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ISESCO JOURNAL of Science and Technology
composed of a metal plate ceiling over which lies a he conditions favobed of rocks in a water Md. Mahasin Ali2 and rable to comfort are pool. Over this bed, an air accomplished by psychoH M Mehedi Rafique2 gap separated from the exlogical and physiological 1 Department of Energy Technology ternal environment by a factors even though a 2 plane sheet plate. The pasDepartment of Mechanical Engineering complete explanation is sive cooling system applied Khulna University of Engineering & Technology, not yet available. However, to the test room in typical the study of physiological Khulna-9203, Bangladesh summer day of March in behavior is to determine E-mail: email@example.com Bangladesh is an evapoheat loss and heat gain from rative cooling system and human body. Consideration the process is a natural evaporation of water. The conof mean skin temperature offers a solution to some structed passive cooling system reduces the inside temdegree. ASHRAE Standard 55 defines Comfort as 'that perature up to 5°C from the atmospheric temperature. state of mind which expresses satisfaction with the therThis reduction can further be improved if night natural mal environment'. This paper presents the outcome of a ventilation of buildings is allowed. passive cooling system under hot and humid climate conditions developed in the Mechanical Engineering Department of KUET in Bangladesh, that can be used in moderate humid climates by cooling cell design is Keywords: Passive cooling, Human comfort and Roof heat gain.
Md. Hasan Ali1, Mohammad Mashud2,
Passive Cooling System of a Building: A New Approach
1. Introduction Cooling is the transfer of energy from the space or the air supplied to the space, in order to achieve a lower temperature and humidity level of the natural surroundings. The development of cooling process through several stages, starting from simple initiative applications of natural cooling techniques, such as shading, evaporative cooling and air circulation for enhancing the comfort sensation, to mechanical cooling system, known as air conditioners which worked on mechanical refrigeration cycles. In regions with arid climates, excessive heat is the major problem that causes human thermal discomfort . Cooling is then the basic requirements of building occupants. In modern buildings, this can be provided by mechanical and electrical devices. Traditional architecture in hot climate had many passive
aspects which contributed to thermal comfort in dwellings, that is, compact urban heavy building structure, white painted external surfaces, blind facades, open courtyards, etc. The presence of trees, vegetation and water around the building in modifying the thermal microclimate was well appreciated. With the advent of energy crisis there has been a renewed interest in those aspects of architecture which contributed to thermal comfort in a building without or with minimum energy consumption. In many studies the heat gain through the roof presents 50 % of the total heat gain in buildings. In recent years, several investigations were performed and showed that there can be multiple solutions to the excessive heat problem through the roof. The use of low emissivity material in the attic of a building reduced the underside ceiling surface temperature, which lowered the room air temperature . The evaporative cooling
it is possible to prevent overheating problems. M Mashud. including the management of indoor conditions of building. but they are now enhanced with the available technological know how and they can be successfully incorporated into the building design and operation. decrease cooling loads and improve comfort conditions in buildings. The present study suggests an improved roof design by combining the advantages of the previously described cooling techniques (water ponds. moving water layer over the roof. low emissivity surfaces) and inserted rocks of high thermal capacity. arid climates. The resulting design can be more advantageous and effective than other systems for reducing heat during daytime and storing coolness at night. in a suitable form for providing the best results. MM Ali & HM Rafique / ISESCO Journal of Science and Technology . Number 12 (November 201 (88-95) approach for passive cooling of buildings in hot arid climates has also become an attractive subject of investigation for many researchers. vegetable pergola shading. The experimental and the normal rooms were made of brick with concrete roof and one window in each room. some of the techniques used for passive cooling do not remove the cooling load of the building itself. it appears that there