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Allan Wallace


Alan Wallace

Wallace

Allan Wallace

Wallace

2009.11.02 2009.12.30

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1991 MIT F. Varela, E. Thompson, E. Rosch


The Embodied Mind Cognitive
Science and Human Experience

http://www.mindandlife.org/
1998 MIT
James H. Austin
Austin, James H. M.D. Zen and the Brain: Toward an
Understanding of Meditation and Consciousness, The MIT Press, 1998. 2006
Austin MIT Zen-Brain Reflections

(MBSR)(MBCT)

The Journal of the International


Association of Buddhist Studies (JIABS)Philosophy East and
West 1996-2005

1996-2005
11 2006
7 277

Allan Wallace

77

B. Alan Wallace

Allan Wallace Wallace


Wallace
Wallace

Allan Wallace

Allan Wallace
3 Allan Wallace Wallace

Santa Barbara
5 Wallace Wallace

Allan Wallace Jack Petranker, Who will be the scientists?


a review of B. Alan Wallace's The Taboo of Subjectivity, Journal of Consciousness
Studies, Vol. 8, No. 11, 2001 , pp. 83-90. David Lorimer, The Need for a Noetic
Revolution: Review of Alan Wallaces The Taboo of Subjectivity, Journal of
Consciousness Studies, Vol. 9, No. 12, 2002, pp. 8991. Paul Butler, Review
of B. Alan Wallace, Contemplative Science: Where Buddhism and Neuroscience
Converge, in Journal of Law and Religion, Vol. XXIII, 2008, pp. 101-106.
Philip Clayton, Review: The Taboo of Subjectivity: Toward a New Science of
Consciousness , in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, V.71(2), 2003,
pp. 472-475. Wallace
John Searle
http://www.psych.northwestern.edu/psych/people/faculty/paller/home/dialogue/
Wallace
http://www.alanwallace.org/Buddhist%20Teachers%20&%20Teachings.pdf
http://www.sbinstitute.com/

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8
Wallace

Wallace

8
9

Wallace
Wallace
commensurable dialogue
collaboration Wallace, Allan. Buddhism and Science: Breaking
New Ground. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
Alan Wallace
Mind in the Balance: Meditation in Science, Buddhism, and Christianity. New
York: Columbia University Press, 2009.
Hidden Dimensions: The Unification of Physics and Consciousness. New York:
Columbia University Press, 2008.
Contemplative Science: Where Buddhism and Neuroscience Converge. New York:
Columbia University Press, 2007.
The Taboo of Subjectivity: Toward a New Science of Consciousness. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2000.
The Bridge of Quiescence: Experiencing Tibetan Buddhist Meditation. Chicago:
Open Court Press, 1998.
Choosing Reality: A Buddhist View of Physics and the Mind. Ithaca, New York:
Snow Lion, 1989.
http://www.alanwallace.org/cv.htm

unification

Allan Wallace

79

Wallace

Scientific
Materialism
10
Wallace
subjectivity

11

Wallace
12 Wallace William James science
10

11

12

Wallace, Allan. The Taboo of Subjectivity: Toward a New


Science of Consciousness, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Wallace Wallace

agnostic
Clayton, Philip. Review
of B. Alan Wallace, The Taboo Of Subjectivity: Toward A New Science Of
Consciousness, Journal of the American Academy of Religion (2003), p. 473.
Wallace

Wallace, Allan.
The Taboo of Subjectivity: Toward a New Science of Consciousness, New York:

80

of religion

13 Wallace

14
Wallace
Wallace

telescope
microscope

15

Wallace
Wallace

13

14

15

Oxford University Press, 2000.


Wallace, Allan. The Taboo of Subjectivity: Toward a New Science of
Consciousness, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 177-179.
Evan Thompson Allan Wallace Harrington,
Anne. and Zajonc, Arthur. eds., The Dalai Lama at MIT, Harvard University Press,
2006, p. 24 & p. 44.
Wallace, Allan. Contemplative Science: Where Buddhism and Neuroscience
Converge. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007, p. 51.

