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**Performance of two permanent magnet generators
**

For use with small windchargers

Gerrit Jacobs

Arrakis Formerly RED Renewable Energy Development vof Eindhoven, the Netherlands October 1998

Arrakis/RED Renewable Energy Development vof De Olieslager 7- 5506ER Veldhoven The Netherlands Tel: +31(40) 2819454 E-mail: info@arrakis.nl www.arrakis.nl

Jan de Jongh and Remi Rijs. Therefore the generator is not suitable to charge a 12 V battery with the AMEC windrotor. Johan van Doorn. I am very grateful to Henk Holtslag of Centro de Estudios y Acción para el Desarrollo (CESADE). . ™ The rotational speed of the Omni Instruments generator has to be over 5500 RPM to reach an output voltage of 12V. Using the model. ™ A generator model has been developed which may be used with permanent magnet DC generators in general. 2 . At approximate 2200 RPM the generator can deliver 50 W which is more or less the maximum power that can be generated without overheating when charging a battery. starting at rotational speeds of approximately 900 RPM. generator performance can be determined with a minimum of measurements. Adriaan Kragten of Kragten Design. Jan van der Veen en Marijn Uyt de Willegen of the Department of Electrical Engineering: Group Electromechanics and Power Electronics of the Eindhoven University of Technology. One of the bottlenecks is the lack of a small (approximately 100W) generator that is affordable (approximately US$ 50) and reliable.RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I Summary ™ The non-governmental organisation CESADE (Centro de Estudios y Acción para el Desarrollo) in Nicaragua is determined to provide affordable electricity for the low income group. in an unmodified state. The model is also useful for matching the generator with the windrotor. With AMEC (Aerobombas de Mecate) it has developed a small windcharger for charging 12 V batteries. Ton Mariënburg. because of the small diameter of the wires. the Bosch generator is capable of charging a 12 V battery. The maximum efficiency that can be reached with this generator is approximately 65% at rotational speeds of over 3500 RPM. ™ Without modifications. Wim Thirion. ™ Results of the tests on two small DC permanent magnet generators that may be suitable are described: a Bosch generator and an Omni Instruments generator. of Renewable Energy Development vof (RED) and Paul Smulders for their valuable suggestions and assistance given.

....................... BOSCH GENERATOR TEST RESULTS ......................... 13 7................................................................................................................ 2 1........................................................................................7 6..............................3 6............................ INTRODUCTION ...2 REFINEMENT OF THE MODEL .......................................................................................................... 6 4.......................................................... 10 MAGNETIC FLUX CONSTANT ................. 6 3......................................................................................................................................................... 9 6......................... 7 4.......... 13 7.................................................................................................................... 19 APPENDIX 2 CALIBRATION OF THE RPM MEASUREMENT ............4 GENERATOR VOLTAGE ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 LOAD RESISTANCE .................................................................................................. 11 GENERATOR TORQUE ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... GENERATOR PERFORMANCE...... 14 7........1 CONCLUSIONS ............................ 5 2........................................................................................................................................................... 14 7...................................................................................... 4 2................................................................................... 6 3....................................................................1 PERMANENT MAGNET DC GENERATOR MODEL.....2 6....................3 MAGNETIC FLUX CONSTANT ........6 6................................................................................................................ 16 9........................ 9 5......... 11 GENERATOR ELECTRICAL POWER ......................................................................................................................1 INTERNAL RESISTANCE ............ THEORY...................................................... 5 2...................................................................................................... 17 BIBLIOGRAFY................................ 12 7.......................................................................................................... 17 9............................................................................................................................... 10 6..........................2 OMNI INSTRUMENTS GENERATOR ..................8 INTERNAL RESISTANCE ............................................................. 13 7........................................2 RECOMMENDATIONS .. 15 8....................................1 BOSCH GENERATOR ...............................................................................1 6.......................................................1 OPTIMISATION OF THE GENERATOR ......................... CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS........ 13 7................................................................................................................... 7 5.................. 18 APPENDIX 1 CALCULATION OF THE EFFICIENCY .............................................................................................................................................. 5 3............................................................. 17 9............................................. MEASUREMENTS............................................... 11 GENERATOR CURRENT ...................................................................... MATCHING OF THE WINDROTOR AND GENERATOR .........................................................................................................2 CALIBRATION OF RPM MEASUREMENT .................................................................................................................................................................................... 19 3 ................ 7 4............. 10 GENERATOR VOLTAGE .............................................................................................................................................................................................7 GENERATOR TORQUE......................5 6........................................1 METHODOLOGY .... 12 GENERATOR EFFICIENCY .................................................................5 GENERATOR CURRENT ......................................................................................... 14 7..............2 LOAD RESISTANCE ........................................................... 15 7........................................................................................ OMNI INSTRUMENTS GENERATOR TEST RESULTS....RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I Contents SUMMARY................................................2 LOSSES ............ 9 5.....6 GENERATOR ELECTRICAL POWER ... DESCRIPTION OF THE GENERATORS.........................................................................................................................................................................4 6........................................8 GENERATOR EFFICIENCY ....................................................................................................................................

