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) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), pp. 01-12 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.html

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IJMET

©IAEME

SURFACE ROUGHNESS EFFECTS ON SQUEEZE FILM BEHAVIOR IN POROUS TRANSVERSELY TRIANGULAR PLATES WITH COUPLE STRESS FLUID

Sundarammal Kesavan & Santhana Krishnan N Department of Mathematics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Tamilnadu, India Email : sundarammal@gmail.com

ABSTRACT The effect of surface roughness on squeeze film behavior between two transversely triangular plates with couple stress lubricant is analyzed when the upper plate has porous facing which approaches the lower plate with uniform velocity. The modified Stochastic Reynolds equation is derived on the basis of Stokes micro-continuum theory for couple stress fluid and Christensen Stochastic theory for the rough surfaces. Closed form solution of the Stochastic Reynolds equation is obtained in terms of Fourier-Bessel series. It is observed that, effect of couple stress fluid and surface roughness is more pronounced compared to classical case. Keywords: Couple stress fluid, Rough surface, Squeeze film, Triangular plates, Fourier Bessel series Nomenclature a Length of an equilateral triangular plate E Expectancy operator f Probability density function h Nominal film height Deviation of film height from nominal level hs H Film thickness H* Film thickness of the porous layer Jo Bessel function of first kind of zeroth order l Couple stress parameter ( =

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

p p* T u,w u*,w*

Pressure in the film region Pressure in the porous region Non-dimensional squeeze film time Velocity components in r and z-directions respectively Darcy’s velocity components in the porous region Modified form of the Darcy’s law

Greek symbols Nth eigen value Ratio of microstructure size of polar additives to the pore size Viscosity of the lubricant Material constant Non-dimensional couple stress parameter Random variable Angular co-ordinate Permeability parameter Non-dimensional permeability parameter 1 INTRODUCTION The determination of squeeze film characteristics has attracted the attention of several investigators due to its importance in the practical problems of improving the performance of hydraulic machine elements. This discovery, that a film of lubrication could completely separate two surfaces resulted in a complete reversal in understanding the limitation of bearing design and has had a profound effect on the design, operation and life expectancy of machinery. The squeeze film phenomenon is found when the upper surface approaches the lower surface with a normal velocity. The viscous lubricant present in the film region cannot be squeezed out instantaneously, so it offers resistance to extrusion. This results in build-up of pressure, which support load. Self-lubricating porous bearings are widely used in industry due to their self-contained oil reservoir in addition to their low cost and other aspects concerned with lubrication mechanism. Porous bearing are extensively used in brakes, clutches, etc. due to their self-contained oil reservoir and favorable low friction characteristics. Besides engineering applications, their detailed study is of immense use in understanding lubrication aspects of synovial joints. The analysis of squeeze film bearings is made by many researchers for Newtonian lubricants based on the assumption of perfectly smooth bearing surfaces. However, it is well known in the tribology literature that the bearing surfaces develop roughness after having some run-in and wear. The chemical degradation of lubricants leading to the contamination of lubricants is also one of the plausible reasons for developing the roughness on bearing surfaces in some cases. Since the surface roughness distribution is random in nature, a stochastic approach to model the surface roughness mathematically has to be adopted. Several approaches have been proposed to study the effect of

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

roughness of the bearing surfaces on the performance of hydrodynamics bearings. Ramanaiah [1] analyzed the Squeeze films between finite plates lubricated by fluids with couple stresses. Ramanaiah and Sarkar [2] studied the performance between squeeze film plates and proved that the couple stress effects increase the load-carrying capacity and the time of approach of the plates. Ramanaiah and Sundarammal Kesavan [3] studied the effects of bearing deformation on the characteristics of a slider bearings and Ramanaiah and Sundarammal Kesavan [4] investigated squeeze films between circular and rectangular plates. All the investigations mentioned above are confined to the study of surface roughness on porous bearing with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid as lubricant. However, with the development of modern industry, the importance of non-Newtonian fluids as lubricant has been emphasized, as Newtonian constitutive approximation is not a satisfactory engineering approach for most of the lubrication problems. Hence, the effect of nonNewtonian property of lubricant must be taken into account in the realistic study of these bearing. The common lubricants exhibiting non-Newtonian behavior are polymerthickened oils, greases, and natural lubricating fluids, which appear in animal joints. Recently, the effect of transverse surface roughness on the performance of hydromagnetic squeeze film between conducting rough porous plates of different geometrical configurations was analyzed by many researchers. Sudha and Sundarammal Kesavan [5] analysed the squeeze film characteristics of couple stress fluid between the porous triangular plates. Bujurke et al. [6] have investigated the surface roughness effects on squeeze film behavior in porous circular disks with couple stress fluid. Here, it has been sought to analyze the performance of a couple stress fluid based squeeze film behavior between transversely rough porous triangular plates. 2 MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM A schematic diagram of squeeze film geometry of the problem considered is shown in figure 1. The squeeze film characteristics between two triangular plates are analyzed when one triangular plate has a porous facing which approaches the other rough triangular plate with uniform velocity. The lubrication in the film region is assumed to be a stokes couple stress fluid. It is also assumed that, the body forces and body couples are absent. The bearing surfaces are assumed to be transversely rough.

