as geometric symmetry. The radiation model computes radiative heat transfer to moving solids and moving surfaces, and is the basis of the solar heating model. The radiation model has

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very rigorous book-keeping to keep track of the radiative energy balance, and reports the amount of heat transfer due to radiation and the radiative energy balance for each part in a model. The result is that reciprocity is enforced, to ensure that the radiative heat transfer between parts with large size differences is computed accurately. The radiation model is designed for use with all of the supported geometry types: two and three dimensional Cartesian and axisymmetric about the X and Y axes. Be sure to set the emissivity of the walls and solids (in the Materials dialog). Emissivity set as a fluid property is automatically applied to all contacting wall surfaces. Because the radiation model is non-participating, emissivity values set on fluid materials are not relevant to the fluids. Emissivity set on a solid material overrides any specified value on the contacting fluid. For more about Radiation Gravity Use the Gravity Vector for buoyancy driven flows (natural convection). Because most natural convection analyses occur on Earth, all that is required to set up gravity is to make sure the Earth is selected as the Gravity Method (it is by default) and to indicate the direction of gravity in your model with a unit vector. For example, if your model is constructed such that down is in the negative Y direction, then the unit vector for gravity should be: 0, -1, 0 For buoyancy driven flows on other planets (or where the gravity is different from that on Earth), select Componets as the Gravity Method, and enter the magnitude (in the analysis units) and the direction of the gravity vector. Be sure to choose a buoyancy material or set the density to vary with equation of state on the Material Dialog A gravity vector is not needed for forced convection flows. To include gravity as a force acting on a moving solid, assign a driving or resistive force equal to the force imparted from gravity. The gravitational force may be added to an additional driving or resistive force, if necessary. It is not necessary to specify a gravity vector on the Solve dialog for moving solids unless flow buoyancy is simulated.

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Quick Convection--Forced
Quick Forced Convection provides a trend-predictive solution method for calculating the flow and temperature distribution in forced convection environments. It produces a flow and temperature distribution within a few iterations, as opposed to the 100+ iterations required by the standard (Navier-Stokes based) forced convection solution. It is a powerful tool for running design iteration comparisons across multiple scenarios in a very short amount of time. When Quick Forced Convection is enabled, the flow is computed using a potential flow computation that is complete in one iteration. The film coefficients on all solids are then computed based on the flow results, and a thermal calculation is automatically run for several iterations until converged. The result is an approximate flow and thermal solution that is computed much faster than a standard flow/thermal analysis. It is best suited for applications in which the flow is not subject to a great deal of circulation or wake activity. The flow in many electronic enclosures generally fits this description in that it wake and circulation activity are both fairly low in most enclosures. Usage Setting up a Quick Forced Convection analysis is very similar to a standard forced convection analysis. A flow-moving condition must be specified on the model. This can be a specified velocity, volume or mass flow rate, or external fan boundary condition. An internal fan or centrifugal blower material can also be used. A pressure condition must be specified in the model. Even for a fully enclosed environment, a specified pressure is required. This can be applied to a small internal surface on a solid part. A temperature boundary condition is required. Heat loads (such as total heat generation) are often applied to these analyses.

Meshing requirements are consistent with standard forced convection analyses. To enable Quick Forced Convection, check the Forced box under the Quick Convection group on the Solve task. The number of iterations will automatically be set to 10. When the Solve button is pressed, the mesh will generate (in the standard manner), and the flow-field will be computed in the first iteration. The thermal solution is then computed automatically, and is typically complete in three to four iterations. If a change is made to the analysis settings, and the Solve button is hit, the solution will always start back at 0 iterations. It will not continue from the current results. Visualize the results using the suite of results tools. There is not a special procedure necessary to examine and extract results from a Quick Forced Convection analysis. Applications and Limits The velocity computation in Quick Forced Convection is based on potential flow.This means that the flow is considered inviscid, laminar, incompressible, and that there are no wakes:

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If the device to be analyzed depends on any of these flow mechanisms, be aware that results from a Quick Forced Convection analysis may differ significantly from the actual velocity and temperature distributions. Quick Forced is a steady-state solution method, and cannot be run as transient (nor motion or rotating). Additionally, radiation is not supported by Quick Forced. All fluid material properties must be constant. Variable properties such as variable density or steam or humidity models are not supported in a Quick Forced analysis. Quick Forced Convection is best suited for forced convection electronics applications. It will produce a velocity solution that has limitations (as described above), but if the geometry does not cause significant wakes or circulation regions, then Quick Forced Convection will yield trend-correct results that can be used to drive the design of an electronics package early in the design cycle. Only the temperature on the solids is computed; the temperature field of the working fluid is not computed.

After a promising design configuration is identified, it is recommended to run a separate standard forced convection analysis to determine a more accurate flow and temperature field. Do not base final decisions on the results produced from Quick Forced without backing them up with a standard (Navier-Stokes-based) flow and temperature calculation. Note that when restarting with standard forced convection (after disabling Quick Forced), the solution will start at the beginning (from iteration 0). It is not possible to continue a standard solution from Quick results.

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Quick Convection--Natural/Free
Many natural or free (buoyancy-driven) convection analyses require a large number of iterations to become fully converged. The flow and thermal solutions are tightly coupled, but the temperature distribution in the solids can take a longer time than the flow solution to fully converge. Quick Natural/Free Convection addresses this problem by automatically running a coupled flow and thermal simulation (in the same manner as a traditional natural convection analysis) followed by mapping the film coefficients to all solids in the model, and then running a conduction-only thermal solution in the solids. The result is a much faster temperature distribution throughout the solids within the analysis. The intent of Quick Natural/Free Convection is a faster, more accurate method of solving natural convection analyses. The increased accuracy will be most apparent in the temperature distribution of the solids. Unlike Quick Forced Convection, Quick Natural/Free uses the full Navier-Stokes solver to arrive at a coupled flow and thermal solution within the model. The time savings occurs after this step is complete (after 200 iterations) in that the thermal solution throughout the solid parts is accelerated. This method will deliver a time savings over a fully coupled natural convection solution of potentially several hundred iterations. Usage Setting up a Quick Natural/Free Convection analysis is very similar to a standard natural convection analysis with a few exceptions. The simulation model must have at least one solid part. If the model contains a TEC device, it must contact at least one solid part. If not, then Quick Natural/Free will be automatically disabled. The fluid material must be either a buoyancy material or allow density to vary with temperature. A gravity vector must be specified. A temperature boundary condition is required. Heat loads (such as total heat generation) are also often applied to these analyses.

Geometry configuration and meshing requirements are the same as for traditional natural convection analyses. To enable Quick Natural/Free Convection, check the Natural/Free box under the Quick Convection group on the Solve dialog. Specify a gravity vector in the two fields below the Natural/Free check-box. If the Gravity Method is set to Earth, then specify a unit vector in the Gravity Direction field. If the Method is set to Components, then enter the components in the Gravity Components line in the analysis length units. The number of iterations will automatically be set to 200. When the Solve button is pressed, the mesh will generate (in the standard manner), and the coupled flow and thermal solution will progress for 190 iterations. For the final 10 iterations, the flow solution is frozen, and just the thermal solution is computed. Additional Considerations A traditional coupled natural convection analysis can be switched to a Quick Natural/Free solution and continued. If the number of iterations run as a standard analysis is less than 190, then upon restarting the analysis, the solution will run as a coupled solution until 190 iterations have been completed, and then automatically convert to a Quick Natural/Free solution. If the original coupled solution was run more than 190 iterations, then upon restart, the Quick Natural/Free solution will be invoked immediately.

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Note that only steady-state solutions are supported for Quick Natural/Free, and that an error will be given in the analysis is set to transient with Quick Natural/Free enabled. Also, mixing models such as scalar, steam, cavitation, and humidity are not supported with Quick Natural/Free.

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Turbulence
The Turbulence dialog is for enabling or disabling turbulence, selecting the turbulence model and for modifying turbulence model parameters. Select Laminar to simulate laminar flow. Select Turbulent (the default)to simulate turbulent flow. Most engineering flows are turbulent. If it is unclear if an analysis should be run as laminar or turbulent, try laminar first. If the flow is actually turbulent, the analysis will typically diverge within the first ten to fifteen iterations. Change the setting Turbulent, and start again from iteration 0.

Turbulence Models
k-epsilon This is the default turbulence model. It is typically more accurate than the constant eddy viscosity model, but more computationally intensive and slightly less robust. It is not as resource intensive as the RNG model, but still gives good results. It is a general purpose model that performs well across a large number of applications. Eddy Viscosity The constant eddy viscosity model is slightly less rigorous than the k-epsilon model, but more numerically stable. This is a good choice for lower speed turbulent flows and some buoyancy flows. This model is useful if divergence occurs with one of the other models. RNG The RNG turbulence model is more computational intensive, but sometimes slightly more accurate than the k-epsilon model, particularly for separated flows. This model works best for predicting the reattachment point for separated flows, particularly for flow over a backward-facing step. When using the RNG model, it is often recommended to start with the k-epsilon model and after this model is fairly well converged, enable the RNG model. Mixing Length The Mixing Length turbulence model is primarily designed for internal natural convection analyses. Use of the mixing length model, in some cases, has been shown to reduce run times and provide better accuracy than the default turbulence model for internal buoyancy-driven flows. Low Re k-epsilon This model is well suited for low speed, turbulent flows. The Reynolds number of such flow is typically between 1,500 and 5,000. Typical applications include pipe flows and external aerodynamic flow transitioning between laminar and turbulent, as well as flow situations that have both high speed and low speed areas. Other flow situations that perform well with the Low Reynolds turbulent model include: A high-speed jet entering a large room. The jet is highly turbulent when it first enters the room, but the flow slows down considerably, and the Reynolds number drops. These types of flows can be very unstable when run with k-epsilon. Buoyancy-driven (natural convection) flows that are barely turbulent.

Because this turbulent model does not use wall functions, Mesh Enhancement should be always be enabled. We recommend increasing the number of mesh enhancement layers to 5 (using the Mesh Enhancement controls on the Meshing dialog).

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Note that analyses run with this turbulence model may not be as stable as those run with the k-epsilon model. Because of this, the Intelligent Solution Control should be enabled (the switch is located in the Solution Control dialog launched from the Solve task dialog.) Likewise, analyses run with this model may take more iterations to reach a fully converged solution. High Reynolds flows that are run with the Low Reynolds turbulence model will generally produce the same solution as would the k-epsilon model. Likewise, laminar flows that are run with this model will produce similar results to a solution run as laminar.

Additional Parameters
Auto Startup Auto Startup controls the Automatic Turbulent Start-Up (ATSU) algorithm. This algorithm goes through a number of steps to obtain turbulent flow solutions. The algorithm starts by running 10 iterations using a constant eddy viscosity model, so the k and epsilon equations are not solved. With this solution as an initial guess, the two-equation turbulence model is started. At iteration 10, a spike in the convergence monitoring data will appear for the k and epsilon equations. Other steps are then taken to gradually arrive at the converged result. These steps may involve spikes in the convergence monitoring data at iterations 10, 20 and 50. After 50 iterations, the ATSU is turned off automatically. If Lock On is selected, the ATSU stays on during the entire analysis until the user manually clicks it off. If there are convergence difficulties after iteration 50 (divergence within 10 iterations), then you should enable Lock On. If the ATSU is turned on, you should run at least 200 iterations to ensure convergence of the turbulent flow solution. If Extend is selected, an extended version of the ATSU is activated. This method is useful for difficult analyses, particularly compressible analyses. The minimum number of iterations that should be run with this algorithm is 400. Turb/Laminar Ratio The Turb/Laminar Ratio is the ratio of the effective (turbulent) viscosity to the laminar value. It is used to estimate the effective viscosity at the beginning of the turbulent flow analysis. In most turbulent flow analyses, the effective viscosity is 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than the laminar value. The default value is generally suitable for most flows. For the Mixing Length model, the turb/lam ratio is the upper limit for the eddy viscosity. The free stream eddy viscosity maxes out at this value. For the eddy viscosity model, this is the eddy viscosity, even if you change it on a restart now. For all the other turbulence models (K-Epsilon, RNG, Low Re Number), the specified value is the starting point or initial value of the eddy viscosity. It is often helpful to increase the Turb/Lam Ratio to 1000 or even 10,000 for flows that feature a small, high speed jet shooting into a large plenum. Such flows are typically momentum-driven, and benefit from a larger turbulent viscosity at the beginning of the calculation. Turbulence Intensity The Turbulence Intensity Factor controls the amount of turbulent kinetic energy in the inlet stream. Its default value is 0.05 and should rarely exceed 0.5. The expression used to calculate turbulent kinetic energy at the inlet is:

where I is the Intensity Factor and u, v and w are velocity components.

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Advanced Button
The Advanced dialog has controls for mixing (using the scalar quantity), Humidity, Steam, and Cavitation. Scalar The default is No Scalar meaning that the scalar calculation is not part of the analysis. The transport of a general scalar variable is modeled when General Scalar is selected. This scalar might be the salinity in a seawater fluid flow analysis, a mixture fraction in a multi-species analyses or some marker. The Diffusion Coefficient controls the mass diffusivity of the scalar quantity into the surrounding fluid. A value of 0 will prevent any diffusion of the scalar quantity. This quantity is in Ficks Law:

where jA is the mass flux of species A. This is how much of A is transferred (per time and per unit area normal to the transfer direction). It is proportional to the mixture mass density, and to the gradient of the species mass fraction, mA. The units of the Diffusivity coefficient are length squared per time. For more about setting up Scalar Mixing analyses. Humidity Select Humidity to simulate moist gas. Both the relative humidity and the condensed water can be visualized. Note that the condensation of a moist gas can be modeled by CFdesign, but the evaporation of water into a gas stream cannot. Heat transfer must be turned On. If the relative humidity is dependent upon the pressure, you should also enable Subsonic Compressible. be sure to define the correct properties for the gas (only the gas, not the moist mixture) on the Materials Dialog. A summary of the steps for setting up a humidity (moist air) analysis are: 1. 2. 3. Assign humidity boundary conditions to all inlets. Assign a moist-air property to the flow region (or regions). Select Humidity from the Scalar sub-dialog on the Options task.

For more about setting Humidity analyses Steam Quality Select Steam Quality to enable the fluid to be a homogeneous mixture of water and steam. The scalar is the steam quality (0 if no steam, 1 if all steam). Properties are calculated using the steam tables. Heat transfer must be turned On. For this type of flow, the energy equation is written in terms of enthalpy. Enthalpy can also be post-processed. For more about setting up Steam/Water analyses Cavitation Cavitation is a physical phenomenon that occurs in many high-velocity liquid flows when the liquid pressure falls below the vapor pressure, resulting in the formation of vapor bubbles. It is commonly found in high speed liquid valves as well as pumps, and can

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greatly reduce the efficiency of these devices. Prolonged cavitation can lead to pitting and erosion of the device, resulting in costly downtime and repairs. The cavitation model in CFdesign tracks the vapor bubble volume fraction, and predicts the onset and location of bubble formation within the flow. It is best suited for predicting small regions of cavitation, and will not run well when large regions of the flow flash to vapor. This cavitation model is based on modelling a collection of bubbles, not a total vapor region. When cavitation is enabled, the fluid pressure will not fall below the vapor pressure. (If cavitation is disabled, the pressure is allowed to fall below the physical limit.) Cavitation is not enabled automatically for liquid flows. To enable it, check Cavitation on the Advanced dialog. For more about setting up Cavitation analyses

Related Topics
For more about setting up Scalar Mixing analyses. For more about setting up Steam/Water analyses For more about setting up Cavitation analyses

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Solar Heating Dialog


Solar heating plays a significant role in the reliability and performance of many mechanical and electronic devices that are subjected to outside environmental conditions. In some situations, the worst-case solar loading during the hottest part of the day is of interest. In other situations, the intent is to understand the periodic temperature variation that occurs from diurnal heating (multiple cycles of day and night). The Solar Heating functionality allows study of both scenarios. Solar heating can be run as a steady state analysis to learn the temperature distribution caused by solar loading at a particular instant in time. Alternatively it can be run as a transient analysis to study the time history of the temperature distribution over several days and nights. The Solar model only works in conjunction with the new radiation model, and as such supports radiative heat transfer through transparent media. With solar heating, the effect of shadowing on other objects is also supported. The Solar Heating dialog allows for specification of specific geographical locations as well as input of latitude and longitude. The date, time, compass direction, and object orientation relative to the sky are also specified. A full report of the radiative energy balance similar to the reports shown in the previous section is provided during and after the analysis. Radiation must be enabled to run a solar heating analysis. Solar heating is not supported unless both Heat Transfer and Radiation are enabled on the Options dialog. To configure solar heating, click the Solar Heating button on the Options dialog. Note that this button is not active unless both Heat Transfer and Radiation are enabled. Step 1 Check the Enable Solar Heating box to include solar heating in an analysis. The dialog is grayed out unless this box is checked. Step 2 Select the geographical location. There are two ways to do this: Select the country and city from the drop-down menus. Check the Manual box, and enter the Latitude and Longitude coordinates and the offset from Greenwich Mean Time (in the GMT box). The GMT offset is used to accurately determine the time zone. o The latitude must be between -90 and 90 degrees. o The longitude must be between -180 and 180 degrees. o The GMT must be between -12 and 12. Step 3 Set the Date and Time. Change each value by clicking on it, and use the up and down arrows to modify the value. Direct entry in these fields is not supported. Note that all times are considered to be Standard Time. This is because Daylight Savings Time is not supported due to the wide variation of its use throughout the world. Step 4 Specify the orientation of the model. The Compass Direction defines which way the model is facing.

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Step 5

The Celestial Orientation defines which way is up by selecting either the direction of the sky or the ground. For both directions, select the convenient direction or orientation, and select the direction from the adjacent menu. Set the direction either with a Cartesian axis or by selecting a direction graphically on the model.

Click the OK button to close the dialog. For more about setting up and running solar analyses

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Analysis Mode
There are two analysis modes: Steady State and Transient. The default selection, Steady State, causes the analysis to be independent of time. Transient causes the analysis to be time-dependent. There are several transient parameters that define how a transient analysis will run. It is possible to switch between the two modes during an analysis. Transient boundary conditions are applied on the Boundary Conditions dialog. Note that all Motion analyses (rotating machinery and moving solids) are run as transient.

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Transient Parameters
Three parameters are necessary for transient analysis: Time Step Size, Stop Time, and Number of Inner Iterations.

Time Step Size


The Time Step Size is always in seconds. The correct choice of time step depends on the time scale of the analysis. For nonmotion flow analyses, the time step size is a fraction of the mean flow velocity, and should be at least a tenth of the time needed to traverse the length of the device. In many cases a much smaller time step size will be required to adequately resolve the flow. For non-motion heat transfer analyses, the time scale is usually much larger, so a larger time step size can be used. The time step should not exceed one tenth of the expected heat-up time. For solar heating analyses, a much larger time step can be used because the time scale is typically a day or more. A time step for a typical solar heating analysis can be on the order of 100 seconds or more. If Intelligent Solution Control is enabled, CFdesign automatically calculates a time step size based on convergence progression and the mesh. This time step size is usually quite small, and often a larger step size can be used effectively (after disabling Intelligent Solution Control). For more about setting the time step size Rotating Analyses For Rotating analyses, a time step size ranging from individual blade passages to complete revolutions can be used effectively. Smaller time step sizes are recommended for devices with many blades to resolve the interaction between the blades and surrounding, non-rotating geometry. To facilitate this, a time step calculator computes the time step size based on either a prescribed number of degrees per time step or the number of blades. Open the dialog by clicking the pop-out button on the Time Step Size line. This is only available when a rotating region material exists in the model. Select either the Degrees per Time Step or the Number of Blades, and enter the appropriate value. The time step will be computed based on the rotational speed specified as part of the Rotating Region. If the number of blades is specified, the time step size will be computed using a single time step per blade passage. If the model contains multiple rotating objects, the fastest rotational speed is used as the basis for the time step size computed in this dialog. For more about Rotating Analyses Motion Analyses The time step size for moving solids analyses is computed based on the specified motion parameters and the mesh size. When the Solve dialog is first opened after assigning Motion parameters, the time step size is computed automatically. If changes are made to the flow or motion velocities, click the button to recalculate the default time step. This will not conflict with the time step size determined by Intelligent Solution Control, but rather computes a reasonable starting time step size.

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Stop Time
For transient analyses, the analysis can be stopped when a specific time has been reached, after a certain number of time steps, or whichever comes first. Enter a specific time (in seconds) in the Stop Time field to indicate when the solution should stop. This is a very useful way to end certain transient analyses in which Intelligent Solution Control is enabled. An example is the simulation of flow-driven motion because it is not known how many time steps will be required to complete a certain amount of time. If it is not desired to stop the analysis at a certain time, enter -1 in the Stop Time field, and be sure to specify the number of time steps to run. Enter the number of steps to run in the Time Steps To Run field. After completing the indicated number of time steps, the solution will stop. This is a recommended way to run transient analyses whose time step size will not likely change. If the number of time steps to run is not important (only reaching the stop time is), then enter -1 as the number of time steps to run, and be sure to specify a Stop Time. If both a Stop Time and the number of Time Steps To Run are specified, then the first of the two that is met will cause the analysis to stop. For example: the user wants to run a transient for 3 seconds, but doesnt want to exceed a total number of time steps of 1000. The user would set the Stop Time as 3, and the Number of Time Steps to 1000. If 1000 time steps are calculated, but only 2.5 seconds have passed, the solution will stop. Alternatively, the solution will stop if 3 seconds is reached in only 450 time steps.

Inner Iterations
This controls the number of inner iterations for each time step during a transient analysis. Because CFdesign uses an implicit method to discretize the transient terms in the governing equations, the calculation has to be iterated at each time step. This transient inner iteration is similar to a global steady state iteration. The governing equations are solved at each inner iteration as they are at each global iteration in a steady state analysis. The difference is that far fewer inner iterations are needed in a transient time-step because the transient equations are much more numerically stable. Typically, 5-10 inner iterations per time step are sufficient for a transient analysis. If the convergence monitor indicates that this is not enough (the convergence plot does not flatten), this number can be increased. If the convergence monitor shows that this is too many inner iterations (curves are flat for several iterations), you can decrease this number. For Motion (Rotating and Moving Solid) analyses, we recommend only one inner iteration per time step. This has been found to work very well for a wide variety of Motion analyses.