Introduction The non-governmental organisation CESADE (Centro de Estudios y Acción para el Desarrollo) from Nicaragua is determined to provide affordable electricity for the low income group. The rotor diameter is approximately 2 m. The figure below shows a picture of the type of the AMEC windcharger that is meant to be used with the generator. compared to SHS's. a bottleneck is the availability of a small generator and therefore CESADE. The results of the tests are described in this report. However. Therefore two prototype windchargers have been developed locally by AMEC (Aerobombas de Mecate) with assistance from Mr. Tests indicate that design and performance are promising [1]. (Photo: Remi Rijs) 4 . A financial comparison between a small wind charging system and a SHS is given in [1]. through Mr. Henk Holtslag. Existing 50 Wp solar home systems (SHS) cost about US$ 600 in Nicaragua. has asked Renewable Energy Development vof (RED) to test two small DC permanent magnet generators that may be used with the AMEC windcharger. The cheapest commercial small windcharger that is available costs US$ 700. It is felt that there is a market for small windchargers when they are cost effective. The generator is mounted at the bottom of the round rim. A detailed technical description of the system is given in [1].RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I 1. Henk Holtslag of CESADE. Only a technical analysis is given here.

Originally the generator has been designed for driving an electric bicycle but no further information is available form the manufacturer (Omni Instruments USA. ™ low maintenance and a long life. 5 .RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I 2. California).2 Omni Instruments generator The figure shows the dismantled Omni Instruments generator with the rotor on the right and the stator housing with the magnets at the back. It has a commutator with brushes. ™ capable of charging a 12 V battery at a maximum rotational speed of 1500-2000 RPM (depending on the type of transmission that is used). It is a 12 VDC permanent magnet type with 16 poles in the rotor and 4 permanent magnets in the stator.000 RPM. There is a combination numbers and letters is printed on the casing: SHI(?)I(?)T2B. The diameter of the shaft is 12 mm with on one side a ball bearing and on the other side a brass bush. (Photo: Remi Rijs) The generator has a commutator with brushes.-.1 Bosch generator The generator is manufactured by American Bosch and has the specification: 8(?)078524M030MM. 12V.0 mm and the copper wire in the coil has a diameter of 0. 6002626. The shaft diameter of the generator is 8. 2. It has two permanent magnets in the stator and 16 poles in the rotor.to buy a generator off the shelve that has the above characteristics. 133 Novak Drive Petaluma. 30/97DE. ™ sealed construction.7 mm. Two generators were identified by CESADE that might be suitable: a Bosch and an Omni Instrument generator. The diameter of the coil wires is 0. The nominal voltage is 110 V DC at 10. It is difficult –if not impossible. ™ cost of approximately $US 50. For the generator this leads to the following criteria: ™ maximum power output of approximately 100 W. 41080 110V CCW. 2.3 mm. Description of the generators The design philosophy of AMEC is not to develop a windcharger that has a maximum energy efficiency but a machine which is cheap (competitive to SHS's) and suitable for local production.

