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THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF HEART ATTACK AS PERCEIVED BY PATIENTS IN SELECTED AREAS OF CALOOCAN AND QUEZON CITY

ABSTRACT Nowadays, Myocardial Infarction is mostly occurring disease not only in the Philippines but also it is a catastrophic health problem of almost all the countries. This is cause by both non-modifiable factors and modifiable factors that would precipitate other diseases as well. A moment of truth takes place when it was diagnose late and the result is dreadful which cause a damage of the myocardium that leading to complications. The researchers wanted to delve the physiology of the disease process specifically its pathogenesis for us to understand it furthermore and in return appropriate intervention would be given. Also, the psychological effects of having its disease that would affect its self-concept; it could have a deteriorating upshot on the coping mechanism who has this. Connecting of different variables within the scope of paper by utilization of descriptive method of methodology, selection of appropriate locale of the study, proper instrumentation validated by pilot study and testing its correlation by make use of hypothesis testing, weighted mean, likert scale and percentage formula. Conclusions, Recommendations and Summary of the findings are interpreted based on the result gotten in the survey. It says that Personal factors both the physiological and psychological aspect have a great effect on having this disease and it has a enormous outcome on the total level of functioning of the person having this. The correlation of the different variables has high relationship as forecasted on the hypothesis testing done by the researchers. In depth interpretation and analysis was done for the researchers to test the relationships of the variable considering its external and internal validity and most importantly the reliability of the sample. The Problem and Its Background INTRODUCTION A heart attack occurs when the blood supply to part of the heart muscle itself, the myocardium is severely reduced or stopped. The reduction or stoppage when one or more of the coronary arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle is blocked. This is usually cased by the building of plaque (deposit of fat-like substance) a process called atherosclerosis. The plaque can eventually burst, tear or rupture; creating a blood clot that forms and blocks the artery. This leads to a heart attack if the blood supply is cut off for more than a few minutes; muscle cells suffer permanent injury and die. This could lead to disability on someone depending on how much heart muscle decrease. We are not sure what cases a spasm. Spasm for this instance could occur normally appearing on the blood vessel as well as in vessels partly blocked by atherosclerosis. A sudden severe muscle spasm could fatally cause a heart attack.

The medical term of heart attack is myocardial infarction. It is also sometimes called coronary thrombosis or coronary occlusion. The proper use of the non-medical term heart attack is myocardial infarction. Either term is deleterious. Myocardial Infarction (abbreviated as M.I.) means there is death of some of the muscle cells of the heart as a result of a lack of supply of oxygen and other nutrients. This lack of supply is caused by obstruction of the coronary artery that supplies that particular part of the heart muscle with blood. This occurs 98 % of the time from the process of arteriosclerosis in coronary vessels. Myocardial Infarction occurs when the blood supply to part of the heart is interrupted. This is most commonly due occlusion of a coronary aretery following the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque which is an unstable collection of lipids ( like cholesterol) and white blood cells ( especially macrophages) in the wall of an artery. The resulting ischemia ( restriction in blood supply ) and oxygen shortage , if left untreated for a sufficient period could cause sudden tissue damage and unfortunately cell death of the myocardium occur leading to decrease on the capacity of its contractility. Further discussion on this matter, it would provide the rationale of this study. The researchers hoped to gather the benchmark data that could be useful basis in the proper handling of the physiological and psychological effects of heart attack. Summary of the Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS The study was focused upon the determination of the extent of the psychological and physiological effects of the heart as attack perceived by the patients. 1. On the demographic profile, majority of the respondents are males; there was 30 % of the respondents belonged to 66 years old and above age ranges. There were 6 out of 20 respondents are 46 years old and above; majority of the respondents were single which were 10 out of 20 respondents; most of the respondents were self employed which was 6 out of 20. 2. Psychological Effects of the heart attack, Rank 1 belongs to depression with a mean of 9.25. This shows that people having myocardial infarction are primarily may feel intense sadness or hopelessness; the last rank belongs to phobia with a mean of 3.4. This shows that these people are normally not afraid of what will happen to them for the reason that they had accepted these conditions. 3. Physiological effects of heart attack, First in rank belongs to food limitations with a mean of 4.55. this shows that people having a heart attack is restricted in foods especially those which are high in fats or cholesterol, because these can worsen their condition ; the last in rank belongs to laughter with a mean of 3.25. This shows that these people are usually not laughing because they are basically depressed. 4. Etiology of heart attack, first in rank belongs to cigarette smoking with a mean of 4.65. This elaborates that cigarette smoking is the primary risk factor of myocardial infarction among the respondents; the last in rank belongs to exposure to extreme cold with a mean of 3.3. This shows that development of myocardial infarction has nothing to do with exposure to cold as stated by the respondents. 5. Common preventive measure, first in rank belongs to healthy lifestyle with a mena of 9.75. this explains that the precautionary action of the respondents is to have a good and safe way of life ; the last in rank belongs to lower salt intake with a mean of 3.95. this shows that these people do not give interest in lowering the salt intake as a preventive action to myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS

The following were the conclusions based on the result of the study. 1. On the profile of the respondents, personal factors like age, gender, educational attainment and personal lifestyle are related to the physiological and psychological effects of the heart attack by the selected individual perceived heart attack in selected area. A great number are in the age bracket of 66 old and above and 21-25 years old are assumed to have this disease. 2. On the causes of cardiovascular related disease, based on the tabulated results majority of the respondents have history of heart attack or myocardial infarction. The main causes are smoking, unhealthy lifestyle and lack of exercise is the main factors that contribute of acquiring cardiovascular related disease. 3. On the effects of heart attack to the respondents, the study shows that the role as a nurturer is the most affected area of the respondents personal life. And also a majority of the respondents said that their social life is also affected when they have the disease due to limitation of activity and limitation of environment exposure and the situation made them sad and depressed.

RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the summary of the findings and the conclusions, the researchers offered the following recommendations. 1. The researchers recommend that the respondents must understand the situation they have and know the factors of heart attack. 2. The respondents should know how to manage their self to prevent another heart attack. 3. The respondents should have maintenance drugs to prevent further complication of heart attack and have a regular check-up to their cardiologist. 4. Family of the respondents should be more aware of the situation the respondents have and they should know how to manage the situation if the client perceived another heart attack. Also, they should know how to handle the situation if impending heart attack take place. 5. Future researchers should explore other aspects of the heart attack in order to verify the findings of this research.