Related Topic
For more about running transient analyses

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Save Intervals
Sets how often the results and summary information are stored to the disk. When the Results Output Interval is set to the default value of 0, results are saved only when the analysis stops (either completing the specified number of iterations or because the Stop button was pressed). For complicated analyses, it is recommended to set a non-zero Results Output Interval. (Be careful that your Results Output Interval is not so small as to exceed your hard-drive capacity.) These saved results sets/time steps can be used for continuing the analysis from an earlier result set if there is a problem--in effect returning to an earlier saved state of the analysis without having to run it out again from the beginning. Results from saved result sets or time steps can also be animated. The intermediate summary information is available in the summary file (analysis-name.sum). Summary information from intermediate iterations is appended to the summary history file (analysis-name.smh). This information is useful for tracking the progress of an analysis. Steady State For steady state analyses, indicate the interval of Steps to be saved as a constant value or enter a table. Transient For transient analyses, results can now saved at either a specified interval of time steps or at a specified interval of seconds. The principal reason for this feature (besides greater flexibility) is that when Intelligent Solution Control varies the time step size (as described above) for transient analyses there is no way to ensure that results are saved at the desired times. This feature provides the ability to save transient results at exactly the desired times. When transient results are saved by specifying a time interval, the time step size will be adjusted automatically (assuming Intelligent Solution Control is on) such that a result will be calculated at the desired time. Intelligent Solution Control includes the specified time save interval as part of its criteria in determining time step size. For example: the user wishes to save results every 3 seconds. However, as Intelligent Solution Control varies the time step (to ensure stability) it finds that a time step size of 1.7 seconds is optimal. The first time step is then calculated at 1.7 seconds. Knowing that the user wants to save the results at 3 seconds, the next time step is adjusted from 1.7 (which would put the solution at 3.4 seconds) to 1.3 seconds. This forces a result to be calculate at 3 seconds so that the desired result is saved. If Intelligent Solution Control is not enabled, the time step size is not changed automatically. Because of this, if the time save interval does not correspond to the user-specified time step size, only results solved at the specified time step are saved. For example: the user specifies a time step size of 2 seconds, but disables Intelligent Solution Control. However, they also enter a time save interval of 1 second. As the solution progresses, results are only calculated every 2 seconds, so the result at 1 second is not saved. Likewise, the result at 3 seconds and 5 seconds, etc., are not saved either. Only results at 2, 4, 6, etc. seconds are saved. The summary file can also be saved using an interval of results steps or of time. Save Table (Steady State or Transient) In addition to saving results and summary data at a constant interval as described above, a table allows saving iterations or time steps at varying intervals.

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Check Table and click Edit to open a table for input of step (or iteration) number and the save interval. For example: enter tabular data for steps and save frequencies as:

The result will be that from step 0, output is saved every 5 steps. At step 30, output is stored every 10 steps. Finally, from step 100, output is saved every 100 steps. If 300 steps were run, results from the following steps would be saved to the disk:
5 10 15 20 -----------------------------From step 0, save every 5 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 -----------------------------------From step 30, save every 10 90 100 200 300 --------------------From step 100, save every 100

In the example above, the intervals led to the next interval definition quite naturally. If, however, the table looks like:

Results will be saved at these iterations, if the analysis is run 300 steps:: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 200, 300 which is the same as the first example because changes in the save frequency occur only at steps in which data is saved. The table can be used to specify a save frequency based on time as well. When a time on the table is reached, the save frequency will change. For example, in the table shown below:

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o o o

Every second is saved from time 0 until time=2 seconds. At 2 seconds, results are saved every 5 seconds. Finally, at 10 seconds, results are saved every 20 seconds.

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Analysis Computer
CFdesign is built upon a client/server architecture. This enables an analysis to be built on one machine, the User Interface Computer, and run on another machine, the Analysis Computer. For a single-seat installation, the default setting shown in the Analysis Computer drop menu is the name of the machine. This means that analyses will run locally without requiring any additional steps. During the analysis, CFdesign can be shut down and the analysis will continue to run. (Check the Task Manager.) When the CFdesign interface is started again and that analysis opened, either the current status of the analysis will show, or it will be completed and the final results will be available. Building upon these concepts, CFdesign features the Fast Track Option. This is a way to run analyses on remote computers (on your network). Analyses are set up locally (on the Interface Computer), but assigned to run on the machine chosen in the Analysis Computer drop menu. Every machine on the network that is set up as an Analysis Computer will be listed here. For more about Fast Track

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Continue From
The default entry in the Continue From drop menu is the last saved iteration or time step. When Solve is hit, the analysis will continue from the value shown in this drop menu. If a previous iteration or time step is chosen, then all subsequent saved iterations or time steps will be deleted from the analysis (after a prompt is displayed confirming that this is OK). Changes made to the mesh definitions, boundary conditions, or materials are automatically incorporated into the analysis. If a mesh size is changed, but the Continue From menu is not reset to 0, the following happens: a new mesh will be generated the current results are interpolated onto this new mesh the analysis iteration count is reset to 0

All intermediate saved results files (and time steps) will then be deleted. The analysis will then proceed with the saved results mapped to the new mesh except for analyses containing the following features: Extruded elements Surface parts (solid or distributed resistance) Motion (moving solids) Rotating region Periodic boundary conditions

For existing analyses originally launched from Pro/Engineer using the Mechanica method, but opened subsequently from the Desktop, the Mesh Size task dialog will not be available. If the existing mesh sizes are deleted (through the Feature Tree), the Solve dialog will be grayed out. This is because the analysis MUST be launched from Pro/Engineer to generate a new mesh.

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Solve and Stop


Hit the Solve button to start the analysis. Once the analysis is started, it changes to the STOP button. Hit the STOP button to stop the analysis at the end of the current iteration. For a new analysis, the mesh is generated prior to any iterations being solved. For analyses started from Pro/Engineer (using the Mechanica method) or CATIA, meshing occurs in the CAD interface. CFdesign minimizes while the mesh is generated. All status messages appear in the CAD interface. After the mesh is generated, the CAD tool minimizes and CFdesign returns so the analysis can proceed. During the analysis, the CAD tool remains in a minimized state, and can not be accessed. To shut down the CAD tool (to free up more memory), shut down the CFdesign interface (the analysis will continue to run) and shut down the CAD tool. CFdesign can then be started again, and the running analysis opened. The analysis will continue to run even when the CFdesign interface is shut down. For Acis- and Parasolid- based CAD systems, the CFdesign interface does not minimize during the meshing, and status messages are listed in the Information field of the Analyze dialog. To generate the mesh and not run any iterations (this is sometimes useful to inspect the mesh prior to running a large analysis) right click on either the Scenario or the Mesh Size branch on the Design Study Bar, and click Preview Mesh. After the mesh generates, it can be inspected by opening the Results dialog.

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Monitor Points
Monitor points are locations in the model on which the basic degrees of freedom (result quantities) are plotted in the Convergence Plot throughout the analysis. They provide a way to track trends and monitor convergence at specific (critical) locations in the analysis model.
An example using monitor points is an electronic system containing several components. One component in particular is very sensitive, so it is important to know when the temperature on it is fully converged (not changing with additional iterations). Create a monitor on the component before running the scenario. As the calculation progresses, plot the convergence results (particularly temperature) on the Convergence Plot. As the analysis progresses, the temperature on the component is plotted, and it is easy to track what the temperature is (to ensure the integrity of the design) as well as when it no longer is changing (to help understand when the analysis is converged).

Creating Monitor Points


Create monitor points before running the calculation to ensure that results are plotted for them on the Convergence Plot. 1. 2. 3. 4. From the Solve dialog, click the Monitor Points button. Use the X, Y, and Z sliders to position the point on the model. Alternatively, key in specific coordinates in the Monitor Point dialog. Click the Show Points button to see the point on the model. (Optional) Assign a name to the monitor point. Click the Add button to create the point.

It is acceptable to create monitor points after iterations have been completed, and then run additional iterations. The plotted monitor point data on the Convergence Monitor will simply start at this intermediate iteration, instead of at the beginning of the calculation. If a monitor point is removed and the analysis is continued, then no data for that point will be plotted in the Convergence Plot for subsequent iterations. When as analysis is started back at iteration 0, all monitor point data from the previous analysis will be deleted (as will all Convergence Plot data). Select a specific monitor point from the menu on the right side of the Convergence Plot. Note: CFdesign allows a maximum of 100 Monitor Points on a Scenario.

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Result Quantities
The Result Quantities dialog lists the results quantities that are available for viewing after the analysis is completed. The default quantities are the most widely used, but additional quantities are available if needed. After running the analysis, to output additional quantities, select them from this list, set the number of iterations to 0, and click Solve. These additional quantities will be available for viewing on the Results task. Options By default, the film coefficient result quantity is calculated based on heat transfer results (thermal residual). However, sometimes it is advantageous to obtain film coefficient data based on the flow solution. This is accomplished by using an empirical correlation. The dialog is accessed by clicking the Options button on the Optional Post-Processor Output dialog. The dialog is shown: This dialog allows the film coefficient to be calculated in two ways. The first uses the energy equation solution in the fluid and calculates the residual heat going to the walls. The second uses an empirical formulation of the form:

Nu is the Nusselt number, Re is the local Reynolds number, and Pr is the Prandtl number. The flow solution is used to calculate the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. Use either the default values for a, b, and c, or select new values. Note that the definition of Reynolds number and Nusselt number requires a length constant. If you are unsure what to use for these length scales, use the default of 1. Vorticity Vorticity is the measure of the spin (angular speed) of a fluid particle. The mathematical definition of vorticity is the curl of the velocity vector. Another way to look at it is that vorticity is twice the angular rotation (omega). Since omega is a measure of the net angular rotation, vorticity is a measure of the local spin of the fluid particle. (If omega, the angular velocity, = 0, then the flow is irrotational and the vorticity is zero.)

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Solution Control
Access Solution Control with the Solution Control button on the Solve task dialog on the Control Bar. (Note that this button is not on the Solve Quick Edit dialog.) This is a set of tools that provides control over how quickly the solution field progresses, to ensure a robust, converged solution. In addition to the manual controls, CFdesign contains a great deal of Analysis Intelligence which automatically controls the rate of convergence as well as determines when the analysis is no longer changing (converged). The components of Solution control are discussed in the following sections: Intelligent Solution Control Automatic Convergence Assessment Intelligent Solver Selection Manual Convergence Tools Advection Schemes

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Intelligent Solution Control


Intelligent Solution Control is one of the keys to the robustness of the CFdesign solution. By employing elements of control theory to examine the trends of each degree of freedom, CFdesign automatically adjusts the convergence controls and the time step size to attain a solution. If the solution is changing too quickly from one iteration to the next, this algorithm automatically slows down progress in an effort to maintain stability. Alternatively, if the solution is stable and progressing too slowly, the algorithm will allow the calculation to evolve quicker, resulting in reduced solution times. Intelligent Solution Control is enabled by default for several analysis types (as described below), but can be disabled on the Solution Controls dialog (launched from the Solve task dialog). The convergence control values that Intelligent Solution Control chooses can be plotted on the Convergence Monitor by selecting Relax Parm from the third pull-down menu. The convergence control values are shown for all degrees of freedom over the range of iterations. If an analysis simply will not converge even with Intelligent Solution Control enabled, then a finer mesh may be needed. Also, inspect the applied conditions and materials to ensure that the physics are simulated correctly. If modifications to the mesh and/or physics still do not produce a converged solution with Intelligent Solution Control, please contact your technical support representative. The manner in which Intelligent Solution Control is applied to different analysis types is described: Steady State Intelligent Solution Control adjusts the time step size and the convergence control settings to achieve solution stability. The result is that even very physically demanding analyses that would have required manual adjustment of convergence controls will now run with virtually no manual intervention. Steady state analyses are run internally as transient solutions when Intelligent Solution Control is enabled. Each time step consists of only one inner iteration, so solution times are not significantly longer (as is often the case in true time-varying transient analyses). Because of this, each time step is considered a single iteration. Saved results files follow this naming convention:

analysisname.res.s#

where analysisname is the name of the CFdesign analysis, and # is the number of the time step (effectively the iteration number for steady state analyses). Note that the same convention is used when Intelligent Solution Control is disabled. To run steady state analyses, ensure that Steady State is the selected Analysis Mode on the Solve dialog (it is by default). Also, when specifying how often results are saved to the disk, the default save interval is expressed in terms of iterations (instead of seconds). Intelligent Solution Control behaves slightly differently when solving for temperature. Unlike the other solution variables in which the convergence controls and time step are adjusted, for temperature, only the time step is adjusted. Because of this, the value of the convergence control for temperature (as set in the dialog) will affect the rate of convergence of the energy equation. By varying the time step internally, Intelligent Solution Control enforces and maintains stability of the Energy Solver throughout the analysis.

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Transient without Motion For transient analyses that do not include moving objects, Intelligent Solution Control adjusts only the time step size, and does not modify any convergence control settings. This is done to prevent artificially affecting the time accuracy of the solution. (Reducing the convergence control slows down solution progression by the Solver, so it is always a good idea to use the default convergence control settings for non-Motion transient analyses.) We have found that in some cases the time step size that Intelligent Solution Control selects can be smaller than truly necessary for convergence, which may result in significantly longer solution times. For this reason, Intelligent Solution Control is disabled by default for transient analyses. It is recommended to manually assign a time step size based on the physics of the analysis model. Transient with Motion For solid motion analyses, Intelligent Solution Control is disabled by default (although it can be enabled if necessary). Because it will only reduce the time step size, if the motion is user-prescribed, enabling it will generally result in longer solution times, with only a fairly small increase in stability. For motion analyses that include flow-driven moving objects, we recommend that you enable Intelligent Solution Control. This will adjust the time step size to ensure that the object passes through only one element per time step. As the velocity of the object increases the time step will be automatically reduced to ensure stability. As the motion of the object slows, the time step size will be increased, but will not exceed the time step size manually set in the Time Step Size field on the Solve dialog. Intelligent Solution Control has been optimized for use with transient analyses involving moving objects, and, as such, is recommended for use with flow-driven Motion. Transient with Rotating Regions For rotating region analyses, Intelligent Solution Control is disabled by default (although it can be enabled if necessary). Because it will only reduce the time step size, if the rotational speed is known, enabling it will generally result in longer solution times, with only a fairly small increase in stability. We recommend that you enable Intelligent Solution Control for rotating analyses that are either free-spinning or driven by a known torque. This will automatically determine and vary the time step size throughout the analysis. The time step size will be modified to ensure that no more than three degrees of rotation pass for each time step. This criteria has been found to be quite stable for rotating analyses.

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Automatic Convergence Assessment


Automatic Convergence Assessment determines when a solution is converged--when the solution stops changing--and automatically halts the calculation. It examines small and large frequency changes throughout the solution field, and evaluates the local and global fluctuations of each degree of freedom. Automatic Convergence Assessment is automatically enabled for the same types of analyses as Intelligent Solution Control. Automatic Convergence Assessment is enabled or disabled by clicking the Advanced button on the Solution controls dialog, and checking or unchecking the Automatic Convergence Assessment box. Automatic Convergence Assessment removes the guess-work of knowing when a solution is completed. Four different parameters are evaluated, and the threshold criteria levels can be changed with the slider bar. By default, the criteria are set to be moderate--between Loose and Tight. This will provide reasonable convergence for a wide variety of analysis types. Reasonable means that the convergence criteria are rigorous, but not exhaustively so. They will consider a 1% variation in the Summary trends to be converged. This is appropriate for most analyses with exceptions listed below. Change the slider setting to Loose for a preliminary analysis in which extremely high accuracy is not the goal. Such analyses are very useful for identifying trends in a design. Convergence will typically occur with fewer iterations, but the results may not be as accurate. Change the slider to Tight to invoke more rigorous convergence criteria. This is useful for a final analysis in which a high level of convergence and accuracy is necessary. It has been observed that in some analyses in which aerodynamic- or hydrodynamic-induced forces are of interest, the solution may be considered converged and stopped by Automatic Convergence Assessment before the forces have actually stopped changing. The forces in such analyses (such as aerodynamic flows over thin bodies) often require many hundreds of iterations to reach fully converged force values, and may require additional iterations beyond where Automatic Convergence Assessment will stop the calculation. In such cases, it is recommended to disable Automatic Convergence Assessment and run additional iterations. Monitor the forces manually to ensure that they have stopped changing. Additionally, flows that rely only on shear drag for their pressure drop, such as flow through a pipe, tend to require more iterations to converge. In such analyses, the default slider setting may halt the calculation prematurely. For this reason, it is recommended to change the setting to Tight for pipe flow analyses that do not contain any form-drag. Reliance on Automatic Convergence Assessment is not recommended for transient analyses that will not reach a steady-state solution such as Rotating, Motion, or vortex shedding analyses. By their nature, none of these types of analyses will ever typically reach a numerically converged state that satisfies Automatic Convergence Assessment. For this reason, it is recommended that the stopping criteria be evaluated manually based on the desired time span of the analysis or other physical objective.

Auto-Stop Criteria
Several convergence criteria to indicate a converged solution and stop the analysis. These criteria are: Instantaneous Convergence Slope For this criterion, the slopes of the convergence data of quantities on the Convergence Monitor are evaluated from one iteration or time step to the next. The minimum, maximum and mean value of all of the dependent variables is examined. When the maximum instantaneous slope in all of this data is below the set level, the solution is stopped. Time Averaged Convergence Slope The slope of the convergence data over several iterations or time steps is evaluated. The minimum, maximum and mean values of all of the dependent variables are considered.

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Time Averaged Convergence Concavity The derivative of the maximum time averaged convergence slope is evaluated. This derivative is a measure of the concavity or whether the curve is flattening (slope is decreasing) or growing (slope is increasing). When the concavity falls below a predetermined level, the solution is stopped. Field Variable Fluctuations The fluctuation of the dependent variable about the mean value is examined. In effect, this is a measure of the standard deviation. When the fluctuation or deviation is below the set level, the solution is stopped.

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Solver Selection
Because certain numerical solvers are better suited than others for various analysis types, CFdesign uses an algorithm to automatically select the optimal solver for every analysis. Certain model attributes such as the aspect ratio of the flow passages, the number of flow passages, and the overall length of the device all play a role in which solver is selected. Using condition numbers and several parameters in the coefficient matrix, CFdesign selects the solver best suited for the given analysis type. The result of this is a significant reduction in calculation time, and greater calculation efficiency. There are no usermodifiable controls associated with this feature.

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Manual Convergence
The Solution Control dialog controls the solution progression rate so that the chance of divergence is minimized. Values are adjusted by moving the slider bar toward Slower or Faster between 0 and 0.5 (or in some cases, 1.0). Note that if you specify 0, the degree of freedom will not be allowed to progress with the solution at all. The default values are the best settings for most analyses. However, if Intelligent Solution Control is disabled, solution difficulties can often be resolved by manually reducing the progression rate for pressure to 0.1-0.3. This is generally the most effective way to minimize solution difficulties, particularly if they occur in the early iterations of a calculation. Reducing the rate on the velocity components, in conjunction with pressure, to 0.1-0.3 may be necessary in some cases. The progression rate on variables and properties can be adjusted only for those quantities that are changing in the analysis. For example, the temperature rate can only be adjusted if Heat Transfer is turned On on the Options dialog. Likewise, the progression rate on the Density, Specific heat (Cp), and Conductivity properties can only be adjusted if these properties are variable, as set in the Material Editor. The progression rate is applied to the solution in the following manner:

where is the current solution, is the previous value and is the relaxation value. This value should be in the range of 0.0 to 1.0. If a value of 0.0 is used, the new solution is ignored. If 1.0 is used, the previous value is ignored. For most situations, the value of 0.5 is best. If convergence difficulties occur, lowering the pressure relaxation to a value of 0.1-0.3 may solve the problem. For compressible analyses, an additional method of control is also available: Pressure Control and Temperature Control. (Temperature Control is available for incompressible analyses as well.) A value between 1e-3 and 1e-6 can be selected for these parameters. They are necessary for compressible analyses because the numerical conditioning for such analyses can often be poor. For most compressible analyses, a value of 1e-3 is adequate for pressure (and temperature if Heat Transfer is enabled in the Options dialog). However, if convergence difficulties persist, it may be necessary to reduce the value. The value set for Pressure and Temperature control is a sort of pseudo-transient relaxation that is implemented in the solution in the following manner:

This form of relaxation is called inertial relaxation. Where under-relaxation is typically applied to the solution variables themselves, inertial relaxation is used in the governing equations to slow the solution down in the same manner as the transient terms for non-steady problems. The second term within the parentheses and the last term on the right hand side of this equation are the inertial relaxation terms. The can be adjusted to affect the influence of inertia.

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Advection Schemes
Advection is the numerical mechanism of transporting a quantity (velocity, temperature, etc.) through the solution domain. Four advection methods are available in CFdesign. Change the advection scheme by clicking the Advection button on the Solution Control dialog (open from the Solve task dialog), and selecting the scheme of choice. The recommended applications of the four advection schemes are described in the table below: ADV 1 (Monotone streamline upwind) This is the default scheme for nearly all analyses (except rotating regions). It is the work horse, and is recommended as a starting point for most analysis types. Numerically stable Recommended for meshes aligned with flow direction Numerically diffusive for meshes not aligned with flow Works well for geometries with numerous internal obstructions Works well for extruded meshes Moderate numerical stability (less than ADV 1) Less numerical diffusion for random meshes Recommended for pressure driven flows Recommended for compressible flows Default for scalar and energy transport equations Default for rotating region analyses Numerically unstable for most flows Can only be used for INCOMPRESSIBLE flows Cannot be used for moving solids analyses Specially tuned for drag or external flow problems Mesh Enhancement must be invoked. Moderate numerical stability (less than ADV 1) Specially tuned for flows in long narrow ducts

ADV 2 (Petrov-Galerkin)

ADV 3 (Flux based scheme)

ADV 4 (Min-Mod scheme--Petrov-Galerkin variant)

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Results Visualization
CFdesign has a powerful set of results visualization tools to help view, extract, and present analysis results quickly, easily, and efficiently. A very graphical, CAD-like set of tools as well as several ways to output graphical images and data make communicating analysis results with other members of the design supply chain very easy. The full suite of visualization tools is available while the scenario is running as well as after completion to provide constant graphical feedback about the analysis. This powerful run-time environment is extremely helpful for understanding the progression of the solution. The Results task dialog task is divided into several primary functions: Global Part Plane (Cutting Planes) o Working with Planar Results Planes o Working with Results Surfaces o Particle Traces o Bulk Data o XY-Plot Point ISO Wall

Open the Control Bar to access the Results task dialog.