a generator is a coil of wire. ™ eddy current losses. and mechanical losses: ™ pressure of the brushes on the commutator causes friction. The voltage induced in a coil of wire passing through a magnetic field is proportional to the number of turns in the coil. Apart from the I2R losses in the coil. the flux density of the magnetic field and how rapidly the coil passes through the magnetic field (the effective rate of change of the magnetic field flux through the coil). I2R losses in the wires between the generator and the battery will increase with increasing current. ™ friction in the bearings. This will also increase the resistance of the wire. ™ the magnetic flux density of the field. passing through a magnetic field. given a fixed space available. decreasing the diameter of the wire can increase the number of turns. it can be modified. If a generator does not satisfy this condition at rotational speeds that can be provided by a windmill. Two different methods are used to change alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC): by using a commutator and brushes (in a DC generator). These include: ™ the number of poles. there are a number of parameters that should be taken into consideration [8]. With a given space. By the process an alternating voltage is induced. voltage. not much can be done about the mentioned losses in an existing generator. 6 . However. ™ the number of turns in the coils. the DC voltage generated should be higher than the sum of the battery voltage and the voltage drop over the blocking diode. In the following paragraph some theory is given. ™ the maximum current through the commutator and the resistance of the wire. However. The generator voltage is proportional to the number of turns of the coil. increasing the number of turns is limited by the available space.RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I 3. ™ voltage drop over the commutator (brushes and the commutator segments). in case of a generator. Generator performance 3. Since it is not easy to change either the number of poles or the magnetic flux density of the field of an existing generator. ™ the space available in the armature for the coils. attention is given to the remaining points.1 Optimisation of the generator In its simplest form. There is a trade-off between the rotational speed. ™ hysteresis losses in the iron of the armature. Therefore the generator resistance is proportional to the number of turns squared and as a result the I2R losses in the coil will not change at a given power. These include: electrical losses: ™ heat generated in the coils (I2R losses). To be able to charge a car battery. whereas the maximum generator current is inversely proportional to the number of turns. followed by a discussion on how the generator characteristics have been obtained and what the results of the measurements are. In redesigning the generator for higher voltage output.2 Losses There are several reasons why the efficiency of a generator is lower than 100%. 3. and using diodes (in an alternator). the number of turns in the coil. current and efficiency of the generator. The characteristics of the generator (and also of the windmill and battery) and the relationship between the parameters have to be known to be able to optimise a generator for use in a windcharger. of which its magnitude depends on the length of the coil.

ω (5) mec The losses L can be calculated as the sum of the power due to the lost torque and heat generated due to the internal resistance of the generator: L T0 . It was found necessary to refine the model when describing the Omni Instruments generator because this generator operates at a much lower voltage. I T g T0 . which is also equal to the generated current times external resistance: U φ . The external resistance is noted as Ru According to Faraday.2 Refinement of the model The model previously described has been verified with the measurements of the Bosch generator.ω m I. T T g T0 substituting Tg: T φ . R u (3) The torque required to drive the generator is equal to Tg plus the torque required to overcome losses (T0). The current I and the voltage U are output parameters.I m T0 (4) The efficiency is defined as the ratio of electric power generated and mechanical power required: η P P el η U.1 V.R i (6) 4. the generated voltage is a linear function of the rotational speed (1) and according to Lorentz. ω 2 I .ω m (1) T g φ . Theory 4. Formula 1 changes into: Ug φ m . The torque T and rotational speed ω are input parameters. R i and also: U I.RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I 4.ω Ub (7) The value that has been used for Ub is 0.1 Permanent magnet DC generator model The generator can be considered as an ideal generator with an internal resistance in series as illustrated in the figure. Brush voltage and torque losses are introduced in the revised model. The voltage U that is supplied at the generator clamps is equal to the voltage generated minus the voltage drop over the internal resistance. the generated torque is proportional to the current (2): U g φ .I m (2) In which φm is a constant which is proportional to the magnetic flux (φm in Vs or Wb). Brush voltage A brush voltage Ub is introduced which has the opposite sign as Ug. 7 .