has been a return to the utilization of several well known techniques and processes that were used successfully even in the early periods of civilization. the installation and operating cost of an evaporative cooler can be much lower than refrigerate air conditioning. By combining different passive and natural cooling techniques. Figure 1. Constrcution and experimental procedure An indirect passive cooling system consisting of natural evaporation of water was constructed and tested in the laboratory of KUET. but the efficiency of the systems and their applicability is greatly improved. Evaporative cooling differs from air conditioning by refrigeration and absorptive refrigeration. water film. soil humid grass and roof with white pots as cover) were demonstrated. Natural ventilation is the predominant passive cooling technique. Some evaporative coolers may also serve as humidifiers in the heating season.1) MH Ali. Evaporative cooling is especially well suited for climates where the air is hot and humidity is low. Above the cooling cell there was a thin mild steel plate coated with zinc. An evaporative cooler (also swamp cooler. 2. Progress in science and technology has introduced tremendous changes in all fields. but rather extend the tolerance limits of humans for thermal comfort in a given space. Vapour compression is the most commonly used method in air conditioning systems. Indeed.Volume 7. which use vapor-compression or absorption refrigeration cycles. In dry. Their energy consumption is maintained at very low levels. which is used as a reflector of sunlight. whitewash and large exposure orientations. However. The relative advantages of evaporative cooling in relation to many other approaches (cavity wall. thin water film and roofs with wetted gunny bags. evaporative cooling and vapor-compression air conditioning are sometimes used in combination to yield optimal cooling results. roof with removable canvas. It was rectangular in shape and contains high thermal capacity rocks and water. In fact. The cooling cell was made of mild steel plate. on water spraying over the roof. High thermal capacity materials (rock bed) will delay the entry of daytime heat into the building by such a period that it reaches the interior during the evening. The principles of passive cooling system are the same. Two rooms are separated by cork sheet. desert cooler and wet air cooler) is a device that cools air through the simple evaporation of water. The reduction of heat gain through the roofs using evaporative cooling systems was extensively investigated with open roof ponds. insulation. Such application called hybrid cooling system. The passive cooling system was placed on the roof of an experimental room and compared with a normal room. when it was least bothersome and often welcome. passive cooling system is also closely linked to thermal comfort of occupants. A schematic diagram of the model design 89 . It is also possible to increase the effectiveness of passive cooling with mechanically assisted heat transfer techniques that enhance the natural cooling processes.
The dimension of the cell was (63X60X9. the thickness of the wall was 5 inch. The readings of all thermocouples have been averaged to give the average temperature.Volume 7. Photographic view of Prototype (b) 90 . Number 12 (November 201 (88-95) For both experimental and normal room.5mm.15mm. 2010 for Khulna in Bangladesh. 3. The temperature at different positions under the roof level was measured by copper constant thermocouples connected to the digital thermometer.05) inch.1) MH Ali. MM Ali & HM Rafique / ISESCO Journal of Science and Technology . The system was run and the required data were collected. Air temperatures outside the room (ambient temperature) were measured by using a thermometer near the experimental room. The cell was made by plane sheet (mild steel) of thickness 0. Thermocouples were fixed under the roof surface and the ends of the thermocouples were also enveloped in thin aluminum paper to reflect the radiation from the surrounding interior surfaces. M Mashud. The floors are also made by concrete. (a) (b) Figure 2. This cell was covered by plane sheet (mild steel galvanized with zinc) of thickness 0. The temperature and solar radiation data were recorded in every 30 min during 6 h in daytime. The reduction of heat transmission via the roof was investigated for a typical summer day of middle of March. Results and discussion The constructed passive cooling system was installed in a room of size 51x47x67 inch. Schematic diagram of (a) Prototype of experimental room (b) Cooling cell. and the thickness of the roof was 5 cm. (a) Figure 3. The solar intensity was taken by solarimeter.
