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GUIDEBOOK

FOR THE DESIGN OF


ASME SECTION VIII
PRESSURE VESSELS
Second Edition

by

James R. Farr
Wadsworth, Ohio

Maan H. Jawad
Nooter Corporation
St. Louis, Missouri

ASME Press

New York

2001

Copyright 200 I
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Three Park Ave., New York, NY 10016
Library of Congress

Cataloging-in~Publication

Farr, James R.
Guidebook for the design of ASME Section
R. Farr, Maan H. Jawad.-2nd ed.

vrn

Data

pressure vesselslby James

p. em.

Includes bibliographical references and. index,


ISBN 0-7918-0172-1
I. Pressure vessels-Design and construction.
2. Structural engineering. 1. Jawad, Maan H.
II. Title.
TA660. T34 F36 2001
681 '.76041-dc21

2001046096

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To our children,
Katherine, David, Susan, Nancy, and Thomas
Jennifer and Mark

Cover Photo Courtesy of Nooter Corp.

PREFACE TO
SECOND EDITION
The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, is a live and progressive document. It strives
to contain the latest, safe and economical rules for the design and construction of pressure vessels, pressure
vessel components, and heat exchangers. A major improvement was made within the last year by changing
the design margin on tensile strength from 4.0 to 3.5. This reduction in the margin permits an increase in
the allowable stress for many materials with a resulting decrease in minimum required thickness. This was
the first reduction in this design margin in 50 years and was based upon the many improvement') in material
properties, design methods, and inspection procedures during that time.
Chapters and parts of chapters have been updated to incorporate the new allowable stresses and improvements which have been made in design methods since this book was originally issued. Some of these
changes arc extensive and some are minor. Some of the examples in this book have changed completely
and some remain unchanged. This book continues to be an easy reference for the latest methods of problem
solving in Section VIII.
James R. Farr
Wadsworth, Ohio
Maan H. Jawad
St. Louis, Missouri
July 2001

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We are indebted to many people and organizations for their help in preparing this book. Special thanks are
given to the Nooter Corporation, fcHow Committee Members, and to former coworkers for their generous
support during the preparation of the manuscript. We also give thanks to Messrs. Greg L. Hollinger and
George B. Komara for helping with the manuscript, and to our editor Ray Ramonas at ASME for having
great patience and providing valuable suggestions.

vii

CONTENTS
Preface ...................................................................................................................................................................... .
Acknowledgments ........................................................... ,............... ,.................. ,'., ................. ,................................. .
List of Figures ................................................................................................................................................. ,... ", ... .
List of Tables ................................................................................... " ...................................................................... .

Chapter 1
Background Infortnation ...................................................................................................................................... .
1.1
Introduction .............................................................................................................. " ... ,... ,., ......... ,....... ,...... .
1.2
Allowable Stresses .................................................................................................................................... ..
1.3
Joint Efficiency Factors .............................................................................................................................. ..
1.4
Brittle Fracture Considerations ................................................................................................................... .
1.5
Fatigue Requirements .................................................................................................................................. .
1.6
Pressure Testing of Vessels and Components ........................................................................................... ..
1.6.1 ASME Code Requirements .......................................................................................................... .
1.6.2 What Does a Hydrostatic or Pneumatic Pressure Test Do? ......................................................... .
1.6.3 Pressure Test Requirements for VIll-1 ................................... " .................................................. ..
1.6.4 Pressure Test Requirements for VIlI-2 ............................................ ,........................................... ..
Chapter 2
Cylindrical Shells ...................................................................................................................................... ' ............ .
2.1
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................. ..
2.2
Tensile Forces, VIIl-I ................................................................................................ ,................................ .
2.2.1 Thin Cylindrical Shells ................................................................................................................. .
2.2.2 Thick Cylindrical Shells .................................................... ,........................................................... .
2.3
Axial Compression ...................................................................................................................................... .
2.4
External Pressure ........................................................................................................................................ .
2.4.1 External Pressure for Cylinders with Dolt :2: 10 .......................................................................... .
2.4.2 External Pressure for Cylinders with Dolt < 10 ......................................................................... ..
2.4.3 Empirical Equations ...................................................................................................................... ..
2.4.4 Stiffening Rings .............................................................................................................................. .
2.4.5 Attachment of Stiffening Rings ................... " ................................................................................ .
2.5
Cylindrical Shell Equations, V1I1-2 ........................................................................................................... .
2.6
Miscellaneous Shells ............................ ,...................................................................................................... .
2.6.1 Mitered Cylinders .......................................................................................................................... .
2.6.2 Elliptical Shells .............................................................................................................................. .
Chapter 3
Spherical Shells, Heads, and Transition Sections ............................................................................................. ..
3.1
Introduction ............................................. ,.................................................................................................... .
3.2
Spherical Shells and Hemispherical Heads, Vlll-1 .................................................................................... .
3.2.1 Internal Pressure in Spherical Shells and Pressure on Concave Side of
Hemispherical Heads .................................................................................................................... .
3.2.2 External Pressure in Spherical Shells and Pressure on Convex Side of
Hemispherical Heads .... ,.................................... ...................................... .......... ", .. ,................. .
3.3
Spherical Shells and Hemispherical Heads, VIII-2 ............................................................................. .
ix

