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Background Description of Students This classroom is designed to serve the educational needs of students with severe to
profound mental disabilities in a self-contained setting. These students intellectually function at a rate significantly lower than their peers with delays in adaptive behaviors and speech. Each student in this placement has an individualized education plan that outlines specific goals and objectives to match the individual student’s needs. Students placed in the self-contained classroom for students with profound mental disabilities (PMD) need low student to teacher ratio and one on one instruction to reach the goals specified in each child’s individualized education plan. Frequent repetition, visual cues, verbal cues, physical prompts, and modeling are strategies that best suit the learning styles of these students. Ability level and placement of these students are determined by psychological assessments, Brigance Early Inventory of Developmental Skills, VB MAPP, and the I.E.P. team. This classroom is staffed with a teacher and two full time assistants who work with a total of five students. This group is very diverse in the severity of their disabilities and all require moderate to maximum assistance in various areas. The range of disabilities among the students is as follows: Disability Severe Mental Disability Moderate Disability Autism Speech/Language Impairment Down Syndrome 2 5 1 # of Students with Impairment 2 1
Hearing Impaired Vision Impaired
# of Students Needing Maximum Assistance
Toileting Dress/Undress Use PECS/Augmentative Communication Device
5 5 5
There are five students in this class whose ages range from 6-11. One student is kindergarten age, one is first grade age, one is fourth grade age, and two are fifth grade age. There are three boys and two girls of which two are African American and three are Caucasian. The majority of students in this class come from working middle class, multisibling families. Most of the students in this class are zoned to attend other District Five schools and are receiving special education services here at Nursery Road Elementary. Four students are on seizure medication. All students are in diapers, one student is tube fed, and three eat pureed and chopped solid foods. The students in this class have a variety of interests that include watching television, listening to music, and participating in stimulating activities. Many of the students enjoy participating in community events such as Special Olympics and community based training. Most of the students’ parents frequently accompany the class on trips and occasionally take their children on outing outside of the school. RW is a kindergarten, Caucasian student with autism. He has two older brothers.
He enjoys playing on the computer, IPad, books and music. His relative strengths are in his cognitive abilities. His relative weaknesses are in expression and communication. LJ is a first grade, Caucasian student with a moderate intellectual disability. She has an older brother who is in second grade. Her parents are divorced and her mom works full time. She enjoys attention and interaction with adults and fine motor activities. Her relative strengths are in her cognitive and communication skills. She is good at classifying and categorizing. She needs to learn appropriate behavior around other children. Her relative weaknesses are in her gross motor skills. KA is a fourth grade, African American student with autism. He has a twin sister without disabilities and an older brother. He enjoys playing with his Gameboy and watching DVDs. His relative strengths are in his gross motor skills and his self-help skills. His relative weaknesses are in his communication skills. ZP is a fifth grade, Caucasian student with Down Syndrome, visual and hearing impairments. He has a younger sister who is in third grade. His parents are divorced. He enjoys music, observing other children play, and movies. His relative strengths are in his communication. He has difficulty with generalization and transitioning. ZW is a fifth grade, African American student with a severe intellectual disability and a visual impairment. She has two older brothers and two older sisters. She is medically fragile, and her mom stays at home with her. She is currently on homebound. She enjoys adult interaction and music. Her relative strengths are in using a switch to activate toys and a voice output device. Her relative weaknesses are positioning and mobility in her right arm. Every student in the class has severe communication, motor and cognitive delays.
None of the students in the class can communicate verbally. A variety of sources were used to collect the background description of students. In obtaining background information on learning goals and levels of functioning, I.E.P.s, Brigance, and meetings with former teachers and assistants were the primary sources of information. Classroom visits from parents and phone conversations were also useful sources of information on the students. Student’s interests and likes/dislikes were determined through conversations with parents and assistants and preference assessments. In addition, physical therapists and occupational therapists provided useful information about the students’ levels and interests. Socio-economic information was obtained through permanent records, conversations with former teachers and parents, and by free/reduced lunch eligibility.
