Listy filologické CXXIX, 2006, 1-2, pp.


The Indo-European Verbal Adjectives and their Reflexes in Latin

Word-formation, the field of Latin linguistics the present article belongs to, has for a long time been rather neglected, and although recently particularly the French researchers have tried to fill in the blank space (putting stress rather at the semantic, not the formal features), what still remains the most comprehensive systematic survey on derivation of Latin nouns is the chapter Stammbildung des Nomens (p. 273-383) of Leumann’s grammar book.1 Leumann’s survey stems from traditional Indo-Europeanist interpretations, classing the single derivative suffixes according to their phonological form. Such method is convenient for the purposes of comparative linguistics, at the same time, however, it brings forth a number of disadvantages: the reviews of that type, for example, when treating polyfunctional suffixes, explain functionally quite different word types side-by-side; they do not offer clear picture about what the given language prefers when choosing from the set of the IE suffixes, about the distribution of synonymous suffixes, etc. That is why I consider the method which has gained ground for example in Czech word-formation2 to be preferable: in the first plan, the words are classified according to what part of speech they belong to; in the second plan, according to the part of speech the founding word belongs to (desubstantives, deadjectives, deverbatives); finally, in the third plan, the words are classified into the more or less traditional word-formative classes (e.g. agent-nouns, instrumentnouns, etc.). This function-based classification, however, does not prevent
1 M ANU L EUMANN, Lateinische Laut- und Formenlehre, Lateinische Grammatik I, Müchen 1977 (hereafter LEUMANN 1977). 2 Mainly M ILAN DOKULIL , Tvoøení slov v èeštinì, I, Teorie odvozování slov, Praha 1962. Similar approach is however suggested also by Leumann himself in his article Gruppierung und Funktionen der Wortbildungssuffixe des Lateins (in: Kleine Schriften zur lateinischen, griechischen, indogermanischen und allgemeinen Sprachwissenschaft, Zürich 1959, p. 84-107).


LUCIE PULTROVÁ the purely formal (i.e. in fact phonological) analysis I am attempting to make in the present and some other similarly aimed studies, the ideal result of which should be in fact a kind of algorithm for Latin word-formation where some types (and this is in fact already the outcome of the research) are direct successors of inherited PIE formations, some are to a great extent influenced by analogy, and yet some other are the purely secondary formations, originated in Latin. The present article is concerned with one of the important classes of deverbative adjectives, the verbal adjectives. First, the terms of “deverbative adjectives” and “verbal adjectives” must be clearly defined. “Adjectives” are the words expressing the static features of substances, i.e. their qualities or relations towards them that do not proceed in time and are more or less permanent (unlike the verbs, expressing the dynamic features, i.e. the ones proceeding in time). Using the term “deverbative” I mean only the direct derivatives from verbs, or verb roots; I thus do not consider the derivatives like e.g. captãvus to be “deverbative”: it has a verb root in its base, but its direct founding word is the adj. captus, and the word must be classified as “deadjective”, similarly as for example f¹stãvus < f¹stus. Thus I understand the term “deverbative adjectives” to be the words with formal signs of adjectives (nominal categories, the distinction of gender) that are derived by an adjectival suffix directly from the verbal root or stem. By “verbal adjectives” I mean a set of words, in fact an intersection of deverbative adjectives and verbs; formally they are adjectives, but with specific presence of some verbal categories – voice, aspect and relative time; also they keep the government of the corresponding verb. The action described by them is defined in time, and thus it does not express a permanent feature of substance as other adjectives do. In Brugmann,3 it is the term “participle” that corresponds to the term verbal adjective. In PIE, verbal adjectives were formed by the following suffixes:4 *-nt(active participles of all tenses except the perfect); *- ues-/*- uos-/*-us- (part. ÿ ÿ pf. act.); *-mno- and *-mo- (part. mediopass.); also the adjectives in *-toand *-no- (part. pf. pass.) have gained participle character; and finally, the IE adjectives with the suffix *-lo- (in Slavic languages function as part. pret. act.), *-o- and *- uo- (active current action or state)5 can be regarded as verÿ bal adjectives, too.

3 KARL BRUGMANN, Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik, II/1, Lehre von den Wortformen und ihrem Gebrauch, Strassburg 1906 (hereafter BRUGMANN 1906). 4 See idem, p. 651. 5 See idem, p. 148ff., 202ff.


B RUGMANN 1906. as they form a specific word-formative chapter and they will require a special study. fevrwn).> Gr. if need be complemented by the material from various studies on single Latin suffixes and partly also from Gradenwitz’ retrograde dictionary (although only to a limited extent. suitable to our purposes. however. to archaic and classical vocabulary). For PIE. as far as the participles from the primary verbs are concerned. two forms of the nt-participle are reconstructed on the basis of comparison: 1/ a hysterokinetic paradigm for athematic verbs *R(z)-ént.e. Latinsko-èeský slovník.THE INDO-EUROPEAN VERBAL ADJECTIVES The aim of the present article is to find out whether these basic IE types have direct successors in Latin and what formal or semantic shifts have eventually taken place there. Laterculi vocum Latinarum. are formed absolutely regularly and from the synchronic point of view they have the following structure: from the verbs of the 1st–3 rd conjugation the present stem + -nt. 1. Berlin – New York 2000. 173 (hereafter MEIER-BRÜGGER 2000). Adjectives with the suffix *-ntAdjectives with the suffix *-nt. 53 . *bhér-ont. sed-¹-ns. the ppa. P RAŽÁK – FRANTIŠEK NOVOTNÝ – JOSEF SEDLÁÈEK. not the substantivized adjectives which do not appear in the function of adjectives in classical Latin. 9 Cf. MICHAEL MEIER-B RÜGGER. irrelevant to our purposes). Indogermanische Sprachwissenschaft. Same was the situation in Latin. in the verbs of the 4th conjugation the suffix -nt. Praha 1955. 7 The excerpted file contains only the really recorded adjectives.had the function of active present participle in PIE and they still have this function in the absolute majority of individual IE languages.(e. 7 OTTO GRADENWITZ. from the secondary verbs can be described like that. R(e) the root in a full e-grade.8 (e. 454ff. or are ° 6 JOSEF M. ar-à-ns.g.g. since the dictionary contains big number of later derivations. where apparently the o-grade (in strong cases) and the zero-grade (in weak cases) alternate in the suffix. 2/ an acrostatic paradigm for thematic verbs *R(e)-o-nt.(in the 3rd conjugation with lengthening before the ns). leg-¹-ns. drakeiv ~). Also verbal adjective compounds were excluded from the present research. p. R(o) the root in an o-grade. *drk’-é connected to the root by the group -i¹-: haur-i¹-ns. i. Hildesheim 1966 (reprint 1904).9 Latin ppa. the question occurs: can we regard them to be the formations directly inherited from PIE.> Gr. p. 8 The symbol R(z) denotes the root in a zero-grade. The dictionary Pražák-Novotný-Sedláèek6 was chosen as a basic set of Latin words for excerption (it restricts itself. Certainly.