Related Topics
Part appearance tools Entity Blanking Results Probing Design Study Bar Decision Center Design Review Center CFdesign 3D Viewer

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Part Appearance
There are several visualization tools that can greatly help results visualization. These provide a great deal of control over the model appearance. Crinkle Cut The Crinkle Cut provides a three-dimensional interior view of the analysis mesh. This is a visually interesting and very useful way to examine the element distribution, transitions, and shape within the model. This method provides a more visually accurate method of viewing the mesh inside a three dimensional model than showing the mesh lines on a cutting plane. This view is controlled with the Z-Clip dialog. Check the Crinkle-Cut box to show the model in this manner When crinkle-cut is enabled, the model is automatically shown in shaded mode, and the mesh is displayed:

The cut is only updated as the slider on the Z-Clip dialog is moved. Unlike the standard z-clip, the crinkle-cut will not update when the model is navigated. To turn off the crinkle-cut view, close the Z-Clip Control dialog. Mirroring Part mirroring reflects displayed geometry about a plane. This is very useful for results on models that have been divided by symmetry. The Mirror icon opens the Mirror dialog box. Check the Mirror Enabled box to activate mirroring. A model can be reflected about a single plane at a time. There are two ways to set the reflection plane: Select any planar surface on the model when this dialog is open. Click the X-Y, Y-Z, or Z-X buttons to reflect the model about the Cartesian planes.

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Mirroring is active after the dialog is closed if not disabled. When mirroring is active, results visualization entities (cutting planes, particle traces, iso surfaces, etc.) visible in the original model are also shown in the reflection. Disable mirroring by unchecking the Mirror Enabled box. Drop Shadow Use the Drop Shadow to add an eye-catching accent to your results images. This provides the effect of a shadow below the model geometry.

Enable the display of the Drop Shadow using the Drop Shadow icon in the View Toolbar:

Multiple ViewPorts Use these icons to control the number of different viewports. These are located in the Window toolbar and Window menu.

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Use multiple viewports on a single scenario to show several results configurations simultaneously. The Active view is marked with the CFdesign logo in the lower right corner. By default, navigation of each viewport is independent of the others. To navigate all views together, toggle synchronized navigation with Window_Synchronous navigation. To compare results from multiple scenarios in adjacent viewports, capture a summary image, and invoke the Design Review Center. Displaying Suppressed Parts Parts are excluded from an analysis by suppressing them (from the Meshing dialog). When viewing results, these parts are visible, and are colored the same blue color that is used on the Meshing task to indicate that a part is suppressed:

By default, suppressed parts will not be visible when you first enter Results. To show them, open the Design Study bar, and expand the Materials branch of the Results branch. Check the box adjacent to each part you want to display. Part visibility and appearance are modified using the same controls as active parts:

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Change the appearance, color, and texture by right clicking on the part, and selecting from the menu. Hide suppressed parts by clicking the middle mouse button on the part.

There are a few limitations on modifying the appearance of suppressed parts: Neither the mesh nor results can be displayed on suppressed parts. Individual surfaces of a suppressed part cannot be hidden when Surface Peel is invoked.)

Entity Labels Cutting planes and iso surfaces are displayed with a label. The number in the label matches the number in the Cut Surface and Iso Surface lists on the Results Task dialog. The displayed result quantity is also shown in the label. To turn off the label, click the Show Cut and Iso Labels icon in the View Toolbar.

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View Settings File


The View Settings File is a very convenient tool for saving the settings that make up a particular view. To re-use the visualization elements (such as results planes and iso surfaces), use a view settings file: To save a collection of display entities, click File_Save view settings... To apply the collection to the same scenario in a later session (or to a different scenario), click File_Open view settings...

This allows you to easily recreate a particular results view, providing for consistency and less duplication of effort. Note: non-planar results surfaces cannot be saved to a View Settings file.

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Global Dialog
The Global dialog controls the display of results throughout the model. It contains controls for the global scalar and vector quantity, legend range, and the displayed iteration or time step. Open the Control Bar to access the Global dialog and all Results visualization tools.

Scalar
Control the appearance of results on the model with the Scalar tab. Select the Result to be displayed on the model from the Result menu. (Change the displayed result on results planes and iso surfaces on their respective dialogs.) The Iterations/Time Steps menu lists the saved result sets for the scenario. By default, the displayed result set is from the last iteration or time step. To display results from a different iteration or time step, selecting it from this menu. Change the number of legend levels by adjusting the value in the Levels menu. Adjustments to this value are persistent from one session to the next of a particular analysis. The default number of legend levels is 24. Change this with the File_Preferences_User Interface_Display dialog. Set the Legend range by changing the Min and Max values. Alternatively, set the Legend range by setting it to a part by: 1. Check User Specified (if the analysis is running) 2. Click Set to part, and click on the part To restore the range to the default, click Reset To enable the display of contours on model surfaces, check the Show box in the Contours section. To show only regions of the model where the active scalar is within a specified range: 1. Check Enable in the Filtering section. 2. Enter a range in the Min and Max fields. Areas of the model in which the current scalar falls outside of this range are not displayed. Click the Reset button or uncheck Enable to display the entire model.

Vector
Control the appearance of vectors on openings and internal flow surfaces with the Vector tab. (Control the display of vectors on planes and iso surfaces on their respective dialogs.) Select the quantity to be displayed as vectors from the Result menu. To enable the display of vectors, check the Show global vectors box. Control the length of vectors with the Scale factor. Toggle the display of arrow heads with the Show Arrowheads box. Vary the arrowhead size from 0 (no arrow heads) to as big as necessary. The default size of 1 bases the size on the average vector length. To limit the size of displayed vectors, check the Enable box in the Clamping group. Set limits in the Min and Max fields. Vectors that exceed the Max value are displayed at the Max length. Vectors that are smaller than the Min value are displayed at the Min value.

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To show only regions of the model where the active vector is within a specified range:

1. Check Enable in the Filtering section. 2. Enter a range in the Min and Max fields. Areas of the model in which the current vector falls outside of this range are not displayed. Click the Reset button or uncheck Enable to display the entire model. To display all vectors with the same length,check Enable in the Same Length section. Adjust the length with the slider. This applies to all vectors in the model.

Animation
The Animate tab lists the saved results sets and/or time steps in the Available Results area. To animate results, begin by selecting which sets are to be animated. Step 1: Identify results to be animated by moving sets from the Available results group to the Active results group. There are three ways to do this: Directly from the list (Windows-standard control-left click to select certain sets) and click the Move selected down button (in the Manual section) Enter the range and increment in the Parametric selection section and click the Move button. Click the Move All Down button in the Manual section.

Step 2: After selections are made, click the Apply button. Step 3: Use the "VCR" controls in the Play section to control the animation. Use the buttons to play results forward or in reverse as well as to stop, pause, and advanced frame by frame. Click the Cycle box to alternate between playing the animation forward and then in reverse. Control the speed of the animation with the Frame Interval value (in milliseconds). Step 4: When finished animating, click the Reset button to regain control in the dialog. To clear the Active list, click the Move all up button. To remove individual steps, select them and click the Move selected up button.

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Part Dialog
Use the Part dialog (in the Results task) to assess volume and temperature results on selected parts. Results Parts can also be designated as Summary Parts, and used in the Decision Center to assess Critical values.
An example of using a Result Part is an electronic power inverter. The temperature on several components cannot exceed a value of 60C. After the Scenario is run to convergence, obtain the temperature on each component using the Part dialog. To compare the resultant temperature on a component from several Scenarios in the Design Study, make them Summary Points, and compare their values in the Decision Center.

Assessing Part Temperature Results


To assess temperature data on a Part: 1. 2. 3. On the Part dialog of the Results Task, select one or more parts from the model. Select the quantities to calculate and associated units. Click the Calculate button.

The quantities on the selected parts are written to the output field on the dialog. To save this data to an external file, click the Save button.

Comparing Results using Summary Parts


To compare results from multiple scenarios or to compare against critical values, designate the Results Part as a Summary Part by checking the box adjacent to the part name in the Model Entity Selection list. The Part is then listed as a Summary Part in the Decision Center. Results on the part from each scenario are listed in the Critical Values table of the Output Bar.

Note: once a Part is designated as a Summary Part, it cannot be deleted with the Remove button. For more about deleting a Summary Part... For more about viewing Critical Values

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Plane Dialog
Results Planes are the primary tool for visualizing data on three dimensional models. They are cutting planes, and have several roles in CFdesign results visualization: They present results data on Planes They present results data on Surfaces that take their shape from surfaces in the geometry They provide a seed plane for particle traces They provide a method to extract bulk data through any cross section They serve as a basis for XY-plots.

The generic term for this tool is cutting plane, and we use this general term in the Examples section. In the Results task dialog and the corresponding topics in the Help system, the terminology is a little more specific: Results Planes and Planes refer to planar cutting planes. Results Surfaces and Surfaces refer to non-planar cutting planes that are created based on surfaces within the model. Summary Planes are Results planes that are marked as "Summary" for comparing results across multiple scenarios in the Decision Center.

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Results Planes
Results Planes show results on a two-dimensional cross-section of the model. They are cutting planes, and are often aligned to a Cartesian axis.

Working with Results Planes


To create a Results Plane, click the Add button on the Plane dialog of the Results Task. To delete a Results Plane, click the Remove button. Note: once a Plane is designated as a Summary Plane, it cannot be deleted with the Remove button. For more about deleting a Summary Plane... To activate a Plane, select it from the Plane list. The controls on this dialog apply only to the active Plane. For information about probing on a Result Plane... Result Select the result quantity from the Result menu. The default setting is Planar. To create a non-planar Result Surface, select the Surface bullet. Save results from a Plane to an external file by clicking the Save table button: The data is in "csv" format, and can be read into Excel. Set the resolution of the grid with the slider in the Vector Density group. (Check either Show vectors or Show grid in the Appearance section to make the Vector Density group is available.) Position Position the Plane normal to a Cartesian direction by pressing the X, Y, or Z buttons. Align the Plane to a surface in the model by clicking the Surface align button, and then selecting the surface. Move and Rotate the Plane with the mouse controls:
Move + drag right mouse button.

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Rotate

+ drag middle mouse button.

For more precise movement, use the Move and Rotate controls near the bottom of the dialog. Appearance Change the appearance of the Plane by toggling the controls in the Appearance group:
Shade by Result Clip Vectors Show Mesh Show Grid Toggles visibility of the Plane. (Uncheck to make Plane disappear.) Cuts the model with the Plane. Toggles display of vectors on the active Plane. Toggles the display of the mesh on the Plane. The interpolated mesh at the current location of the surface is shown. Toggles the display of the vector display grid.

Vector Density Adjust vector resolution with the Vector Density slider. If a finer or coarser grid spacing is needed than the defaults provide, they can be keyed into the Max. or Min. fields, respectively. Move Use the Move tool to place the Plane by specifying a unit vector in the Normal field. Use the slider to move it normal to this unit vector. Rotate Use the slider in the Rotate tool to rotate the Plane about the axis of rotation. Open the pop-out dialog to select a Cartesiandirection vector or key-in a vector in the Axis field. Control the increment of rotation with the spin-box to the right of the indicated angle.

Comparing Results using Summary Planes


To compare results from multiple scenarios or to compare against Critical Values, designate the Results Plane as a Summary Plane by checking the Summary box adjacent to the plane in the Plane list. The Plane is then listed as a Summary Plane in the Decision Center. Results on the Plane from each scenario are then listed in the Critical Values table of the Output Bar.

The names of Results Planes can be changed only for Planes marked as Summary Planes. Right click on the name in the Name column of the Plane list, and click Rename. For more about viewing Critical Values...

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Results Surfaces
Results Surfaces show results on three dimensional surfaces that take their shape from one or more surfaces in the model.

Adding and Removing Results Surfaces


To create a Results Surface, click the Add button on the Plane dialog of the Results Task. To activate a Surface, select it from the Plane list. The controls on this dialog apply only to the active Surface.

Result
Select the result quantity from the Result pull-down menu. Select the Surface bullet to make the Result Surface non-planar.

Surface Shape
Set the Movement type from the Movement menu. The choices are: Specified Direction The Surface maintains the shape of its source when moved along a specified direction.

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To move the Surface in a Cartesian direction, select one of the direction buttons, X, Y, or Z. This will not change the shape of the Surface, but simply sets the direction of translation. This is only applicable for the Specified Direction Movement type. Morph to Target Surface(s) Morphing a Surface means that its shape changes as it is moved between the source and the target. A Target surface on the model is also needed. Select a Target using the pop-out dialog on the Target Surface field. Move the Surface between the source and target surfaces using either the mouse navigation or with the Move Slider. Distortion may occur if the angle between the source and target is greater than approximately 110 degrees. The reason is that the transformation rays between the source and target can be multi-valued. Below is an example of this. The source was the roof of the car; the target was the planar surface cutting through the car

In the following graphics, the source was the roof of the car, but the target was the surface of the wind tunnel opposite the car. The surface is shown at four positions of its morph:

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The choice of source and target surfaces plays a significant role in the level of distortion that will occur during the morph. Reasonable morphing can really only be obtained in the following two scenarios: Scenario 1: If the surfaces to be morphed completely surround a volume, then source and target surfaces must completely enclose their respective volumes without any gaps. The best volumes are shaped such that a direct line of sight exists between every face and the centroid of the volume. Scenario 2: If the morphing surfaces do not completely enclose a volume, then the source and target surfaces must be shaped such that they can be projected onto a flat plane. The key is that there must be a one-to-one correspondence to get a useful mapping. An example of a surface that does not meet this criteria is shown:

Points A and B both map to point C. This produces a non-unique mapping which will result in a lot of distortion. Offset Surface This mode scales a non-planar Surface while preserving its original shape. Move the Surface with either the mouse navigation or with the Move slider. Two views of an offset non-planar Surface are shown:

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Select the Source shape of a non-planar Surface by selecting one or more surfaces in the model: Open the pop-out dialog (with the button marked ...). Select the surface (or surfaces) that are to be the source. Click OK to finish.

Use the same procedure to select the Target surface. Note: A Target surface is only needed if the Surface is to be morphed.

Direction
Set the direction of movement in one of the Cartesian directions with the X, Y, and Z buttons. (Only if Movement Type is Specified Direction.)

Appearance
Change the appearance of the Surface with the Appearance group.
Shade by result Vectors Show mesh Toggles visibility of the Surface. (Uncheck to make Surface disappear.) Toggles display of vectors on the active Surface. Toggles the display of the mesh on the Surface. The interpolated mesh at the current location of the surface is shown.

Note: Clip and Show Grid are only available for Results Planes.

Move
Use the Move slider for moving the Surface with more precision than with the mouse. For the Specified Movement method, set the direction of travel with a unit vector normal to the direction of travel. For the Morphing method, use the Move slider to morph the Surface between the source and the target surfaces. For the Offset Direction method, use the Move slider to offset the Surface from its source.

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Rotate
The Rotate section allows precise rotation, and is intended for the Specified Direction movement type. Rotate the Surface with the slider. Change its Axis of Rotation by either keying-in an axis or opening the pop-out dialog to select a Cartesian axis. The Axis Point is the point through which the axis passes. Select the Axis Point by keying in a value, or opening the pop-out dialog to select either the Centroid (of the surface) or the Origin (of the model).

Note: Results Surfaces cannot be stored as part of a View Settings file or in a Dynamic Image.

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Particle Traces
Particle Traces are similar to an injected dye in the flow. They are a very powerful method of visualizing the behavior of the flow within your design.

By default, particle traces do not have mass, so their movement is only influenced by the flow. Adding mass causes the trace to behave more like a physical substance within a flow system.

Adding Particle Traces


1. 2. 3. 4. Begin by creating a Results Plane. Click the Trace tab. Choose the method of selecting seed points (the default is Pick on plane), and select them. Click the Add trace set button to complete the traces.

There are four methods of specifying seed points: Pick on plane Using the mouse, select seed point locations by clicking directly on the Results Plane.

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Key-in Key in the exact X,Y, and Z coordinates. Separate each coordinate with a comma. (Do not surround the coordinates with brackets or parentheses.) These coordinates do not have to be on the Results Plane. Rectangular grid Draw a rectangle on the active Results Plane by clicking three locations: the top two corners and a lower corner:

Specify the number of grid points in the length and width directions in the two fields adjacent to the method menu, respectively. Circular grid Draw a circle on the active Results Plane by first clicking on the center of the circular grid, and then dragging the circle to the desired radius and clicking again:

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Specify the number of points in circumferential and radial directions in the two fields adjacent to the method menu, respectively.

Residence Time
The time that a trace takes to traverse through the model is its residence time, and is listed for each trace. Residence time can vary based on the flow, the geometry, and if the particle has mass. A trace with a relatively longer residence time than the rest will affect animation. Such a trace will animate very slowly followed by a very rapid animation of the others.

Setting the Appearance


There are several available trace types. Select the desired type from the Appearance menu. Cylinders

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Spheres

The animation method for Spheres is slightly different from the other trace types. Instead of simply incrementing through the length of the trace, spheres emit from the source. This produces a very informative effect that illustrates the flow path throughout the entire model. Note that sphere traces are only drawn forward, so no spheres will appear upstream of the originating surface. Lines

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Points

Ribbons

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Comets

Additional attributes
Control the size of the trace with the Width setting. Increasing the width for cylinders, spheres, and points, makes the diameter bigger. Increasing the width for lines makes them appear as ribbons. Control the length of the trace with the Max Steps setting. The default of 5000 is adequate for most traces. Increase this value for very finely meshed models if traces stop mid-way through the model. Toggle the display of the result on the trace with the Show Result control.

Animation
Begin the animation by clicking the Start button. While animating, this button changes to a Pause button. Draw traces as the animation occurs by checking the Animate Incrementally box. Restore traces to their original (un-animated) state by clicking the Reset button. Vary the speed of the animation with the Animation Speed control.

Deleting Particle Traces


Delete individual particle traces by selecting the trace from the list, and clicking the Delete button. Delete a group of traces by selecting the group name and clicking the Delete button. Delete all traces by clicking the Delete All button.

CFD-Tv Video about Particle Traces

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Massed Particle Traces


By default, particle traces are the path a particle without mass would take when released into the flow. A more physically real visualization technique is to include the effects of mass on the particle. The resulting trace behaves more like a physical substance within a flow system. Inertial and drag effects are taken into account, and if a particle has too much inertia to turn a corner, it will hit the wall. Massed particles will bounce when they strike a wall or a symmetry surface. The coefficient of restitution can be specified to control the amount of bounce in a collision. There are several settings that provide a great deal of flexibility for the visualization of massed particles. The most basic is the ability to select the particle density and particle radius. Other settings include a user-prescribed initial path, the inclusion of gravity, and a customizable drag correlation. These features are located in the Mass dialog. Open this dialog by clicking the Mass button on the Particle Trace task dialog. Begin by checking Enable mass. Massed particle traces are only drawn forward, not backward, so it is best to position the seed points near the inlet of the geometry. Required Quantities and Units Enter the Particle Density and Particle Radius, and select the desired units for both quantities. The default density is the fluid density, and the default radius is based on the bounding box of the model. Coefficient of Restitution This coefficient of restitution is a measure of the amount of bounce between two objects. Specifically, it is the ratio of the velocities of the objects before and after an impact, and can be described mathematically as:

V1 is the velocity of the first object V2 is the velocity of the second object i and f subscripts indicate initial and final velocity, respectively.

For massed particles, the other object is a static wall, so this equation reduces to:

The coefficient of restitution can range between 0.01 and 1: A value of 0.01 is an inelastic collision, and the particles stick when they hit the wall. A value of 1 is a perfectly elastic collision, and particles have the same velocity (and kinetic energy) after the collision as they did before. The default value is 0.5.

An example massed particles with a Coefficient of Restitution value of 0:

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An example massed particles with a Coefficient of Restitution value of 1:

Initial Path Specify an initial velocity and direction for the trace by checking Set Initial Velocity.

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This allows the visualization of the interaction between the flow and a particle injection with a known velocity and trajectory. An example is an aerosol injection of particles into a flow stream. Gravity Include the effects of body forces on particle traces by checking the Enable Gravity for massed particles. Enter the components of the force in the X, Y, and Z boxes. For Earths gravity, check the Earth box, and enter a unit vector to indicate the direction in which gravity acts. Modifiable Drag Correlation The drag correlation used for massed particles is given as:

Modify the coefficients a, b, and c to change the drag as appropriate.

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Bulk Data
The Bulk Calculator quickly calculates and shows bulk-weighted results on a Results Plane. Bulk (mass-weighted) results are automatically updated as the active Plane is moved.

Usage
Start by positioning the Results Plane in the desired location. 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the desired quantities for bulk calculation. Change the units of the output quantity with the adjacent menu list. Click the Calculate button. The bulk results are written to the lower display window.

To save bulk data when animating a transient analysis, click the Save button. The results from the active time steps will be saved to an Excel csv file. Pressure is static gage pressure. Volume Flow Rate is the product of velocity and area. Pressure Force is the pressure integrated over an area (This is an area-weighted pressure. The pressure value produces a mass-weighted pressure value). Velocity components are displayed by selecting Velocities.

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XY Plot
Use XY Plots to create graphs of CFdesign analysis results. Available with Results Planes, they provide a convenient way to extract and present analysis results data. To Create the XY Plot Create an XY plot by selecting points on a cutting surface, by entering point coordinates, or with points saved from a previous plot. Step 1: Create a Planar Cutting Surface Begin by creating and positioning a planar cutting surface. Step 2: Select the method of point selection: Add by Picking Click on locations on the cutting plane through which the xy plot will pass. Points are shown in the Point List Region. A minimum of two points is required. Add by Key In Specify X, Y, and Z coordinates separated by a comma in the field, and click the Add button. Do not surround the coordinates with brackets or parentheses. Read from File XY plot point locations can be saved to a file by clicking Save Points on the XY Plot dialog. A new XY plot can then be constructed using the saved point locations by selecting the Read from File option. Click the Browse button, and select the desired xyp file. A plot through saved point locations can be constructed on an analysis different from the original model. Step 3: Enter a Title Specify a title for the plot in the Title field. This is optional, and if nothing is entered, the plot will be labeled "Untitled." Step 4: Change the Number of Divisions The default number of divisions between every point is 20. Changing this value changes the plot resolution. Step 5: Create the Plot To create the plot, click the Plot button. To Display the XY Plot The resulting plot will appear in a separate window. There are several ways to customize the appearance of the plot. Change the Plotted Result Quantity Select the plotted result quantity from the menu in the top, right corner.