Allan Wallace

81

refine our attention

16
17
Wallace
Wallace

Wallace

Wallace

introspectioncontemplation
18

Allan Wallace

Wallace

noetic revolution19 Wallace


16
17

18

19

Ibid., p. 96. Wallace p. 176


Wallace meditative
quiescence
the four immeasurables dream
yoga great perfection
samatha

Wallace
Ibid., pp. 110-148
Wallace Wilhelm Wundit
introspectionism The Taboo of Subjectivity:
Toward a New Science of Consciousness, New York: Oxford University Press,
2000, p. 99.
Lorimer, David. The Need for a Noetic Revolution: Review of Alan Wallaces The

82

20
Wallace

Wallace Wallace

mind-brain identity theory

20

Taboo of Subjectivity, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Vol. 9, No. 12, 2002, pp.
89-91.
Clayton, Philip. Review: The Taboo of Subjectivity: Toward a New Science of
Consciousness, in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, V. 71(2), 2003,
pp. 472-475.

Allan Wallace

83

21

epilepsy

22

spiritual

conscience

21

22

84

2
Wallace
science
discipline of inquiry
scientific realism

scientific materialism Wallace

scientism
Wallace

metaphysical ideology

Allan Wallace

85

23
Wallace

Wallace
24
William
James

25
Wallace

Wallace

23

24
25

Wallace, Allan. The Taboo of Subjectivity: Toward a New Science


of Consciousness, pp. 17-39.
Ibid, p. 187.

1 804

86

26 Wallace
Wallace

Wallace

Wallace

Wallace

26

Allan Wallace

87

27

direct knowledge of mind


and consciousness
Wallace

introspection Wallace

27

soteriological meaning

88

introspectionism Wallace

28 Wallace 2009
International
Shamatha ProjectHuman Genome Project

29
Wallace

Wallace

a telescope of mind
30

1998
204-246
Wallace, Allan. The Taboo of Subjectivity: Toward a New Science of
Consciousness, pp. 96-99.
29
http://www.sbinstitute.com/ISP.html
30
Wallace Wallace, Allan.
Mind in the Balance: Meditation in Science, Buddhism, and Christianity, p. 82.
28

Allan Wallace

89

Wallace Wallace

31
fact
value32

33

31

32

33

Wallace, Alan. Contemplative Science: Where Buddhism and Neuroscience


Converge, pp. 1-27.

Wolpe, Paul Root. Reasons Scientists Avoid Thinking about


Ethics, in Cell, Vol. 125, Issue 6, June 2006, pp. 1023-1025.

90

34

35
Wallace

Allan Wallace

Wallace

Wallace
Wallace

34

35

Owen Flangan
Flanagan, J. Owen. The Really Hard Problem: Meaning in a Material World, MIT
Press, 2007.

Allan Wallace

91

Wallace

Wallace

Wallace

emotionintentionwill

Ludwig Wittgenstein

Wallace

92

sensationfeeling
David Chalmers
feel like36

vedana-skandhavijana-skandha
vedana

37
36

37

David J. Chalmers
the Conscious Mind
phenomenal
psychological
the way it feels

causal rolewhat it does


the easy problem
the hard problem
What is
something like to be a conscious organism?
functional
mechanism Chalmers, David J. The Conscious
Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory, Oxford University Press, 1997, pp.
11-12.
37

Allan Wallace

93

mano-vijbanamanas(vijbana

manas
pali, patisaranaj
38
39

citta

40
41

2 269

58

1 791
39

29 4
40
2

2 8

41

29 21
38

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43

44

45

vijbana-ahara

Skr. catasro vijbana-sthitayah, Pali. catasso


42
43

44

45

1994
15-21
10

1 61

10

1994
105

Allan Wallace

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vibbana-tthitiyo
46

47

48
49

46

47

48

49

1 51

2 17

satkaya-drsti

286

96

Francisco Varela, Allan Wallace

James H. Austin

50

51

50

51

2007

Allan Wallace

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Wallace

(the substrate
consciousness)
alaya-vijbana52

/samadhi/ samatha

ground state of
consciousness
53
Wallace
innate luminosity

54Wallace

55
Wallace

52

53
54
55

Wallace, Alan. Contemplative Science: Where Buddhism and Neuroscience


Converge, p. 14.
Ibid, p. 15.
Ibid, p. 16.
Ibid, p. 17. Wallace

98

Wallace

56

Rhys Davids Kalupahana


Sue Hamilton
57

56

57

Sue Hamilton 1. vibbna


2. vibbna conscious of; 3. vibbna 4. vibbna
5. vibbna Hamilton vibbna
conscious of

consciousness
vibb
consciousness of
vijbna-sthitaya
Hamilton, Sue. Identity and Experience: The Constitution of the
Human Being According to Early Buddhism, London: Luzac Oriental, 1996, pp.
82-101.

