Yogurt Definitions Yogurt is a fermented milk product that contains the characteristic bacterial cultures Lactobacillus bulgaricus and

Streptococcus thermophilus. All yogurt must contain at least 8.25% solids not fat. Full fat yogurt must contain not less than 3.25% milk fat, lowfat yogurt not more than 2% milk fat, and nonfat yogurt less than 0.5% milk. Generically known as cultured milk as they all derive from the action of bacteria on all or part of the Lactose to produce Lactic acid, carbon dioxide acetic acid, diacetyl, acetaldehyde and several other components that give the products the characteristic fresh taste an smell. The micro-organisms used to produce Kefir and Koumiss also produce ethyl alcohol, giving these products the characteristic intoxicating effects associated with the consumption of alcohol. Ingredients The main ingredient in yogurt is milk. The type of milk used depends on the type of yogurt – whole milk for full fat yogurt, lowfat milk for lowfat yogurt, and skim milk for nonfat yogurt. Other dairy ingredients are allowed in yogurt to adjust the composition, such as cream to adjust the fat content, and nonfat dry milk to adjust the solids content. The solids content of yogurt is often adjusted above the 8.25% minimum to provide a better body and texture to the finished yogurt. The CFR contains a list of the permissible dairy ingredients for yogurt. Stabilizers may also be used in yogurt to improve the body and texture by increasing firmness, preventing separation of the whey (syneresis), and helping to keep the fruit uniformly mixed in the yogurt. Stabilizers used in yogurt are alginates (carageenan), gelatins, gums (locust bean, guar), pectins, and starch. Sweeteners, flavors and fruit preparations are used in yogurt to provide variety to the consumer. A list of permissible sweeteners for yogurt is found in the CFR.

1. Preparation of the milk The milk may be whole full fat. and stimulating the immune system. gastrointestinal function. It is normal in commercial yoghurt production to homogenise the milk prior to its fermentation. Lactobacillus subsp. gums. and Bifido-bacteria may be added to yogurt as probiotic cultures. where dried powdered milk solids are added to the base milk prior to inoculation. or form the soft gel that is characteristic of yogurt. Other bacterial cultures. this gives a thicker more full bodied yoghurt. casei. gels and stabilisers.Bacterial Cultures The main (starter) cultures in yogurt are Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The increase in lactic acid decreases pH and causes the milk to clot. semi skimmed or low fat skimmed milk depending on the type of yoghurt you intend to make. Probiotic cultures benefit human health by improving lactose digestion. Many commercial yoghurt manufacturers are fortifying the base milk with a cocktail of milk and non milk solids along with starches. General requirements for culturing of Milk The yoghurt manufacturing process is fairy simple and can be broken down into the following steps. As energy costs spiral ever higher the cost of concentrating milk is becoming prohibitive and evaporation is being replaced by a technique known as fortification. This technique is most common when skimmed milk is used as the base material to produce a low fat yoghurt. . The addition of stabilisers and gums to the milk to improve viscosity and texture is fairly common in the commercials large scale yoghurt manufacturing plants. Concentration of the milk by evaporation prior to fermentation is also fairly common. Lactobacillus bulgaricus andStreptococcus thermophilus are the only 2 cultures required by law (CFR) to be present in yogurt. These techniques are generally aimed at improving the viscosity. The solids level is typically increased by a factor of two. such as Lactobacillus acidophilus. texture "mouthfeel" and PROFIT obtained from a yoghurt. The function of the starter cultures is to ferment lactose (milk sugar) to produce lactic acid. The homogenisation helps prevent the cream (fat) rising to the surface during the fermentation. The fermentation of lactose also produces the flavor compounds that are characteristic of yogurt.

. To ensure that the "starter culture" has little if any competition from other organisms the milk will be heat treated to kill any organisms that may have been in the milk. In order to ensure that the flavour. The temperature will be monitored and maintained at the optimum for the starter culture throughout the fermentation. the heat treatment must be capable of coping with the large numbers of fungal and bacterial spores associated with dry powders. 3. The heating may be necessary for some of the ingredients to achieve the required state to form gels and protein lattice that lead to the products final viscosity and texture. The presence of unknown numbers of unknown organisms in the raw milk would make the fermentation too unreliable and unpredictable for commercial operations. As many ingredients used these days are dry powders. with the associated risks of "off" flavours and smells. The levels of lactic acid will be measured and monitored throughout the fermentation and the fermentation will be stopped by rapid cooling at the desired level of acidity. In order to achieve these conditions modern commercial Yoghurt manufacturers go to great lengths. Too long or too short a fermentation will produce a product that is inferior in either flavour texture. Homogenize The blend is homogenized (2000 to 2500 psi) to mix all ingredients thoroughly and improve yogurt consistency. Apart from killing unwanted bacteria the heat treatment will have a physio-chemical effect on the proteins and other additives within the mix. Too long a fermentation will give other organisms the chance to become established. when compared to the random inoculation of a pitcher of milk on a Turkish mountain side centuries ago.2. aroma and texture of the product is optimised the growing conditions for the "starter culture" must be as near perfect as possible. Heat treatment. The heat treatment of the milk prior to fermentation is generally considered essential in commercial manufacturing. The inoculation and fermentation will take place in sealed hygienic vessels usually made from stainless steel.

