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Source: Modern Textile Journal
Because the progress of shedding and beat-up is inhibited over the whole period for which the rapier is in the shed. Normally. only a single pick of yarn from a given supply package is inserted. at the strategic level. of decisions about the general method to be used. This technique is widely used on narrow fabric looms and on carpet looms. Invariably. Weft Insertion The main distinctions as regards weft-insertion methods are illustrated in Fig. Furthermore. and it must then enter the shed from the weft supply side(Fig. the loom cycle is not utilized efficiently. and subsequently it is zero. the type of rapier drive used to put a given design strategy in to effect. In this way. but it may be inserted as a loop up to the time of transfer. 1. It is intended to discuss the mechanisms used for rapier actuation in a further article. for relative speeds see reference 1). in each loom cycle' the tip of a single rapier is inserted across the whole width of the shed and then withdrawn. and one selvedge is automatically secured. the normal range of weaves can be produced. 1 b. 1 cO.Weaving Weft Insertion Rapier: Principles Source: Modern Textile Journal At present there is a great profusion of types of rapier looms on the market. giving an introductory account of the general methods employed in rapier looms and their implications. say. Furthermore. two rapiers enter the shed from opposite ends a(ld the weft is transferred from one to the other when they meet. on full width looms. as regards loom design there is diversity at two levels. also after transfer the free end of the pick could untwist (Fig. Yarn withdrawal from the weft package is thus completed at the time of transfer. and they are-then withdrawn. la). such as whether or not to use rigid rapiers: at the tactical level . Loop transfer was at one time widely used as it can facilitate the formation of semi- . of course. the intervals for rapier insertion and for rapier withdrawal are both used for weft insertion. weft being inserted during rapier motion in one direction only. if double picks are inserted there is no need to cut the weft. The rapier can simply have the weft permanently threaded through a hole near its tip. ln the simplest cases. and the transferred loop straightened out during rapier withdrawal from the shed (the loop-transfer or Gabbler system). but looms using this technique are slow running and it too is not often used (Fig. of decisions about. and only a few looms use this method: is has the merit that problems of weft transfer do not arise. The loops of weft at the other selvedge can be secured either b knitting them together or with a catch thread. The present article is concerned only with the first of these types of diversity. If single picks are inserted then. but otherwise on a few special-purpose machines. no weft waste. This has the disadvantage that prior to the transfer the rate of weft withdrawal from the up ply package is' high (it equals twice the rapier velocity). both in terms of their markers and of their design.
Apart from avoiding the need to duplicate the weft supply and selection systems. Third. Fig. the yarn clamps in the rapier heads can be positively actuated at the transfer (in addition to any positive actuation at weft pick-up and release) as on the Dornier and Iwer K2-330 100ms. (The possibility of simultaneously inserted picks twisting needs to be considered though.) If indirect transfer is used to insert weft from only one side of the loom. weft direction) during the transfer can be improved. Thus. and these are returned empty to the supply side by a conveyor running under the weaving zone. when required. it may be remarked that now a days rapier looms almost always insert weft from one side of the loom only. The ability to insert single pick is usually required. on shuttle-less looms. rapiers consisting of flexible tapes must always be guided within the working width. In contrast. Fourth. picks of more than one yarn can be inserted together in a single-loom cycle. but it is now available as one of the options on only a few looms. almost invariably it is the cut end of the weft which is transferred (end or tip transfer. This entails incorporating yarn clamps in the head of both the giver and taker rapiers. In some cases the rapiers are guided at the shed boundary as described. On the Mintiss each rapier enters the shed carrying a clamp. As an example. instead of just yarn guides. using a separate pair of rapiers for each shed. as required. which remains gripped by the same clamp throughout (Fig. in a manner reminiscent of the Sulzer machine. each rapier has then to perform only one role. Types of Rapiers The rapiers used for weft insertion usually take the form either of rigid rods or of flexible metal or plastic tapes or bands. and four quite different strategies may be noted. possibly aided by the upper warp sheet or reed. There is a continuing development of new techniques to improve weft control or conditions during the weft-transfer operation. one bringing yarn from the supply side. also known as the Dewas system. and different methods of doing so are encountered on the two currently available looms. a given yarn clamp will have to be returned empty o the supply side . of through the shed from outside the working width. and these are exchanged at transfer. for instance.conventional selvedges.after use. control of rapier location (perpendicular to the. but some weaves can be produced most efficiently if in addition. the rapier displacement-timing characteristic may be elaborated with the aim of giving more favorable conditions in the transfer region. that of giver or taker. First. there is the use of indirect transfer. Note the guidance of the rapier head by the reed and race board on some rigid rapier loom such as the MAV. problems of yarn handing during transfer are avoided. we may note the varying pitch along the screw-cam on the Vamatex Propeller loom. 1 d). the other returning empty. Both rigid and flexible rapiers have long been used on comparable numbers of makes of loom. and can be designed specifically for that