with the suffix *. the form of strong cases assimilates to the form of weak cases.LUCIE PULTROVÁ they rather analogical formations in which it is only the suffix -nt. 275): h2éus-ont-s. ° ° ° ° In the first three cases. 11 See PETER SCHRIJVER . gen. gen. 10 arantis 11: CRHRC > CRaRC fl¹re (LIV.uós-. the animate nominative -s penetrated into the neuter forms. one not inherited from PIE. the paradigm is reconstructed as ÿ ÿ hysterokinetic. at least one of the forms issuing from the reconstructed PIE is in accord with the actual existing form of Latin ppa. i. (ab-) sentis may be considered original. 272): *h2 rh3 -ént-s. but a glance at the ppa. and there is no special feminine form (there was a derived feminine form *-nt-ih2. from the verb of the 4th conjugation very clearly testifies to analogical form. ãre.that may be considered inherited. weak cases ÿ 10 By two asterisks I mark the formations which should have developed – according to the formulated sound laws – from the accepted reconstructions.ues-/*. p.e. What shows evidence of the secondary nature of Latin ppa. from the irregular verb esse: *h1 s-ént-s. 223f. bhlh1-n t-és > fl¹ns. p. Amsterdam – Atlanta 1991. 12 The form of ppa. should have developed from the reconstructed PIE form into Latin as i¹ns. p. h2éus-n t-es > **haurºns. **ientis (< *h 1i-ént-s. but which in fact do not exist.uesÿ Besides active present participles. Adjectives with the suffix *. while the whole structure of the word had assimilated analogically to the present paradigm of Latin verb? Let us take for example one primary verb from each conjugation and see what Latin forms should issue from the reconstructed PIE forms according to the formulated Latin phonological laws: aràre (LIV. p.*h 2rh 3-n t-és > **arºns.e. ° 54 . Perhaps the form of ppa. i. (hereafter SCHRIJVER 1991). p.uos-/*-us-. *h 1i-nt-és.. strong cases *R(z). active perfect participles were formed in PIE.e. is moreover also the fact that they are of one form for all genders. *h 1s-n t-ós > (ab-)s¹ns. however. which is almost absolutely regular in Latin ( PIE). i. p. 397): lég-ont-s. cf. from another irregular verb. LIV. legentis haurãre (LIV. with a full o-grade. and the type fl¹ns would thus not hold to the rule). **haurentis. The Reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European Laryngeals in Latin. and we could thus consider mere analogical compensation within the paradigm. **flantis legere (LIV. 87): bhlh 1-ént-s. lég-n t-es >**legºns.12 ° 2.

according to IEW (p.ues.e. OSl. as it were from the positives -fic¹ns. ÿ ÿ the root is in a zero-grade. -dic¹ns. MEIER-BRÜGGER 2000. Formally different but functionally again very similar type is represented by the IE adjectives in the form *R(o)-ós. dãviduus and similar. -uus and us. BRUGMANN 1906. These adjectives often appear as a second component of compounds. -ficentior. Brugmann actually says the suffixes *. 13 not belong to the basic ÿ types of IE verbal adjectives (participles). memor. there however is not an o-grade. “cutting”. ° ÿ ° 3.uo. LIV ÿ does not mention any relevant root. jãÿ vás. 53. e. p.are closely connected. In regard to the fact that the consonant u is highly unstable.ues.and *-óÿ The IE verbal adjectives with the suffix *. -ficentissimus. nevertheless it is appropriate to mention them in this list. contiguus. Gr. i. analogical assimilation to the eunt.g. (in the root.14 The stress in uo-adjectives falls on the suffix. 563. rk-vás. 15 In Latin. which are not the subject of this article.and ÿ *. steep”. there are to be found for example the adjectives as maledicus. OInd. „celebrating“. p. explains the form of indirect cases eunt. The only direct successor of this PIE formation in Latin is to be found in the adj. magnificus. Adjectives with the suffix *-uó.15 In Latin there are to be found verbal adjectives ending in -vus. In the following list only those Latin adjectives in -vus/-uus a -us are given that are demonstrably deverbative (mainly the suffix -vus is polyfunctional and many different types of denominative adjectives are formed thereby) and they are not compounds.uó.uós. since in many IE languages the adjectives are formed by this suffix with the meaning very similar to that of the adjectives with the suffix *-nt. 14 Idem.g. eundum.. 173f. etc.). reconstructs *h 3rdh.THE INDO-EUROPEAN VERBAL ADJECTIVES *R(z)-us-. p. OInd. memoris < *me-mn. but a zero-grade). 339) it is a ver232). „alive“. SCHRIJVER 1991. -dicentissimus. which 55 . tomov~. živú.16 ° Latin adjectives in -vus/-uus: arduus = “high.uós.. etc. 69.(cf. *me-mn -us-és.g. etc.or *. 456.e. e. 16 There exists a relatively important group of adjective compounds (i. in the form prefix + root + suffix) with the suffix -uus. note 2. what testifies to their functional relation with the active nt-participles is also the fact their comparatives and superlatives are in the forms -dicentior. e. undoubtedly due to the merger of the perfect and aorist stem. BRUGMANN 1906. 13 Perfect active participles had not come down to Latin. we must be ÿ very careful when interpreting them. etc. p.