Long Range Learning and Developmental Goals Since there is such a diversity of ability levels and learning needs in this class,
students’ goals are individualized to suit their specific needs. However, the following developmental goals are goals that are broad in scope so that they are attainable in some degree for every student in this class. Gross Motor- Students will increase gross motor skills in the areas of balance, motor planning, endurance, strengthening, safety, and negotiation of the school environment. Goals: 1. Ball Skills: RW will catch a playground ball with or without a bounce from 5 feet with trapping as needed.
RW and LJ will kick a stationary ball forward 5 feet once given assistance to approach the ball. RW and LJ will throw a tennis ball overhand 5 feet. 2. Walking: RW will walk at least 3 areas outside of the classroom (playground, music, cafeteria, etc.). RW will jump in place 5 times. RW will step up and down 4 steps with or without a handrail. LJ will step up 1 step. Fine Motor Skills- Students will increase fine motor skills in the areas of voluntary grasp/release of objects, manipulation of objects, and tolerance of textures during sensory activities. Goals: 1. Writing: RW and LJ will hold writing tools with an all fingers grasp. RW will imitate horizontal lines and imitate a circle. LJ will color. 2. Scissors: LJ will cut a five-inch square paper using adaptive scissors. RW will hold preschool scissors in hand. RW make 4 consecutive snips. 3. Puzzle: LJ and KA will complete a puzzle (LJ- 8-9 pieces, KA- 5-6 pieces).
4. Using Containers: KA will replace a screw lid on a container. ZP will open a container with a twist lid. ZP will open a container with a pull off lid. KA will grasp a container with one hand while releasing objects into it with the other hand. 5. Other Fine Motor Tasks: KA will string extra-large beads on an adaptive string. RW will apply glue using a glue stick. LJ will turn pages in a book one at a time. Communication/ Social/ Group Skills- Students will increase their ability to communicate with peers and adults through gestures, vocalizations, imitation, initiation, vocabulary, augmentative communication, and receptive/expressive language in the areas of initiation, participation, interaction, play and social courtesies. Goals: 1. Answering Questions: LJ will use a voice output device, pictures and/or sign to answer questions. ZP will use a voice output device to answer yes/no questions. ZP will use 4 signs and/or verbalizations on at least 3 occasions. 2. Requesting Items: LJ and RW will use a voice output device, pictures and/or sign to request preferred items/activities. ZP will use a voice output device to indicate wants/needs.
3. Greeting Others: KA and ZW will greet others (KA with a vocalization and or gesture (wave) and ZW will use a voice output device). 4. Making Choices: ZP, ZW, RW and KA will choose an activity (ZP and ZW will use a voice output device while RW and KA will use a picture choice board). KA will discriminate between a preferred and non preferred item. 5. Reading/Attending to a book: RW will attend to a book being read and point to a picture upon request. ZW will activate a voice output device to participate in reading two different stories. 6. Play Skills: LJ will refrain from putting toys/objects in her mouth for a 10 minute play period. RW will engage in cooperative play with at least one peer. 7. Group Activities: KA will participate in a group activity for 15 minutes. RW and ZW will engage in turn taking activities ( ZW will use a voice output device to participate in turn-taking activities by indicating "my turn" and "all done."). * Students will increase social interactions with peers during inclusion in special areas and at recess when appropriate for the particular student. Self Help Skills- Students will increase their self-help skills in the areas of dressing, toileting, feeding, and personal hygiene.