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This is the quantity plotted on the Y axis. The X axis quantity is the parametric distance along the path between selected points. Changing the Units on Axis Labels The units of the dependent variable are displayed on the Y-axis. This adds clarity to the plot, and improves communication of CFdesign results with others. To change the Y-axis units: 1. Right click anywhere on the XY plot 2. Select Units from the menu 3. Choose the desired units for the dependent variable from the list The Y-axis label will be modified to show the new label, and the Y-axis values will be converted to the selected units. Changing the Axis Label Text To change the axis labels: 1. Right click anywhere on the XY plot 2. Select either Change X-Axis Label or Change Y-Axis Label 3. Enter the new label on the dialog that opens Press the Set Default button to reset the axis label to its original value. To hide the minimum and maximum axis values, uncheck Display min/max Values Changing the XY Plot Background Color Customize the color to make the plot easier see or easier to print. To change the background color: 1. 2. 3. Right click on the XY plot Select Background Color Select the color on the Color Selection dialog

To Compare XY Plots from Multiple Scenarios The preceding steps describe how to plot results data from a single Scenario. This is useful for understanding the performance and characteristics of that scenario. To make educated design decisions, however, it is essential to compare the same data from multiple scenarios within the design study. To make a plot available for the comparison, check the Summary box on the Plot dialog. This designates the plot as a Summary plot, and adds the plot to the XY Plot Data branch of the Decision Center. Summary plots are XY plots between the same plot locations from multiple Scenarios. For more about Summary XY Plots

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Point Dialog
Use the Point dialog to plot the time- or iteration-history at a specific location in the model with Result Points. Designate Result Points as Summary Points to assess Critical Values and to compare results from multiple scenarios in the Decision Center.
An example using a Result Point to assess time-history is in a pressure relief valve. The time-dependent pressure build-up and subsequent venting of a valve was simulated with a transient Design Study. To know if the design objective was attained, the time history of pressure at a critical location in the valve must be plotted. Before the Scenario was started, a Results Save Interval was specified on the Settings dialog. This causes CFdesign to save intermediate time steps throughout the calculation. To plot the time history of pressure at the critical location, create a Result Point, and click View Plot. The result is an XY plot of the results for every saved time step.

Creating Result Points


To create and plot data on a Result Point: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click the Point icon on the Results Control Bar. Use the X, Y, and Z sliders to position the point on the model. Alternatively, key in specific coordinates. Assign a name to the Point in the Name field. Click the Add button to create the point. Plot the results by clicking the View Plot button.

Note: Two or more time steps or iterations must exist before data can be plotted at a Point. Set the Results Save Interval on the Settings dialog to save results at intermediate time-steps or iterations.

Comparing Results using Summary Points


To compare results from multiple scenarios or to compare against critical values, designate the Results Point as a Summary Point by checking the box in the Summary column adjacent to the desired Point. The Point is listed as a Summary Part in the Decision Center. Results at the Point from each scenario are listed in the Critical Values table of the Output Bar.

Note: once a Point is designated as a Summary Point, it cannot be deleted with the Remove button. For more about deleting a Summary Point... For more about viewing Critical Values...

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Iso Dialog
An iso surface is a surface of constant value of a quantity. Shown is an example of a velocity magnitude iso surface:

Iso surfaces are a three dimensional visualization tool that show a value as well as the physical shape of the flow characteristics. They are very useful for visualizing velocity distributions in complicated flow paths in addition to temperature distributions in thermal analyses. Iso surfaces can be used to determine the locations of the maximum and minimum values in a model.

Using Iso Surfaces


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Create an iso surface by clicking the Add button. (Note that if multiple iso-surfaces are created, the highlighted one in the list is active.) Change the result by selecting from the Iso Quantity menu. This variable controls the shape of the iso surface. Color the iso surface by selecting from the Color by Result menu. Change the value (and shape) of the iso surface by moving the Value slider bar. Control the visibility and vectors with the Show Surface and Show Vectors boxes, respectively.

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Wall Dialog
The Wall dialog in the Results task is a tool to calculate flow-induced forces on solid and wall surfaces. Such forces are useful in many situations, and examples include: Assessing the hydrodynamic force on internal valve components for determining spring rate Calculating the lift and drag on aerodynamic bodies

In addition, the Wall dialog calculates: wall temperatures pressures heat flux film coefficients torque about an axis and the center of force

The Wall Results tab is broken into two tabs: Selection and Result: select surfaces and the quantities to calculate Output: display the results

Selection and Result Tab


When this dialog is open, surfaces on the model highlight when the mouse is hovered near them. Usage
Step 1:

Select surfaces on which to assess wall results. Valid surfaces are any wall surface as well as openings (inlets and outlets). When the Selection Mode is Volume, volumes highlight when hovered over, and can be selected. The surfaces belonging to a selected volume are actually selected, not the volume itself. The IDs of selected surfaces are shown in the list region. Select groups of surfaces using the Group Operation button. The group must exist prior to running the last set of iterations. If not, simply run 0 iterations to force the model to re-process.
Step 2:

Select the quantities and desired units to output. Quantities Force is the overall stress tensor. Pressure and shear are integrated over the surface. Force components and magnitude are computed for each selected surface. The total (summed) force for all selected surfaces is also computed. To remove very low wall pressures (which may indicate the on-set of cavitation) from the force calculation, check the Cutoff Pressure box, and specify a minimum pressure value. This value will be assigned to all locations with pressures that fall below the Cutoff. (This cutoff does not affect the displayed results fringes or any other output quantity.) For moving solids, the computed force and torque are the hydraulic values, and do not include the effect of specified driving and resistance forces or torque as part of the Motion definition.

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Pressure is the average pressure exerted by the fluid on the wall surface. Temperature is the average temperature on the wall surface. Note that temperatures values from intermediate saved iterations or time steps are not accessible on the Wall dialog. Heat Flux is based on the thermal residual from the heat transfer solution. Note that heat flux values from intermediate saved iterations or time steps are not accessible on the Wall dialog. Also, heat flux values from moving objects are not available. Film coefficient can be calculated in two ways: Enter a value for the Ref. temperature. The film coefficient is calculated based on the heat flux and the temperature difference between the specified reference temperature and the wall temperature. Use the near wall temperature at every wall node as the local reference temperature. Check the Use near-wall temperatures box. The film coefficient will be based on the difference between the wall temperature and temperature at the closest non-wall (flow) node for every node on the wall.

To calculate the Torque about an axis, enter the coordinates of one point on the axis of revolution in the Point on Axis group, and enter a unit vector that defines the Direction of the axis in. When Force is selected, the wall forces, the center of force about each global axis, and the torque about the selected axis are computed and displayed on the Output tab.

Step 3:

Click the Calculate button.

Output Tab
Click the Output tab to view calculated wall results. The requested values from the Selection and Result tab are displayed on this dialog for every selected surface. A Summary section lists the total quantities for all of the selected surfaces. Save this data to an Excel csv file by clicking Write to file . The output file is in Excel csv format. Click View file to open a saved wall results file. The contents of the file are displayed in the Output region.

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Decision Center
The Decision Center is a simple yet powerful environment for comparing design alternatives. Use it to identify the design that satisfies your design objectives. It is a powerful tool for: Extracting specific results values Comparing results from multiple scenarios

Visualization objects such as Results Parts, Results Planes, Result Points, and XY-plots form the basis of the Decision Center. Create an object on one Scenario, designate it as a "Summary" object, and the Decision Center computes the results on every scenario in the Study. Use the Decision Center (on the Design Study Bar) to manage all summary items:

There are three principal components of the Decision Center:

Design Review Center: Visual


Use the Design Review Center to compare results from multiple scenarios visually. It is a powerful tool for comparing flow and thermal performance of two or more scenarios in a design study. The Design Review Center was improved to be much more resource efficient in CFdesign 2010, and only requires a fraction of the RAM (compared to v10) to display each result set. Compare results either by incrementing through a set of scenarios in a single view or by positioning multiple images side-by-side. Use the Design Review Center to answer questions like "Which design produces the most uniform flow distribution?" and "Which design keeps the critical components coolest?" For more about the Design Review Center

Critical Values: Tabular


Use Critical Values for comparing results from individual and multiple scenarios.

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There are three types of Critical Values Entities. Each is based on a different Summary Entity type. Each answers questions such as "What is the maximum temperature?", "Which design produces the lowest pressure drop?", "Does the velocity at a point near a critical component exceed a design limit?" Summary Parts Summary Parts are parts selected from the model to assess the maximum, minimum, and average temperatures. Typical uses include: Assessing the maximum temperature on a component to ensure it hasn't exceeded a known threshold value Comparing the component temperature from several design alternatives

Use Summary Parts to answer questions like: "What is the maximum temperature on these chips?" and "Which design prevents the chip from exceeding its temperature limit?" Summary Planes Summary Planes are planar cutting surfaces at critical locations in the model. Average values from each summary plane are presented in the Critical Values table. Summary Planes are ideal for: Determining the pressure, flow rate, and average flow velocity through a channel or at an opening Comparing results at openings from several design alternatives.

Use Summary Planes to answer questions like: "Which design produced the lowest pressure drop?" and "Which leg of the manifold has the highest flow rate?" Summary Points Summary Points are locations within a model on which specific result quantities are monitored. Summary Points are ideal for: Determining the temperature, pressure, or local velocity at critical locations within a model Comparing results at finite points from several design alternatives Use Summary Points to answer questions like: "Which design produces the most uniform velocity or temperature distribution across a set of points?" and "Does the pressure at a point near a critical component exceed a design limit?" Results are presented in a spreadsheet-like table in the Critical Values tab of the Output Bar. The Critical Values table provides a simple way to quickly extract, present, and compare results from individual and multiple scenarios. For more about Critical Values

XY Plot Data: Graphical


Compare results by overlaying XY Plot data from multiple scenarios on a single plot. Use Summary Plots to answer questions like: "How does the pressure vary across the flow channel as the design is changed?" and "How does the temperature gradient respond as the design is modified?" For more about Summary Plots

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Design Review Center


In traditional CAE tools, comparing results from multiple analyses can be daunting. The complexity of having to manually set up each view from every analysis in the exactly the same manner and then compare them side-by-side makes this a challenging process. Fortunately, CFdesign has pioneered a better way: the Design Review Center. The Design Review Center is an engineering review on your desktop: Prepare for the review by creating interesting and insightful results views on one of the Scenarios in your Design Study. Compare your results for the entire Design Study, quickly and easily. Each result image is shown in a consistent way for every Scenario. Conclude the review by understanding how each Scenario performs, and by selecting the one that satisfies the design criteria.

The Design Review Center is structured to allow simultaneous comparison of many Scenarios. This means that it is easy to compare results from dozens of Scenarios at a time.
An example of the benefit of the Design Review Center is a design study of a pressure relief valve. Several designs were evaluated, each with a slight variation of the shape of the flow passage. The objective was to minimize pressure drop and flow swirl. After running the Scenarios, a cutting plane showing pressure and particle traces was created, and the view opened in the Design Review Center. The results were presented on every Scenario in the study, making it easy to select the design that produced the best results.

Using the Design Review Center 1. 2. Create your results view using the tools in the Results Visualization task. Save the view to a Summary Image by selecting Capture summary image from the File menu. This adds it to the Design Review Center branch of the Decision Center. In the Decision Center (on the Design Study bar), right click on the Design Review Center branch, and click Update summary images (This maps every Summary Images to all scenarios.)

3.

Note: To update an individual image, right click on its branch, and click Update summary images. This can save time if there are several Summary Images in your design study. Note: By default, each Summary Image shows results from all scenarios. To select specific scenarios for a Summary Image, right click on its branch, and pick Select scenarios... Select only the scenarios you wish to compare from the list. In the Design Review Center tab of the Output Bar, the image from each scenario is shown. If a scenario has not been run or needs to be updated, a place-holder image is shown instead of the actual image. 4. The first image is shown in the Graphics window. To show the others, left click on each and drag into the graphics window. To compare the views, use the Design Review Center slider and animation controls. The Design Review Center Mode is now active. The model can be navigated, but the view cannot be changed or probed. To adjust the legend settings, open the Control bar, and use the Legend controls in the Decision Center task dialog.

5.

6.

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7.

To return to an interactive mode, do one of the following: Open the Control bar, and click the Return button on the Decision Center task dialog. Click on any task icon or task branch in the Design Study bar

Side-by-Side Viewing By default, a single view-port is active, and results are compared by flipping between views with the Design Review Center controls. This means that results from only one scenario are visible at a time. To compare result sets side-by-side: 1. 2. Select one of the Multi-View options from the Toolbar (Vertical Split, Horizontal Split, etc.) Change the image in a view port by dragging an image from the Design Review Center tab into one of the view ports.

The view with the CFdesign icon in the lower right corner is the active view, and can be navigated. Click on a view to make it active. To navigate both views together, click Window_Synchronous Navigation from the main menu. For more about multiple viewports

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Critical Values
Critical Values are evaluated on Summary entities (Parts, Planes, and Points) from the Design Study. They are used to compare important results quantities to evaluate the performance of design alternatives. Results are presented in a simple data table and plotted with bar graphs. This allows easy comparison across multiple scenarios against known design constraints or targets.
An example where Critical Values is helpful involves a design study aimed at selecting the optimal heat sink design in a high-power electronics module. The heat sink is placed on a chip that has a 60C failure temperature. Several design alternatives are analyzed, and the chip is selected as a Summary Part. The resultant temperature on the chip in each Scenario is tabulated in a Critical Value table, and 60C is specified as a Reference Value. By examining the tabulated data and the resultant bar graph, it is clear which designs cause the chip temperature to exceed the limit, as well as which one produces the lowest temperature.

Note: Scenarios do not have to be from the same Design to be compared in the Decision Center. They do, however, have to be in the same Design Study. Step 1: Create Summary Entities Critical Values are calculated on Summary Entities created in the Results task: Summary Parts are selected parts from the model. A typical use is to compare the temperature on a part to assess if a known limit has been exceeded. Summary Planes are planar cutting surfaces positioned at critical locations in the model. Data assessed on a summary plane is presented in the Critical Values table. Use these to assess and compare flow rate, pressure drop, and bulk temperatures through specific passages or openings. Summary Points are specific locations selected within the model. All of the available scalar quantities are available in the Critical Values table. Use these to assess and compare results values at specific locations in the model. Step 2: Create Critical Value Table in the Output Bar Each summary entity is listed in the appropriate branch of the Decision Center (Summary Parts, Summary Planes, or Summary Points, respectively) Right click on an entity branch, and select Update critical values to propagate the data across all scenarios. This updates all Critical Values. If this step is not performed, the table will not contain any data values. If the warning symbol is displayed on a branch, the results in the model do not match the results in the table. To resolve this, click Update critical values. The Critical Values tab of the Output bar lists the results for each summary entity. Note: By default, results for each summary object are computed for all scenarios. To change the scenarios, right click on a particular object, and pick Select scenarios... Select only the scenarios you wish to compare from the list. If a summary entity is moved or a new one added, the data in the table does not match the summary entity, and the warning symbol will appear on the branch:

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Right click on the entity and select Update critical values. Step 3: Customize the Output Table To customize the data presentation in the Critical Values Table: Add a row below a selected row by clicking the Add row button Delete a row by clicking the Select bullet, and clicking the Delete row button Change the result quantity of a row by selecting it from the Result Quantity column Change the units of a result by selecting an entry from the Units column Set a critical value (or a value important to your design) in the Reference column. Examples include the maximum allowable temperature or the minimum flow rate. This is very useful when plotting the data to assess which scenarios are within the allowed design constraints.

Note: To select a row, click the Select bullet on the left side of the table. Step 4: Plot and Compare the Results Use plots to visually compare results as well as to evaluate performance relative to a design constraint or target Reference value. 1. 2. Check the Plot box for each desired result quantity. Click the Plot button to generate the bar graph. Each result quantity is plotted on a separate tab.

On the Plot dialog, to change the range of the Y-axis, click the Scale button, and input new minimum and maximum values. To save the plot to an image file, click the Save button. Note: Once a Results Part, Results Plane, or Results Point is designated as a Summary entity, it can only be deleted from the Decision Center on the Design Study Bar. Right click on its branch under the appropriate Summary branch, and click Remove.

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Summary XY Plots
Use Summary XY Plots to compare plotted results from two or more Scenarios. They are ideal for determining relative performance of design alternatives.
An example of a Summary XY Plot is a Design Study of a water manifold. Several designs are evaluated to determine which produces the most uniform distribution across the legs (before feeding into a discharge pipe). A cutting plane is created through the legs, and the velocity plotted on an XY plot. The Plot is marked as a Summary Plot, and is then plotted from the Decision Center. The plot shows the velocity distributions from all of the Scenarios in the Design Study, making it very easy to see which is the most uniform.

To display a Summary XY Plot: 1. 2. 3. When creating the XY Plot from the Results task, check the Summary box on the XY Plot Dialog. (For more about creating XY Plots...) The plot is listed in the XY Plot Data branch of the Decision Center. Right click on the XY Plot Data branch, and click Update critical values. If the warning symbol is displayed on a branch, the results in the model do not match the results in the plot. To resolve this, click Update critical values. The XY Plot window will open showing the plotted data from the scenarios.

4.

Note: By default, each summary plot shows results from all scenarios. To select specific scenarios for a summary plot, right click on its branch, and pick Select scenarios... Select only the scenarios you wish to compare from the list. 5. To change the plotted result quantity, select one from the menu at the top of the dialog.

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CFdesign 3D Viewer
The CFdesign 3D Viewer is a powerful marketing and communication tool. Use the CFdesign 3D Viewer to: Collaborate across multiple engineering workgroups Present and share CFdesign graphical results

The CFdesign 3D Viewer reads VTF and VTFx files, which are easily exported from CFdesign. These files contain the model geometry, results, display attributes, and animation settings.

Main Window
The CFdesign 3D Viewer is shown with a results set loaded:

Toolbar Functions
File Open InfoBox On/Off
Open Dynamic Images (VTF and VTFx) created in CFdesign.

Toggle the display of the Result Info box in the lower right corner of the graphics window. This shows the date, the active scalar and vector quantities.

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Step Info On/Off Color Legend On/Off Navigation Cube On/Off

Toggle display of time step and load case information. This is shown in the lower left corner of the Graphics window. Toggle display of all legends.

Toggle display of the Navigation Tool.

Drop Shadow On/Off Modify

Toggle display of the shadow visual effect below the model.

Reset View: Restore the original view of the image Frame Model: Display the model at its maximum size in the viewport

Rubberband Zoom

Viewports

To zoom to a region: 1. Click this icon 2. Press and hold the left mouse button on one corner of the desired zoom region 3. Drag to the other corner of the zoom region 4. Release the mouse button Select the number of viewports and their initial placement.

Move as Outline Synchronous Navigation Automatic Rotation Point Set Rotation Point

Converts the model to outline while navigating. Use this setting for very large models on computers with slower graphics hardware. Causes the mouse movement in all viewports to be the same This is useful when comparing designs and scenarios in multiple viewports. Click to enable automatic computation of an optimal rotation point based on the geometry. The default center of rotation is the origin.
Set a rotation point by picking a node in the model

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Selection

Select Part: Toggle to select a part and probe values on the part Select Element: Toggle to select an element and probe values on the element Select Node: Toggle to select a node and probe value from the node

Distance Measurement

Measure the distance between two nodes on results objects (cutting planes, iso surface, etc.).

Delete Distance Measurement Clear all distance measurements Full Screen Animation Control Case Selection
Display in full screen mode

Use the animation control buttons to pause, play, and single step through the animations to inspect individual steps Every case that is included in the Study View (VTFx) file is listed in this drop menu. Use the arrows to select the case to view.

Case Panel Selection Panel Settings Panel Results Panel

The Case Panel lists information about each case (scenario from CFdesign). To show a case, drag and drop its thumbnail in the Table of Cases list into a viewport.
Probed results are displayed in the Selection Panel.

Use the Settings Panel to manipulate visibility and drawing modes of parts and element sets. Visiblity options include visibility, shaded, and outline. Use the Results Panel to control the display of results and legend range and appearance.

Model Navigation
Zoom Rotate Pan Ctrl + LMB Ctrl + MMB Ctrl + RMB

PowerPoint
Before adding a Dynamic Image for the first time, add the CFdesign AddIn:

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If the button does not appear, reduce the PowerPoint security settings:

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To add a Dynamic Image:

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Guidelines
This section presents guidelines for several types of CFdesign analyses. Other sections discuss the general operation of the CFdesign, the specific physical details of various flow conditions are described here. The techniques offered should be used in conjunction with the Examples section. The following application types are discussed: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Internal and External Incompressible Flows Basic Heat transfer (conduction and forced convection) and Natural Convection Porous Media (Distributed Resistance) Multiple Fluids Boundary Layer Flows Periodic Boundary Conditions Transient Flows Height of Fluid Mixing with Scalar Moist/Humid Flows Steam/Water Flows Cavitation Radiation Heat Transfer Solar Heating Internal and External Compressible Flow Joule Heating Rotating Analyses Motion Analyses

Note that the first six items make up the Basic configuration. The Advanced configuration is made up of the remaining items. The Motion Module is required for Rotating and Motion analyses. (The Advanced configuration is a pre-requisite for the Motion Module.)

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Internal Incompressible Flow


Internal flow is a very general category which describes the flow of a fluid that is contained by and passes through a solid structure. There may be one or several openings through which fluid enters and leaves the device. The solutions to internal flow problems are among the most difficult to achieve in typical CFD (CFdesign is hardly typical!), particularly for turbulent and compressible flows with complex geometry. The reason is that there are often several flow regimes throughout different regions of the device, and hence the mathematical characteristics vary widely through the calculation domain. CFdesign has several tools to aid convergence for a wide range of internal flow problems. These tools include the Automatic Turbulent Start-Up algorithm, Auto-Convergence Control, and Auto-Stop. These algorithms work to prevent solution instability or divergence, particularly in the early iterations. Notes regarding incompressible internal flow: Mesh Density in Gaps When using any turbulence model there should be at least five elements across inlet and outlet passages so that gradients can be properly resolved. Mesh Enhancement automatically ensures that this criteria is met. Mesh Refinement It is good practice to refine the mesh near openings so that the boundary conditions correctly influence the flow in the interior. Generally Automatic Mesh Sizing ensures this requirement is satisfied, but if not, the mesh should be adjusted. Outlet Configuration At the outlet, where a uniform pressure is commonly applied, there must not be any flow features which will conflict with this uniform pressure boundary. Additionally, the flow should be approximately normal to the plane of the outlet. Sometimes the boundary must be extended to achieve this result. The following figure illustrates these concepts.

Outlets at Corners Pressure boundary conditions should not be specified on surfaces that meet at a corner. This often causes flow recirculation zones that can lead to analysis instability. It is not physically possible to maintain the specified pressure uniformly over all surfaces of a corner. The work-around is to extend the opening and to apply the boundary condition to only one surface of the extension. High Speed Jet For flow situations in which a small, high speed jet of fluid is blowing into a relatively large region filled with fluid, it has been found to be helpful to change the Turb/Lam Ratio to 1000 or greater (the default is 100). This control is accessed with the Turbulence button on the Solve dialog task. An alternative approach is to change the turbulence model to the Low Reynolds Number model and the Advection scheme to ADV 2 (from the Advection button on the Solution Control dialog). This will resolve both the high and low levels of turbulence throughout the domain. Pressure drop prediction of flow in a long straight pipe When the pressure drop is caused by shear losses along the pipe walls instead of form drag due to obstructions, the following technique should be used to calculate an accurate pressure drop: Use an entry length of approximately 25 pipe diameters upstream of the test section. This is to ensure fully developed flow at the entry of the test section. (This is only necessary if a velocity or flow rate boundary condition is used. If a pressure drop is specified across the pipe, then the entrance length is not necessary.)