role. by transferring the yarn clamp from one rapier to the other than the weft yarn itself. presumably to facilitate control over rapier location at weft transfer. On the Acutis loom there are several yarn clamps. and the use of electromagnets in the central zone of the race board on the Meteor loom. In some cases. With loop transfer the use of some form of weft accumulator is often standard. and this facility has been provided on some rapier looms eg Dornier Iwer. Rapier looms of this kind have been found to have advantages for the . but more often guide plates mounted on the slay at short intervals across the width are used.) Finally. guidance within the working width is provided at the shed boundary by a board. though. Insertion from both sides was common. That is. The motion given to the plates is such that they enter the shed through the bottom warp sheet as the sley moves back.Second. Rigid 'rods can. It is only possible for given yarns to be inserted dither together in this way or separately.1 e. or both. Rigid-rapier method lends itself to simultaneously inserting weft in two sheds one above the other. since it can readily be used together with loop transfer to produce semiconventional selvedges. and leaves by the same route prior to beat-up. to give the normal range of weaves.
A third type of rapier has recently come into use . One component is connected directly to the rapier drive. In the first. even though a large part of the cycle (typically about two thirds) is normally used for weft insertion on rapier looms. one above the other. and such looms are also available for weaving two separate fabrics without pile. The slay motion can be continuous. However. either inside the shed or at its boundaries. . the rapier are mounted on the slay and so share is warp way movement. with a fixed mounting rapier guidance cannot be provided by a continuously moving slay. and it is clear that the velocity at which the weft is picked up is lower for the intermittent motion. 4 are the same. rather than at the point from which it begins its motion as on the Sulzer for example. Against this. This displacement has therefore to be confined to the appropriate part of the loom cycle too.face to face weaving of warp-pile fabrics. at a point near the entrance to the shed. and such motion is readily obtained from a cam actuated mechanism. therefore. and the slay can have a simple crank drive. but consists of two or three 'telescopic' components. increased by having to carry the. the distance from fell to rapier path has to be substantially less than the range of sley motion. the warpway position of the rapier. This has the disadvantage that the rapier reaches the point at which the weft is to be picked up having already attained a substantial fraction of its maximum velocity. The rapiers may enter the shed nearer the fell than is usual and the sley moves back well beyond the rapier path. Continuity of Rapier Motion A distinctive feature of most rapier looms is that the weft'is attached to the insertion element. During a Sino soidal displacement for example. the rapier in this case. Rapier. On being picked up by such a rapier the weft velocity picked up by such rapier the weft velocity is abruptly increased from zero to a high value. This means there is no question of collision between reed and rapier. the rapier thus becomes fully extended when' inserted in to the shed. In the former case the rapiers have to move further out beyond the selvedges than is necessary for weft insertion. Nevertheless. however. Moreover. During rapier displacement the forms of the two curves in Fig. The slay can have a simple crank drive. and the rapier-driving mechanism has to be one able to transmit motion from a fixed driving shaft to the moving slay. it is essential that the rapier be kept out of the way of the reed. the pickup velocity may still be appreciable though. In addition. has to be such that the shed formed with the given heald motion is big enough for them. Such looms have established themselves and combine avoidance of the expense of a cam-driven sley with a simplification of the problem of actuating the rapiers. by means of a mechanism such as. Two mounting arrangements have to be distinguished. relative to the fell. and the rapier can be guided within the working width. and its weftway position determines that of the second component. as rapier velocity can increase very rapidly near the beginning of the displacement. the rapier drive can be a simple robust and relatively inexpensive crank-actuated mechanism. a continuously moving reed would have to move much further away from the fell than the rapier. Rapier Mounting The form of slay motion used on a rapier loom is affected by where the rapiers are mounted. which simplifies the problem of transmitting motion to them. Thus. However. The alternative arrangement is to mount the rapier in a fixed location on the loom frame.4 of its maximum velocity within the first 5 percent of its range of motion. the sley is normally cam driven and dwells virtually throughout the rapiers' motion in the reed path. to reconcile their continuous motion with the need to keep them clear of the working width until the weft-insertion stage of the cycle recurs. Like the rig i d rapier this has lateral rigidity. Consequently weft insertion begins at whatever velocity has been attained by the rapier when weft is to be picked up. and the components telescope together when it is withdrawn. and reducing the fell to rapier distance helps to keep this range down to an acceptable level. A smell shed size at the point of rapier entry is a disadvantage with warps liable to fail to form a clear shed. the slay mass is. A rapier displacement timing curve for a rapier whose path length is confined to that needed for weft insertion. or permanently -as on the shuttle loom (this enables multicolor weft devices to be particularly simple on rapier looms). With rapiers mounted on the loom frame. a rapier would reach 0. If the rapiers are in the shed for the usual fraction of the cycle. in a few cases a continuously moving crank-actuated sley is used in conjunction with rapiers which are mounted on the loom frame.
