"Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.


Orbital Research Inc 4415 Euclid Avenue, Suite 500 Cleveland, OH, 44103
Active Vents

Mr. Russell Stucke Phone: (216) 649-0399 Fax: (216) 649-0347 Email: stucke@orbitalresearch.com Website: www.orbitalresearch.com Command: ONR - SBIR Topic: N07-095


Actuator Integrated Missile Steering System - AIMSS

PROBLEM STATEMENT Currently, missile control systems use servo-based actuators and control surfaces such as canards, wings and fins for aerodynamic control and steering. These control surfaces are required to be thin to minimize drag on missiles, and at the same time, are required to be structurally robust to withstand the severe aerodynamic and thermal loading encountered during high-speed flight operations.1 Conflicting design requirements for the control system on missiles create a challenging structural problem for tactical missiles. Additionally, control surfaces often need to be folded or retracted in some manner in order to facilitate integration onto the launch platform (aircraft, launch cell on a ship, or a submarine). This feature adds complexity and cost to the design of the servo-based control actuation system and also demands significant real-estate in the missile tail section which could be otherwise utilized for other payload. These design features limit the performance and effective use of high speed, long range weapon systems. A new low cost flight control system will improve missile lethality by providing reduced size and complexity when compared to traditional servo-based systems. Orbital Research Inc. (ORI) is working towards revolutionizing the design of control systems for future missiles and projectiles by way of replacing traditional servo-based control mechanisms with state-of-the-art actuator-based control systems and advanced steering methods. The proposed Actuator Integrated Missile Steering System (AIMSS) alleviates many of the design and structural challenges faced by high-speed missiles that use large conventional control surfaces for aerodynamic control. The system design goal for AIMSS is to provide desired stability and control authority over a wide speed range from Mach 0.1 to 4 using unconventional deployable controls, while driving the overall weight, cost and drag of the system down.

Orbital Research Inc

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ships and submarines. The program is evaluating AIMSS for applicability for any missile system with long slender bodies. active countermeasures. payload (fuel and warhead). To alleviate these design constraints. BASELINE TECHNOLOGY Control forces for maneuvering missiles can either be generated by deflecting the fins or wings located on the missile body. distribution is unlimited. AIMSS has the potential to revolutionize the performance of air-to-air missiles. 120mm and 155mm) and more. munitions and mortars (81mm. rocket propelled grenades. The AIMSS technology also has the potential to revolutionize the flight performance of next generation high speed cruise missiles which desire alternative flight control technologies. range. mission scenarios and speeds. developers are challenged with making missiles compatible with air. Successfully addressing the combination of speed and launch platform flexibility challenges will enable missiles to have a range of attack capabilities and make it tactically responsive. A major requirement for the generic cruise missile is to have a minimum speed threshold of at least Mach 3 and above. AIMSS is being evaluated on a generic expendable supersonic cruise missile platform for both the traditional long range cruise missiles and a sea skimming missile mission scenario. For this Navy program. Hence. The sponsor of the original solicitation is the Revolutionary Approach To Time-critical Long Range Strike (RATTLRS) program. tested and validated a platform technology termed Actuator Integrated Missile Steering System (AIMSS). maneuver footprint and cost when selecting traditional control surfaces. the Orbital Research team has designed. This requires the long range missiles to be highly flexible and compatible with diverse class platforms. the platform technology will offer first or second tier system integrators or military suppliers a competitive advantage in the production of next generation weapon systems. For example. This platform technology enables a family of AIMSS which are applicable on a range of slender bodies ranging in size. Both of these missions require precision guidance and control to improve hit probability. the control of the fins or wings is done by servo mechanism. 105mm. Traditionally. For both utility and usability. such a weapon can be used to strike long-range targets of opportunity or short-range targets that have small radar cross-sections that cannot be detected from far." WHO CAN BENEFIT? Traditional control surfaces on missiles greatly complicate the design of the vehicle due to conflicting design requirements that significantly impact vehicle performance. surface and subsurface launch platforms such as fighter and bomber aircraft. AIMSS will expand high-speed flight capabilities and improve performance to meet the design needs and costs for expendable supersonic vehicles. The sizes of these servos are dictated by the amount of torque required to rotate the fin about its axis. Weapon designers must make trade-offs between mission duration."Approved for public release. This force and motion results in Orbital Research Inc Page 2 of 5 . The large size of traditional fins causes their center of pressure to move over a relatively large region.

An active-vent is a new control technique. either additional space on the exterior of a missile or valuable space interior of the missile must be taken."Approved for public release. which enhances the boundary layer and subsequently the upstream and downstream flow structures. If larger servos are required. Flow is induced naturally due to pockets of low and high pressure regions in the near-wall flowfield. This transpiration that flows from one section of the missile to the other is generated by natural pressure differences around the body. spoiler. which is a measure of how much torque. The basic idea in the “active-vent” technique is to rely on natural ventilation of air to affect the pressure distribution around the body. and hence the size of servo required to rotate the fin to a new position. the microactuator system enables fast response rate due to Orbital Research Inc Page 3 of 5 . or any other shape that is found suitable for the given application. which uses discretely configured vents (holes) around the circumference of the missile tail section to enable flow transpiration. TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION The proposed Actuator Integrated Missile Steering System (AIMSS) incorporates mechanical actuators that are integrated with deployable flow effector that can assume the form of a miniature strake. and volume sparse area. Large force and motion requirements increase the cost. The effectiveness of a flow control actuator is largely characterized and dependent on its ability to exploit natural flow phenomena to achieve its control objective. The basic function of a mechanical actuator is to augment momentum mixing using passive or low frequency excitation. expensive. fins and reaction jet control are cost reduction and improved efficiency which come from reductions in the volume. propulsion and warhead. This technique is particularly appealing due to its simplicity in design with no external moving parts (hence no parasitic drag). The flow is self-limiting and power is required only to control the internal valves for closing and opening the vents. Radar cross section might be minimal for short-range weapons like bombs but could be a significant concern for applications like long-range cruise missiles where the radar signatures are a priority on long range flights. distribution is unlimited." large hinge moments. In the case of an afterbody device. and as the flow speed increases. the actuator (spoiler) has been shown to act as “aerobrakes” which can be used to generate pitching and yawing moments at low angles of attack. Alternatively. and control is implemented by changing the vent patterns actively using conventional valves. Past studies have shown that an orchestrated deployment of deployable actuators can generate precise control forces for fine-tuning the missile/projectile’s trajectory. and power consumption of the control system. In addition. The overarching benefits of an active flow control system over conventional control systems such as canards. Interior volume is typically used for engine space. size of the servo in an already dense. weight. The ventilation holes can be relatively small and convectional valves may be used to achieve active control effects. the pressure difference will increase around the base. which will scale the rate of flow transpiration without using any power for injection. exterior space increases the radar cross section of the aircraft.