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Use symmetry to reduce overall model size, if possible. There are two meshing strategies. One uses an extruded mesh, and the other uses an unstructured (tetrahedral) mesh: Extruded Mesh: Use Automatic Sizing to prescribe the best default distribution. Click the Extrude button on the Mesh dialog, and assign an extruded mesh to the pipe. Use the default advection scheme and turbulence model. Run the analysis 100-200 iterations. Tetrahedral Mesh: Apply a surface mesh size to the pipe wall such that there are eight nodes for every 90 degrees of arc. Apply a volume mesh size to the pipe that is two times the surface mesh size. On the Mesh Enhancement dialog, select Automatic Layer Adaptation. On the Analysis task dialog, click the Solution Control button, click the Advection button, and select ADV3. Run the analysis at least 600 iterations. Also on the Solution Control dialog, click the Advanced button in the Intelligent Solution Control group. Move the slider to Tight. These allows more iterations to occur for reaching convergence. Internal Fans with fan curves When a fan curve is used to describe an internal fan material object, it is recommended to apply convergence control to pressure if Auto-Convergence is not enabled. This will allow the solver to match the correct flow rate from the curve to the system pressure drop in a stable manner. When this occurs too quickly, the flow rate produced by the fan may oscillate which in turn causes the system pressure to change too quickly. Additionally, if the internal fan is causing instability, refine the inlet and outlet surfaces of the fan part. Flow in a Vacuum (Low Pressure Limit) CFdesign provides a numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations. The N-S equations assume that the fluid can be treated as a continuum. In some vacuum flows or very low pressure flows, the flow is no longer a continuum and individual fluid molecules must be considered. This assumption becomes inaccurate as the characteristic dimension of the flow path drops below 10 times the mean free path of the fluid. We can characterize the mean free path using, , a non-dimensional value defined as:

The symbols are defined:


Symbol non-dimensional vacuum number absolute viscosity at STP p L R T static pressure characteristic length (hydraulic diameter) gas constant temperature Description

The table below shows the range of


Range < 0.014 0.014 < <1.0 >1.0 Flow Description

for which the Navier-Stokes equations are applicable to the flow:

The flow is a continuum and governed by the Navier-Stokes equations The flow is slip flow where it slips along surfaces, but can still be approximated by the Navier-Stokes equations. The flow is no longer a continuum and cannot be represented by the Navier-Stokes equations.

Note that there are very few true vacuums in industrial applications. The physical requirements (in terms of the compressor pump and seals) needed to create such a flow environment are extremely demanding, and are simply not practical for most industrial applications. This is why we recommend carefully assessing the situation to understand if a vacuum actually exists or if an approximation will suffice. Bivarient non-Newtonian setup To properly set up a bivarient non-Newtonian Fluid, you first need to curve fit your data to fit the following model:

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When curve fitting data, ensure that the resulting surface is well defined beyond the extremes of the data set. This is typically difficult with natural logs in the equation without the addition of artificial (non physical) data points added to the original data set. With the data set in metric units, a linear regression can be performed using each multiplier of the equation to determine the coefficients for input into CFdesign. For example in Excel, create columns for the natural log of the viscosity in Pa-s, the natural log of the shear rate in inverse seconds, the temperature in C, the natural log of the shear rate in inverse seconds squared, the natural log of the shear rate in inverse seconds multiplied by the temperature in C, and the temperature in C squared. Use the add-in for data analysis and select Linear Regression with the y value as the first column, and the x values as the remaining columns. The six coefficients will be output.

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External Incompressible Flow


External flows are characterized by a solid body immersed in fluid that is moving relative to the body. Nearly all engineering aerodynamic problems are external flows. Examples include noise generated by a car mirror at highway speeds, the drag on a motorcycle fairing, and the lift on a missile. Additionally, wind tunnel models are usually considered external flows. These problems generally require the greatest number of nodes of any CFD calculation since the velocity and pressure boundary conditions applied at the exterior of the flow domain must not affect flow features around the immersed body. Calculation Domain Size Generally, the exterior or far-field boundary must be at least 5 to 10 chords upstream and 10 to 20 chords downstream of the body. Higher Reynolds number flows will require far-field distances in the upper portion of this range. Meshing Strategy It is important to transition the element sizes in the mesh quite substantially to conserve nodes. It is common for elements on the body surface to be several thousand times smaller than elements at the far-field. Lift and drag forces calculated by CFdesign will be dependent upon the mesh size near the body. Transitioning must be smooth for solution stability and accuracy, and care must be taken to avoid creating tetrahedral elements with very high aspect ratios. Sometimes embedding fluid volumes using mesh refinement regions around the object of interest is very useful for concentrating many elements around it. This approach helps transition the mesh from very small elements around the object to larger elements further away from the object. Boundary Condition Placement For incompressible and subsonic compressible flow problems with subsonic inlets, velocity and pressure boundary conditions are applied on the far-field boundary as shown in the following figure. To aid convergence, it is useful to specify the velocity boundary condition around a greater portion of the flow domain than for pressure, as shown in the following figure:

Apply slip conditions to any surfaces that are not openings unless the boundary layer or ground effects are of interest against the wall. Angle of Attack If the object has an angle of attack relative to the flow, it is better to re-orient the calculation domain instead of the object. The domain orientation should be that the free-stream velocity and the domain sides are parallel:

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Convergence Note that convergence will often be slow, and the monitor will show relatively flat lines well before the flow field is fully developed around the body. Subtle differences in the pressure distribution may not be visible by only reviewing the convergence monitor. This is why it is recommended to adjust the Automatic Convergence Assessment to Tight when running external incompressible analyses. Accuracy of Drag Calculation CFdesign has been used to calculate the drag on aerodynamic bodies with a very high degree of accuracy. Such drag is due almost entirely to form drag. Such calculations can be very sensitive to the applied conditions in the model, and care must be taken to represent the physics as carefully as possible. This sensitivity is not unique to CFdesign, but is inherent to all CFD tools. Some suggestions to improve accuracy of the drag calculation include: The region around the object must be meshed with a very fine mesh. More streamlined bodies require the mesh near the stagnation point of the body to be highly refined to capture the rapidly changing coefficient of pressure. Change the turbulence intensity to 0.01 (from the default of 0.05) for wind tunnel analyses. This will more accurately represent the conditions in an actual wind tunnel. Reduce the turb/lam ratio to 10 (from the default of 100). Use the ADV 3 advection scheme. Enable Automatic Layer Adaptation. Use the K-epsilon turbulence model for the first 1000 iterations, and then switch to the RNG model for an additional 1000 iterations.

Altitude Effects To simulate the effect of altitude, we recommend that you consult tables of atmospheric data to identify the static pressure and temperature based on a geometric and/or geopotential altitude. From the pressure and temperature, the density of the air can be computed and specified as a constant property. If properties are held constant (hence you are not solving for compressible or thermal effects) the density is the only parameter that needs to be modified on the Material Editor. Keep in mind that the actual effect that is simulated at different altitudes is that of the Reynolds number.

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Basic Heat Transfer


There are several variations of heat transfer analyses that can be performed using CFdesign: Some of these can occur together in the same analysis. For example, in most electronics analyses, heat is conducted through solid objects as well as convected by the flow. Conduction A conduction heat transfer analysis can be performed on fluid materials, solid materials, or a combination of both. For all cases, the correct properties (particularly thermal conductivity) are necessary. Be sure to define the material properties on the Material dialog task. On the Solve dialog: Turn Flow to Off and Heat Transfer to On. Click the Turbulence button, and turn turbulence Off (on the Solve dialog). This will use the laminar conductivities of the materials in the model. Additionally, the temperature convergence should be set to 1.0 on the Solution Control dialog launched from the Solve task (it is by default). If the material properties are not varying with temperature, the analysis should only require 10 iterations to converge. Forced Convection If the heated or cooled air is being blown (by a fan, for example) through the solution domain, this is usually forced convection. In forced convection heat transfer, the temperature does not influence the fluid material properties. For this reason, the energy equation can and should be solved alone after the flow solution (velocity, pressure) has converged. This sequence is automated by checking Auto Forced Convection on the Solve window. Note that it is not necessary to specify a gravity vector for forced convection analyses (leave the gravity components set to 0). Mixed Convection In many electronic cooling applications, the heated or cooled air is blown but may contain local temperature gradients that will cause some appreciable buoyancy effects. This type of heat transfer is known as mixed convection, since it has features of both natural and forced convection. There is not a good way to tell prior to the analysis if the heat transfer is mixed or forced. To check, you should run a mixed convection analysis after the forced convection analysis is finished: 1. 2. Get a converged flow solution with Thermal set to Off on the Solve dialog and constant fluid properties on the Materials dialog. Turn Flow to Off, and turn Heat Transfer to On on the Solve dialog, and run 5 iterations. If the temperatures are unrealistically high, continue to the next step, but on the Solve dialog, continue from the iteration after Step 1 (select from the Continue From field on the Solve dialog). Set Flow to On, keep Heat Transfer On, and set the Gravity vector on the Solve dialog. Select a fluid material that lets density vary with Equation of State (air_bouyancy) Run 100 more iterations and examine the results for changes.

3. 4.

Conjugate Heat Transfer For conjugate heat transfer analyses, the solid material conduction and the fluid convection are analyzed simultaneously. The type of fluid convection (natural, forced or mixed) determines the analysis parameters.

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For forced convection, you should again get a converged flow solution and then run the forced convection analysis with the flow turned off for a few more iterations. For natural convection, you need to run the thermal equation analysis with the flow turned on for all iterations. For mixed fluid convection, follow the steps outlined above. Natural Convection For information about Natural Convection Radiation For information about Radiation.

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Natural Convection
Natural convection occurs as a result of buoyancy-driven flow caused by density gradients due to temperature variations. Typical applications of natural convection include electronic systems that are either vented or completely sealed. These devices generally do not have fans or blowers. Instead, they are cooled by buoyancy-driven flow that convects heat from heated components and conducts through the outer casing. Natural convection within a sealed device is considered Internal. Natural convection around a device in a large enclosure or open environment is considered External. The analysis techniques for these two physical situations are a little different, and are explained in the Related Topics, below. Natural and free convection flows are largely dominated by buoyancy forces. The buoyancy forces are generated by density gradients which vary primarily with temperature since pressure gradients are relatively small in these flows. Natural convection flows may be laminar or turbulent.

Basic Solution Strategies


Need for a Specified Temperature It is very important that a temperature be specified somewhere in the model (in addition to the known heat loadings). This can be an applied temperature boundary condition, but can also be the reference temperature for a film coefficient or radiation boundary condition. Without a specified temperature somewhere in the model, the temperature solution will not converge. Meshing When defining the mesh for buoyancy-driven analyses, more elements will be required in the interior of the domain (away from the solid boundaries) than for a pressure driven flow. The reason is that accurate representation of the small density gradients is critical to computing the driving buoyancy forces correctly. Use Mesh Refinement Regions to focus the mesh around critical areas. This is a very convenient way of transitioning the mesh from finer density to a more coarse density toward the flow region. It is always good practice to ensure that a midpoint node exists on all objects with heat generation boundary conditions. This is most critical on thin objects such as heat sink fins and chips. Analysis Setup Some basic guidelines for setting up a natural convection analysis include: Be sure to select a property with Buoyancy on the Material task or select Equation of State as the density variation in the Material Editor. On the Solve dialog, be sure to set Heat Transfer to On and to set a Gravity vector. Quick Natural Convection An alternative solution method is to enable Quick Natural Convection. Quick Natural/Free Convection addresses the problem of slow convergence by automatically running a coupled flow and thermal simulation (in the same manner as a traditional natural convection analysis) followed by mapping the film coefficients to all solids in the model, and then running a conduction-only thermal solution in the solids.

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The result is a much faster temperature distribution throughout the solids within the analysis. The intent of Quick Natural/Free Convection is a faster, more accurate method of solving natural convection analyses. The increased accuracy will be most apparent in the temperature distribution of the solids. Quick Natural/Free uses the full Navier-Stokes solver to arrive at a coupled flow and thermal solution within the model. The time savings occurs after this step is complete (after 200 iterations) in that the thermal solution throughout the solid parts is accelerated. This method will deliver a time savings over a fully coupled natural convection solution of potentially several hundred iterations. Convection with Liquids Because a larger temperature gradient is required to cause buoyancy-driven movement in liquids, overall solution times can be reduced by first inducing a temperature gradient through the fluid prior to running the flow and thermal analysis. Do this by running 10 iterations thermal only (without flow). After a thermal gradient is achieved, flow and thermal should be run simultaneously. Convergence While an external natural convection analysis is running, the temperatures will often initially climb quite high (because the air is still moving very slowly) and then will settle back down as the flow field develops. Natural convection analyses usually require more iterations than internal flow problems to reach a steady-state solution. The number of iterations required, and hence the total solution time, will be longer for a natural convection than for a pressure-driven flow analysis. Solution progression is slowed by the fact that buoyancy forces are generally significantly larger than pressure forces. A flat-line convergence may not always be reached in natural convection analyses due to their inherently transient nature. Chaotic perturbations in the system will sometimes prevent perfect numerical convergence, but the trends should settle to within 5% change of the parameters of interest (velocity, pressure, temperature) over the last 20% of the analysis iterations. Some techniques to follow if the solution slows or diverges include: Review the .sol file found in your analysis directory to locate the problem. Did the solver max out on iteratin count? If the Pressure Solver maxes out, check and refine the mesh in areas that are inadequately meshed. A mesh that is too coarse at the interface of two different materials can lead to solution instabilities. Refine the mesh where materials meet. If the Temperature Solver maxes, adjust the time step size (if transient) or reduce the Temperature relaxation control (on the Solution Control dialog) from 1 to 0.99 or 0.98. Check for not a number entries. These appear as QNAN in the Convergence Monitor. Contact Technical Support for assistance. Did the Solver fail? If something in the numerical matrix is beyond the scope of the default solver, then a failure will occur, and CFdesign will switch solvers. If a PAP = 0 error occurs, then please contact Technical Support for assistance.

Related Topics
External Flow Natural Convection Strategies Internal Flow Natural Convection Strategies Combined Internal and External Flow Strategies

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External Natural Convection


A device subject to external natural convection is immersed in the air or liquid. It heats up due to energy dissipation of its components, and convects heat to the surrounding air. As the air heats, the density varies, which leads to flow movement. This serves to convect more heat from the device. Examples of external natural convection situations include a telecommunications device mounted to a wall, an electronics module sitting on a platform, or a light fixture suspended from a ceiling. Each of these scenarios requires a slightly different setup. The strategies presented cover most external flow natural convection situations. There may be variations based on the location of the device or obstructions, but these should provide guidance for such variations. If these guidelines are followed, accuracy issues will largely be attributable to improper material property definitions, mesh, or a significant radiative contribution. In case of the latter, enabling radiation (on the Solve dialog) will often address the problem. "Chimney": Device is Suspended in Free Air or in a Large Room Construct a box (the calculation domain) around the device. This is where the air flows around the device. The box should be wide enough so that the flow is not artificially accelerated. (If the side walls are too close to the heated object, the flow may accelerate as in a nozzle). The top of the box should be farther away than the base to allow for eddie currents downstream of the object as the hot air rises. An approximate guideline for the size of this box is a height 10 times the vertical dimension of the device, and a width and depth that are 5 times the respective width and depth of the device. Note that this can be constructed either in the CAD system or with the External Volume Geometry tool.

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"Bucket": Device is Resting on a Platform or Table Construct a box (the calculation domain) around the device. This is where the air flows around the device. An approximate guideline for the size of this box is a height 10 times the vertical dimension of the device, and a width and depth that are 5 times the respective width and depth of the device. Note that this can be constructed either in the CAD system or with the External Volume Geometry tool. This approach will produce correct flow and temperature patterns near the object if the domain is large enough, even though in reality air may come from all directions, not just the top.

Top Surface of box: Pressure = 0 gage Ambient Temperature (or film coefficient with reference temperature equal to ambient temperature) Sides of box: Leave as walls Or optionally, specify a film coefficient (convection) boundary condition with ambient reference temperature. Bottom Surface of box Leave as a wall (no specified boundary conditions)

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"Hanging": Device is Suspended Near Ceiling Construct a cylindrically shaped calculation domain surrounding around the device. An approximate guideline for the size of the cylinder is a height 10 times the vertical dimension of the device, and a diameter that is 5 times the respective width and depth of the device. The cylindrical surface should be divided vertically at approximately the same location of the device.

Top Surface of cylinder (flat): wall--leave unspecified Lower cylindrical surface: leave unspecified or optionally, specify a film coefficient (convection) boundary condition with ambient reference temperature. Upper cylindrical surface specify gage pressure = 0 Bottom Surface of cylinder (flat surface) Specify ambient temperature and gage pressure = 0

Related Topics
Internal Flow Natural Convection Strategies Combined Internal and External Flow Strategies Mathematical Background of Natural Convection

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Internal Natural Convection


A device subject to internal natural convection has a cavity in which air (or some other fluid) can move around internal components that give off heat. As the components heat up, the air within the device heats and moves due to buoyancy. Examples of internal natural convection situations include an electronics device that has vents which allow flow in an out of the device and a module that is fully sealed. Each of these scenarios requires a slightly different set-up. Device with Openings Either construct the flow volume in the CAD model or construct caps that fully enclose the flow volume. (This can be done using the Void Fill Geometry tool.)

Openings: Specify gage pressure (P = 0). If an inlet is known: Specify ambient Temperature. If not: Specify a temperature or film coefficient (convection) boundary condition on exterior sides of box. Device is Sealed (no Openings) Because the device is sealed, the internal flow volume should be created automatically when opened into CFdesign. If not, ensure that there are no leaks or construct the flow volume in the CAD model.

Specify a temperature or film coefficient (convection) on the exterior surface of the housing.

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If the device is subject to external flow as well, then construct a surrounding air domain as described in the previous section.

Related Topic
External Flow Natural Convection Strategies

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Combined Natural Convection


If a device has internal buoyancy flow as well as external buoyancy flow, the rules described above apply for configuring the external flow domain. If the device is vented such that the flow passes between the device and the environment, then simply set up the model as described above. If the device contains flow, but is completely sealed off making it separate from the external flow region, then a pressure condition is required somewhere within the internal fluid region. This is illustrated below for the Chimney approach: Assign the pressure condition to an wetted (internal) surface on a solid part (must be a solid material). This will ensure that the flow cannot pass through this surface, but will satisfy the requirement that the internal region is adequately defined numerically. The requirement of a pressure condition on every completely disjoint fluid region applies to all of the configurations shown above (Chimney, Bucket and Hanging).

Related Topics
External Flow Natural Convection Strategies Internal Flow Natural Convection Strategies

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Multiple Fluids
CFdesign has the ability to handle multiple fluids in one model. Note that fluids with different materials cannot come in physical contact with each other unless one or more is a distributed resistance. Non-distributed resistance fluids can be connected thermally (separated by a solid material). To implement multiple fluids into an analysis, assign the fluids as appropriate, ensuring that no fluids come in contact. Examples where this is useful include an air-water heat exchanger or flow blown over a sealed electronics component box. In the latter example, natural convection might be important inside the sealed box, and forced convection may play a role outside the box. Note that a pressure boundary condition must be set in all fluid regions. For a totally enclosed area with no inlets or outlets, it is a good idea to specify the pressure on at least one surface somewhere in the enclosure. If necessary, specify a 0-value velocity to the same surface to prevent it from being treated as an opening. This will decrease the analysis time significantly.

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Boundary Layer Flows


Boundary layer flows are performed in a fashion similar to external flows with one important exception. Since the pressure field is generally uniform throughout the domain in these types of flows, the nodal pressures must be initialized to the same value (usually zero) and not updated during the calculation. The solution relaxation for pressure must be set to zero to maintain the initial pressure field.

Note that there will be finite terms in the governing flow equations since intermediate pressures are used in their computation. Intermediate refers to a point in the middle of a sequential solver iteration when pressure gradients are established to conserve mass. At the end of each sequential solver iteration, these pressure gradients will not be present since pressure relaxation is set to zero.

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Periodic Boundary Conditions


Periodic boundary conditions (cyclic symmetry) allow modelling of a single passage of an axial or centrifugal turbomachine. It is not a sliding mesh implementation (like the full rotating device), but will capture the flow within the blade passage. Periodic boundary conditions can also be used to simulate non-rotating devices such as a single blade passage through a stator cascade. For such an analysis, only a single blade passage is modeled. Additional volumes are added to the inlet and the outlet of the model. These should be distinct volumes from the blade passage as they do not rotate. Periodic boundary conditions are always applied in pairs, typically to surfaces on the inlet and outlet extensions that are not walls or openings. Note that models containing periodic boundary conditions cannot be remeshed and continued from a saved iteration. If the mesh is changed, the model must be started from the beginning (iteration 0). This is due to the nodal reorganization that occurs at the onset of analyses containing periodic boundary conditions. Boundary Conditions The sides of the extensions must be translated or offset from each other in the same manner. For example, if the sides of the inlet extension are rotated 30 degrees from each other, then the sides of the outlet extension must be rotated 30 degrees from each other as well. Alternatively, if the periodic sides of the inlet extension are translated in the Y direction 3 inches, then the periodic sides of the outlet must be translated 3 inches in the Y direction as well. At least one set of periodic surfaces in the model must be planar. As long as one set is planar, the other surfaces can be curvilinear. In 2D models, edges in a periodic pair must be within three degrees of each other, and must be the same length. Additionally, all normals from one surface must pierce the other, and vice versa. When applying a periodic condition, a pair ID is required. Use an integer value for the pair ID, and use the same value on the periodic surfaces of each extension. Additionally, a unique side ID is required for each member of a pair. For example, one surface of a periodic pair might have pair ID =1 and side ID =1. The corresponding surface in the pair would have pair ID =1, and side ID = 2. The side ID should be consistent from one region to the next. This is shown:

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Being consistent with the sides from one region to the next will greatly speed-up startup processing. If side IDs are not marked consistently, the start-up processing of the analysis will take considerably longer. Geometry Configuration There are two ways to configure the rotating region based on the blade passage. One approach is for the passage to be exactly between the blades (extending from the suction side of one blade to the pressure side of the other):

This approach is better for most centrifugal devices and axial devices that have a large number of blades or high degree of blade curvature. Alternatively, the rotating region can extend from the mid-point of one passage to the mid-point of the neighboring passage. In this case, a single blade will run through the middle of the rotating region. The blade should either be a cutout or should be a solid:

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Turbomachinery analyses using periodic conditions are only useful for blade passages. Such analyses are not appropriate for geometries in which a non-moving solid is included, such as a centrifugal pump surrounded by a volute. The blade passage will be set up as a rotating region, and the rotational speed and direction of rotation must be defined. Periodic boundary conditions are required on the sides of the rotating region as well, if the blade is centered within the region. If the sides of the rotating region are the pressure and suction sides of the blade, then it is not necessary to assign periodic conditions to the sides of the rotating region. Periodic boundary conditions can also be used for non-rotating devices, such as a stator cascade. Periodic pairs are required at the inlet and outlet extensions:

Analyses with periodic boundary conditions that include a rotating region must be run transient. For analyses of non-rotating devices, it is not required to run as a transient analysis.