The pick up velocity may still be appreciable though. and that of intermittent motion with a rapier dwell outside the shed. in and out of the shed. and there are two main cases to be distinguished . but their relative merits. out of the sweep of the reed) sufficiently for it to be changed and the weft beaten up. Apparel. as rapier velocity can increase very rapidly near the beginning of the displacement. Thus although the transfer system enables the weft to be inserted during both the rapier insertion into the shed and withdrawal from it. and it is clear that the velocity at which the weft is picked up is lower for the intermittent motion. Fashion. Velocity can be avoided by arranging for the two rapiers to be moving in the same direction during transfer. To read more articles on Textile.fibre2fashion.that of continuous rapier motion throughout the cycle.4 of it maximum velocity with in the first 5% of its range of motion.com/services/article-writing-service/content-promotion-services. follow this link: http://www. the weft-insertion velocity drops to zero at the moment of transfer. Machinery. Dyes & Chemicals. Against this. This for continuous rapier motion and the corresponding curve for the weft is shown by the broken line*. This displacement has therefore to be confined to that needed for weft insertion. and such motion is readily obtained from a cam actuated mechanism.asp . 5b for example. and the balance of advantage and disadvantage in anyone case. Retail. During a sinusoidal displacement for example. this entails other changes. The rapiers have to travel further in to the shed for instance. A rapier displacement timing curve for a rapier whose path length is confined to that needed for weft insertion. In the former case the rapiers have to move further out beyond the selvedges than is necessary for weft insertion. The rapier motion then depends on the combined effects of the drive and the motion of the sley. However. the rapier drive can be a simple robust and relatively inexpensive crank actuated mechanism. During rapier displacement the forms of the two curves are the same.In all cases the reciprocating weft way motion of the rapiers.fibre2fashion. Industry. as shown if Fig. which are not in themselves advantageous. have still to be fully analyzed. Zero transfer. is such that they are kept out of the shed (or. Detailed studies of the extent to which such possibilities are exploited in practice are also lacking. This displacement has therefore to be confined to the appropriate part of the loom cycle too. to reconcile their continuous motion with the need to keep them clear of the working width until the weft insertion stage of the cycle recurs. if they are mounted on the loom frame. and may also be in it for a smaller fraction of the cycle. Only a limited interval is available for weft insertion over the required distance and this fall in velocity is not in itself desirable. a rapier would reach 0. Transfer Velocity It is the simplest forms of weft transfer the displacement -timing curves for the two rapiers are in phase. Footwear & Jewellery. The rapiers are usually out of the shed for about a third of the cycle. which can result in the rapiers having a quasi-dwell when they are withdrawn from the shed. is such that are kept out of the shed. Technical Textile. On being picked up by such a rapier the weft velocity picked up by such rapier the weft velocity picked up by such rapier the weft velocity is abruptly increased from zero to a high value. Technology.com To promote your company. Software and General please visit http://articles. Leather. Shows only one of the types of position timing curve by which nonzero transfer velocity could be attained. This has the disadvantage that the rapier reaches the point at which the weft is to be picked up having already attained a substantial fraction of its maximum velocity. and the rapiers will be considered to meet and transfer the weft when they are furthest in to the shed and reversing their direction of motion. as occurs on the Picanol PGW loom. product and services via promotional article. An interesting intermediate case arise when the rapier drive generates 'a continuous motion and the rapiers are mounted on tr1c sley.