Figure 1 Configuration of the Squeeze Film bearing system

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

Under the usual assumption of hydrodynamic lubrication, applicable to thin films, the equation of motion for couple stress fluid [7] takes the forms (1) (2) (3) where u and w are the velocity components in r and z directions respectively, p is the pressure, µ is the Newtonian viscosity, is the new material constant characterizing the couple stress and is of dimension of momentum. The ratio has the dimension of length squared and hence characterizes the material length of the fluid. The film thickness of the lubricant film geometry is (4) where h denotes the nominal smooth part of the film geometry, while is the part due to the surface asperities measured from the nominal level and is regarded as a randomly varying quantity of zero mean, r and are the radial and angular coordinates and ξ is the index parameter determining a definite roughness arrangement.

The relevant boundary conditions for the velocity components are u=0, w=0, u=0, w = Here + , at z = 0 at z = H (5) (6)

is the constant velocity of the upper porous triangular plate approaching the

lower impermeable triangular plate. Last conditions in equation (5) and (6) are due to the vanishing of the couple stresses at z = 0 and H respectively. Since, p is independent of z, the solution of equation (1), subject to the boundary conditions (5) and (6) is

4

Taking

,

,

, we get

(7)

where

Integration of equation (3) across the fluid film and using the boundary conditions (5) and (6) and the expression (7) for u, gives the modified Reynolds equation

On simplifying, we get (8)

where

The flow of couple stress fluid in a porous medium is governed by the modified form of the Darcy’s law, which accounts for the [8] polar effects (9) where directions respectively, are the Darcy’s velocity components along r and z is the pressure in the porous region, and is the

permeability of the porous medium. The parameter represents the ratio of microstructure size of polar additives to the pore size of the porous medium. If then the microstructure additives present in the Newtonian fluid block the pores of the porous region and this reduces the Darcy flow through the porous matrix. When microstructure is very small compared to the porous size, i.e., the polar additives percolate in to the porous matrix. The pressure p* in the porous region satisfies the Laplace equation

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(10) Using equation (9) in (8), we get (11) Taking the expected values of both sides of equation (11), we get (12)

where expectancy operator E( ) is defined by (13) and f is the probability density function of the stochastic film thickness hs. In many real engineering problems, sliding surfaces show a roughness in height distribution which is Gaussian in nature. Therefore, a polynomial form which approximates the Gaussian is chosen in the analysis. Such a probability density function [9] is given by (14) where ‘c’ is the half total range of random film thickness variable and function terminates with being the standard deviation. at c = In the context of stochastic theory, the following type of directional roughness structures is of special interest. 2.1 Sides of one-dimensional roughness In this model, the roughness is assumed to have the form of long narrow ridges and valleys in r-direction. The film thickness assumes the form (15) and the equation (12) reduces to (16)

.

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The relevant boundary conditions for pressure in the film region are (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) and the interface condition is (22) where a is the side of an equilateral triangle and H* is the thickness of the porous layer. Condition (18) and (19) show that both the film region and the porous facing are open to ambient pressure. There is no flow through the impervious boundary at the top of the porous medium (condition 20). Pressure continuity at the film plate interface requires condition (22). The problem is thus reduced to solving equation (16) and (10) with boundary conditions (17) and (18). Using equation (13) for the distribution function, we have (23) The cylindrical coordinates are appropriate to the present problem, with the pole at the centroid of the triangular plates and the z-axis along the axis of a triangular plates. The pressure p* in the porous region does not depend on which satisfies the Laplace Equation

i.e.,

The solution of the above equation of the form u = RZ, where R is a function of r only and Z is a function of z only is (24) Putting each side equal to we have

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(25) (or) the equivalent form

In each case, A,B,C,D denote arbitrary constants. We must suppose for to be real when r>0. are Bessel functions of first kind and zeroth order and th the n eigen value which satisfies (26) Applying boundary condition (19) at r = a, the most general solution is (27) Also, Applying condition (20) and (21), , (0<r<a) Hence , Substituting A in equation (27), (28) Substituting equations (23) and (28) in (16), results in (29)

is

where are Fourier coefficients to be determined. Integrating equation (29) with respect to r and making use of the boundary conditions (17),