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Note that periodic boundary conditions are included in the Basic configuration, but the Motion Module is required to analyze rotating machinery passages with periodic boundaries.

Related Topic
Applying a periodic condition

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Transient Flows
In fluid flow analyses, transient refers to both periodic in time (albeit steady) and the usual time-varying flow solution. For transient flows, initial conditions must be set. The default initial condition will be zero for all variables except temperature. Assign initial conditions using the Initial tab of the Loads dialog task. Transient Boundary Conditions Time-varying boundary conditions are often necessary for transient analyses. For more about transient boundary conditions Unit of Time Note that the time unit is always seconds for transient analyses. This unit of time is consistent with that used for the properties. Even for transients which take days or longer, the time step size should still be entered in seconds. Inner Iterations Because CFdesign uses an implicit method to discretize the transient flow equations, iterations must be run for every time step. This inner iteration is similar to the amount of work required for a single steady state iteration. However, the inner iterations in a transient analysis are almost always better-conditioned mathematically than a steady state iteration. For this reason, far fewer inner iterations per time step (typically 10) are required than iterations for a steady state solution. For Rotating and Motion analyses, the recommended number of inner iterations per time step is one. In few cases has using more iterations per time step been beneficial. Divergence If the transient calculation is diverging, the time step size will likely need to be decreased. For most situations, reducing the time step size is a better approach than adjusting the convergence controls because doing so will affect the time-accuracy of the solution. The convergence controls will artificially slow down the time history of the calculation. Intelligent Solution Control If invoked, Intelligent Solution Control adjusts only the time step size, and does not modify any convergence settings. This is done to prevent artificially affecting the time accuracy of the solution. (Convergence settings slow down solution progression so it is always a good idea to use the default settings for non-Motion transient analyses.) We have found that in some cases the time step size that Intelligent Solution Control selects can be smaller than truly necessary for convergence, which may result in significantly longer solution times. For this reason, Intelligent Solution Control is disabled by default, and it is recommended to assign a time step size for transient analyses that do not involve the Advanced functionality physics. Time Step Size For transient flow solutions, it is important to select an appropriate time step size. A time step that is too large will result in lost detail because it exceeds the time scale of the flow. A time step that is too small will capture the flow detail, but will not be efficient because it requires more time steps than necessary to characterize the time scale of the flow. A good guideline for the time step size is approximately 1/20th the time required for a particle of fluid to traverse the length of the device. For example, liquid travels 6 m/s through a 2 meter pipe. It takes 0.33 s for a particle to traverse the length of the pipe. Following our guideline above of 1/20th the time, use a time step of 0.0167 seconds:

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Total Travel time = L/V = 2m / 6m/s = 0.33s Time step size = 0.33s x (1/20) = 0.0167s

Pressure Waves When running a transient analysis with time-varying pressure boundary conditions, the analysis should be set to compressible. The transient terms in the pressure equations can only be accurately determined if the density is allowed to vary. Namely, pressure waves always have to be modeled as a compressible flow phenomenon. Compressible Liquids In water hammer analyses, the density does not vary. Compressible and Transient must still be invoked to solve a water hammer analysis. Animation Transient results sets can quickly be animated in the Results dialog. Open the Animation tab of the Global Results dialog. For more about animation

Related Topic
For more about transient boundary conditions

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Height of Fluid
Designed to track the fluid level for a tank filling or emptying operation, the Height of Fluid (HOF) function is a transient-based formulation that works for two and three dimensional geometries as well as axisymmetric. To implement HOF into an analysis, simply apply the Height of Fluid initial condition to those regions of the model that contain fluid at Time 0. Regions that do not have this condition are considered empty at the onset of the analysis. The geometry should be oriented such that the filling or emptying direction is the Y coordinate direction. Additionally, be sure to select Transient on the Solve dialog, and set an appropriate time step. The filling or emptying process must be driven by an applied velocity boundary condition. The hydrostatic head of the water column will not cause the water to spontaneously empty from a tank. The Residence Time scalar quantity can be selected for results viewing, and is often useful for HOF analyses. This is selected from the Results Quantities dialog available on the Solve dialog. Note also that an HOF analysis can have a scalar quantity as part of the calculation. This is useful for modeling the concentration of additives to the water.

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Scalar Mixing
Simulate the mixing of two similar fluids by using a Scalar boundary condition and by defining scalar-dependent fluid properties. Scalar Boundary and Property Variation To simulate the mixing of two fluids, use the Scalar boundary to track the relative concentrations of the two fluids. For example, assign a Scalar boundary condition of 0 to represent the first fluid, and a Scalar boundary condition of 1 to represent the other. This is in addition to the typical velocity or flow rate boundary conditions needed to drive the flow A single material is defined within the flow region, and is defined so that its properties depend on the scalar condition. For example, a piece-wise linear variation for density as a function of scalar will cause the density to vary based on the relative concentration of the two fluids. The other properties, viscosity, conductivity, etc., can be varied in the same way. Diffusion Coefficient To properly simulate the mixing, a diffusion coefficient is a required input. On the Solve dialog, enable the General Scalar from the Advanced dialog, and input a value of diffusion coefficient. The diffusion coefficient controls the mass diffusivity of the scalar quantity into the surrounding fluid. A value of 0 will prevent any diffusion of the scalar quantity. This quantity is DAB in Ficks Law: where jA is the mass flux of species A. This is how much of A is transferred (per time and per unit area normal to the transfer direction). It is proportional to the mixture mass density, and to the gradient of the species mass fraction, mA. The units of the Diffusivity coefficient are length squared per time. Some sample values of diffusion coefficients are given: Fluid 2 Fluid 1
Air (STP) Air (STP) Air (STP) Air (STP) Air (STP) Air (STP) Air (STP) Propane LNG Gasoline Hydrogen Carbon Dioxide Oxygen Water Vapor Diffusion Coefficient 0.1 cm2/s 0.16 cm2/s 0.05 cm2/s 0.61 cm2/s 0.16 cm2/s 0.20 cm2/s 0.25 cm2/s

The diffusion coefficient of a fluid is typically 10,000x greater in air than in water. Example: Mixing Air and CO2 To mix air and carbon dioxide in a vessel, we first decide (arbitrarily) that air will be represented by a scalar value of 0, and carbon dioxide with a scalar value of 1. The two streams will come in through separate inlets, mix, and then exit through the outlet. The boundary conditions for the air inlet are the velocity (or flow rate) and a scalar condition = 0. The boundary conditions for the carbon dioxide inlet are the velocity (or flow rate) and a scalar condition = 1:

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Assign a single material to the vessel, but modify the density is a function of scalar. The piecewise linear variation method is the most convenient variation method. The density of air is 1.2047 e-6 g/mm3, and the density of carbon dioxide is 1.773e-6 g/mm3. The table would look like this:

The other properties can be varied in the same manner. Density will typically have the greatest influence on the solution, but viscosity can be varied as well. On the Solve dialog, click the Advanced button, and enable General Scalar. Because we are mixing air and carbon dioxide, we need to specify a diffusivity coefficient of 16 mm2/s. When the analysis is run, the scalar quantity will propagate throughout the vessel based on the flow, and the material will adjust in response to the scalar. The Flow and Scalar solutions should be run together because the properties vary with the flow solution.

Related Topics
Applying Scalar Boundary Conditions Scalar Settings on the Solve dialog

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Humidity
CFdesign can simulate the condensation of liquid from a moist gas. Evaporation, however, is not supported. Boundary Conditions To model the effect of moisture on a gas flow, specify a Humidity and a Temperature boundary condition at every inlet of the model. Initial Condition It is often helpful to initialize the temperature and humidity throughout the model. A good value is often one of the inlet boundary condition values. Materials Apply the Air_Moist material or define a new material with a density that varies using the Moist Gas variation. The values that can be changed are the Reference Pressure and Gas Constant. The reference pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of the gas and the water vapor. You should also specify the carrier gas viscosity, conductivity and specific heat. Solve Enable Heat Transfer to On. From the Advanced dialog, select the Humidity option. On the Result Quantities dialog, select Scalar. This allows humidity to be viewed as a result quantity For incompressible flows, only the temperature affects the fluid properties (including relative humidity). If pressure effects are to be considered, select Subsonic Compressible on the Analyze dialog. Analysis Continuation When continuing an analysis from existing results, there may be a blip in the convergence monitor for temperature and scalar due to some internal conversion variables. Results Visualization The amount of liquid condensed and the calculated field values of relative humidity can be viewed as results. The condensed liquid is calculated as a mixture fraction, i.e., the mass of the condensed liquid divided by the total mass of the liquid, vapor and carrier gas.

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Steam
In the case of steam/water flows, CFdesign assumes a homogeneous two-phase mixture. The energy equation that is used is written in terms of enthalpy. Temperature is determined using the steam tables. Both temperature and enthalpy results can be viewed in the Results dialog task (make sure both quantities are enabled on the Output Quantity dialog on the Solve dialog). Boundary Conditions Specify the Steam Quality and static Temperature (as well as the appropriate velocity, flow-rate, or pressure) at all inlets. The steam quality is 0 for 100% liquid water. Materials Select the H2O_Steam/Liquid material from the Fluid list on the Material dialog. If the operating state differs from STP, create a new steam/water material, and change the Reference Pressure to the correct value. The properties of the steam are determined during the analysis using the steam tables and the specified reference pressure. Solve On the Solve dialog, enable Heat Transfer, and select Steam Quality from the Advanced dialog. For incompressible flows, only the temperature and reference pressure affect the fluid properties (including the steam quality). If local pressure effects are to be considered, select Subsonic Compressible.

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Cavitation
Cavitation is a physical phenomenon that occurs in many high-velocity liquid flows when the liquid pressure falls below the vapor pressure, resulting in the formation of vapor bubbles. It is commonly found in high speed liquid valves as well as pumps, and can greatly reduce the efficiency of these devices. Prolonged cavitation can lead to pitting and erosion of the device, resulting in costly downtime and repairs. The cavitation model in CFdesign tracks the vapor bubble volume fraction, and predicts the onset and location of bubble formation within the flow. It is best suited for predicting small regions of cavitation, and will not run well when large regions of the flow flash to vapor. This cavitation model is based on modelling a collection of bubbles, not a total vapor region. When cavitation is enabled, the fluid pressure will not fall below the vapor pressure. (If cavitation is disabled, the pressure is allowed to fall below the physical limit.) The result of this pressure clipping is that the forces computed with the Wall Calculator will more accurately reflect the effect of cavitation on the hydrodynamic loading. Usage To analyze cavitation of a water flow, assign water to the flow parts in the model. When defining the mesh distribution for a device that is subject to cavitation, it is a good idea to attempt to focus higher mesh density in regions where cavitation is suspected to occur. The Mesh Refinement Regions (on the Meshing task) can be very useful for doing this. To enable cavitation, open the Advanced dialog on the Solve task, and select Cavitation. If the flow is subjected to temperature variations, note that the liquid material can vary with temperature (buoyancy), but the vapor pressure of the vapor state is held constant. Non-Water Liquids To analyze cavitation of a liquid other than water, a material containing the vapor properties must also exist in the material database. Note that this vapor material must physically be saved to your active material database. It is not explicitly assigned to a part, so unless the material is saved in the material database, it will not be associated with the analysis model. The naming convection is: Liquid material: liquid_name Vapor material: liquid_name_vapor

Where liquid_name is the name of material. The vapor material must have the words _vapor appended to its name. When defining the vapor state of the fluid, it is necessary to specify the vapor pressure in the Reference Properties area on the Material Editor. Note that the vapor pressure should be consistent for the conditions of the analysis, as it is held constant throughout the analysis. If the vapor state of the material is not created, CFdesign will use the properties of water vapor. Visualization After the analysis is finished running, visualize regions that are cavitating by plotting the Cavitation Vapor Volume Fraction. This quantity is a fraction, and varies from 0 to 1, with a value of 1 indicating 100% vapor bubbles. The most convenient way to

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visualize the location of cavitation is with an iso-surface. Setting the value to 1 (or close) will plot a three-dimensional view of the cavitating region:

Related Topics
Setting Cavitation on the Solve dialog CFD-Tv about setting up Cavitation CFD-Tv about reviewing Cavitation results

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Radiation
The radiation model uses a true view factor calculation which provides as accurate energy balance because it enforces reciprocity between solids. Temperature and energy balance accuracy are ensured for geometries with widely varying feature sizes. Radiative heat transfer through transparent media is supported, as well as geometric symmetry. The radiation model computes radiative heat transfer to moving solids and moving surfaces, and is the basis of the solar heating model. The radiation model has very rigorous bookkeeping to keep track of the radiative energy balance, and reports the amount of heat transfer due to radiation and the radiative energy balance for each part in a model. The result is that reciprocity is enforced, to ensure that the radiative heat transfer between parts with large size differences is computed accurately. Radiation works with all of the supported geometry types: two and three dimensional Cartesian and axisymmetric about the X and Y axes. Modeling Guidelines To use radiation, specify an emissivity for every solid material type in the model. If there are no solids present, specify an emissivity for the surrounding walls by setting an emissivity on the fluid material. (You will have to create a new material, but it can be based on a database material.) Because the radiation algorithm does not allow the fluid medium to participate, emissivity specified on a fluid material is automatically applied to the walls touching the fluid. Note that the default value of 1 as the emissivity is not generally recommended because it indicates a perfectly emittive surface. Such a case may not be physically realistic for most applications. Enable Heat Transfer and Radiation on the Solve dialog. Radiation can be run with or without flow. An important consideration is that fluid parts that contact one another should not be extrusion meshed. The reason is that if either (or both) use extruded elements, the interface between the extrusion faces and the tetrahedral faces, also known as a non-conformal interface, is not supported by the radiation model. The radiation model must have a matching mesh at all fluidsolid interfaces. This guideline applies to solid-solid interfaces as well if one or both of the solids is a transparent medium. When an assembly is enclosed by an air volume, it is very important that a non-zero value of emissivity be assigned to the air (which then gets applied to the walls). If a value of 0 is used, the wetted surfaces (that do not touch solids) will behave as perfect mirrors, and no energy will be lost to the environment--a non-physical situation. Apply a temperature boundary condition to the external air surface that represents the correct environmental temperature, and specify a realistic emissivity for the air. View Factors The radiation model computes true view factors for every part. This is more accurate than the flux-based method used in the radiation model in previous versions. The view factors between every part are written to the .sol file, and should sum to 1 for each part. Tables of view factors are produced for opaque as well as transparent materials. A sample view factor list for one part in an assembly is shown:
Opaque Part-To-Part View Factors Part 1 viewing Part 1, VF = 0 Part 1 viewing Part 2, VF = 0.00870629 Part 1 viewing Part 3, VF = 0.0575024 Part 1 viewing Part 4, VF = 0.021062 Part 1 viewing Part 5, VF = 0.338157 Part 1 viewing Part 6, VF = 0.574572 Part 1 sum of all view factors = 1

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Because this model uses a true view factor calculation, it can more accurately solve the radiative heat transfer for models with parts that have large size differences. Surface to surface reciprocity is enforced to ensure a more accurate energy balance. Resource Usage The fact that the radiation model computes view factors and reciprocity between every face of every part leads to a high level of accuracy and a good energy balance for radiation calculations. The model is, however, resource intensive. During initial startup, a view factor is calculated between all element faces of every part with a line of sight. Additionally, the radiation matrix must be built that tracks all of this data. The required amount of RAM increases with the square of the number of surface element faces. Depending on the number of surfaces in a geometry, the amount of RAM required to compute the view factors may be in excess of 1 Gigabyte. The amount of time required to compute the view factors at startup can be quite significant as well. A progress bar indicates the relative progress of this calculation during initial startup. The radiation model automatically adjusts the accuracy of the computation as a function of the available RAM. The algorithm probes the system to determine how much RAM is available, and then it will adjust the optical sampling rate so that the final radiosity matrix will fit into the available RAM. It will also determine whether it should use in-memory or out-of-core storage of view factors, radiosity matrix terms, and even the type of solver employed. So even with only 256 Mbytes of memory, it is possible to run radiation calculations. It will take longer and be less accurate than results generated on a machine with 4 Gbytes of RAM, however. If, however, the analysis model simply cannot be run with the available RAM, an error will be given advising that the radiation model cannot be run due to the lack of system resources. Fortunately, this calculation is only performed at the beginning of an analysis. It does not occur for subsequent restarts of the analysis if the mesh does not change. Because the radiation model employs a surface integral method, it has been shown to not require a high mesh density to provide accurate results. Please be sure to balance the meshing requirements of the other physical phenomena in an analysis model as appropriate. Radiation with Motion Radiation is supported for moving solids. When radiation is enabled for a motion analysis, the view factors will automatically recompute when the moving part has traveled 2% of the maximum diagonal of the domain bounding box. This value can be changed with a flags file entry: ViewFactorUpdate VALUE where VALUE is the percent of the diagonal. To recompute view factors every 5%, for example, place this entry in your flags file: ViewFactorUpdate 5 Notes: Moving objects that experience radiation heat transfer must not touch any stationary object or wall at any point in the analysis. This includes the as-built location as well as anywhere in the motion path. Moving objects must not leave the enclosure. Radiation cannot be used for rotating regions--it is only for moving solids. Moving parts must be opaque. They cannot have a non-zero value of transmissivity in their material definition.

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Radiation in a Vacuum While perfect vacuums are extremely rare in most industrial applications, there are some applications in which the solution of radiation within such an environment is useful. A fluid has to be included in the environment, but Flow can be turned off (on the Solve dialog) to remove any convection effects. A general procedure for radiation analysis in a quasi-vacuum is to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Enable Transient on the Solve dialog. Use a time step of approximately 30 seconds Use one inner iteration per time step. Run the analysis an appropriate number of time steps to simulate the elapsed time.

Related Topics
Transmissivity Symmetry in Radiation Models Spectral Radiation

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Transmissivity
The radiation model supports radiative heat transfer through transparent solid media. The transmissivity material property defines the level of transparency of a solid object. Radiative heat transfer through a transparent solid object that is completely surrounded by fluid can be simulated by assigning a non-zero transmissivity property to the material. Opaque solids that are enclosed by transparent solids can be modeled as well. This even allows nesting of multiple layers of opaque and transparent solids. Note that transmissivity cannot be assigned to surface parts or moving parts. In the radiation model, radiative energy that passes through a transparent solid does not experience an attenuation effect--there is no absorption of radiative energy into the media. There is no accounting for spectral effects within a transparent object, and energy leaves the object in a diffuse manner. Energy may, however, be absorbed through the surface and then emitted (emissivity = absorptivity). The energy balance for radiative heat transfer looks like:

where the reflectivity = 1 - emissivity - transmissivity Note that transmissivity can only be applied to solids. Fluids are non-participating media for all radiation simulations. Internal Transparent Parts To include radiative heat transfer through a transparent solid that is completely surrounded by a fluid, assign a transmissivity value to the material using the Material Editor. Note that the sum of transmissivity and emissivity must be less than or equal to 1.

External Transparent Parts To include radiative heat transfer through a transparent surface on the external wall, such as a window: 1. 2. 3. Model the transparent region as a solid part. Assign a transmissivity value to the material using the Material Editor on the Material task dialog. (Note that the part must have a non-zero transmissivity property to be considered transparent.) Assign a Transparent boundary condition to the external surface:

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The temperature specified with this boundary condition is used to define the incoming radiation flux according to this equation: Transparent BCs should only be applied to external boundaries so that the incoming flux is external to the analysis domain. They must be assigned to a solid material; assignment to a fluid material will result in an error. Solar heating problems should not use transparent BCs because the set up of the solar heating problem requires a sky dome and ground structure that define the entire external boundaries. If windows are modeled in these cases, these transparent materials would be internal to the analysis domain which would make transparent boundary conditions inappropriate. If a transparent material with surfaces on an external boundary are not assigned a transparent boundary condition, the emissivity and transmissivity will automatically be set to 0. Because reflection is the difference between 1 and the sum of emissivity and transmissivity, the external boundary will be perfectly reflective (like a silver backing on a mirror) with the exterior of the model. This is done to conserve energy. Because no background temperature is defined, the heat loss/gain cannot be computed.

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Symmetry in Radiation Models


The radiation model supports geometric symmetry. Symmetric divisions must be such that the model is a true fraction of the complete model. For example, a half symmetric model is valid if the other half makes up the complete device. Likewise, a quarter symmetry is valid if it encompasses 90 degrees of the actual device, and if the other three quarters would make up the complete device. A slip condition that does not divide a model along a geometry symmetry would not produce accurate radiative heat transfer results. Examples of valid symmetry/slip divisions are shown:

These two examples show valid half and quarter symmetry geometries, but much smaller symmetry can be used, if it is valid. As an example, an 18 degree wedge could be analyzed from a disk. This corresponds to a 1/20th symmetry! The key is to apply the symmetry (slip) boundary conditions so that they properly define the symmetry. When working with a symmetric model, care should be taken to ensure that the model uses pure rotational symmetry. A combination of rotational and mirrored symmetry is not supported. For example, if the complete geometry looks like the image on the left, then a valid quarter symmetry would be as shown on the right:

But, if the actual geometry did not contain pure rotational symmetry, and looked like the image on the left (below), then the symmetry shown in the middle image would be wrong. The image on the right is the correct way to invoke symmetry on such a model:

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To properly model symmetry, it must be possible to rotate the symmetric model through 360 degrees and arrive at the original geometry. This is to ensure that the effects of shadowing and reflection are accurately accounted for by the radiation model. The radiation model also supports 2D axisymmetric models. Such models must be axisymmetric about either the x or y axis. Rotational Periodic symmetry is also supported by the radiation model. The wedge angle must be at least three degrees, and periodic faces are marked using the periodic boundary conditions on the Loads dialog. Translational periodic symmetry, however, is not supported.

