Journal of Ethnopharmacology 87 (2003) 231–236

Screening and comparison of antioxidant activity of solvent extracts of herbal medicines used in Korea
Dae Gill Kang a , Chi keun Yun b , Ho Sub Lee a,∗
a

Department of Herbal Resources, Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine and Medicinal Resources Research Center (MRRC), Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea b Department of Health Administration, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea Received 20 March 2002; received in revised form 7 April 2003; accepted 17 April 2003

Abstract The hexane, ethylacetate, n-butanol, and water extracts of 10 Korean herbal medicines were screened and compared for their antioxidant activities in a range of lipid peroxidation system using rat brain homogenates, antihemolysis assay of red blood cells, and other in vitro assays to determine their ability to scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. All of the 10 Korean herbal medicines have potent antioxidant activities. Among the four solvent extracts, the antioxidant activities of more-polar solvent extracts (BuOH and water extracts) were relatively higher than that of non-polar solvent extracts (hexane and EtOAC extracts). These results will be useful to further analyze those herbal medicines that contain the most antioxidant activity in order to identify the active principles. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Antioxidant; Korean herbal medicines; Solvent extracts; Screening

1. Introduction Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide anions, are produced as byproducts in aerobic organisms, and have been implicated in the pathology of a vast variety of human diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetic mellitus, hypertension, AIDS, and aging (Halliwell and Gutteridge, 1984; Wallace, 1999; Lee et al., 2000). Therefore, antioxidant activity is an important in-view of the free radical theory of aging and associated diseases. It has long been recognized that naturally occurring substances in higher plants have antioxidant activity. A great number of plant origin substances have been suggested to appear as antioxidants. Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds of plant origin have been reported as scavenger ROS, thus they are viewed as promising therapeutic drugs for free radical pathologies (Parshad et al., 1998; Lee et al., 2000). The antioxidant activity of plant origin is dependent on the type and polarity of the extracting solvent as well as on the test system and the substrate to be protected by the antioxidant (Heinonen et al., 1998; Moure et al., 2000; Kang

and Lee, 2001). Solvent extraction is frequently used for isolation of the antioxidants and both extraction yield and antioxidant activity of the extracts are strongly dependent on the solvent, due to the different antioxidant potentials of compounds with different polarity. For these reasons, comparative studies for selecting the optimal solvent providing maximum antioxidant activity are required for each substrate. Although the use of different polarity substances can provide more exhaustive information on the properties of the extracts, the literature contains few reports of the polarity-based solvent extraction of medicinal plants. The present study was undertaken to perform the screening of antioxidant properties of 10 traditional medicines grown in Korea, and we selected hexane, ethylacetate, n-BuOH, and water as extract solvents which permits comparison of the antioxidant properties among the polaritybased solvent extracts of medicinal plants.

2. Materials and methods 2.1. Chemicals Hexane, ethylacetate (EtOAC), and n-butanol (n-BuOH) were purchased from Merck (Darmstate, Germany). Phenazine methosulfate (PMS)- -nicotinamide adenine

∗ Corresponding

author. Tel.: +82-63-850-6841; fax: +82-63-850-7324. E-mail address: host@wonkwang.ac.kr (H.S. Lee).

0378-8741/03/$ – see front matter © 2003 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00142-9