Orbital Research is seeking a partnership/licensing arrangement with a prime contractor to transition the AIMSS technology to military weapon platforms. which requires them to expend less energy to generate a control force compared to the Table 1: Features. Both devices utilize the physical flow evolution processes to amplify the effect of the applied small disturbance.No exposed controls interrupting air flow . at the completion of this SBIR program in September of 2010. CURRENT STATE OF DEVELOPMENT The AIMSS provides smaller.Increased bandwidth . CFD simulations. the AIMSS will be at a TRL level 4.Improved threat interception and kill probability .Less Drag . distribution is unlimited. the AIMSS is at a TRL 3.Fast response . fit and function.Can be integrated into small and large slender bodies .Ease of implementation .Reduced aircraft susceptibility . A combination of wind tunnel tests.Low power.Low cost per round .Low acquisition cost ."Approved for public release. test and validate prototypes with all sub-systems. Orbital Research Inc Page 4 of 5 . momentum. and Benefits of the Orbital Research AIMSS technology Features Miniature Control Actuation System Advantages .Increased payload (hence lethality and kill probability Contained Design Built in steering mechanism .Reduced Radar Signature . weight and volume consumption . USAF Missile Datcom simulations.Low cost per unit Retrofittable design . The largest energy savings can be realized by using an actuator at regions of high receptivity whereby small perturbations are amplified through clever utilization of natural flow evolution and processes. perform meaningful live fire tests. and control authority gained. vent profiles. design and produce AIMSS with proper form. Through this SBIR program. or energy transfer is minimal. the Orbital Research team will address technical hurdles to design specifics within the AIMSS program. more efficient control for tactical missiles. Advantages. and integrate with the air vehicle platform. and 6DOF simulations will allow develop and determine the dimensions of the actuators." low inertia microdevices and also reduces the risks associated with control surface degradation due to aerothermal loading.Similar actuation schemes for diverse missions traditional control methods. As of October 2009. Hence.Enables in-flight maneuvering . the most efficient control scheme is one in which mass.Enables dynamic retargeting Benefits . Furthermore. The first or second tier military contractor will help identify and integrate remaining subsystems into a selected airframe.

Air Force. Army. PII.000 sq. 5/3/2007 5/2/2009 Orbital maintains a facility that was completed in September of 2003. It has a total area of 10.D. PII. 2/22/2005-2/22/2007 • An Active Thrust Vectoring (ATV) Control System for Tactical Missile Steering. PII. engineers and an additional nine Master’s degrees. The various electrical. distribution is unlimited. 11/19/2007-11/19/2009 • Actuator Integrated Missile Steering System (AIMSS) for Supersonic Missiles. ft. and fabrication tools needed to meet the program goals.000 sq ft of laboratory space is fully equipped for mechanical and electrical prototype fabrication and testing. Navy. with offices and laboratories located in Cleveland. and cost-effectiveness of our customer's products. Air Force. aerodynamic design. PII. A partial list of recent successful programs that have contributed to this foundation include: • Compact Deployable Aero Controls for Range and Control Enhancement of FCS Multi-Role Munitions. 6/30/2005-4/8/2008 • Low-Cost Miniature Control Actuation System for Gun-Fired Munitions. In addition. 4/15/2004-4/28/2008 • Plasma Assisted Aerodynamic Control System (PAACS) for Munitions Maneuvering. we host and support research organizations and corporations through scientific and technological developments. 4/8/2005-2/19/2008 • An Adaptive Aerodynamic Control System (AACS) for a Low-Cost Destructive Expendable (DEX). Ohio. As a technology innovator founded in 1991. Orbital Research’s staff of 22 includes five Ph. Air Force. 9/2008-10/15/2010 • Steering Guided Munitions and Projectiles. and Micro Devices. actuators and electronics for various commercial and military applications. Army. mechanical." REFERENCES NAVAIR Technical Point of Contact Phone Number: 760-939-8201 ABOUT THE COMPANY Orbital Research develops and commercializes new and innovative custom-engineered solutions using our expertise in sensors. P III. PII. functionality. Orbital’s success has been driven by its expertise in microdevices electronics. Advanced Systems. machining. Army. of combined laboratory and office space. 2/18/2003-2/28/2006 • Plasma Wing for Hingeless Flight Control of Air Vehicles. Air Force. Approximately 4. Our business groups consist of Aerodynamics. PII. Furthermore. the facility has a robotics lab for demonstrating advanced control concepts on actual hardware. We promote and offer solutions designed to improve the performance."Approved for public release. Orbital Research Inc Page 5 of 5 . and advanced controls. and laboratory equipment at Orbital Research provide the research team with the necessary testing. Medical. PII.

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