the meaning of the adjective is according to IEW “hit. 18 According to S CHRIJVER 1991. according to LIV (p. SCHRIJVER 1991. 339) the verb root has the form *k’ueh1. arable”. heave up”). 272: *h2érh3-. hollowed out”. arable” cavus = “hollow. the root vowel u together with the preceding initial velar ÿ formed the labiovelar (> *kuh1t. 17 The perfect in PIE was originally formed only from intransitive verbs.uós > *qua uos > by dissimilation cavus. The deverbative adjective compounds will be treated in an individual study. swollen” curvus = “curved”. expressing the state of the subject (= stative perfect. Similar development may have taken place also in ÿ the adj.(“swell. i. the so called resultative perfect from transitive verbs (expressing the state in relation to the object. “plough”). *ke u] -) and the adj. bibã alqd = “I have drunk something”) is the matter of the later development. the adjective has the meaning of the stative perfect: “what has bent and is therefore curved” fatuus = “inept”. p.: *bh ] t. curvus corresponds formally to the reconstruction *(s)k (’)r. i. they express processes (= medium) and states (= perfect).. “dull. IEW (p. punch”. i. the verb quatiº comes from *(s)kuh1t. Active verbs express imperfective (= present) or perfective (= aorist) actions (where the subject is the agent and is not directly affected by the action).(cf. the subject is both the agent and the recipient of verbal action. grow”. here. 111) verbal root *b hàt. see HELENA KURZOVÁ.e. the verb aràre is transitive in Latin. p. H. however.18 the corresponding primary verb does not exist in Latin (cavàre is the denominative from cavus). From Indo-European to Latin. the corresponding verb does not exist in Latin.(i. according to IEW (p. the corresponding pri° have the meaning of passive possibility. or CuC. non-active verbs do not have an object. reconstructs the verbal root *keuH.ié-).e. IEW. inept”. 232ff. The Evolution of a Morphosyntactic Type.uós > **cåvus or **cuvus or ÿ ÿ cavus. cavus as an ÿ adj.e. *bheh 2t-) with the meaning “hit. p. bibã = “I have drunk”).uós. the adjective has the meaning of the stative perfect: “what has heaved up and is therefore bulging. 935) reconstructs the root *(s)ker-.g. Amsterdam – Philadelphia 1993. the group CuHC in Latin yields either CåC. of the type tomov~. adj. cavus: *k’ uh1.e. *kouH-ós. the correÿ sponding verb does not exist in Latin. punched”. 109. uo-adjective from the given ÿ ÿ root would thus have the structure *k’ uh1. formally corresponds to the construction *h2rh3uós (LIV. ÿ the meaning of adj. it is directly affected by the action. arvus is simply passive: “what is ploughed”. That is. p. or that of passive possibility: “what may be ploughed. Kurzová has formulated a theory claiming that the cornerstone of PIE verbal system was the opposition of “active” and “non-active” diathesis. ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ 56 . “bent (oneself)” (LIV nor SCHRIJVER 1991 list this adjective and the verbal root).LUCIE PULTROVÁ bal root meaning “be high.ié-.uós > *kuh1. 588: *keu-. not the only possible development – e. the adjective has the meaning of the original stative perfect:17 “what has grown and is therefore high” arvus = “ploughed.

lended”. with simply passive meaning: “where we pasture”. 843) with uncertainty (the records are only from Latin and some Celtic languages) reconstructs the root *prà-. has a simple passive meaning: “exchanged.g. p. perverse”. graze”. the verbal root is *nek’.meaning “pasture. or the meaning of passive possibility: “where we can pasture” pràvus = “crooked. the Czech hravý. active”. LIV does not mention such root. formally corresponds to the reconstruction *gnh3.g. by Ovid).uós (LIV. 451. the verb appears ÿ in Latin as inchoative (g)nºscº. on loan”.uo. according to LIV (p.uós > **necus).g.or *perH-. learn”).THE INDO-EUROPEAN VERBAL ADJECTIVES mary verb does not exist in Latin. or the meaning of a passive possibility “interchangeable. and neither does SCHRIJVER 1991. uó-adjective should then have the form ÿ ÿ *mith2. formally clearly secondarily formed to Lat.uós > pràvus. noc¹re. the adjective has the meaning of the stative perfect: “who has learned something and is therefore experienced”. adj. if we rewrite the form given in IEW using laryngeals. “harm” (adj. pàscuus is thus evidently secondary.uós ÿ (LIV. LIV. in Latin there is the transitive måtàre (where the ÿ root vowel å reflects the o-grade oi).(“to get lost”. BRUGMANN 1906. formally corresponds to the reconstruction *mr-t. hence the inchoative verb ÿ *ph2-sk’é. the adj. according to LIV (p. “efficient” mortuus = “dead”. p. 448): the original participle with the meaning “dead” was *mr-tós (see e.> pàscere.uo-.) pàscuus = “used or suitable for pasture”. p. etc. OInd. the ÿ meaning of the adjective is active non-actual. nocuus is used only once in classical Latin. the correÿ sponding verb does not exist in Latin. 430) the verbal root meaning “change” sounds *me ith2 -. i. “die”). 168: *g’neh3-: “get to know. IEW (p. 460) the verbal root *peh 2( i). eventu° ° ally enlarged by the suffix . *prH. the adjective has the meaning of the stative perfect: “who has hit himself into head and is therefore inept” (g)nàvus = “diligent. p. ÿ 57 . Latin has the deponent verb morior. mrtá-). excessive quality to the subject (similarly to e. analogically to the form vãvus.uós > ** the Latin form (but also for example in ÿ Slavic languages). 430: *mer-.before . ascribing a remarkable. eventually “who knows how to do something”. the adjective has the meaning of the stative perfect “who has bent and is therefore crooked” ° 19 Concerning the suffix -t. *nek’. borrowable” nocuus = “noxious”. the adjective has the meaning of the stative perfect: “who has died and is therefore dead”19 måtuus = “mutual. it is usually explained as follows (e.e. then we have to count with the root *preH. “bend”.

