Aditya Institutions MBA 1st Sem Subject:- Managerial Communication

Module-1 Communication in Business
 Define Communication According to W.H. Newman & C.E.Summer, “Communication is an exchange of facts, opinions or emotions by two or more persons”. The definition of communication is shared in the Webster's Dictionary as "sending, giving, or exchanging information and ideas," which is often expressed nonverbally and verbally. Communication is the process where the one person is expressing his or her idea and the other one is listening to the idea being expressed by the one who is talking. That is how you define communication. When this results to have an understanding to both of them, therefore there is already a communication. In other words, when a person is talking, the other person should listen so that he will understand to what the other person is talking about. When a person talks and nobody listens, then there is no communication happening because there is no understanding.  Features of Communication 1. Communication is a dynamic process 2. Communication is a continuous process 3. Communication is unavoidable 4. Communication is systematic & universal

Communication is complete & effective only if there is a two-way traffic. Communication to persuade  Essentials of good communication/ principles of effective communication 1. Information 2. effective communication becomes essential. Concise 4. Eg: . Coutersy . Communication to inform 2. Correctness 3.  Features of Business Communication 1. placing an order. Business communication refers to the communication that flows between various parties involve in business. Communication is as essential to the business as blood is to the human body. Communication is a universal phenomenon  Objectives of Communication 1. Suggestions 5. Communication is a continuous process. Order 3. settlement of dealing. Completeness 2. Persuasion 4. 2. reporting etc. Meaning of Business Communication Communication is essential for smooth running & success of the business. 3. Due to increase in complexities of business operations & competition.  Purpose of Communication 1. 4. Counselling.enquires.

5. Legal evidence in court b. Staffing e. leading & Motivation d. Clearness 7. Controlling 2. Goodwill promotion function 4. Sales Promotion function a. Concreteness 6. Planning b. Organizing c. Demand for the new goods b. Comprehensiveness  Functions of Communication 1. Exchange their views . Function of legal evidence a. Helps in building Human Relations a. Directing . Proper Documentation 5. Managerial Function (Communication is a managerial tool) a. Promoting good sales 3. Expansion of sales c.

Sender may be an individual or a group or an organization. Context . This context may be physical. Receiver 5. Effect  Communication Process/ Model of Communication Process The main components of communication process are as follows: 1.Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. skills. For instance . Source 2. It should be complete 2. The views. Principles of communication 1. chronological or cultural. competencies. Sender / Encoder . approach. social. Message 3. Every communication proceeds with context.  Ingredients/Elements of Communication 1.Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. Communication should be clear whether written or oral. 2. and knowledge of the sender . background. Channel 4. Communicated statement should be concrete & specific 3. A sender makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context.a training manager conducting training for new batch of employees.

4. 3. The sender must choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message else the message might not be conveyed to the desired recipients. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in form of smiles. . etc. Feedback . their responsiveness to the message. For instance .Written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to a small group of people.Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. 6. reports. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear. etc. while an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there. Medium . sighs.Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message.Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is intended / aimed / targeted.have a great impact on the message. Recipient / Decoder . It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of message by the decoder. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient. The choice of appropriate medium of communication is essential for making the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. It is a sign that elicits the response of recipient. The verbal and non verbal symbols chosen are essential in ascertaining interpretation of the message by the recipient in the same terms as intended by the sender. and the reliance of encoder on decoder.).Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message. Message . Communication process begins with deciding about the message to be conveyed. It may take written form also in form of memos. 5. This choice of communication medium varies depending upon the features of communication.

For feedback to be effective. Thus the managers must locate such barriers and take steps to get rid of them. etc. If any kind of disturbance blocks any step of communication.It should be specific rather than being general. the manager should not criticize anyone personally.Manager should make use of statements with the words like “I”. managers in an organization face severe problems. 4. Impersonal . There are lot of ways in which company takes feedback from their employees. Use “I” statements . Focus on a particular behavior . 7.  Barriers to Communication Communication is a process beginning with a sender who encodes the message and passes it through some channel to the receiver who decodes the message.If we have something negative to say about the person. Communication is fruitful if and only if the messages sent by the sender is interpreted with same meaning by the receiver. allowing their employees to express general views. thus . manager should say "I was annoys when you missed your work yesterday”. 6. such as : Employee surveys. For example instead of saying "You were absent from work yesterday”. memos. company news letter etc. These barriers interrupt the flow of communication from the sender to the reciever. There are several barriers that affects the flow of communication in an organization. 3. emails. Importance of Feedback in Communication Feedback is essential in communication so as to know whether the recipient has understood the message in the same terms as intended by the sender and whether he agrees to that message or not. 5. The organization has to work a lot to get the accurate feedback. While giving negative feedback to the recipient.Feedback should be job related. we should always direct it to the recipients goal. Due to such disturbances. the message will be destroyed. the manager should make sure that the recipients understands the feedback properly. The managers encourage feedback by asking specific questions.Feedback is most effective when there is a short gap between the recipients behavior and the receipt of that feedback. A manger should ensure that a feedback should: 1. open-door policies. Employees are not always willing to provide feedback. “However” etc. The organization should be receptive to their employee’s feedback. the manager should not mention the factors which are not in control of the recipient. Well timed . 2. Goal oriented . Ensure understanding .

