This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
AC Drives Basics
Copyright © 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved
How Does A Motor Work?
1. Current flowing through a conductor 2. The direction of the current flow 3. Pass a conductor through a magnetic field Magnetic flux around the conductor Polarity of the magnet
A voltage or current flow
Torque Generated in a motor
Elastic Nature of Magnetic Lines of Force
Rotor Rotor Field Created by Induced Current Flow in Rotor Conductors
F N S
Stator Magnetic Field
the stator. housed in motor Frame and other rotor. .AC Drives Squirrel Cage Induction Motor Workhorse of modern Industry Found in virtually every phase of Manufacturing One of the Most Common Forms of rotating power • in the World Consists of two sets of electromagnets – One set . End Rings Rotor Bar Fan Blades Stator Rotor Perforated Lamination disks stacked together and through careful die casting process Aluminum or Cu – Brass Alloy is filled in the channels and then End rings are formed. free to rotate and supported by bearings and motor end bells.
Poor at light load 4.additional Equipments Required . To Change the speed 2.Very High 3.Protection .AC Drives Operational Issues 1. Power Factor . Starting Current .
AC Drives Frequency Drives .
AC Drives AC Technology Current Source Inverter Variable Voltage Inverter PWM Inverters V/Hz Inverters High Performance Vector Drive – Preferred over CSI & VVI .
• Inverter changes fixed voltage DC to adjustable PWM AC voltage.AC Drives • Diode rectifier converts AC line voltage to fixed voltage DC. • DC voltage is filtered to reduce current ripple from rectification. .
AC Drives Actual Drive System Encoder .
98%) Ride through options Open circuit protection Common bus regeneration Smooth low speed operation Vector control performance (optional) Limitations Extra hardware for regeneration to line Motor noise (solved with IGBT’s) Possible Cable length limitations (with IGBT’s) .F.AC Drives PWM INVERTER AC Input L Diode Rectifier Fixed DC Bus + C Inverter Benefits Constant input P. Wide speed range High efficiency (97 .
Conversion From AC to DC Positive Diodes 1 3 5 3 phase AC input to the converter | | | | | | | One 360° Cycle of Power 6&1 2&3 4&5 1&2 | | 60° | | 3&4 | | | | | | | 5&6 | 4 6 2 DC output 5&6 | Negative Diodes .AC Drives Rectifier Section .
AC Drives Precharging Arrangement .in low Rated Drives To Filter Section .
in High Rated Drives Driver Board To Filter Section .AC Drives Precharging Arrangement .
Smoothing of Rippled DC DC Bus (+) Rectified Input C DC Bus(-) Filtered Output Rectified DC output OV Filtered DC output OV Vdc Vdc = 1.35VL.AC Drives Filter Section .1 X 746 X Drive HP)/ Vdc .L Idc =(1.
AC Drives Inverter Section – Conversion From DC to AC Positive DC Bus Line Filtered DC Input PWM Output Negative DC Bus Line IGBT fired in a sequence to produce a PWM output .
IGBTs have lower on-state voltage drop with high blocking voltage capabilities in addition to fast switching speeds. BJTs have lower conduction losses in the on-state. especially in devices with larger blocking voltages. NPN IGBT (+) Collector (+) Base (-) Emitter (-) Base PNP IGBT (-) Collector (+) Base (+) Emitter NPN IGBT (+) Collector (-) Base (-) Emitter PNP IGBT (-) Collector (+) Emitter . especially in devices rated for higher blocking voltages. MOSFETs can be turned on and off much faster. especially at turn-off while. but have longer switching times.AC Drives IGBT – Insulated or Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor IGBT combines the positive attributes of BJTs and MOSFETs. but their on-state conduction losses are larger.
AC Drives IGBT – Insulated or Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor IGBT Advantages Higher Switching (Carrier) Frequencies than Bipolar Transistors Lower Motor Noise Lower Motor Heating Bi-Polar Drive Size Reduction High Input Impedance Reduces Base Driver Power Consumption Reduces Base Driver Board Size IGBT .