as was mentioned previÿ ously. 345 gives the root * uà. 1127f. the adjective has ÿ the meaning of the stative perfect: “who has come into the world and is therefore alive” ° ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ As can be seen from the previous list. p. i.: * u] -. a vast majority of Latin adjectives corresponds in the meaning to the stative perfect.e. formally corresponds to the reconstruction *h2 uidh. the corÿ ÿ responding verb does not exist in Latin. be empty”.uós (IEW.ues. fatuus. the adjective has the meaning ÿ of the stative perfect: “who has lost/is lacking everything and is therefore empty” viduus = “widowed. transitive verb rigàre has the meaning “to supply with water” and it is a secondary decompound from irrigàre (the same verb type as the compounds -ficàre. uó-adjective should then have the form *re g’.(which. the last three mentioned adjectives and the adj.uós. ÿ ÿ which should yield **reguus in Latin. formally corresponds to the reconstruction *trg uuós (LIV. and then the passive adjectives arvus. corresponding verb does not exist in ÿ Latin. to the meaning thought to be carried in PIE by the suffix *.with the meaning “seÿ ÿ ÿ parate”. p. “terrify”). “live”. is regarded as closely related to the suffix *.LUCIE PULTROVÁ riguus = “irrigating. lonely”. 294). Latin has the verb vãvere. 215: *gu ieh3. p. which in my opinion much better illustrates the meaning of the derivatives in other languages than the meaning “afflict deadly”. which corresponds to the meaning of Latin verb vacàre. in the form *h2 uied h-. in Italic languages with the enÿ ÿ largement -k-.uós: arduus. drip”. LIV (p. pàscuus and the active/ passive riguus. which is ascribed to the same root. the meaning of the adjective is active non-actual (similar to the previously mentioned nocuus) vacuus = “empty”.uo-). irrigated”. Lat. etc. vãvus. formally corresponds to the reconstruction *h1 uh 2-k. vacuus. 58 . p. by LIV. mortuus.uós ÿ ÿ (IEW. 632: *tergu-. What goes beyond the scope of the system functionally are firstly the two adjectives with the meaning of active non-actual process (nocuus and torvus). måtuus. gives the root * ueid h. p.“live”).with the meaning “leave. The adjectives from ÿ the list actually carrying this meaning agree at the same time also formally with the PIE reconstruction *R(z). empty”). “flow. the adjective can have both active and passive meaning torvus = “grim. formally corresponds to the reconstruction *g uih 3. terrifying”. nocuus are even formally evidently not original. ÿ p.). with the meaning “lack. LIV. pràvus. curvus. gnàÿ vus. 498) with uncertainty gives the root *reg’-. 254 gives the same verb root *h1 ueh2.uós (LIV. the adjective has the meaning of the stative perfect: “who has (been) separated and is therefore lonely” vãvus = “alive”. cavus. viduus. -spicàre.

Latin has the verb fãdere. Cr C in the zero-grade. there is a syllabic ÿ u (-uus).und Formenlehre der lateinischen Sprache.g. etc. according to WH it has the meaning “economize. *lip-ós > **lipus / *loip-ós > *loepus. pariº < *prh3.e. i. leave out. “be sticky”. 92 (all the primary Latin verbs with the PIE root CerC. the sonant °r yields or. see above the note 15 –.as expressive gemination. cf. vàti-cinus. the meaning of the adjective is stative merus = “pure. sticky”. 670) interprets -pp.with the meaning “sparkle”. “trust”. p. according to LIV (p.e. IEW does not mention this verbal root. the development °r > ar is in fact much more frequent. Latin adjectives in -us: [PIE adjectives in *-ós are reconstructed. researched in this work ° have CarC in Latin in the initial syllable: spargº < *sph°r h2-g-é-. cf. according to LIV (p. i. “spare”. and only in some cases ar in Latin (according to L EUMANN 1977.THE INDO-EUROPEAN VERBAL ADJECTIVES In respect to the form of the suffix. L UCIE PULTROVÁ. carpº < *(s)kr p-). the meaning of the adjective (originally perhaps “shiny”. gain confidence”. The Vocalism of Latin Medial Syllables. also GERHARD MEISER . 64). the meaning of the adjec° Although according to the traditional interpretation. i. following a vowel or r (other sonants are not recorded). magni-ficus. the adjective has the meaning of the stative perfect “who has gained confidence and is therefore faithful/reliable” lippus = “festering. we must verify two possibilities: *R(o)-ós and *R(z)-ós. the corresponding verb does not exist in Latin. following a stop.ié-. if it is. before a vowel. as was said previously.. with the root in the o-grade. LIV does not mention this root and judging from the other words of the same word base listed in IEW it is highly disputable whether it is really a verbal root. “commit oneself to. 476) the verbal root *perk-. p.e. according to LIV (p. the corresponding verb does not exist in Latin. 408) the verbal root is *leip-. *bhid h-ós > **fidus / *bhoidh-ós > **foidus. “bright”) is stative parcus = “thrifty”. *prk-ós > parcus20 / *pork-ós > **porcus. in respect to the fact that Latin compounds which demonstrably belong to the type do not have the root in the o-grade but apparently in the zero-grade – e. 58. p. However.] fãdus = “faithful. hold back”). ° ÿ 20 59 . unalloyed”. Historische Laut. arceº ° ÿ < *h 2°rk(’)-é ie-.e. IEW (p. “fill up” (the semantic shift probably “fill up” → “gather stocks” → “be thrifty”. then *m er-ós > merus / *mor-ós > **morus. u is non-syllabic (-vus). 733) in the base of this adjective there is the verbal root *mer. i. reliable”. Praha 2006. according to IEW (p. Latin has the verb parcere. 71) the verbal root is *bheid h-. Darmstadt 1998.

) / *h2onkós > uncus.). unstable”. 48f. *trn k-ós > **trencus / *tronk-ós > truncus (see LEUMANN 1977. has passive meaning. “wandering.e. i. “track”. 1110. p. *h2nk-ós > **ancus (see SCHRIJVER 1991. the verb ÿ ÿ vagàrã is denominative. All the remaining adjectives may be described as stative. 523) the verbal root is *seik u-. the corresponding primary verb does not exist in *soik ÿ Latin (only the deadjective siccàre). the meaning of the adjective is active non-actual siccus = “dry”. the adjective has the meaning of the stative perfect: “what has been poured out/lost liquid. according to LIV (p. or (suppose we accept the meaning given in LIV) active non-actual: “who gathers stock” (the first variant seems to us to be more concise in respect to the fact that the Latin verb is intransitive) sàgus = “prophetic”. *sik u-ós > **sicus (-quo.e. fold“.: * u] g-. truncus. 649) the verbal root is *trenk-. the corresponding verb does not exist in Latin. the excerpted adjectives are also problematic: o-grade in the root may be reconstructed only in two instances. which is classed with the root * ueh2g(’)-. poetical adjective – related to the common feminine noun sàga. according to LIV (p. i. non-actual meaning: “who often wanders” ÿ ÿ ÿ ° Nomina agentis in *-ós in IE languages are typically formed from active verbs and have an active meaning (cf. the corresponding verb does not exist in Latin. One adjective from the list. which does not correspond to the original meaning of the IE ó-adjectives. „bend. apparently * uh 2 g( ’)-ós > vagus / * uoh 2g(’ )-ós > **vºgus. 137) or ÿ u-ós > **soecus. “break” by LIV (p. A zero-grade perhaps may be recon60 . 520) the verbal root is *seh2g(’)-.e. ÿ ÿ i. Formally. the adjective has the meaning of the stative perfect: “what has bent and is therefore crooked” vagus = “wandering”. vagus. i.LUCIE PULTROVÁ tive is apparently stative again: “who is thrifty”. the adjective apparently has the active.e. see LEUMANN 1977. “witch”) and vagus that agree with this characteristic. the meaning of the adjective is passive uncus = “crooked”. 59ff. WH ÿ ÿ connects the adj. according to IEW (p. sprawl”. the passive truncus and uncus. p. compress”). 1093: “press down. p. * uàg-.> -co-. a[ g numi. also the Latin compounds of this type mentioned in the note 15) – of the excerpted deverbative adjectives in -us. 268) the verbal root is *h2 enk-. “press” (IEW. it is only sàgus (a very rare. 1120) it belongs to the root * uàg. *sh 2 g(’ )-ós > **sagus / *soh2 g(’ )-ós > **sºgus. according to LIV (p. and the verb vagàrã. “be curved”. “cover”). the corresponding verb does not exist in Latin. according to LIV (p. “pour ÿ out”. to the Gr. and is dry now” truncus = “mutilated”. 664) (in IEW on p. LIV does not mention any such root. “hang around. p.