75 30 30.75 29.75 31 31.75 36 35.75 29 29. Tr1(˚C) 29.5 34 34 34 34 34 Normal room Avg.75 35.50 31.5 36. Temp below roof Tavg1(˚C) 33 34.2 34. Temp below roof Tavg1(˚C) 33 34 36 38 39 39.5 Ambient Temp Ta(˚C) Solar Radiation W/m2 10:30 am 11:00 am 12:00 pm 01:30 pm 02:00 pm 02:30 pm 03:00 pm 03:30 pm 04:00 pma 31.25 30.25 33. Experimental data for 24.5 35 35.75 35.5 39.50 30.75 35.2 35 34. Temp below roof Tavg1(˚C) 23 29.75 36.5 35 35.2010 Experimental room Time Avg. Room Temp.5 38 38 38.Volume 7. Number 12 (November 201 (88-95) TABLE 1. Tr1(˚C) 32 32 31 31 31 32 33 33 33 33 33 33 Normal room Avg.75 33 33 33.5 34.5 715 787 780 686 624 530 480 425 314 TABLE 2.1) MH Ali. Experimental data for 23.75 31.03.75 Avg.5 39 39 39 Ambient Temp Ta(˚C) Solar Radiation W/m2 10:15 am 10:45 am 11:15 am 11:45 am 12:15 pm 12:45 pm 01:15 pm 01:45 pm 02:15 pm 02:45 pm 03:15 pm 03:45 pm 28 31.75 31.50 31. MM Ali & HM Rafique / ISESCO Journal of Science and Technology .5 35. Room Temp.5 36. Tr1(˚C) 24 31.2 34 34 33.5 34.75 31.75 33 Avg.75 31.50 30.5 34 35 35 35.75 Avg.2010 Experimental room Time Avg.25 35 35. Room Temp.3 34. M Mashud.7 33.8 39.03.75 Avg.50 33.8 39. Tr1(˚C) 32 32 32 33.4 36. Room Temp. Temp below roof Tavg1(˚C) 27.75 31 31 31 31.5 32 33.8 605 678 680 680 758 725 780 621 561 420 370 324 91 .
Temp below roof Tavg1(˚C) 28 29 29 29.5 33 32. Temp below roof Tavg1(˚C) 32.4 34.5 34.1 33 33 Normal room Avg.25 29.5 29 28.75 32. Room Temp.1) MH Ali.2010 Experimental room Time Avg. Tr1(˚C) 29.5 33.8 34 34 612 595 340 298 660 680 620 440 410 340 240 160 92 .5 37 37.5 33 33 33 Normal room Avg.75 32 Avg.1 33 675 725 765 780 773 757 743 722 607 472 449 345 TABLE 4.5 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 Avg.75 32.3 30.5 31. Number 12 (November 201 (88-95) TABLE 3.5 35.5 30 31 30.75 35 35 Avg.5 33.75 32.75 33 33.2 38 39 39.2 34. Temp below roof Tavg1(˚C) 32 33 34.Volume 7. M Mashud.5 32 32.3 30.7 34.3 32.5 31 31.25 33.5 33.25 Avg.5 34 35 36.2 34 34.5 31.03. Room Temp.5 36.5 30.5 31 34 34.5 34. Tr1(˚C) 29 30 31 31. Tr1(˚C) 30 30 30. Experimental data for 25.5 39.75 34 34.5 31.5 34.2010 Experimental room Time Avg.1 39.5 31.5 34.5 Ambient Temp Ta(˚C) Solar Radiation W/m2 10:15 am 10:45 am 11:15 am 11:45 am 12:15 pm 12:45 pm 01:15 pm 01:45 pm 02:15 pm 02:45 pm 03:15 pm 03:45 pm 32 33 33.2 34.9 37 38 38 38 37 37 Ambient Temp Ta(˚C) Solar Radiation W/m2 10:15 am 10:45 am 11:15 am 11:45 am 12:15 pm 12:45 pm 01:15 pm 01:45 pm 02:15 pm 02:45 pm 03:15 pm 03:45 pm 33 30. Experimental data for 27. Tr1(˚C) 30 30.8 35 35.5 31 32 32 32.75 31 31. Room Temp.7 33 33. Room Temp.2 34 33. Temp below roof Tavg1(˚C) 28 28.25 34.5 31. MM Ali & HM Rafique / ISESCO Journal of Science and Technology .03.