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Spectral Radiation
The radiation model can include the effects of temperature-dependent emissivity. This allows the simulation of the effects of spectral radiation. This variation is in the form of a piece-wise linear table, and is entered on the Material Editor by hitting the Emissivity button, and selecting Piecewise Linear on the Variation Method drop menu. To account for the spectral characteristics of a surface, use the radiation functions in the following table to construct a second table of total emissivity as a function of temperature to be used in CFdesign:

0 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 3600 3800 4000 4200 4400 4600 4800 5000 5200 5400 5600 5800 6000 6200 6400 6600 6800 7000 7200 7400 7600 7800 8000 8200 8400 8600 8800 9000 9200

0 555.6 666.7 777.8 888.9 1000 1111.1 1222.2 1333.3 1444.4 1555.6 1666.7 1777.8 1888.9 2000 2111.1 2222.2 2333.3 2444.4 2555.6 2666.7 2777.8 2888.9 3000 3111.1 3222.2 3333.3 3444.4 3555.6 3666.7 3777.8 3888.9 4000 4111.1 4222.2 4333.3 4444.4 4555.6 4666.7 4777.8 4888.9 5000 5111.1

0.0 1.70e-8 7.56e-7 1.06e-5 7.38e-5 3.21e-4 0.00101 0.00252 0.00531 0.00983 0.01643 0.02537 0.03677 0.05059 0.06672 0.08496 0.10503 0.12665 0.14953 0.17337 0.19789 0.22285 0.24803 0.27322 0.29825 0.32300 0.34734 0.37118 0.39445 0.41708 0.43905 0.46031 0.48085 0.50066 0.51974 0.53809 0.55573 0.57267 0.58891 0.60449 0.61941 0.63371 0.64740

10,200 10,400 10,600 10,800 11,000 11,200 11,400 11,600 11,800 12,000 12,200 12,400 12,600 12,800 13,000 13,200 13,400 13,600 13,800 14,000 14,200 14,400 14,600 14,800 15,000 16,000 17,000 18,000 19,000 20,000 21,000 22,000 23,000 24,000 25,000 26,000 27,000 28,000 29,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000

5666.7 5777.8 5888.9 6000 6111.1 6222.2 6333.3 6444.4 6555.6 6666.7 6777.8 6888.9 7000 7111.1 7222.2 7333.3 7444.4 7555.6 7666.7 7777.8 7888.9 8000 8111.1 8222.2 8333.3 8888.9 9444.4 10,000 10,555.6 11,111.1 11,666.7 12,222.2 12,777.8 13,333.3 13,888.9 14,444.4 15,000 15,555.6 16,111.1 16,666.7 22,222.2 27,777.8 33,333.3

0.70754 0.71806 0.72813 0.73777 0.74700 0.75583 0.76429 0.77238 0.78014 0.78757 0.79469 0.80152 0.80806 0.81433 0.82035 0.82612 0.83166 0.83698 0.84209 0.84699 0.85171 0.85624 0.86059 0.86477 0.86880 0.88677 0.90168 0.91414 0.92462 0.93349 0.94104 0.94751 0.95307 0.95788 0.96207 0.96572 0.96892 0.97174 0.97423 0.97644 0.98915 0.99414 0.99649

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9400 9600 9800 10,000

5222.2 5333.3 5444.4 5555.6

0.66051 0.67305 0.68506 0.69655

70,000 80,000 90,000 100,000

38,888.9 44,444.4 50,000 55,555.6

0.99773 0.99845 0.99889 0.99918

For example, if you know the range of temperatures for your model is 100F to 1200F and the emittance of the surface is 0.3 ( ) below 3 and is 0.8 ( ) at the longer wavelengths, you would create the following table, and enter this data in the Piecewise Linear property table in CFdesign:
T Emissivity Temperature (F)

1680 4980

9.888e-5 0.220354

0.8 0.69

100 1200

The emissivity in the above table is determined using the equation:

Substituting the numbers above and interpolating values from the table:

So, the emissivity at 100 F is:

For the emissivity at 1200F:

So, the emissivity at this temperature is:

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Energy Balance with Radiation


For every iteration, a radiosity matrix is form and solved. A complete record of the energy balance is provided for every part in the model. This data is written to the .sol file for every iteration during the analysis, and to the summary file after the last iteration. This section describes the information that is provided, and discusses the differences for models using transparent boundary conditions and solar heating.

Radiation with no Transparent BC or Solar


The following is a sample energy balance from a radiation analysis containing five parts. There are four parts immersed in an air cavity (part 5). None of the parts has transmissivity. Comments about the meaning of certain items are written below the line and are preceded by a >>>> symbol. Radiosity Solution has converged Iter=12 ResNorm = 5.85774E-013 CPU time to solve radiosity matrix = 0.719 Radiation heat balance = 2.3363e-008/ 20.437 = 1.1431e-007% >>>> The 2.3363e-008 is the sum of the radiative energy. This value should be 0 or very close. The 20.437 is the sum of the absolute values of the radiative energy. The 1.1431e-007% is the total radiative energy divided by the sum of the absolute values. This is an indicator of the error in the radiative energy balance. Radiation Heat Loads by Part ID:
ID

Radiation Heat Load (Watts)


-2.583 -2.5318 -2.5806 -2.5148 10.21 2.3363e-008

Area (mm^2)
5959.3 5959.2 5959.3 5959.3 1.2296e+005 1.4679e+005

Surface Temperature (K)


365.23 363.07 365.56 364.2 298.25 309.01

Emissivity

Transmissivity

1 2 3 4 5 Totals

0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.7

0 0 0 0 0

>>>>Parts 1-4 are each losing about 2.5 Watts through radiation, and part 5, the enclosure, is receiving that radiant energy. The totals indicate that the total heat lost equals the sum of the heat gain, indicated by the total heat load summing to 0. The temperature for each part is an area-weighted temperature, and the total temperature is average temperature for all of the parts.

Radiation with Transparent Boundary Conditions


When transparent boundary conditions are included in a radiation analysis, the energy balance information is presented slightly differently as shown in the radiative energy balance from such an analysis. Comments about the meaning of certain items are written below the line and are preceded by a >>>> symbol. Radiation heat balance = -4.5792e-008/ 226.96 = -2.0176e-008% >>>>As in the previous example, the -4.5792e-008 value is the net radiative heat exchange within the model. A very small value means that a good energy balance has been attained. Radiation Heat Loads by Part ID ID Radiation Area Surface Temp
Emissivity Transmissivity

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2 3 4 6 Totals

Heat Load (Watts) -36.289 / 0 transparentBC -32.062 / 0 transparentBC 0.18324 / -76.557 transparentBC -8.3889 / 0 transparentBC
-76.557/ -76.557

(mm^2)
6.917e+005 1599.3 1767.8 2.029e+005 8.980e+005

(K)
1268.5 1015.7 980.85 1270.7 1268 0.94 0.94 0.05 0.94 0 0 0.8 0

>>>> Parts 2 and 3 are losing about 36 and 32 Watts, respectively. Part 6, the enclosure, is losing about 8 Watts. The sum of the energy lost from these three parts equals the energy lost through the transparent boundary condition. The transparent part, part 4, is only picking up a small amount of energy because it is losing most of its energy through the transparent boundary condition. Note that the total transparent BC heat load = total radiation heat load. This indicates a good energy balance.

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Solar Heating
The Solar model works in conjunction with the radiation model, and supports radiative heat transfer through transparent media and simulates the effects of shadowing on other objects. The Solar Heating dialog allows for specification of specific geographical locations as well as input of latitude and longitude. The date, time, compass direction, and object orientation relative to the sky are also specified. A full report of the radiative energy balance similar to the reports shown in the previous section is provided during and after the analysis. Geometry To properly compute the solar heating of an object, it must be fully enclosed by a larger volume that represents the environment. A volume representing the ground can also be included in the model, but is not required. The purpose of both regions (environment and ground) is to properly simulate the effects of reflected and emitted radiative heat transfer between the object and its surroundings. These two elements in a solar model allow for proper simulation of the indirect solar flux to and from the ground and the radiative energy loss and/or gain to the sky. The ground volume should be approximately a meter thick. The thickness is significant only if diurnal heating over several days is studied, in which case it is necessary to compute the thermal inertia of the ground. The ground part should be approximately 20 times wider than the studied object. The shape of the environment volume is not critical, and a hemisphere or cube are the most convenient choices. The environment volume should extend at least 10 times the height of the objects in the analysis model. A smaller environment can be used, but if natural convection is analyzed, a small volume will influence and potentially complicate the buoyancy-induced flow. Also, if diurnal heating is analyzed, a cold sky temperature that is too close to the object will artificially cool the object through conduction.

Note that only three dimensional geometry is supported for solar analyses because the motion of the sun is a function of its altitude and its East-West (azimuth angle) orientation. Since the solar energy flux is a function of three dimensional space, CFdesign does not convert this energy into an equivalent energy load in two dimensional models. For example, for a model that is axisymmetric in the Y axis, solar input only exists on one side of this object. This conflicts with the condition of symmetry about the Y axis because the solar heating is non-symmetric by its very nature.

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The relative locations of objects in an analysis model are important because shadowing is computed by the Solar Heating model. When an object blocks solar flux (either partially or completely) from hitting another object, that blocked object is shadowed. Such an object is still subject to receiving indirect radiant heat flux from the sky, the ground, and surrounding objects.

Analysis Settings Temperature boundary conditions and emissivity values should be specified for both the ground and sky.

The ground temperature depends on the location on the Earth, and should be specified on the external surface of the ground volume. The emissivity of the ground should be specified as a property of the ground material. This value depends on the type of material. Grass surfaces, for example, may have an emissivity of about 0.3, while asphalt may have an emissivity of about 0.8. White surfaces such as an airport tarmac, are highly reflective, and would tend to have very low emissivity values. During the day, the sky temperature is nearly the ambient temperature. At night, however, the sky temperature falls to about 0 C. On very cloudy nights in warm climates, the sky temperature may be warmer than this. On clear nights in cold climates, the sky temperature can be as cold as -15 C. The amount of cloud cover and the amount of ambient light affect the amount of radiant energy that is reflected off the sky and back to earth (the albedo). Use the value of emissivity specified on air to control the emissivity of the sky (and hence the reflectivity). The emissivity controls the amount of reflected energy: (reflection = 1-emissivity). A clear sky with little or no cloud cover has a higher emissivity value (and hence lower reflectivity) than a cloudy sky. At night, a clear sky might have an emissivity as high as 1, but because of the low night-time sky temperature, it acts as an emitter that is cold, so little heat is emitted back to the object and ground. A cloudy night sky will have a lower emissivity (higher reflection), so the clouds reflect the radiation emission from the ground, and will limit the heat loss of the ground.

To study diurnal heating, specify the sky temperature as a transient boundary condition, and assign the emissivity of the air (which is automatically assigned to the exterior surface of the environment volume) as a function of temperature. During the

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day, high sky temperature corresponds to lower emissivity. During the night, low sky temperature corresponds to higher emissivity values. Transparent objects such as windows can be incorporated into solar heating analyses. Assign a transmissivity property value to such parts in the Material Editor. Because all parts are internal to a solar heating analysis, the transparent boundary condition should not be used in a solar heating model. This boundary condition is used for setting an external temperature on objects that are on the exterior of a model, so it is not appropriate for objects in the interior of a solar analysis. Running a Solar Heating Analysis There are two ways to run a solar heating analysis: as steady-state or as transient. When run as steady state, the time specified on the Solar Heating dialog does not change throughout the calculation. This is ideal for computing the worst case solar heat loading on an object during the heat of the day. Also, this regime is useful for determining seasonal variations in the peak solar loading. To study the variation of solar loading over a longer period of time (either within a single day or over multiple days and nights), a solar heating model can be run transient. The time and date specified on the Solar Heating dialog are that at the beginning of the simulation. If analyzing diurnal heating over a long period of time (several days, for example), we have found that it is convenient to divide a day into 100 time steps. This is a time step size of 864 seconds. Such a large time step should be very effective if Flow is disabled on the Solve dialog. If buoyancy effects are to be studied, then a significantly smaller time step will be necessary. When running a diurnal solar analysis, it will likely be important to vary the sky temperature with time so that the appropriate value is used during day and night. Likewise, define the sky emissivity to be temperature-dependent to properly represent the reflective effects of ambient light and cloud cover. The two result quantities that provide the most insight into the effects of solar loading are Temperature and Solar Heat Flux. Solar heat flux is enabled automatically for Solar applications, and is included in the Global Scalar Result list. Radiation Energy Balance with Solar Heating A complete reporting of the radiation energy balance is also provided in the Summary file when running Solar Heating. Below is a sample of such a report. Comments about the meaning of certain items are written below the line and are preceded by a >>>> symbol. Simulation Time 1.728000e+003 seconds, year = 2006, month = 2, day = 1 hour = 12 minute = 25 second = 5 L2 Norm of residual before solve = 1.06209e-003 Radiosity Solution has converged Iter=10 ResNorm = 6.36236E-014 CPU time to solve radiosity matrix = 4 Radiation heat balance = 4.1933e-010/ 86.259 = 4.8613e-010% Radiation Heat Loads by Part ID: ID Radiation Heat Load (Watts)
1 2 3 4 5 6 0.1875/ 0 solar 0.19787/ 0 solar 12.858/ 14.379 solar 0.57946/ 0.51806 solar 0.78074/ 0.69285 solar 71.656/ 70.67 solar

Area (mm^2)
5959.3 5959.3 1.56e+005 5959.3 5959.3 1.21e+005

Surface Temperature (K)


298.43 298.83 303.46 300.24 301.29 303.73

Emissivity

Transmissivity

0.7 0.7 0.2 0.7 0.7 0.94

0 0 0.6 0 0 0

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Total

86.259/ 86.259

3.01e+005

303.27

>>>> Part 3 is picking up 14.379 Watts through incoming solar flux, but its net increase is only 12.858. This means that this part lost about 1.5 Watts to its surroundings. Part 6, conversely, has a slightly higher net influx than it received from solar. This means that it picked up additional radiant energy from its surroundings. Note that the total solar heat load = total radiation heat load, indicating a good radiation energy balance. For more about the Solar Heating dialog

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Compressible Flow
When a fluid flow is compressible, the fluid density varies with its pressure. Compressible flows are usually high speed flows with Mach numbers greater than about 0.3. Examples include aerodynamic applications such as flow over a wing or aircraft nacelle as well as industrial applications such as flow through high-performance valves. Incompressible flows do not have such a variation of density. The key differentiation between compressible and incompressible is the velocity of the flow. A fluid such as air that is moving slower than Mach 0.3 is considered incompressible, even though it is a gas. A gas that is run through a compressor is not truly considered compressible (in the thermodynamic sense) unless its velocity exceeds Mach 0.3. This is important to note because analyses run as compressible can carry be harder to run, and require more longer analysis times than incompressible flows. In CFdesign, the distinction between subsonic compressible and full compressible is based on the Mach number. Subsonic compressible flows have a Mach number between 0.3 and 0.8. The relationship between pressure and density is weak, and no shocks will be computed within the flow. Compressible flows have a Mach number greater than 0.8. The pressure strongly affects the density, and shocks are possible. Compressible flows can be either transonic (0.8 < M < 1.2) or supersonic (1.2 < M < 3.0). In supersonic flows, pressure effects are only transported downstream. The upstream flow is not affected by conditions and obstructions downstream. The speed of sound is given as a:

Where

=1.4 for air, R = gas constant, and T = reference static temperature (in absolute units).

The velocity, V, is then the product of the sound speed, a, and the Mach number, M: The total temperature, Tt, is a key parameter as well, and is the sum of the static temperature and the dynamic temperature. There are two way to calculate total temperature:

V is the velocity Cp is the gas specific heat

For air, Cp = 1005 m2/(s2 K) Note that the total temperature must be specified as a constant value for analyses that do not have heat transfer and as a boundary condition for those that do. The total pressure, Pt, is another useful quantity for running compressible analyses. It is the sum of the static pressure and the dynamic pressure. If the flow accelerates through a geometrically converging section to sonic speed, the flow is considered to be choked. When choked, no additional mass can pass through the constriction region, even as the pressure drop is increased (by lowering the outlet back pressure). The flow downstream of the throat can then expand and become supersonic.

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Basic Solution Strategy


Compressible flow analyses are much more sensitive to the applied boundary conditions and material properties than incompressible analyses. If the applied settings do not define a physically real flow situation, then the analysis can be very unstable and may fail to reach a converged solution. For this reason, we recommend that you understand the flow situation that you are trying to analyze. Proper specification of the boundary conditions and material properties will greatly improve the chances of a successful analysis. Test-Runs A technique that can be very helpful when starting a new analysis is to mock up a two dimensional representation of the model to ensure that all conditions are correct. Inconsistent settings will be revealed very quickly as a 2D model is run, allowing for much faster debugging of the analysis. When the settings properly define the analysis, they can be applied to the (usually) much bigger 3D (or more detailed 2D) model with confidence that any additional adjustments to the model have to be made to the mesh and not the fundamental set-up. Meshing To capture physical elements such as shocks, the mesh size will have to be quite fine in critical areas. The mesh can be less fine in non-critical areas. A good guideline governing mesh transition is that the mesh size should not transition by more than a factor of four between neighboring fluid volumes. In general, a coarse mesh will be more stable but less accurate. For this reason, as part of the test procedure described above, in some cases it is recommended to verify the analysis set-up with a coarse mesh, and then when you are confident in your settings, refine the mesh to improve accuracy. Materials Use a material with a density that varies with Equation Of State. It is very important to use the correct fluid reference quantities. The reference static pressure and static temperature are used to initialize the density. Because of this, the reference temperature needs to be reasonable and the reference pressure needs to be exact for the gage reference point to be correct. Set these values on the Material Editor by creating a new material, and entering them in the Reference Values section. Heat Transfer To include heat transfer in a compressible analysis, apply Total (stagnation) temperature boundary conditions instead of static temperatures at the inlets. Total temperature should also be applied to any solids or walls with known temperature conditions. (Do not use a Static Temperature boundary condition to define a known temperature in a compressible analysis. At a wall the value of static and total temperature is the same, and should be applied as a total temperature.) The Set Heat Transfer to On in the Solve dialog. The value of Total Temperature on the Solve dialog will be ignored if heat transfer is enabled. Note that when heat transfer is present in a compressible analysis, viscous dissipation, pressure work, and kinetic energy terms are calculated. It is only necessary to enable heat transfer if you are solving for heat transfer or for flow velocities higher than M = 3.0 if viscous dissipation is important or to capture a very crisp shock. It is very important that the total temperature is specified correctly. A good test is to run zero iterations and check that the Mach number at the inlet is the expected value. If not, adjust the total temperature and inlet boundary conditions accordingly. If heat transfer is not solved for, it is necessary to specify a Total temperature in the Solve dialog. The equation for total temperature is given above.

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Related Topics
Internal Compressible Flow External Compressible Flow

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Internal Compressible Flow


Internal compressible flow is often found in industrial valves and nozzles. Such flow is typically fed by either a blow-down tank or a known flow rate. The physical mechanism used to feed internal compressible flow should be understood as it determines the analysis strategy. The first question to answer is if the flow is truly compressible. A good test is to set up the analysis as an incompressible flow (following standard best practices for incompressible flows), and run it. If the Mach number in a region of the device approaches or exceeds 0.8, then the flow is likely compressible. Follow the appropriate procedure to run the analysis as compressible. If the device is fed from a pressurized holding tank, and the outlet pressure is known Inlet: Specify total pressure The total pressure will be the static pressure of the non-moving air within the tank. Inlet: If running heat transfer, specify total temperature. Outlet: Specify static pressure (P = 0) Set the reference pressure equal to the ambient pressure on the Material Editor. If the device is fed from a pressurized holding tank, and the outlet pressure is not known Inlet: Specify total pressure. The total pressure will be the static pressure of the non-moving air within the tank. Inlet: If running heat transfer, specify total temperature. Outlet: Specify static pressure (P = 0) Set the reference pressure = ambient pressure. Add an outlet extension to the device so that the specified static pressure does not influence or interfere with the flow as it leaves the physical device. This will allow for the calculation of the true outlet pressure, and for any shocks or expansion fans to form. If the model cannot be extended at the outlet, and the inlet velocity (or volume flow rate) is known Inlet: Specify velocity (or volume flow rate) and total pressure. The total pressure will be the static pressure of the non-moving air within the tank. Outlet: Specify Unknown condition Set the reference pressure equal to the ambient pressure. This set up will not allow for shocks or expansion fans at the device outlet. If the model cannot be extended at the outlet, and the inlet mass flow rate is known Inlet: Specify mass flow rate Outlet: Specify Unknown condition Set the reference pressure equal to the ambient pressure. This set up will not allow for shocks or expansion fans at the device outlet.

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External Compressible Flow


External compressible flow can be classified into two categories: aerodynamic applications that are in open air (either at altitude or sea-level) aerodynamic applications in a wind-tunnel.

Unlike internal flows, both types involve flow that passes over and around a device (instead of through it). Examples include flow over a wing, missile, or aircraft nacelle. The strategies for solving open-air and wind tunnel analyses differ slightly in the domain size and typical inlet condition. Compressible Open-Air Flow For open air applications, the solution domain is not defined as part of the model (unlike a wind-tunnel). There are some basic guidelines that drive the size of the domain based on the dimensions of the device. These are only guidelines, and are subject to some variability depending on the circumstances.

Inlet: Apply the Velocity (of the object) and static pressure (P = 0) (Total temperature if solving for heat transfer). Outlet: Specify the Unknown condition If the domain height is less than 20y (see above), then specify a slip condition on the far-field boundary. If the boundary is 20y or more, then either leave the far-field boundaries unspecified, making them walls, or assign the free-stream velocity. The latter will help develop the flow quicker, but will cause convergence problems if a shock hits it. Modify the Reference Pressure (on the Material Editor) for the altitude. If heat transfer is of interest, the altitude-correct Reference Temperature should be specified as part of the material properties as well. The formula below shows how to calculate reference pressure and temperature at altitude:

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-1000 ft < hp < 36,000 ft:

hp = altitude in feet; Palt = static pressure at altitude Talt = static temperature at altitude Psl = pressure at sea level Tsl = temperature at sea level 36,000 ft < hp < 65,000 ft:

If not solving for heat transfer, be sure to specify the total temperature on the Solve task dialog. Total Temperature is computed using this equation:

Compressible Wind-Tunnel Flow The inlet is typically fed from a blow-down tank. Inlet: Specify total pressure (Pt). (The total pressure will be the static pressure of the non-moving air within the tank.) If the velocity is known, specify it as well. Outlet: Specify static pressure (P = 0) Set the reference pressure equal to the ambient pressure on the Material Editor. For heat transfer, specify the total temperature at the inlet.