i. even the development from this form is problematic: *b hid hós > **fidus. viduus. p. although the latter two have very unclear etymologies. the root syllable ÿ ÿ is long by position ÿ ÿ ÿ ° ÿ Similar reconstruction may be accepted also in the adj.22 but ÿ apparently. p. i. > g (with compensatory lengthening).21 However. (Hrsg. See HEINER E ICHNER. Akten des Kolloquiums der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft. What. p. on the other hand.e. ÿ ÿ See LEUMANN 1977. the question remains. In respect to the fact that the majority of the adjectives of this type is semantically more or less identical with the previously described uo-adjectives and also in reÿ spect to the instability of the consonant u. 22 21 61 .-26. however. Salzburg. there are exceptions to such development: arduus. we may consider one more variant. In the other adjectives. see LEUMANN 1977. in: Latein und Indogermanisch.uós: pu > p (see MEISER 1998. *sh2 g(’)-ós > **sagus. *sik u-ós > **sicus – in two cases there is the lengthened vowel in the root. here p.e. would be possible in all the cases except vagus and perhaps truncus and parcus is a fullgrade (for the adj.e. p. since the assumed deÿ velopment of the aspirate d h in Latin in the position before u is into b. Indogermanisches Phonemsystem und lateinische Lautgeschichte.) O SWALD P ANAGL – THOMAS KRISCH.THE INDO-EUROPEAN VERBAL ADJECTIVES structed in the adjective parcus.uós – the deÿ velopment of the group g u must be assumed to be analogical to the developÿ u ment of the group k u (> k > c). September 1986. 55-79. 137) + compenÿ ÿ ÿ satory lengthening according to the littera-rule h h *b id -uós: this interpretation is more problematic. in other two the doubled consonant in the root code. 23. and then in the adjectives merus and vagus. sàgus (although the stative meaning cannot be clearly identified here): *sh2 g(’). 183. ÿ that is whether formally these are not the same adjectives (in the case of the adjectives with stative meaning) in which u was dropped in the group of conÿ sonants and subsequently the compensatory lengthening took place so that the length of the syllable was maintained: ÿ *lip. *lip-ós > **lipus. why such adjective would not develop rather into **fiduus *prk-uós: similar development as in siccus. 121) + compensatory lengthening (acÿ ÿ cording to the littera-rule the consonant is lengthened) *sik u-uós: k u u > k u > k u > c (before o. i. k u > k u > c. PIE does not form the adjectives in -os with the stress on the root. however. g u > gu + loss of the labial element beÿ ÿ fore o. lippus and siccus using so-called littera-rule). Innsbruck 1992. 59.

“be open”). Is there to be found any class of Latin adjectives functionally and formally corresponding to PIE *R(z)-ló-? Brugmann classes with this type Latin adjectives in -ulus. Adjectives with the suffix *-lóAnother important type of PIE verbal adjectives is represented by the adjectives with the suffix -ló-. truncus the following may be said: the group enk (which would reflect R(z) here) is unstable in Latin and changes into ink. etc. garrulous” (< garrãre = “chatter”). cf. tinnulus = “ringing” (< tinnãre. ° ° 4. in the form uncus may thus have been formed secondarily by the assimilation to the mentioned substantive. “hang”). patulus = “wide-open” (< pat¹re. e. also numerous compounds similar to those mentioned in the note 15 are formed. 62 . tremulus = “trembling” (< tremere = “tremble”) 23 24 See L EUMANN 1977. querulus = “full of complaints” (< querã = “complain”). strãdulus = “that makes a high-pitched sound” (< strãd¹re/strãdere. “ring”). cr¹dulus = “credulous” (< cr¹dere = “believe. the adj. perhaps the labial element following the ÿ velar could have led to the change of the vowel e not into i. Czech sedìl. ancus of the same meaning from the same root (< *h2 nk-) and the common subst. trust”). pendulous” (< pend¹re. uncus and truncus. The adj. pendulus = “hanging. garrulus = “talkative. Concerning the adj. uncus we may consider the following development: in Latin. it is rather improbable for them to have maintained the original o-grade in the root which is recorded in no other case (nor in the corresponding compounds).). Concerning the adj. etc.g. merus I tend to the view that it is not a deverbative. vagus is apparently the direct successor of the PIE ó-adjective (from the corresponding base. 373. “cut.). p. circumvagus.uós. bil. tovmo~. “make a high-pitched sound”).23 suppose the original form of the given adjective was *trn k.24 we have excerpted the following adjectives with this suffix which have verbal root: bibulus = “fond of drinking” (< bibere = “drink”). (¹-)minulus = “projecting” (< ¹-min¹re. “project”). In the adj. See BRUGMANN 1906. p. which for example in Slavic languages play the role of preterite active participle (*-lú. uncus.LUCIE PULTROVÁ Concerning the adj.g. we have records of the rare adj. e. 45. montivagus. but into the rounded u. slice”). “hook” (with the stressed o-grade in the root. Gr.