the exceptions near the narrow end of the range of W could be expected from the values of Kf• Continuously moving rigid rapiers would be expected to lead to large val use of A and looms with this kind of rigid. The weft is threaded through the full length of the rapier. it has a single rigid rapier each end of which is used to insert weft into one sheds. due to the location of the weft creel in particular. 2 and 3 may both apply. In this final section some other uses of rapiers are briefly mentioned.Overall Width and Working Width Flexible rapier looms are often made in working widths ranging from about 11/2 m to 4m. The overall width (A) can therefore be written as A = W + Kf (1) and the constant Kf is about 3m.5W + Kr1 (2) When the housing extends further on both sides A = 2W + Kr2 (Eqn. enters a C-shaped guide. which is an elaboration of the single rigid-rapier method of inserting double picks. When the rapiers are with drawn from the shed each is either wrapped round the circumference of a drum or. Eqn. 3 are particularly marked in the important case of the Dornier loom. and is supplied to it from a location such that yarn is withdrawn from the package during the rapier movement in both directions9 • Lastly.rigid-rapier looms generally have a greater overall width than flexible -rapier looms. are both constants. Software and General please visit http://articles. graphs of A against W with gradients of 1. 3 is fitted to the data for the wider looms. Looms using cam-driven rapiers are available over a wider range of widths. Retail.25. the use of rapiers for additional operations occurs on the various models of Mackie Tumack and Onemack looms. although this usually extends to only slightly above the range for the first group. It has been implicit in the present article that the purpose of the rapier (S) is to insert weft from a supply package outside the shed.fibre2fashion. but to channel the air flow of the pneumatic weft insertion system. product and services via promotional article. 6b) Then A = 1. Machinery. Another less radical use of a tubular rapier may be noted on the Gardella T egard loom.asp . On a rigid-rapier loom when the rapiers are withdrawn from the shed they must project outside the working width by amounts totalling at least W. Footwear & Jewellery. Technical Textile. or it may be only one of the functions of the rapiers. 3 this over only part of the width range and if this fitted line in extrapolated to smaller val use of W it under -estimates A by up to Similarly for two -component telescopic-rapier looms. Dyes & Chemicals. the space needed for that part of the loom lying outside the working width is generally constant for a given model of loom. up to about 2m. follow this link: http://www.fibre2fashion. where the rapiers are involved in best-up as well as weft insertion. Also the deviations from Eqn. Thus on wire us paving looms rapiers are sometimes used to pass a weft package positively through the shed6. which is widely used in the USSR. Kr1 and Kr. For a given range of looms Eqns. as was envisaged in a number of the early attempts to devise a full-width power loom? In one recently exhibited loom small weft packages are passed in turn through the two shed on either side of a central rapier-driving unit. and to a number of other accounts of rapier looms. Fashion. This is not all. each over a different part of the width range? It should ne noted that if in such cases Eqn. and on narrow looms the rapier housing may extend further on one side only (as in Fig. W. To read more articles on Textile. more often. Industry. Apparel. In either case. it will underestimate A if used in the width range where Eqn. regardless of the value of the working width. in the ATPR shuttle less loom. Discussion So far an account has been. Leather. occasionally. Again. the lower part of which may pass under the loom.0 can be expected. However. The rei tion between A and W in this second case depends on whether-or not the rapier housings extend further outside the working width than other parts of the loom.com/services/article-writing-service/content-promotion-services. the tubular rapiers are not used directly for weft insertion. Technology. For any given W. 2 applies. and (possibly)1. 3 has been given previously for rigid-rapier 100ms5). and whichever equation applies A increases with W more rapidly than on a flexible loom.rapier drive are normally available over only a small range of widths. 1. in practice. and attention is drawn both to some of the aspects of rapier motion not considered here.com To promote your company. given of the more conventional rapier-loom design strategies.5. The other loom components may be asymmetrically disposed.
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