Goals: 1. Bookbag: RW and ZP will remove his bookbag and hang in cubby, remove jacket and hang in cubby and access his bookbag. ZP will open his bookbag to put an object into it. 2. Toileting: LJ will have a minimum of 10 toileting successes per week. KA will have 5 successes per week on the toilet. 3. Wiping Face: LJ and ZP will wipe their mouth and/or nose. KA will wipe his hands and mouth with a napkin. 4. Handwashing: LJ will wash her hands independently. ZW will participate in handwashing by sustaining her hand under the water for 810 seconds. 5. Eating: LJ will use a spoon to feed herself non-finger foods. ZP will eat soft, lumpy solids. 6. Cleaning up: LJ will walk with her empty lunch tray at the end of lunch. KA and ZP will clean up their area after meals or snacks. KA and ZP will put their lunch tray away. ZW will participate in cleaning up her tray by pushing a washcloth across the
surface. 7. ZP will tolerate keeping the toothbrush in his mouth for up to 20 seconds.
Cognitive Skills - Students will increase cognitive skills in the following areas: colors, shapes, rote counting, identifying objects, weather, clothes, body parts and all other concepts covered in monthly thematic units. Goals: 1. Animals: RW will select the correct animal when given a choice of at least 3 animals and match the animal to its habitat. LJ will identify a named category of objects/animals. KA will identify 5 common animals. 2. Community: RW will select the correct community helper when given a choice of at least two pictures and match the community helper with the correct vehicle. LJ will identify up to 6 community helpers. ZP will identify where to obtain goods/services from 5 different locations within the school. KA will identify at least 5 peers/adults using gestures, pictures, or a voice output device. 3. Shapes/ Patterns/ Colors: RW will select the correct shape upon request (circle, square, triangle). LJ will match 5 shapes (circle, square, triangle, rectangle, diamond).
KA will complete at least 2 parts of a pattern. LJ will match up to 6 colors (red, blue, green, yellow, orange, purple). KA will sort 8 objects by color. ZP will sort items by attribute (color, size, shape). 4. Numbers/ Counting: RW will select the correct numeral and quantity to 3. ZW will assist with set up at snack by counting the number of items (milk, napkins, snacks, etc.) needed for the class. 5. Identifying Functional uses: ZP will identify appropriate clothing for different types of weather/outdoor activities. LJ will sort items/ pictures into functional categories (foods, household, toys, animals, transportation). LJ will identify up to 15 different actions by pointing to a picture. LJ will understand up to 10 common objects by pointing to the correct picture. Pre-Vocational Skills- Students will increase their pre-vocational skills by learning and being able to give personal information, completing job tasks, and following basic commands. Goals: 1. Identifying Name: KA and RW will recognize their names in print. 2. Job Skills: KA will perform three jobs outside of the classroom.
KA will complete an assembly task with up to 3 steps. ZP will place a paper into a folder. ZP will stack 4 of 5 classroom chairs. ZP will stand to complete a work task for 8 minutes. RW will follow simple one-step directions. Sensory-Motor Skills- Students will increase sensory awareness and response by participating in a variety of sensory-motor activities. Goals: 1. ZP will engage in sensory based play (shaving cream, flour, finger paint, sand) activity for 5 seconds. 2. ZW will engage in a sensory activity using at least 4 out of the 5 senses (touch, smell, sight, hearing). Reflection I believe these goals are not appropriate because they are not measurable, and some of the goals are not specific enough. The goals need to have a measurable criteria. One of the goals is " KA will clean up his area after meals." I would change that goal to be measurable by giving the criteria for mastery and the conditions that he will perform that task. For example, I might change it to, "After eating his lunch, KA will independently put his trash in the trash can for 4 out of 5 instances." The teacher could also break the task to clean up his area after meals into a task analysis. I would also change the goals so they are stated positively.