The methanol extract was evaporated and resuspended in H2 O. Superoxide radicals were generated in a PMS. 2. nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT).4). MO. Synnyvate.2 -azo-bis-(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH) were purchased from Sigma (St. Kang et al. antiallergy Antihypertensive Analgesia.0).3. Wonkwang University. Louise. the Korean herbal medicines (100 g) were air-dried at room temperature and reduced to fine powder by milling.G.232 D. All other unstated chemicals and reagents were of analytical grade. NADH) system by oxidation of NADH and were assayed by the reduction of NBT in the microplate. USA). Iksan. The hydroxyl radicals were generated in a l-ascorbic acid–CuSO4 system by reduction of Cu2+ and were assayed by the oxidation of cytochrome c in the 96-well microplate. 10 M PMS and samples (10 l) to be tested at different concentrations. Erythrocytes were isolated from plasma by centrifugation (1000 × g for 20 min) and washed three times . dl-dithiothreitol. Sinomenium acutum REHDER et WILS. 24 h each. Voucher specimen numbers DH-43 DH-14 DH-07 DH-08 DH-34 DH-05 DH-57 DH-15 DH-41 DH-58 Plant parts Root Root Root Fruit Flower Root Whole Root Bark Fruit Uses in Korea Antibacterial. The reduced cytochrome c was produced by addition of excess dl-dithiothreitol and followed by Sephadex G-15 chromatography (bed volume. which was slightly modified by Kang and Lee (2001). Jeonbuk Province. The superoxide radical scavenging ratio (%) was calculated using the following formula: Superoxide radical scavenging ratio (%) = A − A1 × 100 A where A is the absorbance of positive control. 2. Thiourea was used as a positive control. and uses in Korea Herbal medicines Inula helenium L. and BuOH. Dr. 2. South Korea (Table 1). 10 ml) to remove excess dl-dithiothreitiol. Scutellaria baicalensis GEORGI Siegesbeckia orientalis L. Grandiflora MAKINO Magnolia liliflora DESR. The color reaction between superoxide radicals and NBT was detected at A560 nm using a microplate reader (Molecular Devices. Astragalus membranaceus BUNGE Atratylodes koreana NAKAI Gardenia jasminoides for.-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form. South Korea. antiinflammation Expectorant Analgesia dinucleotide (reduced form. cholagogue Antihypertensive Antipyretic. which contained 78 M NADH.6. Scavenging activities of superoxide radicals Scavenging activity of superoxide radicals was determined by the Liu and Ng method (2000). 12 M cytochrome c and the samples to be tested at different concentrations. l-Ascorbic acid was used as a positive control. disinsection Cardiotonic. 2. The resulting powder was subjected to extraction with 200 ml of methanol. thiobarbituric acid (TBA). l-ascorbic acid. The scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical by 500 g/ml of thiourea was taken as 100%. and 2.5.2. and A1 is the absorbance of the test samples. Scavenging activities of hydroxyl radicals All herbal medicines were purchased from a herbal market in Iksan. Kyu Kwan Jang at the Botanical Garden of Wokwang University identified plant materials. The scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical was calculated using the following formula: Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (%) = A − A0 ×100 AT − A 0 where A is the absorbance of samples. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 87 (2003) 231–236 Table 1 Latin names. Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Extraction For the partitioning by solvent. which was slightly modified by Kang and Lee (2001). three times. Inhibitory effects on erythrocyte hemolysis Whole blood was obtained carefully by cannulation of femoral artery in Sprague–Dawley rats and collected in heparinized tubes. diuretic Sedative. and AT and A0 are the absorbance of the thiourea and the control. The hydroxyl radicals were generated in 200 l of 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7. CA. herbarium voucher specimen numbers. and sequentially partitioned with n-hexane. plant parts. Scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals was determined by the Liu and Ng method (2000).4. EtOAC. 100 M CuSO4 . The superoxide radicals were generated in 200 l of 16 mM Tris–HCl buffer (pH 8. hypoglycemic Sedative. cytochrome c. 2. 50 M NBT. Jeonbuk. respectively. NADH). The change in absorbance caused by the oxidation of cytochrome c was measured at 550 nm using a microplate reader (Molecular Devices). Plant material USA). containing 100 M l-ascorbic acid. Sorbus amurensis KOEHNE Xanthium strumarium L. Herbarium voucher specimens were prepared and deposited in the herbarium of the Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine.