7. Cool Milk The milk is cooled to 108°F (42°C) to bring the yogurt to the ideal growth temperature for the starter culture.4. Hold The milk is held at 108°F (42°C) until a pH 4. . This process can take several hours. Cool The yogurt is cooled to 7°C to stop the fermentation process. Inoculate with Starter Cultures The starter cultures are mixed into the cooled milk. 6. 5.5 is reached. This allows the fermentation to progress to form a soft gel and the characteristic flavor of yogurt.

Type of milk Milk standardisation Additives Choice of starter culture Culture preparation Design of process pant Heat treatment Homogenisation. Package The yogurt is pumped from the fermentation vat and packaged as desired.8. For swiss style yogurt the fruit is blended with the fermented. Add Fruit & Flavors Fruit and flavors are added at different steps depending on the type of yogurt. The handling of the yoghurt during processing will also effect the texture and viscosity of the yoghurt. 9. The choice of raw materials will greatly affect the quality of the finished product. cooled yogurt prior to packaging. . For set style yogurt the fruit is added in the bottom of the cup and then the inoculated yogurt is poured on top and the yogurt is fermented in the cup.

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Following the incubation the handling. Concentrated yoghurt This type of yoghurt is inoculated and fermented in the same manner as a stirred yoghurt. This type of yoghurt is very similar to stirred yoghurt. . Stirred yoghurt this type of yoghurt is incubated in a tank and the final coagulum is "broken" by stirring prior to cooling and packing. Frozen Yoghurt. There is some slight reformation of the coagulm after the yoghurt has been packed. Heating of low pH yoghurt can often lead to protein being totally denatured and producing rough and gritty textures. Little if any reformation of the coagulum will reoccur after packing. However cooling is achieved by pumping through a Whipper / chiller / freezer in a fashion similar to ice cream. sugars). Gentle agitation and pumping techniques need to be used to ensure that the viscosity produced by the coagulum is not destroyed. having the coagulum "broken!" prior to cooling. however this is slight and can not be relied upon. The texture of a stirred yoghurt will be less firm than a set yoghurt somewhat like a very thick cream. Drinking Yoghurt. This is often called strained yoghurt due to the fat that the liquid that is released from the coagulum upon heating used to be "strained" off in a manner similar to making soft cheese. minerals. Following the "breaking" of the coagulum the yoghurt is concentrated by boiling off some of the water. Yoghurt is typically classified into the following groups: Set Yoghurt This type of yoghurt is incubated and cooled in the final package and is characterised by a firm jelly" like texture. The texture of the finished product is mainly influenced by the whipper/ freezer and the size and distribution of the ice crystals produced. this is often done under vacuum to reduce the temperature required.The coagulum This term refers to the complex but delicate protein lattice that forms as the pH drops and the protein reaches its isoelectric point. This lattice forms a sort of skeleton for the other milk constituents to bind to (fat. of the yoghurt will greatly effect the texture and viscosity of the final product. Frozen yoghurt is inoculated and incubated in the same manner as a stirred yoghut. In a drinking yoghurt the agitation used to "break" the coagulum is severe.

Typical composition of a commercial fruited yoghurt Fat Lactose Milk solids non fat Stabilizer Fruit 0. usually as a puree or as whole fruit in a syrup.18% 0. many manufacturers offer a low sugar and low fat version of their products.5% 3 .3.1 .2 . The use of "fruit sugars" in the form of concentrated apple juice is sometimes found as a way of avoiding "added sugar" on the ingredients declaration. The flavours are usually added at or just prior to filling into pots.0.Flavoured yoghurt Yoghurt with various flavours and aromas have become very popular. this tends to be a marketing ploy and has no real added benefit. Common additives are fruit or berries. Low or no sugar yoghurts are often sweetened with saccharin or more commonly aspartame. preservatives.5% 11 . These additives often have as much as 50% sugar in them.4% 10 .4. bacteriophages).20% Factor that alter the quality of yoghurt Milk Quality The milk used for yoghurt manufacture should be of the highest bacterial quality available. however with the trend towards healthy eating gaining momentum. It should also have an absence of any material that will impede or prevent the growth of the starter organism (antibiotics. a whole range of defects can be attributed to the action of these bacteriophage. Bacteriophage . disinfectants. Bacteriophages Bacteriophages are a group of virus that attack the yoghurt starter organisms.