Remember. and is used to control speed of the AC squirrel cage induction motor. the current waveform resembles an AC sine wave.AC Drives PWM WAVEFORMS Voltage 0 (Line to Neutral) Current (Line) 0 The PWM waveform actually is a Square wave DC voltage. even though we have DC voltage applied to the motor. . This voltage is applied directly to the AC motor terminals.
AC Drives Generation of PWM WAVEFORMS Triangle Generator Modulation Generator .
.AC Drives Sine Weighted PWM Pulses The pulses are then inverted and are applied to the base of the transistor used to fire “gate” or turn on the power transistors to create the actual PWM output.
Transistor #6 180° 180° ⏐ Transistor #5 ⏐ ⏐ Transistor #2 Note: the positive half cycle for B starts 120 degrees after the positive half cycle for A phase. C starts 240 degrees after A. Meaning that the phases start at different times. . Notice how the total duration makes up 360 electrical degrees or one full cycle of power. transistor # 1 is turned on and off at a frequency determined by the drive CPU.AC Drives Conduction During the positive half cycle of phase A. refer to the rectification module before moving on in this lesson. ⏐ Transistor #1 180° ⏐ 180° ⏐ Transistor #4 ⏐ Transistor #3 180° ⏐ 180° ⏐ Phase B & C operate in the same way that phase A did except there is a phase shift. Transistor # 4 is used during the negative half cycle. If you are having trouble understanding phase shifts and electrical degrees.
AC Drives Sine Weighted PWM .
AC Drives Powering the Motor 1 3 5 Phase A Phase B Phase C 4 6 2 1.5 and 6 Conducting .
AC Drives Powering the Motor 1 3 5 Phase A Phase B Phase C 4 6 2 1.2 and 6 Conducting .
AC Drives Powering the Motor 1 3 5 Phase A Phase B Phase C 4 6 2 1.2 and 3 Conducting .
3 and 4 Conducting .AC Drives Powering the Motor 1 3 5 Phase A Phase B Phase C 4 6 2 2.
AC Drives Powering the Motor 1 3 5 Phase A Phase B Phase C 4 6 2 3.4 and 5 Conducting .
AC Drives Powering the Motor 1 3 5 Phase A Phase B Phase C 4 6 2 4.5 and 6 Conducting .
5 and 6 Conducting .AC Drives Powering the Motor 1 3 5 Phase A Phase B Phase C 4 6 2 1.
Positive DC Buss Line 1 3 5 Phase A Phase B Phase C 4 6 2 Negative DC Buss Line Time Most Positve Phase A&C T1 A T2 A&B T3 Most Negative Phase "+" IGBT Conducting "-" IGBT Conducting Turn "On" Order B B&C C C&A A A&B B B&C 1&5 1 1&3 3 3&5 5 5&1 1 6 6&2 2 2&4 4 4&6 6 6&2 Skip 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 B B&C C C&A A . look at the phases along each time to see which one is most positive and negative.AC Drives Transistor Conduction Order In summary. fill in the chart below using the diagrams provided. Then apply what you know about the phases to the IGBT bridge and figure out which transistors are conducting. “T1 through T8” represent frozen moments in time.
By Changing Number of Poles – Very Complicated and costly method. By Changing Frequency of Input supply .AC Drives How To Change SPEED ?? AC Motor 1. Linear Speed Change not Possible 2.
g for a 4 POLE & 70 Hz FREQUENCY 120 X 70 RPM = ----------.g for a 4 POLE & 30 Hz FREQUENCY 120 X 30 RPM = ----------.= 2100 4 .g for a 4 POLE & 50 Hz FREQUENCY 120 X 50 RPM = ----------.AC Drives How To Change SPEED ?? 120 x Applied Frequency RPM = Number of Poles per Phase I Want to Control speed and Save energy ? e.= 1500 4 I need high speed machine operation to increase my production ? e.= 900 4 e.= 1800 4 e.g for a 4 POLE & 60 Hz FREQUENCY 120 X 60 RPM = ----------.