Daily and monthly units of instruction are those lessons and activities that address the long-range developmental goals and I.E.P. objectives. Monthly Thematic units are designed to offer the student exposure and content of the material covered in a particular unit. In addition, monthly thematic units keep daily activities and lessons stimulating and interesting. In order to address each student’s individualized goals and the long-range goals specified for the class, the day is broken down into units that address meeting these goals daily. Circle/Group Time- Circle time usually begins with a song to cue students that circle time has began. Students then take attendance with emphasis on identifying their names and pictures, identify calendar information with emphasis on hand over hand rote counting, identify weather and appropriate dress, and participating in an exercise/movement activity. All of these activities address goals outlined in the I.E.P as well as long-range goals. Toileting/Snack- During this time, students address feeding skills by eating a snack. All students also attempt to use the restroom. During this time, students address toileting skills. Feeding and Toileting is usually done 2-3 times a day. Recess- Students go to the playground following lunch. On inclement weather days students will come inside for an indoor recess activity. Lunch- The entire class eats lunch in the cafeteria daily. This is an appropriate setting to address feeding skills/goals. Self Help Skills- Self Help skills are addressed in the mornings after breakfast and before dismissal in the afternoon. Activities include hand washing, face washing, and toileting. Leisure Skills- Leisure skills such as listening to music, playing games on the computer, or activating toys are addressed at this time.
Story/Language Group Activity- During this time students participate in reading a story or moving to a song that is related to the thematic unit or correlated with a specific skill they are working on in class. Monthly Units Monthly thematic units are designed to increase students’ general knowledge and comprehension. Unit themes are usually integrated into all of the other daily units to make objectives more exciting and interesting. The following table outlines monthly thematic units for the year and is accompanied by broad goals for the unit as well as some vocabulary. All units follow I.E.P. goals and objectives and South Carolina Alternative Assessment Standards. All skills are taught while fading prompts and thinning reinforcement on an individualized basis.
August- September Unit: Back to School, Self and surrounding Students will: • • • identify verbally/nonverbally unit related objects and their purpose identify/demonstrate rules and procedures used at school use a voice output device, pictures, and/or sign to answer yes/no questions and/or questions • • identify their name identify teacher
October Unit: Qualities of a Good Citizen Everywhere including cooperating, self-determination,
personal responsibility and respecting others Students will: • • • identify verbally/nonverbally unit related objects and their purpose participate in unit related activities use a voice output device, pictures, and/or sign to answer yes/no questions and/or questions • engage in turn taking activities
November Units: Community, Family Students will: • • • identify verbally/nonverbally unit related objects and their purpose participate in unit related activities use a voice output device, pictures, and/or sign to answer yes/no questions and/or questions • • • identify family members identify community helpers identify where to obtain goods/services
December Unit: Holidays- including Christmas, Hanukah, and Kwanza Students will: • • • identify verbally/nonverbally unit related objects and their purpose participate in unit related activities use a voice output device, pictures, and/or sign to answer yes/no questions and/or
questions Community Based Instruction-Trip to Dollar Store for Holiday Shopping January Unit: Jobs and Work Students will: • • • identify verbally/nonverbally unit related objects and their purpose participate in unit related activities use a voice output device, pictures, and/or sign to answer yes/no questions and/or questions • perform jobs in the classroom and in the school
February Unit: Money Students will: • • • identify verbally/nonverbally unit related items participate in unit related activities use a voice output device, pictures, and/or sign to answer yes/no questions and/or questions March Unit: Time Students will: • • • identify verbally/nonverbally unit related items participate in unit related activities use a voice output device, pictures, and/or sign to answer yes/no questions and/or
questions. Special Olympics-MATP April Unit: Weather Students will: • • • identify verbally/nonverbally unit related objects and their functions participate in unit related activities use a voice output device, pictures, and/or sign to answer yes/no questions and/or questions • May: Unit: Animals Students will: • • • identify verbally/nonverbally unit related objects and their functions participate in unit related activities use a voice output device, pictures, and/or sign to answer yes/no questions and/or questions • • identify common animals categorize animals into groups identify appropriate clothing for different types of weather/outdoor activities
IV. Assessing, Evaluating, and Recording Students’ Progress Due to the nature and severity of disabilities in my class, assessment of student progress will be primarily based on teacher observation and data collection rather than
quizzes and tests. Progress towards Individualized Education Plan (I.E.P.) objectives are recorded two or three times weekly on teacher made data sheets for each student. Data is kept in excel on each of the student's I.E.P. objectives. Each student has a data notebook that shows his objectives and progress. I frequently look at this data to help guide instruction. Some students in this class may be participating in the SC Alternate Assessment. Students will receive a score of advanced, proficient, basic, or below basic depending on the student’s progress and a number of other factors. This allows students with mild to severe disabilities to be included in statewide assessment and provides valuable data for the teacher reflecting the students’ skill acquisition. Prior to annual reviews, students will be assessed using the Brigance Inventory of Developmental Skills. The information obtained using this inventory combined with data from teacher documentation will be used to determine mastery of the year’s objectives and to write new objectives for the upcoming year. I will send letters home to parents on their child's progress each month. I will also send progress reports on each objective and the child’s graphs on his progress home every nine weeks. I will also send them home two or three times randomly throughout the nine week period. The data notebooks are also brought to their I.E.P. meetings. All I.E.P.s and data notebooks are kept in a locked cabinet. V. Procedures for Managing Student Behavior and Classroom Operations Behavior Management Plan I believe that the best discipline plan is a good daily lesson plan that will keep the student engaged in learning.