Number 12 (November 201 (88-95) TABLE 5. Room Temp.25 30.5 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 31.25 33 33.75 31. MM Ali & HM Rafique / ISESCO Journal of Science and Technology . Temp below roof Tavg1(˚C) 32 33 33 33 33.2 35 35 34.5 34 34 34 33.00 pm 01:30pm 2.8 402 464 470 334 318 310 290 210 355 325 312 185 Figure 4.75 30. Shows the change of temperature with the change of time (Date-23.00am 11:30 am 12. M Mashud.6 Normal room Avg.75 32 32 31.5 31 31 31 30.2010) 93 .Volume 7. Tr1(˚C) 31. Experimental data for 28.5 34 34.5 32.00 pm 02:30 pm 03:00 pm 03:30 pm 04:00 pm 32 33 33.03.2010) Figure 5.75 29 29 30 30 30. Tr1(˚C) 30 30 30.03.8 34 34.7 34 34 33.1) MH Ali.00 pm 12:30 pm 1. Shows the change of temperature with the change of time (Date-24. Room Temp.75 33 33 Avg. Temp below roof Tavg1(˚C) 27.03.75 30 30 Avg.8 34 34 Ambient Temp Ta(˚C) Solar Radiation W/m2 10:30 am 11.2010 Experimental room Time Avg.
M Mashud. the performance can be improved. With evaporative cooling roof. because the night ventilation was not applied and at the evening of previous day. Under hot arid conditions a prototype model for an evaporative reflective roof used to improve space cooling in buildings has been tested.03. By using aluminum sheet.8 °C (23. The results showed that cooling inside buildings can be improved by the application of such a cooling design. The experimental results examined the effectiveness of such a roof cooling system in comparison to a bare roof.2010) Figure 7.2010) The inside temperature of the normal room was higher than the ambient temperature and the experimental room temperature was lower than the ambient temperature. when the air gap between the roof and cooling cell fixed at 12 cm gives higher inside air temperature 34 °C (23.03. Natural ventilation process can be applied to the rooms for better performance. the experimental room temperature was lower than the ambient temperature.2010) when the ambient air Conclusion temperature was 35.03.1) MH Ali.8°C in comparison to the air temperatures for a bare roof over the room. By varying the air gap the performance of the cooling system can be measured. 94 . MM Ali & HM Rafique / ISESCO Journal of Science and Technology . Shows the change of temperature with the change of time (Date-25. Shows the change of temperature with the change of time (Date-27.2010) and when the ambient air temperature was 35. Future recommendation The air gap between the roof and cooling cell was kept 12 cm. Number 12 (November 201 (88-95) Figure 6.5 °C during daytime. hence give the optimum value of air gap for this region and also give the maximum output. The constructed passive system reduces the internal room temperature by an average of 5. The upper surface of the cooling cell was made by zinc coated plane sheet (mild steel sheet).03.5 °C during day hours.Volume 7. Roof without any treatment gives the maximum inside air temperature 39.
1877 . 88.C and J.  McQuiston.Volume 7.  Fischer. New York. 2003.1886.M.Renewable Energy. Sharma and M. 95 . John Wiley & Sons. 3. Nahar.D. pp.1) MH Ali.(1991). S.Sonntag (1978). MM Ali & HM Rafique / ISESCO Journal of Science and Technology . Purohit.'Energy use impact of CFC alternatives'.John Willey & Sons. pp. Number 12 (November 201 (88-95) References  H. Heat Pump Systems. Ventilating and Air Conditioning Analysis and Design. M Mashud. 29. F. Vol. 2003. 38. pp. Ben Cheikh and A. 109-116.  N. Vol.Parker (1982). 2nd edition. 6-21  Van Wylen.and RE. Bouchair. Heating. P. Passive Cooling by Evapo-Reflective Roof for Hot Dry Climates. ' Building and Environment.J.M. G. Performance of Different Passive Techniques for Cooling of Buildings in Arid Regions. Vol. No. New York.Energy Engineering.
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