Allan Wallace

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Alan Wallace

Wallace

Quine
The philosopher and the scientist are in the same boat.58

59

58
59

Quine, W. V. Word and Object. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1960, p. 3.


If science proves facts that conflict with Buddhist understanding,
Buddhism must change accordingly. We should always adopt a view that accords
with the facts.
updating

100

reality

Wallace

Wallace

Wallace

Harrington, Anne. and Zajonc, Arthur. eds., The Dalai Lama at MIT, Harvard
University Press, 2006, pp. 14-15.

Allan Wallace

101

60
Wallace

1
Wallace Wallace

60

102

Wallace

61
Wallace identical
to62

63 Wallace

64 Wallace

Wallace
Wallace Toward a New Science of
Consciousnessthe religious
study of consciousness
Wallace
65 Wallace

61

62

63
64
65

Petranker, Jack. Who will be the scientists? a review of B. Alan Wallace's The
Taboo of Subjectivity,Journal of Consciousness Studies, Vol. 8, No. 11, 2001 , p.
89.
Clayton, Philip. Review of B. Alan Wallace, The Taboo Of Subjectivity: Toward
A New Science Of Consciousness, in Journal of the American Academy of
Religion (2003), p. 472.
Ibid, p. 474.
Ibid, p. 475
Ibid, pp. 474-475.

Allan Wallace

103

Wallace

Wallace

66
Wallace

67

Wallace
Wallace
Donald S. Lopez
compatible

Lopez
68

66

67
68

Butler, Paul. Review of B. Alan Wallace, Contemplative Science: Where


Buddhism and Neuroscience Converge, in Journal of Law and Religion, Vol.
XXIII, 2008, p. 101.
Ibid, p. 105.
Lopez, Donald S. Buddhism and Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, University
of Chicago Press, 2008.

104

Wallace

proposition
skill
69ability

69

Allan Wallace

105

70

Religion/Spirituality
Ethics
Mind and Consciousness

Psychology
Biology/ Physiology/ Neuroscience
Physics

psychology

70

begging the question


bottom-up
top-bottom

106

physically biologically
physiologicallypsychologically
ethicallyspiritually

(explanan)(explanandum)

Allan Wallace

107

71

what

how

Psychological Ethics
72

73

pre-understanding

71

72

73

fact
value

Austin

Austin, James H. Zen and the Brain: Toward an Understanding of Meditation and
Consciousness, The MIT Press, 1998. Begley, Sharon. Train Your Mind,
Change Your Brain: How a New Science Reveals Our Extraordinary Potential to
Transform Ourselves, Ballantine Books, 2007.
Rhys Davids
Dhamma-savgani

Psychological Ethics
Davids,
C.A.F. Rhys. A Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics, London, PTS, 1900.

108

cognitive schema

74

75

Wallace

74

75

Roger R. Jackson and John J. Makransky (eds.), Buddhist Theology: Critical


Reflections by Contemporary Buddhist Scholars, Richmond: Curzon Press, 1999, p.
viiii.
Ibid., pp. 16-19.

Allan Wallace

109

Wallace

Allan Wallace

Wallace

NSC96-2411-H-320-003-MY2

110

1
2
1
2
29

1970
2007
1994
1994
Austin, James H. Zen and the Brain: Toward an Understanding of
Meditation and Consciousness, The MIT Press, 1998.
Begley, Sharon. Train Your Mind, Change Your Brain: How a New
Science Reveals Our Extraordinary Potential to Transform
Ourselves, Ballantine Books, 2007.
Chalmers, David J. The Conscious Mind: In Search of a
Fundamental Theory, Oxford University Press, 1997.
Davids, C.A.F. Rhys. A Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics,
London, PTS, 1900.
Flanagan, Owen J. The Really Hard Problem: Meaning in a
Material World, MIT Press, 2007.
Hamilton, Sue. Identity and Experience: The Constitution of the
Human Being According to Early Buddhism, London:

Allan Wallace

111

Luzac Oriental, 1996.