7 and 7.7). For instance. This dependency was introduced in the model for the Omni Instruments generator as: T0 C1 C 2. it can be observed that the torque depends on the rotational speed. using the above equations. a multimeter and RPM counter. using a spring balance. the characteristics of a DC permanent magnet generator can be determined accurately with a minimum of measurements. ω The torque T0 can be determined by measuring the torque as a function of the rotational speed at open circuit (I = 0 A). 8 . Using the model. the efficiency of a generator can be determined.RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I Torque losses From the graph: torque versus rotational speed at zero load (chapters 6. In appendix 1 it is shown how the efficiency can be written as a function of the rotational speed and voltage respectively.

so that the generated torque can be measured.RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I 5. The maximum rotational speed of the brakedynamo is 4000 RPM. The calibration was made without any load connected to the brakedynamo. The brakedynamo is mounted freely.35*Vdyn. The generator (at the bottom of the picture) is clamped-in between wooden blocks and is connected to a brakedynamo (shown on the left). voltage. followed by a discussion of the measurements on the Omni Instruments generator. It was found that when a load is connected to the brakedynamo there is an over-estimation of the rotational speed of not more than 2%. Group Electromechanics and Power Electronics of the Eindhoven University of Technology. torque.1 Methodology Tests of the generator have been carried out in the laboratory of the Department of Electrical Engineering. 5. current and rotational speeds have been measured. first the results if the measurements on Bosch generator are discussed. The RPM of the brakedynamo can be calculated using: RPM=33.2 Calibration of RPM measurement First the tachometer of the dynamo was calibrated with a handheld tachometer (Shimpo DT205). For determining the characteristics of the generator. The calibration graph is given in Appendix 2. 9 . using a rheostat as a load.8+19. In the following chapter. which is measured with a scale with a resolution of 1 g.003 Nm. Force is calculated from weight. This results in a torque resolution of 0. Torque is calculated using the product of distance and force. Measurements 5.

5 3.15 10.2 ….77 7.1404*Im 6.3 0.7 Ω.4.4 have been used in the model are 0.1 ….5 1.02 + 4.18 + 20.1).05 + 1. the magnetic flux constant can be determined from the slope of the torque versus current graph.046 + 0. It should be noted that this `dynamic’ internal resistance (impedance) is different from the `static’ internal resistance that is measured with an Ohm-meter.15*I V = 0. It has been determined by plotting generator voltage versus generator current at different rotational speeds with the load resistance as parameter and calculating the slope of the graph using linear regression.0 Generator current (A) 6.0 4. This was done for rotational speeds of 595.55 14.5 1. using the circuit of figure 1.1328*Im 0.55*I V = 0.30*I 0 0 2 4 Generator Current (A) T = 0.4 ….30 4.90 Label in all graphs …. The values of the load resistances are: Resistance (Ω) 1. 6.77*I V = 12.1 Internal resistance The internal resistance of the generator was measured by varying the resistance of the rheostat and maintaining the rotational speed constant.91*I V = 0.68 .3 Magnetic flux constant Generator Torque (Nm) 0.2 0. load resistance (paragraph 6.1 0.91 20. 0.7 35 30 25 20 V = 0.0 2.9*I Vm1 Vm2 Vm3 Vm4 Vm5 Vm6 Vm7 V = 0.02 .RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I 6.15 + 10. From the slopes of the graphs it can be determined that the internal resistance of the generator is approximately 4.1 + 14.5 ….5 Generator Current (A) 10 . 880 and 1175 RPM.5 2.85 .66*I 2 0 0.6 According to formula (4).0 2.11 + 12.6 ….0 1.3) are determined.0 0.0 0. (p7) with an ammeter connected in the circuit.0 0.20 + 7.04 12.4.2 Load resistance The load resistance is the sum of the resistance of the rheostat and the internal resistance of the ammeter.060 + 0.137 Vs and 0.0 3.0 1.3 ….5 3.5 TN1 TN2 TN3 TN4 TN5 TN6 TN7 T = 0. The values of φm and To that 0.2) and the magnetic flux constant (paragraph 6.4.04*I Generator Voltage (V) V = 0.5 2.5 4. 18 V = 16.77*I 15 10 5 V = -0. The straight lines have been determined by linear regression. Bosch generator test results First the values of the internal resistance (paragraph 6.053 Nm respectively.77*I 16 V595 V880 V1175 Generator voltage (V) 14 12 10 8 6 4 V = 7.

RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I In the paragraphs 6. no voltage is created.4 up to 6. 45 40 35 Vm1 Vm2 Vm3 Vm4 Vm5 Vm6 Vm7 Vm0 Generator voltage (V) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Rotational speed (RPM) 6. so that the generated power is equal to zero in both cases. The power reaches a maximum if the load resistance is equal to the internal resistance of the generator. The generated power depends on the load: with R infinite.5 1.0 0 Generator current (A) Im1 Im2 Im3 Im4 Im5 Im6 Im7 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Rotational speed (RPM) 6. no current is flowing and with R = 0 Ω. and writing the current I as a function of the rotational speed (see appendix 1).0 2.5 0.8 the squares. 6. circles and triangles represent measured data.5 3.6 Generator electrical power Since the electrical power is the product of voltage and current.0 0. the straight lines and curves have been determined using the generator model which is discussed in chapter 4. The straight lines have been obtained by using formula (3).5 Generator current Indicated is the generator current versus rotational speed at different loads.4 Generator voltage The figure shows the generator voltage as a function of rotational speed with different loads. 4.0 3. The generator model has been used to obtain the straight lines.0 1. without correction for the brush voltage. For clarity only two curves are shown but all curves calculated with the model fit equally well with the measured data. the power increments exponential with the rotational speed.5 2. Pmot2 80 Generated Power (W) 60 Pmot1 Pmot2 Pmot3 Pmot4 Pmot5 Pmot6 Pmot7 Pmot7 40 20 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Rotational speed (RPM) 11 .

2 0. the efficiency can also be calculated with the battery voltage as parameter. First TN0 was determined and later the torque with different loads. The model gives an overestimation of the efficiency at low rotational speeds because the brush voltage has been ignored. After the battery voltage is reached.7 Generator torque The torque is proportional to the rotational speed and increases with incrementing loads (smaller external resistance).7 0. After analysing the results it became clear that the torque without load had decreased probably due to the lubrication of the bearings and settling of the brushes. The results are shown in the figure for battery voltages of 12V (dashed line).0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Rotational speed (RPM) 6. the efficiency increases rapidly and reaches a clear maximum. 0. 60 50 Eff1 Eff2 Eff3 Eff4 Eff5 Eff6 Eff7 Eff7 Eff6 Eff5 Eff4 Eff3 Eff2 Eff (%) 40 30 20 10 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Eff1 Rotational speed (RPM) 60 Eff (%) 40 20 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Rotational speed (RPM) 12 . The generator reaches a maximum efficiency of just over 65% at rotational speeds up to 3000 RPM.RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I 6. Due to the high torque at no load.1 0.8 Generator efficiency The generator efficiency is calculated using formula (5) with the load resistance as parameter.3 0. Its presence becomes most obvious at low RPM. The horizontal line (TN0) corresponds to the torque without load (I = 0 A).6 0. the efficiency decreases rapidly at low rotational speeds of the generator.5 TN1 TN2 TN3 TN4 TN5 TN6 TN7 TN0 TN00 Torque (Nm) 0. 13 V (dotted line) and 14V (solid line).4 0. Therefore the torque without load was again measured (TN00. bottom line) with results that better fit the model. Using the generator model.