1.5 ml trichloroacetic acid (TCA. USA). and H2 O.2. BHA was used as a positive control. at 200 g/ml assay. Atratylodes koreana. Seven of the extracts. the brains of normal Sprague– Dawley rats were isolated and homogenized with Polytron homogenizer (Switzerland) in ice-cold Tris–HCl buffer (20 mM. Siegesbeckia orientalis. and Scutellaria baicalensis. The hydroxyl radicals were generated in a l-ascorbic acid/CuSO4 system by reduction of Cu2+ and were assayed by the oxidation of cytochrome c. Scavenging effects of solvent extract on O2 •− radical The four solvent extracts of 10 herbal medicines were screened for their superoxide-scavenging activity in the PMS/NADH–NBT system. 3. Inhibitory effects on erythrocyte hemolysis The azo compound generates few radicals by its unimolecular thermal decomposition.1 mM ascorbic acid at 37 ◦ C for 1 h. The rate of generation of peroxyl radicals can be easily controlled and measured by adjusting the concentration of AAPH (Miki et al. pH 7.D. 3.000 × g for 10 min. Scavenging effects of solvent extract on OH• radical Table 3 shows the scavenging effect of solvent extracts of 10 Korean herbal drugs on hydroxyl radicals generated by l-ascorbic acid/CuSO4 –cytochrome c system. 1987).4) was added to the same volume of 200 mM AAPH in PBS solution containing samples to be tested at different concentrations. The homogenate was centrifuged at 10. Results and discussion The methanol extracts of 10 Korean herbal drugs were divided into four fractions with different polarities by partitioning it in various solvents such as hexane. and the absorbance (B) of the supernatant obtained after centrifugation was measured at 540 nm. NY. Kang et al. and Sorbus amurensis. superoxide anion derived from dissolved oxygen by PMS/NADH coupling reaction reduces NBT. Similarly. Among them. The inhibition of hemolysis (%) was calculated by the equation (1 − A/B) × 100.G.75 ml thiobarbituric acid (TBA. Erythrocyte hemolysis was mediated by peroxyl radicals in this assay system (Niki et al. Therefore. 1%. w/v) in succession. The reaction mixture was then removed by centrifugation (1000 × g for 20 min). In the PMS/NADH–NBT system. tested at 100 and 200 ug/ml. the color of the malondialdehyde (MDA)-TBA complex was detected at OD 532 nm using spectrophotometer (Milton Roy). EtOAC. 2000). The decrease of absorbance at 560 nm with antioxidants thus indicates the consumption of superoxide anion in the reaction mixture.. Xanthium strumarium. l-Ascorbic acid was used as a positive control. n-BuOH. The absorbance (A) of supernatant was read at 540 nm using spectrophotometer (Milton Roy. the water extract of Sinomenium acutum showed the highest scavenging activity of superoxide radical in this system.7. Rochester. and water extracts of Gardenia jasminoides and Sinomenium acutum. where A is the absorbance of control. and A1 is the absorbance of the test samples. Inhibitory effects on lipid peroxide (LPO) production in brain homogenates For the in vitro studies. pH 7. Inhibitory effects on LPO production in brain homogenates Quantification of MDA. 28%. displayed scavenging activities that were greater than 50%. and the solution was then heated at 100 ◦ C for 15 min. hemolysis induced by AAPH must provide suitable means for studying the oxidative erythrocyte membrane damage by peroxyl radical attack from the outside of the membrane (Ng et al. The reaction was stopped by addition of 0. . 2. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 87 (2003) 231–236 233 with 10 volumes of saline solution. Magnolia liliflora. 1988). Then these solvent extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity in a range of lipid peroxidation systems using rat brain homogenates. A 10% suspension of erythrocytes in 10 mM of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. Of the extracts studied. with TBA is the most common assay used for determination of the rate extent of lipid peroxidation. markedly inhibited erythrocyte hemolysis in this system (Table 4).. The reaction mixture was shaken gently while being incubated at 37 ◦ C for 2 h. The supernatant (0.3. w/v) and 0..4. and EtOAC extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis. one of the products of lipid peroxidation.4) to produce a 10% (w/v) homogenate. while seven extracts exhibited a nearly zero-scavenging activity of the superoxide radical. and EtOAC extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis and Sinomenium acutum. BuOH extracts of Astragalus membranaceus. After centrifugation to remove precipitated protein. diluted with eight volumes of PBS and centrifuged at 1000 × g for 20 min. and hexane extracts of Sorbus amurensis. There was a difference in the overall scavenging ability among the extract solvents from the 40 extracts and even among the same species. the reaction mixture was treated with eight volumes of distilled water to achieve complete hemolysis. 3. The inhibition ratio (%) was calculated using the following formula: Inhibition ratio (%) = A − A1 × 100 A 3. red blood cells and other in vitro assay to determine their ability to scavenge ROS. 3. High-scavenging activity (≥50% at 200 g/ml assay) was found in the BuOH extracts of Astragalus membranaceus. and the results are shown in Table 2.5 ml) was incubated with the test samples in the presence of 10 M FeSO4 and 0.