vii
xiii
xvii

2
3
9
19

22
22
22
23
24

27
27
27
27
33

36
42
43

46
47
48
50
53
54
54
55

57
57
57
57
61

64

x Contents
3.4

3.5

3.6
3.7

3.8

Ellipsoidal Heads, VIII-I ........................................................................................................................... ..


3.4.1 Pressure on the Concave Side ............................................................................ " ......................... .
3.4.2 Pressure on the Convex Side ........................................................................................................ ..
Torispherical Heads, VIII-I ........................................................................................................................ .
3.5.1 Pressure on the Concave Side ...................................................................................................... ..
3.5.2 Pressure on the Convex Side ......................................................................................................... .
Ellipsoidal and Torispherical Heads, VIll~2 ............................................................................................... .
Conical Sections, VIII~ 1 .............................................................................................................................. .
3.7.1 Internal Pressure ............................................. ,......................... " .................................................... .
3.7.2 External Pressure .......... ,.................................... ,.............................................................. ,............. .
Conical Sections, VIII-2 ..................................... ,....................... ,............................................................... .

65
65

67
68
68
71
72

74
74
85

95

Chapter 4
Flat Plates, Covers, and Flanges .................. .........................................................................................................
4.1
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... ,............
4.2
Integral Flat Plates and Covers ......................... ................................................. ........................................
4.2.1 Circular Flat Plates and Covers ......................................................................................................
4.2.2 Noncircular Flat Plates and Covers ................................................................................................
4.3
Bolted Flat Plates, Covers, and Flanges ......................................................................................................
4.3.1 Gasket Requirements, Bolt Sizing, and Bolt Loadings ........................................... "....................
4.4
Flat Plates and Covers With BoIting ............................................................. ,............................................
4.4.1 Blind Flanges & Circular Flat Plates and Covers .........................................................................
4.4.2 Noncircular Flat Plates and Covers ....................................... ........................................................
4.5
Openings in Flat Plates and Covers ............................................................................ ,................................
4.5.1 Opening Diameter Does Not Exceed Half the Plate Diameter .....................................................
4.5.2 Opening Diameter Exceeds Half the Plate Diameter ....................................................................
4.6
Bolted Flange Connections With Ring Type Gaskets ................................................................................
4.6.1 Standard Flanges ......................................................................... ...................................................
4.6.2 Special Flanges ................................................................................................................................
4.7
Spherically Dished Covers ........................................................................ .................... .............................
4.7.1 Definitions and Terminology ....................................................... ...................... ...........................
4.7.2 Types of Dished Covers .............................................................. .................... .............................

124
125
125

Chapter 5
Openings .......................................... ................................. ................................................... ...................................
5.1
Introduction .......................... ................................. ................................................. ....................................
5.2
Code Bases for Acceptability of Opening ..................................... "............................................................
5.3
Terms and Definitions ..................................................................................................................................
5.4
Reinforced Openings-General Requirements ............................................................................................
5.4.1 Replacement Area ...........................................................................................................................
5.4.2 Reinforcernent Limits .... .................................................................................................................
5.5
Reinforced Opening Rules, VIII~l ............................................................................. ,.................................
5.5.1 Openings With Inherent Compensation .........................................................................................
5.5.2 Shape and Size of Openings ............................................................................................... ,...........
5.5.3 Area of Reinforcement Required ....................................................................................................
5.5.4 Limits of Reinforcement .................................................................................................................
5.5.5 Area of Reinforcement Available ................................................................ ,..................................
5.5.6 Openings Exceeding Size Limits of Section 5.5.2.2 .....................................................................
5.6
Reinforced Opening Rules, VlII-2 ...............................................................................................................
5.6.1 Definitions ......................................................................................................... .............................
5.6.2 Openings Not Requiring Reinforcement Calculations .................. "...............................................
5.6.3 Shape and Size of Openings ...........................................................................................................
5.6.4 Area of Reinforcement Required ................................................................................ "..................
5.6.5 Limits of Reinforcement ............... ,................................................................................................
5.6.6 Available Reinforcement .................................................................................................................