e. i. iaculum. quite unclear: WH states that adj.> -sul. rival” that ranks with the same type. 189-213. i.e. p. 213) ° ° 25 According to N IELSEN. Proceedings of the Conference held at the University of Copenhagen October 20 th–22 nd 2000. p. p. etc.25 Concerning the formal aspect of the excerpted adjectives: The following adjectives may have issued directly from the reconstructed PIE form: ¹minulus: *-mn -lós (LIV. 437) > *-minlos + anaptyxis -nl. but we may possibly consider it also in the nl group) pendulus: *(s)pn d-lós (LIV. “spear. but he does not specify the root any further. p. which could be described sooner as a purpose adjective functionally related to the subst. although the shift in meaning of the adjective would be considerable and moreover.> -mul. ones describing a typical quality of the subject. Copenhagen 2004. what is used for girdling”. cf. 10) the adjective belongs to the root *ai-. 63 .. aemulus = “emulous. poculum. in -ulum: cingulum. its etymology is. LIV lists neither the adjective aemulus nor the verb imitàrã. see LEUMANN 1977. the adjective is thus more likely to have been derived from this substantive and it cannot be regarded as directly deverbative. however. 102.> -dulquerulus: *k’ ues-lós (LIV. p. p. in: Indo-European Word Formation.(anaptyxis of the vowel u is common in Latin in the groups consisting of a stop + l. Special character is that of the adj. p.. etc. Latin instrument noun-suffix -ulum is a mere conditional variant of -culum (< PIE *-tlo-).THE INDO-EUROPEAN VERBAL ADJECTIVES All the listed adjectives are active non-actual (actual bib¹ns = “who is drinking now” × non-actual bibulus = “who drinks often”). “used for covering”. stràgulus. (edd. “girdle. according to IEW (p.> -nul. 341) > *queslos + anaptyxis -sl. it is also the the suffix is difficult to explain. sometimes with a slightly pejorative touch (× the original ló-adjective from the corresponding verb should have had the meaning of “who was drinking” or “who had a drink”). “covering for a bed”. there even exists the substantive stràgulum. aemulus has the root the ablaut variant of which is in the verb imitàrã. In all probability.e. 578) > *pendlos + anaptyxis -dl. what is used for throwing”.) JAMES CLACKSON – BIRGIT ANETTE OLSEN. see BENEDICTE NIELSEN. On Latin instrument-nouns in */-lo-/. 648) > *tremlos + anaptyxis -ml.(although the common development of the ml group in Latin is mpl. see LEUMANN 1977.(the ÿ rhotacism would have had to follow) tremulus: *trem-lós (LIV. “attribute”. i. the -m.

e. but the same situation appears with the base verb pat¹re. 478) > *patlos?. but it is nevertheless obvious that this does not hold in all cases. the following adjectives could reflect *R(z)-lós: patulus: *peth 2-lós (LIV. is very hard to imagine in fact in the root of the type CeH. where in such case only the initial consonant would remain). *strid (h)-lós > **stridulus. in any case. or **pulus (present verbal stem is reduplicated: *pi-ph3-é. Also the semantic shift is evident.. p. how64 . concerning the development of the laryngeal in this formation – interconsonantal laryngeal according to the generally accepted theory changes into a. 330ff. 136) > *-dlos + anaptyxis dl > dul (suppose we concede the possibility that the laryngeal drops. as in the previous example of patulus. The remaining adjectives can be judged as directly issuing from the PIE *R(z)-lós. according to the theory quoted also by SCHRIJVER 1991.> bib-) garrulus: LIV (p. although in the present case we do not have two stops. the l in this position could be possibly regarded as phonetically relevant. cr¹dulus: *-dhh1-lós (LIV. 161) gives the verbal root *g’ar-. i. garrulus.g. *g’ar-lós > **garulus – the double -rr. WH says only that it is an onomatopoeic verb. the vowel a is not systemic here (we would expect e). the laryngeals in the position between two stops in medial syllables drop. p. however. or > *-dalos (CHC > CaC) > -dulus. *ph3 -lós should yield **palus. which. the double nn is difficult to explain The adjectives not in accord with the PIE reconstruction strãdulus: LIV does not list the verb. 1036) it is an onomatopoeic verb with the root *streid(h)-. passim < *pVth 2-ti-. p. i.e. Latin adjectives in -ulus thus cannot be considered to be inherited formations from the original verbal adjective in *-lós.LUCIE PULTROVÁ With great doubts. and nor does IEW. p. but at the same time it must be said that in no single case there is anything preventing us from the same interpretation as with the previously mentioned four adjectives – from the synchronic point of view their roots have identical form as the roots in present stem of the corresponding Latin verbs. 462). The truth. according to IEW (p.(LIV. but only secondarily formed ones by adding the suffix to the root in the form in which it exists in Latin present stem. strãdulus and tinnulus are apparently not inherited formations.> *pib. the ÿ long ã in the root is not in accord with the PIE reconstruction tinnulus: LIV does not mention the verbal root. suppose we concede the possibility of the vowel change a³ > u³ in medial syllable The following adjectives certainly do not reflect the original PIE form: bibulus: verbal root *peh 3.

ample”.g. e. on the other hand. 213). Germanic languages. “hug. is that the semantic shift of this adjectival suffix is of more general nature. 35 has the root am. pøišel): in Czech there are to be found the adjectives in -lý from imperfective verbs. 27 26 65 . status.. “who has occupied large space?” (LIV does not list the given verbal root. e. absolutely clear: the suffix was stressed. correspond to this reconstruction. Graecolatina Pragensia 21 (in print). *sth2 -tó-. 374. and the root was in the zero-grade. the Latin ppp.g. regarded as the formation definitely inherited from the PIE *R(z)-lós is apparently another Latin adjective. What can be. as we have seen in the case of the Latin ppa.came to many individual IE languages.e. e. same as to Latin. Czech dbalý = “who (always) cares”. describing a characteristic (permanent) quality. amplus = “large.26 but surprisingly also in Slavic languages where the suffix -lú otherwise plays the role of preterite active participle (e. pøišlý = “who has come”). p. also from primary verbs. datus (< *d hhl-(k-)tó-. plànctus (with n-infix from the present stem) and many others. with the suffix -nt-.g. based on the comparison. analogically. issued directly from the original PIE adjectives with the reconstructed structure *R(z)-tós. factus. The Formation of the Latin Perfect Passive Participles. p. grip”. e. since similar adjectives with the same meaning can be found also in other. *am-los > amplus. For instance. bearing the function of past passive participle. *dh3-tó-). i.THE INDO-EUROPEAN VERBAL ADJECTIVES ever. p.27 we can restrict ourselves to briefly summarizing its results here. but the words as a whole were then formed secondarily. IEW. As the development of the PIE tó-adjectives was the subject of an individual study. lesklý = “what (permanently) shines” and similar (× adjectivized preterite participle in -lý is formed only from perfective verbs. doctus (with ograde in the root).: m¹-.g. or whether they inherited only the suffix from PIE. Resulting from the work with the excerpted Latin primary verbs is a See BRUGMANN 1906. The question therefore remains whether Latin ppp. The reconstruction of IE to-adjective is. L UCIE PULTROVÁ . see LEUMANN 1977.g. that is *R(z)-tós. which at first sight evidently do not correspond to this reconstruction. often given as examples by the authors of grammar books when explaining the development of interconsonantal laryngeal in Latin into a. 5. Adjectives with the suffix *-tóThe PIE verbal adjectives with the formant -to. there exist a considerable number of Latin ppp. On the other hand.