5 31.8 ± 2.2 ± 1.5 ± 4.9 ± 0.5 ± 3.2 ± 1.0 45.6 ± 1.4 ± 1.1 31.0 32.3 56.5 44.1 12.1 ± 2.7 ± 1.1 34.7 ± 0.3 40.2 37.8 ± 1.76 ± 2.2 24.8 ± 1.8 ± 1.5 28.8 44.7 15.3 31. (n = 3) of the inhibition of superoxide radical (%).9 16.2 54.1 ± 1.6 ± 1.6 78.8 63.2 9.0 ± 1.6 49.7 ± 3.7 16.4 ± 2.2 ± 4.7 ± 7.7 30.2 ± 3.5 91.7 75.8 26.4 ± 2.6 ± 0.5 26.7 41.5 ± 9.9 23.5 ± 7.5 ± 2.4 EtOAC 31.7 ± 1.96 ± 1.3 29.9 16.7 ± 0.9 ± 1.6 ± 1.5 ± 2.8 30.1 ± 1.8 ± 3.2 ± 0.5 ± 3.4 nz nz nz 16.8 ± 4.8 ± 1.5 ± 6.G.8 85.7 ± 3.4 ± 3.9 ± 3.7 25.7 ± 2.3 84.2 ± 0.0 24.0 28.6 27.5 23.1 41.5 38.0 48.4 17.1 12.5 n-BuOH 6.5 ± 7.5 47.9 9.0 ± 6.7 ± 7.0 67.234 D.6 ± 6. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 87 (2003) 231–236 Table 2 Effect of solvent extracts of Korean herbal medicines on superoxide radicals generated by PMS/NADH system Samples Concentration ( g/ml) Solvents Hexane Inula helenium Astragalus membranaceus Atratylodes koreana Gardenia jasminoides Magnolia liliflora Scutellaria baicalensis Siegesbeckia orientalis Sinomenium acutum Sorbus amurensis Xanthium strumarium 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 7.7 11.6 ± 7. .2 8.3 ± 0.3 nz 20.3 ± 5.1 ± 0.9 ± 1.7 ± 3.9 34.2 19.9 10.4 ± 2.4 33.7 49.8 ± 1.3 13.7 ± 1.5 ± 7.8 28.6 45.4 ± 2.2 5.E.0 13.6 ± 9.1 ± 2.0 33.7 ± 1.4 10.7 ± 1.2 ± 1.8 ± 3.4 6.3 6.0 21.6 90.5 ± 1.2 ± 8.1 Results show mean ± S.1 ± 1.3 n-BuOH 21.8 ± 1.3 32.1 ± 2.7 ± 3.5 ± 5.4 27.1 20.6 29.2 65.0 ± 0.9 19.9 ± 3.7 10.5 ± 4.5 20.5 ± 3. nz: nearly zero.9 25.8 40.9 10.1 ± 4.3 ± 2.5 ± 2.9 ± 1.6 H2 O 22.1 nz nz nz nz EtOAC 5.9 ± 2.6 52.6 13. (n = 3) of the inhibition of hydroxyl radical (%).8 ± 2.1 nz nz 12. nz: nearly zero.3 6.4 ± 5.1 11.7 ± 0.8 ± 0.1 ± 4.6 11.8 13.3 13. Table 3 Effect of solvent extracts of Korean herbal medicines on hydroxyl radicals generated by l-ascorbic acid/Cu2+ system Samples Concentration ( g/ml) Solvents Hexane Inula helenium Astragalus membranaceus Atratylodes koreana Gardenia jasminoides Magnolia liliflora Scutellaria baicalensis Siegesbeckia orientalis Sinomenium acutum Sorbus amurensis Xanthium strumarium 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 12.0 5.7 7.5 67.0 34.7 nz 14.5 29.0 ± 2.1 14.0 ± 1.3 ± 1.1 ± 4.5 ± 1.7 5.8 ± 2.4 ± 2.23 ± 1.7 ± 3.1 ± 3.E.6 ± 4.3 ± 3.2 ± 4.6 46.5 ± 2.9 30.0 ± 8.0 27.5 H2 O 5.2 ± 1.9 14.8 ± 1.7 ± 1.6 ± 0.9 ± 8.6 32.0 40.8 14. Kang et al.4 68.1 ± 2.4 ± 5.5 38.3 ± 0.8 ± 3.6 ± 2.9 ± 3.3 12.2 28.7 15.7 41.5 61.6 5.1 ± 6.2 ± 5.1 ± 7.7 nz nz nz nz 17.6 ± 1.6 19.8 ± 5.0 ± 0.5 ± 4.4 56.9 ± 6.3 ± 3.4 16.2 ± 2.9 ± 2.2 18.3 ± 3.4 ± 2.0 49.0 9.1 15.4 Results show mean ± S.4 39.1 ± 3.1 nz 5.1 ± 0.8 ± 1.0 ± 4.7 ± 5.1 ± 2.5 31.7 ± 2.2 10.8 31.9 16.8 ± 3.1 ± 1.8 30.8 nz nz nz nz 18.2 ± 0.4 83.6 ± 0.1 53.6 28.1 60.1 ± 1.8 51.1 ± 1.2 34.5 24.