3 Magnetic flux constant In theory the torque is independent from rotational speed.0.3) are determined.30 0.159*I V = 4. first the values of the internal resistance (paragraph 7. In practice.89 0.89*I 5 V = 0.02*I 5 10 15 20 Generator Current (A) 13 .0.0.2) and the magnetic flux constant (paragraph 7.1 Internal resistance From the figure it can be determined (see paragraph 6.39 .1) that the internal resistance of the generator is approximately 0.21 .0 1.0 3.5 4.317 0.00 0 T = 0.15 0.5 0.397 0. 6.100 Label in all graphs ….48 0. the value of φm is best determined at high currents and low rotational speeds because To 0. Omni Instruments generator test results Like in chapter 6.100*I 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Generator Current (A) 7.2 Load resistance The slopes of the graphs are a measure of the load resistance and are determined using linear regression.05 0.5 1.187*I Generator current (A) 7.21 + 0. which is indicated with the straight line in the graph.016 + 1.29 .1 ….30 + 0.5 2.20 0.015 + 0. The straight lines have been determined by linear regression.4 …. 7.168*I V = 3.5 5.17 Ω.010 + 0. 0.3 ….0 n=1000 RPM n=1500 RPM n=1970 RPM n=2500 RPM Generator voltage (V) 4. The values of φm and To that have been used in the model are 0. The values of the load resistances are: Resistance (Ω) 1.25 0.156 + 0.10 0.06 .40 0.41 0.0.317*I Generator Voltage (V) 4 3 2 V = 0.48*I V = 0.0 5.35 TN1 TN2 TN3 TN4 TN5 TN6 Generator Torque (Nm) depends on the rotational speed.02 Vs and 0.045+0.RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I 7.5 ….2 ….6 V = 0.397*I Vm1 Vm2 Vm3 Vm4 Vm5 Vm6 V = 0.1).41*I V = 0.045 Nm respectively.5 3.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 V = 2.0 2. load resistance (paragraph 7.0 0.168*I V = 5.

the straight lines and curves have been determined using the modified generator model which is discussed in chapter 4. The straight lines have been obtained by using formula (3).6 Generator electrical power Generator Power (W) Pmot3 The graph shows a low power output at low rotational speeds and a good concordance of the model with the measurements.00217*n 4 Generator Voltage (V) 3 2 1 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Rotational Speed (RPM) 7.8 the squares.5 Generator current Indicated is the generator current versus rotational speed at different loads. as described in the theory and writing the current I as a function of the rotational speed (see appendix 1).RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I In the paragraphs 7.4 Generator voltage The figure shows the generator voltage as a function of rotational speed with different loads.4 up to 7. 5 Vm1 Vm2 Vm3 Vm4 Vm5 Vm6 LINE Open circuit voltage U = 0.1 V. modified with the brush voltage Ub = 0. Again the generator model has been used to obtain the straight lines. 7. 20 Generator current (A) 15 Im1 Im2 Im3 Im4 Im5 Im6 10 5 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Rotational speed (RPM) Pmot5 Pmot6 Pmot1 Pmot2 Pmot3 Pmot4 Pmot5 Pmot6 Pmot4 7. circles and triangles represent measured data. It can be observed that the graphs do not pass through the origin as a result of Ub. 50 40 Pmot2 30 Pmot1 20 10 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Rotational speed (RPM) 14 .