but verbal adjectives in -nus appear in Latin too. (as the means of formation of passive past tense) make an inseparable couple with active perfect forms: Beside the perfect forms that Latin had inherited directly from the PIE (namely original root aorists. spr¹vã – spr¹tus (*sphrH-tós > **spràtus) and others secondary reduplicated perfects: spopondã – spºnsus (*spn d-tós > **sp¹nsus). totondã – tºnsus (*tnd-tós > **t¹nsus) and others secondary s-perfects: iånxã – iånctus (*iug-tós > **iåctus).LUCIE PULTROVÁ relatively simple theory based on the fact that ppp. there are the ppp. Examples: root aorists: f¹cã – factus (< *dhh1k-tós). the ppp.had the function very similar to that of the adjectives with the suffix *-tó. see BIRGIT ANETTE OLSEN. beside the perfect forms that Latin had formed as neologisms (simple perfects. 215248. 28 66 . låsã – låsus (*lidÿ tós > **lissus) and others ÿ ÿ ° ÿ ° ° ÿ ° ° ° ° ° 6.28 In Latin. was originally restricted to the position after stops and perhaps some cases of consonantal laryngeal. The Complex of Nasal Stems in Indo-European. OLSEN says that though conclusive evidence is scarce.g. in: Indo-European Word Formation. here p.and they came into some languages (e. in Latin that are the direct successors of the PIE *R(z)-tós. is formed by the latter of the mentioned suffixes (-tus). some reduplicated perfects and some s-perfects) we can find the ppp. s¹dã original reduplicated perfects: v¹nã (< *g (< *se-sd-) – sessus (< *sed-tós) and others original s-aorists: dåxã – ductus (<*duk’-tós). reduplicated perfects and s-aorists). Adjectives with the suffix *-nóThe PIE adjectives with the suffix *-nó. u-/v-perfects. 223. fãnxã – fictus (<*dhig’h-tós) and others × simple perfects: scandã – scànsus (*skn d-tós > **sc¹nsus). On the other hand. Slavic) in the function of ppp. i¹cã – iactus (< *H ih1k-tós) and othÿ ers u e-g um-) – ventus (< *g um-tós). Let us see whether they correspond to the reconstructed structure *R(z)-nós and what their function is in Latin. it seems that the suffix *-nofor the formation of ppp. constructed purely analogically. p. Copenhagen 2004. d¹fendã – d¹f¹nsus (*-g uhn -tós > **-fentus) and others u-/v-perfects: c¹nsuã – c¹nsus (*k’N s-tós > **c¹nstus).

in LIV (p. the analogical adjective potøebný can have both passive and active meaning. p. widen”. pl¹nus with the ppp. according to IEW (p. 31 KIRCHER-DURAND compares the adj. the root reads *pleh2 -. then it describes again a stable passive quality of the substance (“who is permanently saturated. 110) has the verbal root *dek’-. p. LIV gives no verbal root. “welcome”. i.THE INDO-EUROPEAN VERBAL ADJECTIVES bonus = “good”. nevertheless does not have the passive meaning (“what is needed. *d uh2-nós > ÿ **dånus or **dunus or **duanus (cf. p.. which is permanently present and time-unlimited31 sànus = “healthy. LIV (p.e. 806) suggests the root *pel] -. -num. be saturated”.e. claims that in the adj. MA. i. Les dérivés en -nus. *h1 g(’)H-nós > **ganus? (SCHRIJVER 1991. i. sànus belongs to the root *sà-.: h1C.s. i. according to SCHRIJVER 1991.e. 45 and 199f. worshipped”). see C HANTAL KIRCHER-D URAND. the adj. sane”. 2002. be full”. the adj. see LEUMANN 1977. *plh2-nós > plànus. i. 30 the adjective describes a passive action quality.e. *plà-.) C HANTAL KIRCHER-DURAND . the full-grade from the verb pl¹re was secondarily introduced to avoid homonymy with the adj. suitable”.> C-). 880) the adj. pl¹nus. Louvain – Paris – Dudley. (éd. *sh 2-nós > **sanus. plain”. the same root is given in LIV (p. 17ff. 67 . 30 SCHRIJVER 1991. 231) with uncertainty suggests the verbal root *h1eg(’)H-. 182.meaning “unite” (i. -pl¹tus (which is formed only from compounds. 123) in the form *deuh2. but the active one or that of resultative perfect “who is lacking.). Création lexicale: la formation des noms par dérivation suffixale.e. duonos < duenos. above the note 18) ÿ dignus = “worthy. bonus = originally “venerable. “lack”. 132. < archlat. compl¹tus and similar): in contrast with the in time defined (anterior) -pl¹tus. IX. *plh1-nós > **plànus or **planus (SCHRIJVER 1991. i. 520). according to LIV the original meaning “who is ÿ in accord with the right course of things”?). p. *dek’-nós > dignus (k > g and egn > ign. here p. respectively. LIV (p. “satisfy. who needs”29 plànus = “flat.e.) = originally “welcome”? eg¹nus = “needy”. 172ff. if we accept the relation of the adjective to ÿ the root with the meaning “saturate”. 218) classes the adjecÿ ÿ tive with the verbal root *deu-: *du-. “fill o. sate. p. what is lacking”). this root is given in the form *seh2(i)-. IEW (p. the adjective (if it is originally verbal) has the meaning of stative perfect: “who has become wide and is therefore wide” pl¹nus = “full”. in: Grammaire fondamentale du latin. p. plànus (< *plh 2-). -na. “wide. “what is needed” and “who needs something”. LIV (p. “venerate” (i. 125-160. IEW (p. made satisfied”) 29 In Czech. 482) suggests the verbal root *pleh1-.e. 184.e. pl¹nus has no relation to time.