Positive Behavior System: I am a firm believer in positive reinforcement. I believe behavior problems are reduced by reinforcing and giving attention to the good behavior instead of only punishing and giving attention to undesired behaviors. Students in this classroom follow the school wide rules and discipline plan as everyone else. However, classroom rules, rewards, and consequences have been adjusted to a level that is understandable and suits their needs. Classroom Rules 1. Listen . (Ear) 2. Pay Attention. (Eyes) 3. Keep Hands to Yourself. (Hands) 4. Be Nice. (Smiley Face) The rules are posted both written and with picture symbols. Rewards There are various rewards for students when they behave appropriately and do well in class. Rewards include candy, stickers, prize box, verbal praise, extra recess, or choice of a favorite item or activity. Rewards are given at the teacher’s discretion depending on the student’s needs and the situation. Other incentives for doing well are good phone calls, good notes to parents, and awards. Proximity: If a child is not on task or misbehaving during whole group activities, an assistant will stand next to the student to redirect their attention. Consequences Students who act out inappropriately, break the rules, or refuse to do their work can
receive a variety of consequences.
General Consequences for most students are as follows: 1st and 2nd Offense- Verbal Warning/Reminder 3rd Offense4th OffenseTeacher/Student Chat Visit to Quiet Area
Consequences may be altered to match the severity or function of a student’s behavior. With my students, one thing might work for one student but not the other student. Their IEPs define what I do with them, the accommodations/modifications they receive in the classroom, and the goals they are working towards. Non-Instructional Routines Arrival/Self Help Activities- As students arrive in the classroom from the cafeteria they are to put their book bags in their cubbies and be seated to await instruction from the teacher. A teacher or assistant will individually take one student at a time for toileting, hand and face washing. Lunch- At 11:00am everyday students will go to lunch. Students will sit with teachers and assistants at their designated table to eat lunch. Trays and pureed food will be brought to the table by a teacher or assistant. All students eating will wear aprons to protect their clothing and will clean hands and face with wipes when finished. Hallways- During transition times students will be pushed by teacher/assistants or walk in a line down the hall. Recess- Recess occurs daily at the teacher’s discretion and is either on the playground or the classroom.
Fire Drill- During the event of a fire or fire drill students will immediately be lined up at the door and be escorted out of the classroom. The teacher and assistants will help the students stay calm and exit the building. Upon leaving the room, the teacher will turn off her lights, shut the door, and grab her roll book. Students return to the building when the office announces it is okay to return. Tornado Drill- During the event of a tornado drill students will line up at the door and exit into the hallway. Once in the hallway, students will face the wall and teachers/assistants will cover them. Students will stay in this position until the office instructs teachers and students to go back to their rooms. End of the Day- Around 1:45 daily students will pack up to load the buses. The teacher will write a comment in each student’s agenda and send it home in their book bags. Students are taken to the bus lot where they begin loading at 2:00 pm.
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