The advantage of relative immunity to "phage" attack far outweigh the slightly longer incubation time required with this technique. and small quantities would be used to inoculate each new batch of yoghurt. "Phage" are usually found in the drains and floor gullies of a dairy producing any cultured product. Large manufacturers that have laboratory facilities to check incoming milk will often eliminate the possibilities of other starter inhibiting substances but "phage" is always a risk. however levels as low as 0% and as high as 10% are found in some speciality products. Starter culture The starter culture is the term generally applied to the organisms used to ferment a cultured product. Kefir. (although you could use a cheese starter in a yoghurt fermentation. and the subsequent lost time while a new batch of starter organisms are prepared. For normal commercial yoghurt the starter must be capable of fermenting lactose and producing lactic acid. Fat % The percentage of fat in the final yoghurt has a significant effect on the "mouthfeel". ). Cheese manufacturing and the subsequent whey handling are prime sources of "phage". DVI involves inoculating the yoghurt mix directly with a very large number of freeze dried starter organisms. poor hygiene and a lack of general housekeeping increase the risk.5% to about 3. the normal range of fat content is from 0.5%. Traditionally when a suitable starter organism had been found a large quantity would be grown in a suitable nutrient medium (traditionally milk. (cheese. .normally referred to just as "phage" are the most likely cause of long or never-ending incubations. yoghurt. This technique with a main batch of starter culture is often referred to as using "bulk starter". but commercial blends of nutrients are now available). little if any carbon dioxide is required and the flavour and aroma must be clean and fresh. the result would not be yoghurt). A technique often referred to as DVI (Direct Vat Inoculation) is becoming the industry norm. mainly because of the risk of "phage" attack on the bulk starter. The use of a bulk starter is becoming increasingly uncommon amongst commercial producers. The organisms selected for this purpose need to produce the desired affect in the product.

Levels of sugar greater than 10% should not be added to the yoghurt mix prior to the incubation. Addition of the ultra filtration retentate from skimmed milk. The Dry Matter content. The higher the dry matter (solids non milk fat) the firmer the yoghurt will be. this is because the changes in osmotic pressure will adversely effect the starter culture. The addition of sugar often improves the "body " and "mouthfeel" of a yoghurt. Addition of sodium Caseinate powder. A considerable amount of work has been carried out by the commercial manufacturers to reproduce this "creamy mouthfeel" without the use of fat.5% In general the higher the fat level in the yoghurt the creamier and smother it will feel in the consumers mouth. There are now a number of very low fat yoghurts on the market that have this "creamy mouthfeel" and still offer the health benefits of a low fat diet. Addition of skimmed milk powder. Addition or whey powder. Addition of milk concentrate. The normal methods used to standardise the dry matter content are : Evaporation. .5% 0. Sugars and sweeteners Disaccharide sugars such as sucrose or monosaccharides such as glucose can be used alone or in conjunction to produce the sweetness level required.Yoghurt is usually classified into the following groups Yoghurt Partially skimmed yoghurt Skimmed yoghurt Minimum milk fat Maximum milk fat Minimum milk fat Maximum milk fat 3% < 3% >0. If higher levels of sugar addition are required then a means of adding the sugar after fermentation needs to be devised. Commercial manufacturers control the dry matter in their yoghurt to ensure consistency of production.

a problem known as synuresis.Stabilisers Hydrophilic colloids will bind water and consequently increase the viscosity of a yoghurt. fruited and filled will often break down to a runny liquid without the addition of stabilisers. A traditionally produced natural yoghurt will require no stabilisers to produce a firm. starch. they also help prevent the separation of whey from the yoghurt. . pectin. gelatin. consequently the design of the equipment needs to reflect this.1% to 0. far too much stabiliser and the yoghurt can become a hard solid mass. Pasteurised yoghurt will definitely need to be stabilised as the nature of the heat treatment will adversely affect any naturally formed gel. fine gel. Common stabilisers are. however commercially produced yoghurt that has to be pumped.5%. In quantities in the order of 0. The mechanical handling of a yoghurt after its incubation has a significant effect on its final texture and viscosity. agar. stirred. The most beneficial quantity os stabiliser to add to a yoghurt mix has to be determined experimentally by each manufacturer. Too much stabiliser and the yoghurt can take on a rubbery texture.

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