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(30) Again Integrating equation (30) with respect to r and making use of the boundary condition (18), the mean pressure in the film region is (31) Substituting equations (28) and (31) in the interface condition (22) and using , we get orthogonality of the eigen function (32)

3 SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM Let the vertices of the equilateral triangular plates be (-2a, 0), (a, -a ) and (a, a )

where 2 a > 0 is the length of each side of the equilateral triangle. The equation governing the film pressure is obtained as (33) where in constant, , k being suitably chosen from dimensionless point of view and and is the permeability of the free space. Integration of equation (33) with respect to the appropriate boundary conditions (34) where in following non-dimensional quantities and and the introduction of the

leads to the non-dimensional pressure distribution

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(35)

Then the load carrying capacity given by dimensionless form as

is obtained in

(36) The dimensionless time T for a given load taken by the upper plate to reach a film thickness from an initial film thickness can be obtained as (37) where

4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Figures 2-5 shows the variation of non-dimensional squeeze film pressure as a function of dimensionless coordinates X(r) and Y(z) for different values of a with =0.9, =0.9, =2.9. This reveal that for a given value of the dimensionless height a, the dimensionless pressure for a couple stress fluid increases.

Figure 2. Variation of distribution of pressure for =0.9, =0.9, =2.9, a=0.5

Figure 3. Variation of distribution of pressure for =0.9, =0.9, =2.9, a=0.55

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**Figure 4. Variation of distribution of pressure for =0.9, =0.9, =2.9, a=0.7
**

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**Figure 5. Variation of distribution of pressure for =0.9, =0.9, =2.9, a=1.0
**

Behaviour of Newtonian Fluid

2

4.5

4

3.5

1.5

**Behaviour of Couple Stress Fluid
**

Dimensionless Time T 3

Dimensionless Time (T)

with different parameters of A.

2.5

A. = A. = A. = A. = A. = A. =

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Newtonian Fluid 1

2

1.5

A. = 0.7

0.5

1

A. = 0.2

0.5 0 0.20 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 Dimensionless Height H

0 0.10

0.25

0.30

0.35 Dimensionless Height (H)

0.40

0.45

0.50

Figure 6. Behavior of couple stress fluid with different parameters of

Figure 7. Behavior of Newtonian fluid with parameters of

The values of the dimensionless Time T are compared for the couple stress fluid and the Newtonian fluid. Figure 6 and Figure 7 reveal that for a given value of the dimensionless height H, the dimensionless time T for a couple stress fluid is larger than the Newtonian fluid. The dimensionless time T increases as the couple stress parameter increases for any given value of H.

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5 CONCLUSION From the above discussions it is observed that for a given value of the dimensionless height a, the dimensionless pressure for a couple stress fluid increases. Also, the squeeze in couple stress fluid is slower than in Newtonian fluid films. The time of approach T increases with the dimensionless parameter showing that couple stress fluids are better lubricants than Newtonian fluids. The presence of microstructures in the fluid film causes an enhancement of the squeeze film characteristics. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Authors would like to thank the anonymous referees for their comments.

REFERENCES 1. Ramanaiah, G., Squeeze films between finite plates lubricated by fluids with couple stresses, Wear, 54, (1979), 315 2. Ramanaiah, G. and Sarkar P., Squeeze films and thrust bearing lubricated by fluids with couple stress, Wear, 48, (1978), 309-316 3. Ramanaiah, G. and Sundarammal Kesavan., Effect of bearing deformation on the characteristics of a slider bearing, Wear, 82, (1982), 273-278 4. Ramanaiah, G. and Sundarammal Kesavan., Effect of bearing deformation on the characteristics of squeeze film between circular and rectangular plates, Wear, 82, (1982), 49-55 5. Sudha V., Sundarammal Kesavan., Ramamurthy V., Squeeze film characteristics of couple stress fluid between porous triangular plates, Journal of Manufacturing Engineering, (2008), 3 6. Bujurke N.M., Basti D.P Ramesh B. Kudenatti, Surface roughness effects on squeeze flm behavior in porous circular disks with couple stress fluid, Transp Porous Med, 71, (2008), 185-197 7. Stokes V.K., Couple stress in Fluids, Phys Fluids, 9, (1966), 1709-1715 8. Naduvinamani N.B., Hiermath P.S., Gurubasawaraj G., Surface roughness effects in a short porous journal bearing with a couple stress fluids, Fluids Dyn. Res., 31, (2002) 333 9. Christensen H., Stochastic models for hydrodynamic lubrication of rough surfaces, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. (Part J), 185(55), (1969), 1013

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