Angle of Attack If the object has an angle of attack relative to the flow, it is better to re-orient the calculation domain instead of the object. The domain orientation should be that the free-stream velocity and the domain sides are parallel:

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Joule Heating
Joule heating is the generation of heat by passing an electric current through a metal. Also known as resistance heating, it simulates heating in electrical resistance heaters and stove-top burner elements. Inputs include current, voltage, and the material resistivity. Joule Heating Setup Two boundary conditions are available to define a Joule heating condition: Current and Voltage. The typical way to define the loading is to assign a current on one end of the solid through which electricity is passing and a voltage of 0 on the other end:

Alternatively, a potential (voltage) difference can be applied across the device by specifying a non-zero voltage on one end and a zero-value voltage on the other. In this case, the current boundary condition is omitted.

The Resistivity material property is the product of the resistance and the cross-sectional area divided by the length of the part. A value for resistivity is required for any solid that is heated by the Joule effect. The relationship between resistivity and resistance

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r = resistivity (ohms-length unit) R = resistance (ohms) L = length of the device A = cross sectional area

A non-zero value for resistivity should always be specified for solids undergoing Joule heating. For non-conductive and insulative materials or materials in which Joule heating does not occur, specify a resistivity value that is more than 1000 times larger than the smallest specified resistivity in the model. By default, CFdesign considers such a material to be an insulator, and does not solve the electric potential and current equations. (These materials are ignored by the solver when calculating the electric potential and electric current.) To simulate a resistivity that is higher than this threshold (1000 times the minimum), add the following flag entry to your cfdesign_flags.txt file: max_electrical_resistance_ratio A where A is the desired ratio. For example, if A = 10000, then the largest allowable resistivity in the model can be 10000 times the value of the smallest value. Note, however, that values of this ratio higher than 1000 can lead to numerical instability, and cause convergence difficulties. As with any heat transfer analysis, a temperature needs to be specified somewhere in the model (either as a temperature boundary condition or as a surrounding temperature for a film coefficient boundary condition). Mesh objects heated by the Joule effect with at least two layers of elements across the cross-section. This will ensure that there are enough nodes to resolve the temperature gradients across the device. Joule heating is invoked automatically if the Current and Voltage Boundary Conditions and the Resistivity Material Property are set. Additionally, heat transfer must be enabled on the Solve task dialog. There is not a separate button to invoke Joule Heating. A useful technique is to hand-calculate the temperature differential based on the resistivity, applied current, and dimensions of the object. To do this: 1. Begin by computing the resistance, R, of the object using the length, L, Area, A, and the resistivity, r: 2. Next use the Voltage, V, and the Resistance to compute the current, I: 3. Calculate the dissipated power, P: 4. The temperature differential is then computed using the power, length, area, and thermal conductivity, K:

This will provide an estimate of the temperature change that will occur as a result of Joule heating. It is recommended to compute the temperature change as a reality check to ensure that the specified values are physical and reasonable.

Related Topics
Electrical Boundary Conditions Resistivity Material Property

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Rotating: Turbomachinery
CFdesign provides the ability to analyze rotating devices surrounded by a static (non-rotating) frame of reference. By physically rotating the device and the region immediately surrounding it, this capability offers greater flexibility for analyzing rotating machinery. Examples include pumps, fans, blowers, and turbines. Centrifugal, axial, and mixed configurations are supported. Multiple rotating components in a device (such as the pump and turbine in an automotive torque converter) can be analyzed. This functionality gives the user the ability to analyze the flow within the blade passages of a rotating device. It also allows study of the interaction between rotating and non-rotating geometry. A classic example is the interaction between the rotor and the stator in an axial compressor or turbine. Another example is the influence of a volute cutwater (tongue) on the exit flow from a centrifugal pump impeller. Geometric Considerations The CFdesign rotating machinery capability analyzes rotating devices using a locally rotating frame of reference. This region completely surrounds a rotating object, and is called the rotating region. Areas in the model that are not rotating are analyzed in a static (absolute) frame of reference. These regions are called static regions. (Fluid in a static region can move, but the volume itself does not.) The following are geometric considerations for setting up rotating analyses: Each rotating object must be completely immersed in a rotating region. Rotating regions rotate using their own relative rotating frame of reference. The mesh that is generated in a rotating region will physically rotate with the parts that are immersed. Immersed parts can be modeled as voids or as solid within the rotating region. Solid objects in a rotating region rotate at the same speed as the rotating region. The interface between a rotating and a static region is called the periphery zone. Within the periphery zone, the outer element faces of the rotating region slide along the neighboring element faces of the static region. The size and shape of a rotating region should correspond (loosely) to that of the rotating device. Rotating regions are usually fairly simple cylindrical shapes. This allows the element faces on both sides of the periphery zone to match. The rotating region should extend to roughly half-way between the outer blade tips and the closest point of the surrounding non-rotating wall. Do not apply any boundary conditions to the periphery zone. Care should be exercised when constructing fluid geometry so this is not necessary. Rotating regions must not overlap. Devices with interfering rotors such as gear pumps cannot be modeled with the rotating machinery capability because their rotating regions overlap. Instead, use angular motion. A rotating region cannot directly contact a non-rotating solid region, even if the solid is not inside of the rotating region. An example is a solid annulus surrounding the outside of rotating region. The result is that the solid annulus (which is supposed to be static) will rotate. Objects within a rotating region that have a uniform cross-section that satisfy the requirements for mesh extrusion can be extruded. The mesh inside of the rotating region, however, cannot be extruded.

The following graphics illustrate these principals:

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If the blade tip clearance is extremely small (as is the case when there are tight seals), the surrounding static region can be eliminated. An example is shown:

A rotating region must not be in direct contact with a solid region. The outer edge of the rotating region must either be a fluid or an exterior boundary.

Boundary Conditions If the rotational speed of the rotor is known, then pressure boundary conditions can usually be specified. In many cases, the purpose of the analysis is to determine the flow rate for a given pressure. Apply a pressure rise across the device. This will impose the resistance faced (head). We recommend starting such an analysis with equal pressures assigned to both the inlet and outlet. As the impeller starts rotating and moving flow, the pressure rise can be gradually imposed. This can be done either manually or with a time-varying boundary condition. Another situation involving a known rotational speed is that the flow rate is known, and the pressure drop is the desired output quantity. For such a model, specify a pressure of 0 gage at the inlet and the flow rate at the outlet. This method will often solve faster than specifying a pressure on both the inlet and outlet. If the rotational speed of the rotor is unknown (as in the case of the torque-driven or the free-spinning scenarios), then a specified velocity or flow rate is most often appropriate. Recall that a pressure MUST be assigned to at least one opening in the model unless the model is fully enclosed. Heat transfer boundary conditions can be applied as appropriate to conduct a heat transfer analysis.

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Running Rotating Analyses


Rotating device analyses are always run transient (time-varying). This is because the mesh of the rotating region physically rotates relative to the static regions in the model. Transient will be set automatically on the Solve dialog when a part is designated as a rotating region. A Time Step Calculator computes the ideal time step size for a known rotational speed. The time step size is computed to be the amount of time per blade passage. For cases in which the rotational speed is not known (for known torque and free spinning analyses), use Intelligent Solution Control to automatically determine and vary the time step size throughout the analysis. The time step size will be modified to ensure that no more than three degrees of rotation pass for each time step. This criteria has been found to be quite stable for rotating analyses. In addition to the time step size, CFdesign automatically invokes several other settings for rotating devices: The number of iterations per time step is set to 1. The Automatic Turbulence Startup is set to the Extend mode. Be sure to set a Results Output frequency. This controls how frequently the time steps are saved to the disk. Saved time steps can be used to animate the results after the analysis is completed. Care should be exercised when setting the output frequency to avoid saving so many results sets that your hard drive fills up. As the analysis runs, the rotation of the rotating region (and any solids within the region) will appear both computationally and visually in the run-time results viewer. At the conclusion of an analysis, a comma separated variable file (jobname_torque.csv) containing a time history of velocity and torque is written to the working directory. This information is also accessible on the Review_Notes task dialog. Note that it is not possible to change the mesh and continue a rotating region analysis from a saved iteration. If the mesh is changed, the analysis must be started from iteration 0 (the beginning). This is a consequence of the nodal organization and bookkeeping that occurs during the initialization of a rotating region analysis. Time Step for Known Rotational Speed For many rotating devices, a time step size equal to the blade pass time allows a practical way to run enough revolutions to achieve accurate flow rate and/or pressure head prediction. An example is a pump impeller with six blades. Using the blade pass time as the time step size, a complete revolution is completed in just six time steps. Some devices require as many as 100 revolutions before reaching a steady-state condition. This time step strategy allows this requirement to be satisfied in a practical manner. To facilitate this, use the time step calculator on the Solve task dialog to computes the time step size based on either a prescribed number of degrees per time step or the number of blades. Open the dialog by clicking the Estimate button on the Solve dialog. Specify either the Degrees per Time Step or the Number of Blades, and the time step will be computed based on the rotational speed specified as part of the Rotating Region. If the number of blades is specified, the time step size will be computed using a single time step per blade passage. If the model contains multiple rotating objects, he fastest rotational speed is used as the basis for the time step size computed in this dialog. The Time Step Calculator is performing the following calculation to determine the time step size:

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D = number of degrees per time step = 360 / Number of Blades (for a time step size = to a blade passage) N = rotational speed (in RPM) When using this approach, the impeller will not appear to move because with each time step it rotates a complete blade passage. This approach will not produce a time-accurate solution for the interaction between the rotor and a stator or a static volute. (It will produce accurate results for steady-state quantities such as resultant flow rate.) To save results with a finer resolution or to obtain a time accurate solution for the rotor-stator interaction, reduce the time step size to three degrees per time step and run an additional revolution after completing the set of multiple revolutions. Non-Impulsive Startup When a constant rotation speed is prescribed, an impulsive start means that the impeller accelerates from a stop to its rated speed in just one time step.This is hardly a realistic condition! In some devices, an impulsive start has been found to create large separation zones on the pressure side of the blade passage. These separation areas prevent the blades from pumping as much fluid as they would in reality. The forces and vortex generation is quite large when this happens. In some cases, these vortices will be carried out of the impeller and a normal flow field will evolve over time. However, in some instances the vortices and the separation remain and the flow rate through the device is greatly under predicted. To prevent an impulsive start up, prescribe the impeller speed as a function of time using a table. A good guideline is to set the rotation speed at 0 RPM at time 0, and allow it to increase over the next 30 time steps to its full rated speed. If using a time step size that allows the rotation of one passage per time step (as described in the previous section), then multiply the time step size by 30 to determine the time at which the impeller should be rotating at its full speed. For example, if a six bladed fan is to rotate at 1000 RPM, the time step size would be such that 60 degrees of rotation occurs per time step. At 1000 RPM, this works out to a time step of 0.01 seconds. If the impeller is to ramp up over the first 30 time steps, then our ramp up time is 30 x 0.01 = 0.3 seconds. The rotational speed table would then look like:
Impeller Speed(RPM) 0 1000 1000 Time, sec 0 0.3 100

The last line is to hold the rotational speed constant through the duration of the analysis. Flow Initialization Approach The approach described in the previous sections works well for most applications, but if flow reversal within the device is a problem and is not washed out, then an additional approach is needed. Run the first run two revolutions with a known specified flow rate running. Specify a velocity or flow rate on one opening and a pressure on the other. (The placement of the flow rate and pressure should be based on numerical stability. Place the specified pressure where it makes sense to do so--not too close to the impeller if possible.)

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After two revolutions, replace the flow rate boundary condition with a pressure condition (to impart the specified head rise), and continue the analysis for another two or three revolutions. The flow rate will then adjust slightly, resulting in a better overall solution. The challenge with this approach is knowing the appropriate flow rate with which to start the analysis with. This can usually be calculated using velocity triangles based on the known rotating speed and the blade angle, and the assumption of ideal flow. This initial flow just needs to loosely approximate the operating condition, and will provide a much better starting condition for the device than an impulsive no-flow start. Solution Stability for High Speed Applications High speed rotating analyses (rotational speeds greater than 10 000 RPM) often exhibit these tendencies: Either pressure or velocity diverges within the mesh enhancement layers, particularly for incompressible flow. Divergence occurs in the first 2 mesh enhancement layers, often away from the rotating region. Divergence typically occurs after the ramp-up period when the rotational speed is constant.

Divergence can often be avoided by: Change the advection scheme from the default ADV2 to ADV1 (on the Analyze task, click the Solution Control button, then click the Advection button). Disabling Mesh Enhancement or use only a single layer (Mesh task-Enhancement button). These changes should allow the analysis to retain stability and eventually settle at a constant hydraulic torque value. Strategies for Free-Spinning Rotation A two-stage startup process has been found to work well: 1. Start by selecting the Known Rotational Speed option, and assign a rotational speed that is close to the final rotational speed. (Make a guess if necessary). This helps the analysis get started. Use a non-impulsive start-up for stability (using the Table variation method). 40 time steps has been found to be an adequate start-up. Change the Analysis Type to Free Spinning, and continue the analysis.

2.

Property of the working fluid: Enabling compressibility (on the Solve dialog) often improves stability. A constant-property gas or liquid can be used. The pressure solution will be smoother since the compressibility term is added to the pressure equation, but the density will remain constant. Inertia of the rotating region: Inertia only affects the startup of the device, if started as free-spinning. If started using this method, it will not affect the final rotational speed computed as a free-spinning device. Strategies for Simulating Large Fans and Blowers Physically large fans and blowers can sometimes require long analysis times, and may require some special techniques to achieve high accuracy. The time requirements can make developing the pressure-flow rate curve challenging. 1. Intelligent Solution Control is disabled by default. If it is not, it is good practice to disable it. Do this from the Solution control button on the Solve task dialog.

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2.

Begin by increasing the rotating speed from 0 RPM to the target RPM over 5 revolutions with the time step size being the time it takes for the device to rotate through a single blade passage. Continue with the blade-to-blade time step for another 10-20 complete revolutions. Larger devices will require more revolutions than smaller ones. For example, for a device with a 3 foot diameter wheel / impeller / fan disk, 10-20 revolutions may be necessary in this stage to start to correctly develop flow patterns. Stop the analysis. Change the time step to be the time required to rotate one full revolution. Many revolutions may be required to develop the flow and reach a quasi-steady state solution for the initial 0 back pressure condition (inlet pressure zero, outlet pressure zero, fully 0-open condition) run. Because Intelligent Solution Control is disabled, it may be necessary to set the following under-relaxation values manually: pressure 0.25 velocity 0.25 turbulence 0.05 eddy viscosity 0.05

3.

4.

5.

To develop the head-capacity table, it will be necessary to vary the back-pressure to determine the resultant flow rate. To do this: Increase the back pressure to about 20% of first target point. For example, if the first target point on the curve is at 10 inH2O dP, specify 2 inH2O at the outlet. This will show the behavior of the system and the trend of what to expect as you ramp up to your operating point. Increase the back pressure in 20% increments until the desired operating point is reached. Visualization Notes Results from a rotating analysis are viewed using the visualization tools described in the Result Visualization Section. It is often useful to animate results to more fully understand the rotational effects and the interaction between the rotating and static geometry. Display Relative Velocity by selecting Relative from the Global Results task dialog. The Relative component is the rotational component (r omega) subtracted from the Absolute frame. This is very useful for visualizing the flow within the impeller blade passages. Wall results data on the surfaces of rotating regions can be obtained for any saved time step. Prior to going into the Wall Results dialog, it is necessary to first go to Global_Animation, and activate those times steps on which wall results are required. Select the desired time step from the Global Results dialog.

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Computing
When an analysis is started by clicking the Solve button on the Solve dialog, two important steps occur: 1. 2. A signal is sent to the Server (servman.exe) indicating that the analysis needs to begin. The Server then sends a signal to the Solver.

The second step initiates the transfer of the model data from the User Interface to the Solver and then instructs the Solver to commence with the calculation. While running, the visual results are transferred from the Solver back to the Interface to provide for the Run-Time Results Display. When the analysis is complete, the Server directs the Solver to send the final results back to the Interface. By separating the User Interface from the Solver, it is possible to shut down CFdesign after the analyses is started. This foundation also provides the basis for Fast Track--a way to run analyses on a networked machine different from the machine that contains the original model and Queuing--a way to run analyses in batch. On a stand-alone installation, this entire process is transparent. After hitting Solve, the analysis runs, the analysis data files are kept in the working directory as the communication between the Server and the Interface and Solver clients is managed automatically. Use the Check for Updates function in the Help menu to query the CFdesign Portal about the availability of new CFdesign Updates. CFdesign is updated regularly to provide bug fixes and functional updates.

High Performance Computing (Distributed Computing)


CFdesign for High Performance Computing is a fully parallelized version that utilizes shared and distributed memory computing technologies. Leveraging distributed computing technology allows more design iterations with greater complexity to run quicker and more efficiently. For more about system requirements, performance, and networking, please consult the CFdesign User Portal or Technical Support.

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Fast Track
Introduction
Fast Track is an innovative method within CFdesign to run analyses on remote computers on your network. It is a way to temporarily ramp up analysis capability by using (often under-utilized) in-house computer resources. Fast Track is not an ASP model nor is it distributed computing. Alternatively, it is an innovative way to run multiple analyses on multiple computers. Temporary Solver licenses can be leased for a few weeks or a few months at a time. (Consult your Account Manager for details.) With these licenses, you can perform numerous analyses simultaneously, offering a great way to explore all those what if scenarios that are critical to a successful design effort.

Definitions
Interface Computer

The computer on which the user interacts with CFdesign to set up the model. This computer is typically the users primary computer, and is often where geometry is created with a CAD tool.
Solver Computer

The computer where the computation is performed. The Solver computer is selected from the Solve dialog on the Interface computer.
Server Manager and cfdserv.exe

Cfdserv.exe is a service that must be running on an Solver computer. This service waits for a call from an interface computer to start an analysis. When a call is received, it provides communication between the two computers. This service is configured to start automatically on the Interface and Solver computers when the software is installed. It can be stopped, started, and monitored using Servman.exe, located in the installation directory. If an error occurs on the Interface computer indicating a refused connection, check that this service is running on the Solver computer.
Server Configuration File: server.cfg

The file contained in the installation directory of the Interface computer that lists all available Solver computers. By default, this file only contains an entry for the Interface computer (localhost), and looks like this:

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The host name and/or IP address of Solver computers must be included in this file.

Configuring Fast Track


The Interface and Solver computer(s) must be connected on the same network. Interface Computer In addition to a licensed installation of CFdesign, the server.cfg file must contain the host name(s) and/or the IP Addresses of the Analysis computers. The following example server.cfg file contains three analysis computers, in addition to the local machine (localhost):

This server.cfg file will cause these three machines to be listed on the Solver Computer menu on the Solve task dialog (on the Interface machine). Analysis Computer In addition to a correct, licensed installation, the cfdserv service must be running. Verify by starting the Server Manager (servman.exe) and noting the status.

Running with Fast Track


To run a Scenario with Fast Track, select the Scenario name from the Solver Computer drop menu on the Interface computer, and click Solve. The analysis data is then sent to the Solver Computer. The mesh is generated and the model calculated. As the scenario runs, results are sent back to the Interface computer, for results visualization. During the scenario, the model can be closed and CFdesign shut down on the Interface machine. When the analysis is opened on the Interface machine, the current progress or the finished results are automatically sent from the Analysis machine.

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The status of all scenarios running on each of the machines in your server.cfg file is listed in the Solution Monitor. Use this to check machine availability and analysis status.

Notes
A Network (floating) license is required. The Fast Track option is not available unless CFdesign is licensed with a network license. On a VPN, performance may be degraded due to slow network performance. The communication may even be interrupted due to timing out. Performance may be degraded if the interface and analysis computers are not on the same sub-net. When launching from Wildfire using the Mechanica option or from CATIA, the meshing must be performed on the Interface Computer before the model is run on an Analysis computer.

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Queuing (Batch Mode)


The Analysis Queue in CFdesign allows multiple analyses to be run in series, in much the same way as a batch process can be made to automate a succession of events. Instead of relying on a DOS batch file, however, the analysis queue requires no special steps, and is managed through the user interface. To add scenarios to the queue, simply clickthe Solve button on the Solve dialog. The first scenario will start to run immediately. Close the CFdesign interface (the analysis will continue to run). Open a subsequent analysis, and click the Solve button on the Solve dialog to add it to the Queue. When Solve is clicked, the analysis is added to the queue, and the word Queued will appear in the Status bar in the lower left corner of the Interface. Queued analyses will be run in the order that they were submitted. Scenarios in the queue are listed in the CFdesign Solution Monitor. When a scenario is completed, it is removed from the list. At any time while a scenario is running, it can be opened in the CFdesign interface and the current state of the solution will be loaded for display. To remove a scenario from the Queue, open it in the CFdesign interface. Click the Stop button on the Solve dialog. That analysis will then be removed from the queue and will be removed from the list in the Solution Monitor. If a scenario diverges or stops because of errors, the next scenario in the queue will start. When a scenario is completed, open it in the CFdesign interface. If the analysis was run on a remote machine (via Fast Track), open the scenario on the machine from which it was launched. This step is very important to ensure that the all of the data is written to the design study file. Do not attempt to manually copy over files from the solver machine back to the interface machine. This will corrupt the design study file, and will likely cause your results to be lost. When you exit the interface, it is necessary to save the design study when prompted.

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Server Manager
For most installations, the CFdesign Server is configured automatically during the installation process. This is not the license server, but the server that controls the communication between the CFdesign User Interface and the Solver. An external tool called the Server Manager contains the settings for the Server. This is located in the installation directory,and is launched by clicking on servman.exe. The Installation Directory is where CFdesign is installed. The Analyze Directory is by default a sub-directory of the CFdesign installation. It can however be any directory that has write access on the local machine. Temporary files are written to this folder during the analysis.

The Server is automatically started as part of the Installation, and automatically starts when the machine is rebooted. In some instances, an issue may prevent communication between the Server Manager and the User Interface. The solution for these issues is to reset the Server Manager by following these steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click the Stop button to stop the service. Click the Uninstall button to uninstall the service. Click the Install button to re-install the service. Click the Start button to start the service.

If the Server must be stopped (such as when installing an update to the Server or to change the Analyze directory), follow these steps: 1. 2. 3. Click the Stop button. Click the Browse button adjacent to the Analyze folder field. Select a new folder.

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Solution Monitor
The CFdesign Solution Monitor is an external utility that tracks the CFdesign analysis activity of the computers listed in your server.cfg file. For each machine, the following information is provided: Which computers have CFdesign analyses running, and the owner of each analysis The current iteration of each running analysis The amount of CPU resources used for each machine

Note that the Solution Monitor lists all analyses running on a computer, regardless of who owns it. Use it to determine when shared computers are available, and to know who is currently running an analysis. Start the CFdesign Solution Monitor from the CFdesign entry in the Windows Start menu. It is a very small application, and does not require much system resources to run. Note: The server.cfg file is located in the CFdesign installation directory of the Interface computer, and lists all available Analysis computers. It is frequently used with Fast Track and HPC (High Performance Computing) to select the computers to be used for running remote analyses.

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