Due to the high torque at low RPM the efficiency decreases rapidly at low rotational speeds of the generator. It should be noted that there is a considerable torque required under zero load conditions.0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Rotational speed (RPM) 7.00001*n 0.045 + 0. The curve with the highest efficiency (circles) shows the results for Eff4 using φm = 0.7 Generator torque The line which is most horizontal (TNIo) gives the torque versus rotational speed at zero load (I = 0 A). This gives an indication of high losses.020 Vs. This is also observed with the Bosch generator. This shows the importance of determining the value of φm accurately. which gives a good match. using φm = 0. 0.4 TN1 TN2 TN3 TN4 TN5 TN6 TNIo 0. compared to the torque when the generator is turning.021 Vs.8 Generator efficiency The generator efficiency is calculated using formula (5).3 Torque (Nm) 0. Eff1 Eff2 Eff3 Eff4 Eff5 Eff6 60 Eff 3 withΦm=0.0215 Vs instead of 0. compared with the measured values. The generator reaches a maximum efficiency of just over 50% at rotational speeds up to 3500 RPM.2 0.RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I 7. The model gives a slight underestimation of the efficiency.1 T = 0.02 Vs Eff3 Eff4 Eff5 50 Eff (%) 40 Eff1 30 Eff6 Eff2 20 10 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Rotational speed (RPM) 15 .

Example of matching the AMEC windrotor with the Bosch generator number of blades = 3 transmission ratio = 14 transmission efficiency = 0.RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I 8. the transmission ratio between rotor and generator can be optimised. It can be observed that with a transmission ratio of 14. considering the values of the parameters that are given at the top of the graph.22 Pmech (of the generator) Vbat=14V Vbat=12V 250 Pmech (of the rotor) at v= 8 m/s Power (W) 200 Pelectrical 150 v = 7 m/s Vbat = 14 V 100 v = 6 m/s Vbat = 12 V 50 0 0 50 50 100 150 200 250 300 Rotational speed (RPM) Electrical power versus windspeed Using the graph above. It should be noted that this is only a rough estimation based on parameters which are not precisely known. Matching of the windrotor and generator Using the proposed generator model. also the starting and furling behaviour have to be taken into account. can be calculated. is shown in the figure on the right.5 Cpmax = 0. The result of this procedure. the generator output as a function of the windspeed can be obtained.85 λο = 2. the mechanical power of the rotor can be calculated. Combining the two procedures. there is an almost perfect match between rotor and generator. It should be noted that the value of the transmission efficiency is estimated. For a better prediction of the electric output of the generator. 60 Generator electrical power (W) 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 Windspeed (m/s) 16 . the mechanical power which is required to drive the generator at a constant voltage as a function of the rotational speed. This is shown in the figure on the right. 6. Calculations of the mechanical power which is generated by the rotor at windspeeds of 2. The values of the maximum power coefficient (Cpmax) and the design value for the tip-speed ratio (λο) taken from [1]. 5. With the procedure which is described in [4]. 3. 4. using the characteristics of the AMEC rotor and Bosch generator. 7 and 8 m/s are shown. Also the mechanical generator power and the electrical power of the generator for battery voltages of 12 V and 14 V is given.