AC Drives Slip 60 RPM Slip 0 750 1440 Base Speed 1500 Sync Speed N Rotor Speed = Synchronous Speed .Slip Speed .
torque varies by: T = K x V F 2 x I Line Where : V/F proportional to Motor Flux I is current drawn by the motor PLAY WITH V/F RATIO TO GET HIGHER STARTING TORQUE .AC Drives TORQUE Control In an AC motor.
To keep the torque Constant as T α V/F Ratio . L X = 2 π fL 3). V/F proportional ФRated (Motor Rated Flux) If Ф > ФRated (What Happens?) If Ф < ФRated (What Happens?) 2). Impedance/Reactance Issue Z = R 2 s + X 2 L S XL is dominant above 3-5 hertz Since I =V/Z. If we increase or decrease the applied frequency we must also increase or decrease the applied voltage accordingly.AC Drives Why Voltage varies as frequency is changed 1).
No Load Synchronous speed Starting Current 400 % Current and % Torque 200 100 Torque 0 500 900 1725 1800RPM 1750 Speed (RPM) Base speed .AC Drives 600 Motor Operating Characteristics Cu rre nt Break down torque Starting torque (Break over Torque) Pull UP torque (DIP Torque) (peak Torque) Rated Torque at rated FLA.
AC Drives Torque & Speed Curve without Drive Breakdown Torque 400 Percent Torque 300 200 100 Operating Range of Variable Frequency Drives 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent Synchronous Speed .
AC Drives Torque / Speed with drive applied Break down torque (peak Torque) Torque 200 % Current and % Torque 100 Current Rated Torque at rated FLA. 0 500 900 1725 1800RPM Speed (RPM) 75RPM Slip 75RPM Slip .
25 Rated Speed (Multiple of Base) Base 1.33 .64 CHP 1 Tpeak = 2 N .75 2 .44 .AC Drives 0 to Twice Base Speed Operation Torque CT range Peak .5 1.25 1.
AC Drives Benefits from Drives Energy Saving Concept .
and transient torques) Lower chances of System disruptions (by lowering current inrush from 600% to 100-150%) Substantially brings down – Down time & Maintenance costs . vibration.AC Drives Benefits of VFD Saves substantial energy costs (due to direct speed control) Improves Process by smooth speed control Save Energy costs by reducing maximum utility demand charges Increase Life of mechanical equipment (due to ‘soft starting’) Reduce Motor stress (lower heat.
AC Drives Benefits of VFD Flexibility in Starting Current 275 150%-260% 180% 115% C B A 180% % Torque 150 75 0 0 120 AC Drive Full Voltage Starter Reduced Voltage Starter A B C 480% Solid State* (SMC) % Current 240 360 480 600 150% 600% 600% * maximum shown. adjustable via digital switches Lower Investment in DG sets No Penalty From Electricity Board .
AC Drives Benefits of VFD ACCELERATION RANGE Seconds 0 AC Drive 15 60 (Adjustable) 30 300 600 Solid State (Load Dependent) Acceleration Time Where: = WK 2 x hN 308 x T Reduced Voltage WK 2 = Moment of inertia (lb-ft 2) Full Voltage (Not Adjustable) hN T 308 = Change in motor RPM = Torque required = Constant Smooth Start and perfect Control .
V. X X X X X Solid State X Ramp D. F. DC Inj.AC Drives Benefits of VFD STOPPING CHOICES Coast Soft AC Drive R.V. X X X Speed Time Dynamic DC Braking Injection Ramp Stop Soft Coast .B.
.Just Name….AC Drives Benefits of VFD Complete Motor Protection Complete Protection for motor Against Over voltage Overload Motor Stalling Short Circuit Transients Phase Loss I2t Protection to Motor & so on ……….
AC Drives Drives Save Energy ? .
AC Drives Energy Saving Concepts Real & Reactive motor current Phase A Real Current Only Phase B Phase C AC Input Power PWM VFD AC Output Power • Input Current is less than Output since Source Voltage is Constant • Lower demand on distribution system • Power Consumption is proportional to motor speed .