133
133
133
134
134
134
134
136
136
137
137
140
140
151
153
153
153
155
155
155
157

101
101
101
101
104
105
105
106
106
107
107
107
108
108
109
118

Contents

xi

5,6.7 Strength of Reinforcement Metal .. " .... ,.,."., ....... ,', ...... ,... ,..... ,....... ,., ... " ......... " .. " ..... ,", ....... " .. ' ... ,.
5.6.8 Alternative Rules for Nozzle Design ,........... ,................................................................................
Ligament Efficiency Rules. VIII-l ..............................................................................................................

157
157
164

Chapter 6
Special Components, VITIl ....... ................ ..... ..... ....................... ..... ................. ................... ...... ......... ...................
6.1
Introduction ...... ............ ......... ..... ............ ................ ................ ........... ............... ..... ........ ............ ....................
6.2
Braced and Stayed Construction ..................................................................................................................
6.2.1 Braced and Stayed Surfaces ...........................................................................................................
6.2.2 Stays and Staybolts .........................................................................................................................
6.3
Jacketed Vessels ...........................................................................................................................................
6.3.1 Types of Jacketed Vessels ..............................................................................................................
6.3.2 Design of Closure Member for Jacket to Vessel .... "" ....... "..........................................................
6.3.3 Design of Openings in Jacketed Vessels .......................................................................................
6.4
Half-Pipe Jackets ..........................................................................................................................................
6.4.1 Maximum Allowable Internal Pressure in Half-Pipe Jacket .........................................................
6.4.2 Minimum Thickness of Half-Pipe Jacket .......................................................................................
6.5
Vessels of Noncircular Cross Section .........................................................................................................
6.5.1 Types of Vessels .............................................................................................................................
6.5.2 Basis for Allowable Stresses ............................................. ,......................................... .................
6.5.3 Openings in Vessels of Noncircular Cross Section .......................................................................
6.5.4 Vessels of Rectangular Cross Section ............................. " .. " ... "....................................................

169
169
169
169
172
173
174
175
179
181
181
182
186
187
187
187
197

Chapter 7
Design of Heat Exchangers ............................ ,.............. ,' ..................................................................... ,....... ,.........
7.1
Introduction ..................................... ,............. ,.................................... ,................ ,.............................. ,..........
7.2
Tubesheet Design in U-Tube Exchangers ........................................................................ ..........................
7.2.1 Nomenclature ................... ,...............................................................................................................
7.2.2 Design Equations for Simply Supported Tubesheets .....................................................................
7.2.3 Design Equations for Integral Construction ............................ ,......................................................
7,2.4 Design Equations for Integral Construction With Tubesheet Extended as a Flange ...................
7.3
Fixed Tubesheets ..........................................................................................................................................
7.3.1 Nomenclature .................... ,.................................... ,......... ,.. ,......................................................... ,..
7.3.2 Design Equations .............................................. ".............................................................................
7.4
Expansion Joints ........................... ,.......................................
........................................................

201
201
201
201
207
209
212
213
213
217
230

Chapter 8
Analysis of Components in VIII~2 ..................... ".................................................................................................
8.1
Introduction ...................... ' .. ,................... ,.......... ,............ ,., .............. ,.............................. ,.... ,......... ,.............
Stress Categories .......................... ,........... ,." ..... ,................. " .................. ,............. " ............ ,...... ,...... ,...........
8.2
8.3
Stress Concentration ................... ,............................ ,..................... ,.............. ............................. .................
Combinations of Stresses ................................................ " .............. ,............ ,........... ,......... ,.... ,., ................ .
8.4
Fatigue Evaluation ............... ,.................... " ................................................ ..
8.5

233
233
233
239
240
245

References ............................ , ............. " .............................................. ,........ ,......... .

249

Appendices
Appendix A-Guide to VIII-l Requirements " ....... ,............. " ...... ,. ............. ,. ............... ,.........................................
Appendix B-Material Designation ....................................... ,.......................................................... ,'.....................
Appendix C-Jomt Efficiency Factors ... ,............................ ,.... ,...............................................
.................
Appendix D-Flange Calculation Sheets .................................................................................................................
Appendix E-Conversion Factors ............................................................................................ ...............................

25]
253
255
277
283

Index ...................................................................................................................................................................... ..