the family members might take him as an emotional support. the immediate manager might think of replacement because his teams productivity is being hampered. Thus. but if such sign is put all over the city. he no longer listens to it. For example: consider a word “value”. i. What is the value of learning technical skills? “Value” means different in different sentences. a. but only hear. But any message which is against their values is not accepted. 5. uncomfortable sitting. It is essential for managers to overcome these barriers. For example a traveler may pay attention to one “NO PARKING” sign.e. What is the value of this Laptop? b. the superior may not get what he is saying and it leads to disappointment of subordinate. Physical distractions are also there such as. As a result communication is less effective. 4. or messages are partially given. For example : A person is on leave for a month due to personal reasons (family member being critical).. Distraction/Noise: Communication is also affected a lot by noise to distractions. Similarly if a superior is engrossed in his paper work and his subordinate explains him his problem. I value our relation? c. If the receiver feels that communicator is angry he interprets that the information being . Information Overload: Managers are surrounded with a pool of information. The HR Manager might be in confusion whether to retain that employee or not. All generally want to receive messages which are significant to them. Similarly use of loud speakers interferes with communication. 6. Same word may mean different to different individuals. Thus sufficient time should be given for effective communication. 3. Inattention: At times we just not listen. poor lightning. 2. Communication breakdown occurs if there is wrong perception by the receiver. The linguistic differences also lead to communication breakdown. A same event may be taken differently by different individuals. In a haste to meet deadlines. Time Pressures: Often in organization the targets have to be achieved within a specified time period. the failure of which has adverse consequences. not completely transferred. It is essential to control this information flow else the information is likely to be misinterpreted or forgotten or overlooked. repetitive messages should be ignored for effective communication. Following are the main communication barriers: 1. Emotions: Emotional state at a particular point of time also affects communication. unhygienic room also affects communication in a meeting. the formal channels of communication are shortened. Perceptual and Language Differences: Perception is generally how each individual interprets the world around him.making communication ineffective.

One cant always retain what is being told specially if he is not interested or not attentive. more the number of managerial levels).e. While he takes it differently if the communicator is happy and jovial (in that case the message is interpreted to be good and interesting). Poor retention: Human memory cannot function beyond a limit. 7. more is the chances of communication getting destroyed. Only the people at the top level can see the overall picture while the people at low level just have knowledge about their own area and a little knowledge about other areas. . This leads to communication breakdown. 8. Complexity in Organizational Structure: Greater the hierarchy in an organization (i.sent is very bad.

 Types/Forms of communication Types of Communication on the basis of the org. structure On the basis of Direction On the basis of Way of Expression Formal Communication Informal Communication/ Grapevine Vertical Horizontal Diagonal Downward Communication Upward Communication Oral Communication Gesture Communication Written Communication .

Formal Communication 6. Non Verbal Communication 5. Written Communication 3. Voice mail 5. Horizontal Communication 10. Informal Communication 7. Face-to-Face 2. Vertical Communication 11. Upward Communication 8. External Communication 14. Fax 7. Telephone 4. Oral Communication 2. Two-way Communication  Modern Methods of Communication in Business 1. Verbal Communication 4. Video Conference 10. Tele Conferencing 3. Different Types of Communications 1. Mobile phone 9. Telex 8. Internal Communication 13. Webcams 11. Downward Communication 9. Website . Diagonal Communication 12. E-mail 6. One-way Communication 15. Web blog 12.

Horizontal  Different Types of Communication networks The different types of communication networks are Centralized 2. Vertical 2. Communication Structure in an Organization Top Level Management Middle Level Management Bottom Level Management The Communication structure in an organization can be either 1. 1) Centralized a) The Chain . Decentralized 1.

b) The Y Network c) The Wheel 2) Decentralized Network a) The Circle .

b) The "All Channels" Networks .

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