Harrington, Anne. and Zajonc, Arthur. eds., The Dalai Lama at
MIT, Harvard University Press, 2006.
Jackson, Roger R. and Makransky, John J. (eds.), Buddhist
Theology: Critical Reflections by Contemporary Buddhist
Scholars, Richmond: Curzon Press, 1999.
Lopez, Donald S. Buddhism and Science: A Guide for the
Perplexed, University of Chicago Press, 2008.
Quine ,W. V. Word and Object. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1960,
p3.
Thanissaro Bhikkhu(DeGraff, Geoffrey.), The Wings to Awakening:
An Anthology from the Pali Canon, MA, Dhamma Dana
Publications.
Wallace, Alan. Mind in the Balance: Meditation in Science,
Buddhism,

and

Christianity.

New

York:

Columbia

University Press, 2009.


. Hidden Dimensions: The Unification of Physics and
Consciousness. New York: Columbia University Press,
2008.
.

Contemplative

Science:

Where

Buddhism

and

Neuroscience, Converge. New York: Columbia University


Press, 2007.
. The Taboo of Subjectivity: Toward a New Science of
Consciousness. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
. The Bridge of Quiescence: Experiencing Tibetan Buddhist
Meditation. Chicago: Open Court Press, 1998.
. Choosing Reality: A Buddhist View of Physics and the

112

Mind. Ithaca, New York: Snow Lion, 1989.

1996-2005

11 2006 7
277-292

35 2008 3 155-190
David J Chalmers. Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness,
in Jonathan Shear Ed., Explaining Consciousness: The
'Hard Problem', MIT, 1997, pp. 10.
David Lorimer. The Need for a Noetic Revolution: Review of
Alan Wallaces The Taboo of Subjectivity, Journal of
Consciousness Studies, Vol. 9, No. 12, 2002, pp. 8991.
Evan

Thompson.

Neurophenomenology

and

contemplative

experience, in Philip Clayton, ed., The Oxford Handbook


of Science and Religion. Oxford University Press, 2006, pp.
226-235.
Jack Petranker. Who will be the scientists? a review of B. Alan
Wallace's

The Taboo

of

Subjectivity,

Journal

of

Consciousness Studies, Vol. 8, No. 11, 2001 , pp. 83-90


Paul Root Wolpe. Reasons Scientists Avoid Thinking about
Ethics, in Cell, Volume 125, Issue 6, June 2006, pp.
1023-1025.
Paul Butler. Review of B. Wallace, Allan. Contemplative Science:
Where Buddhism and Neuroscience Converge, in Journal

Allan Wallace

113

of Law and Religion, Vol. XXIII, 2008, pp. 101-106.


Philip Clayton. Review: The Taboo of Subjectivity: Toward a
New Science of Consciousness, in Journal of the American
Academy of Religion, Vol.71(2), 2003, pp. 472-475.

114

An Investigation on Allan Wallaces Consciousness


Studies of Contemplative Science
Lin, Chien-te
Abstract
In this preliminary study of Contemplative Science by Allan
Wallace, three main lines of thought are presented: 1. a strong
criticism of scientific materialism, 2. an outline of the benefits of
cooperation between Buddhism and science in studies related to
consciousness, 3. emphasis on the importance of the Buddhist
tradition of meditation in providing new angles on the various aspects
of consciousness. Besides, this report takes positive inspiration from
the Wallace's views on consciousness with regards to the following:
1. the limitation of scientific studies of consciousness, 2. the
importance of Buddhist views on consciousness, 3. the achievement of
positive contributions being the first priority of studies of
consciousness. On the contrary, some issues are raised with regard to
the importance of a clarification of Buddhist terminology, as well as
the essential role that a thorough examination of our traditional
presumptions of Buddhist knowledge may play in investigations
related to consciousness. I conclude by suggesting that a cautious
attitude be held when making claims toward the compatibility of
Buddhism and science, for Buddhism and science each take very
different approaches to the study of consciousness, each presenting
their own unique advantages. Furthermore, in order to gain a more
comprehensive understanding of the vast subject of consciousness,
these two approaches ought to be assigned equal value.
Keywords: consciousness, mind, meditation, science, buddhist studies

Assistant Professor, Institute of Religion and Culture, Buddhist Tzu Chi University