285

5.7

REFERENCES
API, 1996, American Petroleum Institute, Recommended Rules for Design and Construction of Large,
Welded, Law-Pressure Storage Tanks, API 620, Washington, D,C., API.
ASCE, 1998, American Society of Civil Engineers, Minimum Design Laads for Buildings and Other
Structures, ASCE 7-98, New York, ASCE.
ASME, 2001a, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section
VIII, Division 1, Pressure Vessels, New York, ASME.
ASME, 2001b, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section
VIII, Division 2, Alternative Rules for Pressure Vessels, New York, ASME.
ASME, 1999, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, B31.3, Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery
Piping, New York, ASME.
ASME, 1969, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Criteria of the ASME Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Code for Design by Analysis in Sections III and VIII, Division 2, New York, ASME.
ASME, 1968, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Section VllI-Division 2 of the ASME Boiler
and Pressure Vessel Code-Guide to Alternative Rules for Pressure Vessels, New York, ASME.
Beer, F. P., and Johnson, Jr., E. R., 1992, Mechanics of Materials, New York, McGraw Hill.
Bergman, E. 0., 1955, "The Design of Vertical Vessels Subjected to Applied Forces," Transactions of
the ASME, New York, ASME.
Flugge, W., 1967, Stresses in the Shells, New York, Springer-Verlag.
Gilbert, N., and Polani, J. R., May 1979, Stability Design Criterion for Vessels Subjected to Concurrent
External Pressure and Langitudinal Compressive Loads, New York, ASME.
rCBO, 1997, International Conference of Building Officials, Uniform Building Code, Whittier, CA, rCBO.
Jawad, M. H., 1994, Theory and Design of Plate and Shell Structures, New York, Chapman and Hall.
Jawad, M. H., and Farr, J. R., 1989, Structural Analysis and Design of Process Equipment, New York,
John Wiley & Sons.
G+ W Taylor-Bonney, Bulletin 502: Modem Flange Design, 7th Edition, Southfield, MI, G+ W.
Peterson, R. E., 1974, Stress Concentration Factors, New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Prager, W., and Hodge, P. G., 1965, Theory of Perfectly Plastic Solids, New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Shield, R. T., and Drucker, D. C., June 1961, "Design of Thin-Walled Torispherical and Toriconical
Pressure Vessel Heads," Journal of Applied Mechanics, New York, ASME.
TEMA, 1999, Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Inc., Standards of Tubular Exchanger
Manufacturers Association, 8th ed., Tarrytown, NY, TEMA.
249

ApPENDIX A
GUIDE TO

VIII .. 1

REQUIREMENTS

251

INDEX
Categories, welded joint, 5, 6
Charpy impact-test requirements, 16
Chrome-moly steel forging specifications
SA-182,253
SA-336,254
Chrome-moly steel plate specifications,
253
Circular flat plate, 101
Circumferential membrane stress, 28
Circumferential stress, 34, 70
Closure design details, 175-178
Cold temperatures, 24
Compensation, inherent, openings with,
136
Component analysis in VIII-2, 233-248
Compression
axial, cylindrical shells under, 36-42
cone-ta-shell junction at large end of
cone in, 75-76
cone-ta-shell junction at small end of
cone in, 86-87
Compressive stress, 70
Cone-ta-cylinder junction
large end of
inherent reinforcement for, 96
values of Q for, 96
small end of
inherent reinforcement for, 98
values of Q for, 99
Cone-ta-shell junction
large, 80-81, 89-92
at large end of cone
in compression, 75-76
in tension, 85-86
small, 81-82, 92-94
at small end of cone
in compression, 86-87
in tension, 76-77
Conical sections
external pressure on, 85-94
internal pressure on, 74-85
VIII-l,74-94
VIII-2, 95-99
Conical shells, 74
Conversion factors, 283
Comer joint, 12
Corner welded, 5, 7
Corrosion allowance, 31, 32

A
A value, 43-44
Allowable stress, 2-3, 5, 6

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,


Section VIII, v, see also Section VIII
Assignment of materials to CUI\!es, 10
Axial buckling stress, critical, 39
Axial compression, cylindrical shells
under, 36-42

B
B value, 43-44

Beams on Elastic Foundation, 134


Bellows~type expansion joints, 230, 231
Bending moment, 41
Bending stress, 41-42
ligament efficiency for multi-diameter
openings for, 193-197
Blind flanges, 106-107
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section
VIII, ASME, v, see also Section VIII
Bolt loads, 106
Bolt sizing, 106
Bolted flanges, 105-106
connections with ring type gaskets,
108-124
Bolted flat head, 12
Bolted flat plates and covers, 105-106
Bolting, flat plates and covers with,
106-107
Bolting rings, 124
Braced and stayed construction, 169-173
Braced and stayed surfaces, 169-172
Brittle fracture, 9-13
Buckling, of cylindrical shells, 42-43
Buckling equation, 38
Buckling stress, critical axial, 39
Butt joints, 6
Butt welded, 5, 7
Butt welded components, II

c
C value, 102
Carbon steel plate specifications, 253
Cast Ductile Iron, rules of Part VCD for,
23-24
Cast Iron, rules of Part VCI for, 23
285