which cannot be derived from R(z). If there really is such a difference between the PIE suffixes in *-nó. “stop. the adjective describes ÿ ÿ a passive action quality. 68 . however. then it is logical that the Slavic languages “chose” the suffix *-nó. 184) is to assume that the group CRHC did not generally yield CRàC in Latin. futile.and *-tó-.e.LUCIE PULTROVÁ vànus = “empty. “greedy. however. the verb has its basic imperfective form and its perfective counterpart is formed by a prefix: psaný – napsaný). dignus and plànus) – this would. The form passive participle. sànus. However. though quite unsystemic: the adjective would have developed in the following way: *sh2 i-nós > *sa iÿ ÿ nos > sànus (reduction of the i n group + compensatory lengthening to pre° 32 The suffix -nus is to be found in two more possibly verbal adjectives amoenus. however. 33 We do not have a systematic explanation of the form duenos in the place of the expected **duanos. groundless”. Nevertheless. present) passive participle. however. since they tend to express perfectivness/imperfectivness mostly by word-formative means (in most cases. would have had to take place prior to the regular Latin change eu > ou > å). not correspond to the assumed original state. Concerning all the others (except bonus 33).e. but – same as in Greek – CRh1C > CR¹C. the Latin adjectives in -nus are problematic and only two of them can be directly derived from the reconstructed PIE *R(z)-nós: dignus and plànus. a possible explanation of its root vowel is suggested above in the note 30. such vocalic change is still an easier solution to accept than the reconstruction of R(e) in the root: **deuh 2-nos > **deuanos or **deunos (the ÿ form duenos could possibly develop from *deuanos. Concerning the adj. so unclear that nothing closer may be said on their behalf. If it does belong to the root *seh2(i ). sànus and vànus have a long vowel in the root. anteriority). leave”. and i¹iånus.suggested by ÿ LIV. the other possibility (although rejected by SCHRIJVER 1991. the meaning of which is always perfective (= aorist. in contrast to the adjectives in -tus. p. 254) gives the verbal root *h1 ueh2-. pl¹nus. then we can consider the following possibility. LIV (p. we are not sure about its actual etymology. which. *h1 uh2-nós > **vanus. but throughÿ a very difficult process: ÿ change a > e and the syncope of the first e. i. “graceful”. which is permanently present and time-unlimited 32 (similarly to the pl¹nus above) With the exception of the adjectives eg¹nus and plànus (which is disputable as to whether it is a deverbative) we may say that all the adjectives express what corresponds to the function of imperfective (i. hungry” – their etymology is. it would be easier to reconstruct a full-grade in the root (which is possible also in the adj. concerning the adj. Formally. CRh2C > CRàC and CRh3C > CRºC.

e. alumnus. As for the adj. LIV (p.g. there is probably the full grade in the root (with the dialectal change in ir. 37 See idem. Brugmann (1906.that is assumed. otherwise we would have to expect the short -i-. LIV does not mention the root. p. because *dh r. 230. For the recent bibliography on the topic see MEIER-BRÜGGER 2000. However.and *h2 l. 174. firm”. “bend”. 230) says it is highly probable that the original suffix -mno. Adjectives with the suffixes *-mno-.THE INDO-EUROPEAN VERBAL ADJECTIVES serve the length of the syllable). vehem¹ns are regarded as the successors of this form in Latin). the adjectives in -mas (< *-mo. 206. p.have the same result in Latin. ÿ i. p. *-móMedial verbal adjectives in PIE were formed by the suffix the reconstruction of which is not completely agreed on among the researchers. 232.> **for-.35 mostly. f¹mina. 7.yielded the suffix -mo-. feeding”. p. p. but IEW (p. fasten”. see WH. 262) gives the verbal root *h2el-. oblique”. the adjective has the meaning of active non-actual process firmus = “strong. 36 BRUGMANN 1906. Yet one more possibility may be hypothetically considered: in Lithuanian. vànus. p. 69 . we have excerpted the following three deverbatives with the suffix -mus: almus = “life-giving. since both *h 2el. “hold.< *-mno-)37 have the function of the present passive participle (e. The adjectives with this suffix are not recorded in Latin (traditionally. bring up”. LEUMANN 1977. p. 308. in any case.from *-mno-. LIV (p. the adjective could be possibly regarded as originally medial: “what is moving/running diagonally” ° Latin examples are so scarce that no general judgement may be drawn hence. in the adjective there then could be either the full or the zero-grade in the root. in the adjective. the root is rather in the full-grade. sometimes also damnum. concedes the possibility of the enlargement of the root (* ueh2-) by -s-. nêšamas = 34 35 Cf. however. 145) suggests the verbal root *dher-. al-. it is the unstressed *-mno. 36 Out of the Latin adjectives. the subst. SCHRIJVER 1991. the adjective can be considered medial: “who holds tigh” lãmus = “transverse. 34 ÿ ÿ The adj. eg¹nus (which corresponds neither functionally to the assumed original formation) is clearly secondarily assimilated to the verb eg¹re. the adjectives firmus and lãmus could support the theory on development of *-mo. IEW. “feed. 253). 309) has *lei-. * uh 2-s-nós > * uasnos > vànus.

Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben.(through -nno-. Wiesbaden 2001. Heidelberg 1938-1956. Lateinisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. and not the assumed R(z) in the root. 38 See LEUMANN 1977. 70 .> -mus. as has been mentioned.e. p. It is therefore worth considering whether also Latin -nus had not in fact developed from the original *-mno. Bern – München 1959.. i. Abbreviations IEW: J ULIUS POKORNY. 38 Even in respect to the distribution *-mno. the development mn > nn is common. and a stop. this theory is relatively attractive (although. exactly the function we have talked about in connection with the excerpted Latin adjectives in -nus. l. or larynÿ geal. Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. WH: ALOIS WALDE – J OHANN BAPTIST HOFMANN .> -nus and *-mno. the evidence is scarce): -mus comes following r. -nus following a long vowel.LUCIE PULTROVÁ “being carried”). LIV: H ELMUT RIX et al. i . We have also mentioned that in most adjectives in -nus it would be easier to reconstruct the original R(e). in colloquial Latin. 213f.

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