Energy Saving Concepts
Auto-Economizer - Extra Saving “Idle Mode” Energy Saver Reduced Load
Automatically fold back Voltage to reduce motor flux
A key in Press Applications - 3-5% Saving
Energy Saving Concepts
High Efficiency (>97% ) Improves Power Factor to 0.98 Payback within 12 to 24 months for reduced energy consumption
An investment which pays back immediately !
Types of Loads & Energy Savings
Variable Torque (VT) Constant Torque (CT) Constant Power (CHP) Non Motor Applications (NMA)
AC Drives Variable Torque Power α (Speed)3 Torque α (Speed)2 HP PRESSURE * FLOW SPEED2 SPEED SPEED3 PRESSURE AFFINITY LAW FLOW HP .
AC Drives Some Applications – FANS – • ID / FD Fans • Primary Air fans • Return fans • Cooling tower fans • Ventilation fans • Dryer fans – PUMPS – • Chilled water pumps • Pressure boosting pumps • Cooling tower pumps • Wastewater pumps • Syrup pumps 20 % REDUCTION IN SPEED REDUCES 45 % ENERGY CONSUMPTION .
20 % REDUCTION IN SPEED REDUCES 45 % ENERGY CONSUMPTION .AC Drives Variable Torque P2 = P1 X (N2 / N1)3 P2 = 100HP X (1200 / 1440)3 P2 = 58HP Power Saved = P1 – P2 = 100-58 = 42HP Multiply this quantity (42HP) by Time of operation and Cost/HP and get the energy saving on a variable torque applications Instantly.
input power requirements are reduced from ID Fan application 100 % to 62 % Saves 38% .AC Drives Variable Torque Variable Inlet Vane To reduce the flow from 100% to 60% .
input power requirements are reduced only from ID Fan application 100 % to 86 % Saves 14% .AC Drives Variable Torque Outlet Damper To reduce the flow from 100% to 60% .
AC Drives Variable Torque Variable Speed Drive Reduction of flow from 100% to 60% . results into Input power requirements reduction from ID Fan application Energy Saved 100% to 22% Saves 78% of Energy .
AC Drives Constant Torque P=2XΠXNXT Power α (Speed) Torque is Constant .
20 % REDUCTION IN SPEED REDUCES 20 % ENERGY CONSUMPTION .Drive needs a special software Lifts Compressors Etc…….AC Drives Some Applications Wagon Tippler Food processing equipment Machine tools Conveyor equipment Packaging machinery Wood working machinery Press and stamping Winder Screw Feeder Press and stamping Crane/Hoists .
20 % SPEED REDUCTION SAVES 20 % ENERGY .AC Drives Constant Torque P2 = P1 X (N2 / N1) P2 = 100HP X (1200 / 1440) P2 = 84HP Power Saved = P1 – P2 = 100-84 = 16HP Multiply this quantity (16HP) by Time of operation and Cost/HP and get the energy saving on a Constant torque applications Instantly.
.AC Drives Constant Power Power is Constant Constant Power Torque Decreases Examples Mixers Spindles etc..
. .AC Drives Non Motor Applications Voltage and Fequency controlled separately V/F ratio not necessarily maintained Examples Resistive Heaters Power Supply Induction heating Vibrating Conveyors etc.
Complete Output Short Circuit Protection Compact Size Safe Off Option to Address Category 3 safe off Clause EN 954-1 . Excellent Feature of Zero Stacking PTC input to the Drive Internal family of communications and HIM modules 7th IGBT – Chopper is internally Provided Offers 150% Overload for 60Seconds & 200% for 3 Seconds. Conformity to EMC directives and european Standards. Flexible performance with ForceTM Feature Upto 400% maximum torque can be achieved in closed loop Meets IEEE 519 -1992 Standards Built in DC Chokes to abate input Current Harmonics with 97.AC Drives Some of Best Features in our Drive Ambient Temperature of 50 Degree C.5% Efficiency Power Devices having PIV of 1700V and Transient Protection of 6KV Built in Software to control the effect of reflected wave Built in EMC Filters and common mode core to address noise related issues.
AC Drives .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.