Therefore the generator is not suitable to charge a battery using the AMEC windrotor and transmission. the relative error in the calculation of the efficiency is four times the relative error in φm. The maximum efficiency that can be reached with this generator is approximately 65% at rotational speeds of over 3500 RPM. in an unmodified state. If a generator has to be opened. Conclusions and recommendations 9. When the characteristics of the rotor are known.2 Recommendations The Bosch generator might be used with the AMEC windrotor without modifications.22) and a lot can be gained by improving the blade design because with a higher Cpmax the rotor may produce the same mechanical power with a smaller diameter.3 mm) the generator gets hot when generating 50 W and for sure the generator is not capable of generating 100 W for prolonged periods of time. Omni Instruments generator The rotational speed has to be over 5500 RPM to reach an output voltage of 12V. The power coefficient of the rotor is low ( Cpmax = 0.1 Conclusions Model The generator model shows a good correlation with the measured data. Handling generators ™ Preferably a generator should not be opened. At low voltages the modified model has to be used. The heat might deform it. 9. ™ Care should be taken that the connecting wires do not brake. this should be done on a bench without any metal chippings because they are attracted to the permanent magnets and obstruct its normal operation. 17 . For future development. etc. improving the rotor design can be considered. It is estimated that the maximum power over prolonged periods of time is approximately 50 W (depending on ambient temperature. Keeping the design value of the tip-speed ratio constant. Due to the small diameter of the wires (D = 0. Welding will lessen the lubrication of the bearings and bushes and it might overheat the insulation of the coils. The tested Bosch and Omni Instruments generators are manufactured in the USA and require non-metric tools. Care should be taken that the magnets to not turn in respect to the commutator when assembling the generator.g. instead of rewinding the generator. An added advantage is that the cost of the rotor is reduced because less material is required. The magnetic flux φm should be determined carefully since it determines most characteristics of the generator and e. the model may be applied for determining the optimum match between rotor and generator. The generator should not be hammered to loosen the bolts because this might diminish the magnetic field or brake the magnets. starting at rotational speeds of approximately 900 RPM. Bosh generator Without modifications the Bosch generator will be capable of charging a 12 V battery. this results in higher RPM’s so that a smaller transmission ratio is required. The maximum efficiency that can be obtained is 55%. At approximate 2200 RPM the generator can deliver 50 W. mounting of the generator. ™ The generator shaft should not be welded on. However the transmission ratio has to be high (approximately 15) and the maximum power that can be generated is limited by the small diameter of the generator wire. The model may be used with permanent magnet DC generators in general.RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I 9. which takes the brush voltage and also the RPM dependency of the torque at zero load into consideration.). which improves the overall efficiency.

Tel. Paulissen L. [8] Sagrillo. This publication can be obtained from Kragten Design. R. Arnhem. [5] Antec. Proyecto pequenos aerogeneradores CESADE-RED. Populierenlaan 51. Eindhoven July 1997.. Internationaler Elektro-Bike test 1998.. 5492 SG St. Aanpassing van windmolen en generator. Amsterdamseweg 108. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven. The Netherlands. October/November 1990. M. Electrische fiets A1. [7] ANWB Watersprotinformatie. februari 1994. The Netherlands. Homepower 9. [6] Elektro-Bikes in forscher fahrt. 026 4458777. 18 .M. Onderzoek naar de generatorkarakteristieken van een naafdynamo.M.RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I Bibliografy [1] Rijs. RED Renewable Energy Development vof. December 1978. Germany. [3] Coolen J. R 643 S/. Technische Natuurkunde. Juli 1998.. Oedenrode. [4] Kragten A.J.H. Lysen E. Matching of wind rotors to low power electrical generators. gebruikt als generator in een kleine windmolen. CWD 78-9. The Netherlands. [2] Hengeveld H. Februari 1983 (in Dutch). Electrisch varen. KD 05. ANWB... Mobil. Rewinding Generators/Aternators for Wind Systems.

ω U m b .ω 0 Formula (4) P P η el η mec 2 .ω m φ P el φ U b I .ω 0 P mec φ . R i I.I U. R i U b φ m Appendix 2 Calibration of the RPM measurement Fi le: RPMCAL. R u φ m .99999 1000 500 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Voltage output of driving motor (V) 19 .ORG Calibracion of RPM measurement Driving motor revolutions (RPM) 3000 2500 2000 1500 Y=A + B* X Param Value A 33. ω P mec φ .ω U m b R R u i and P el I R u 2.ω φ 0 m R R u i φ It also can be shown that the efficiency can be written as a function of I and U : η φ m .ω U b m R R u i T . 2 . R i U b and U I. T . U I.R m u R R u i φ .R u R R u i P mec T. m φ .I m T . R R u i I. I T0 .795 B 19.ω U b m .RED Renewable Energy Development vof PR-98-05-I Appendix 1 Calculation of the efficiency U I.ω U b .35 R = 0. R u φm .ω I.ω U b φ .

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