9 ± 1.2 94.0 73. Numerous substances have been suggested to appear as antioxidants.3 ± 1.1 H2 O 235 12.8 43.2 ± 2.2 ± 0.. Kang et al. biflavonoids.5 55.0 ± 0.3 40.1 1.8 22.3 65.8 12. Flavonoids are 15-carbon aromatic pigments found in green plants and include chalcones.5 ± 4.3 ± 4.2 ± 3.5 11.1 n-BuOH 58.9 ± 1.1 ± 3.5 ± 2.8 93.4 causes rapid peroxidation.6 30.2 90.6 ± 2.2 ± 5.2 ± 0.2 ± 3.1 23.2 ± 1. 1999).3 7.7 1.6 75.8 79.3 EtOAC 20.6 ± 3.9 ± 1. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 87 (2003) 231–236 Table 4 Effect of solvent extracts of Korean herbal medicines on the inhibition of hemolysis by AAPH system Samples Concentration ( g/ml) Solvents Hexane Inula helenium Astragalus membranaceus Atratylodes koreana Gardenia jasminoides Magnolia liliflora Scutellaria baicalensis Siegesbeckia orientalis Sinomenium acutum Sorbus amurensis Xanthium strumarium 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200 18.1 0.6 ± 0.2 8.7 21.7 13.4 24.4 13.4 96.1 ± 0.0 78.8 ± 0. anthrocyanidins. It has been revealed that various phenolic antioxidants.0 ± 0.5 43. detectable by the TBA method. polyphenols are very important constituents because of their scavenging ability with ROS and chelating ability with divalent cations due to their hydroxyl groups (de las Heras et al.9 14.7 ± 2.2 ± 2.6 ± 2.9 25.2 90.3 20.5 28. 1998).1 21.2 12.9 ± 2.3 ± 0.2 ± 1.2 Results show mean ± S.1 ± 0.0 98.1 0.6 ± 1.2 ± 5.2 ± 0. coumarins.2 11. 2000.8 21.5 ± 0.4 69.0 1. Our experiment proved that incubation of the rat brain homogenate with Fe2+ /ascorbate at pH 7.2 28. All the extracts markedly inhibited LPO production in the brain homogenates (Table 5).2 23.2 0.4 96.D.3 98. 2001).7 96.2 ± 0. flavones.7 41.1 56.4 ± 1.4 ± 3.2 54.9 83.2 37.4 ± 1. The most detailed investigations so far were concerned with reactions involving phenolic compounds.0 32.3 26.5 ± 0.2 ± 1.9 92.8 ± 0.1 ± 2.1 97. xanthones and more recently procyanidins scavenge radicals dose-dependently.8 ± 2.7 ± 0.3 ± 1.0 12. it will be useful to further analyze those herbal medicines that contain the most antioxidant activity .6 ± 2.7 ± 0.8 90.8 90.8 ± 2.7 ± 1.5 91.1 ± 4. thus they are viewed as promising therapeutic drugs for free radical pathologies (Lee et al.3 ± 0.2 96. (n = 3) of the inhibition of erythrocyte hemolysis (%).2 ± 0.0 16. the antioxidant activities shown by BuOH extracts and/or water extracts of herbal medicines could be related to the presence of phenolic compounds such as tannins and flavonoids because they contain an aromatic hydroxyl moiety (Yesilada et al. ranging from polymer chemistry to biochemistry Table 5 Inhibitory effect of solvent extracts of Korean herbal medicines on the lipid peroxide production in brain homogenates Plants Inula helenium Astragalus membranaceus Atratylodes koreana Gardenia jasminoides Magnolia liliflora Scutellaria baicalensis Siegesbeckia orientalis Sinomenium acutum Sorbus amurensis Xanthium strumarium Concentration ( g/ml) 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 Solvents BuOH BuOH BuOH H2 O BuOH EtOAC BuOH H2 O BuOH BuOH Inhibition (%) 88.7 6.8 ± 2.9 14.0 94. which showed high-antihemolysis activity.3 ± 2.4 ± 1.7 8.4 95. As well known.8 8.9 76.6 97.8 ± 0.5 48.8 ± 3.5 13.5 58.4 Results show mean ± S.5 ± 0. 1989.8 ± 0. 1998.9 97. flavonones.9 ± 7.3 ± 3. (n = 3) of the inhibition of production of LPO.. Lopes et al. tannins..6 ± 0.7 ± 6. and food chemistry (Bravo.8 0.8 24.4 33. dihydroflavonols. Medicinal herbs are known to contain a variety of antioxidants. such as flavonoids.4 ± 2. and flavonols (VanderJagt et al. The present study suggests that more-polar components present in herbal medicinal extracts contributed towards the increased ROS-scavenging activity.6 12. 2000).2 0..2 87.9 ± 0.5 16.3 ± 3..4 ± 2.E.5 0.4 ± 1.6 ± 0.9 38.2 64.4 ± 1. Although the active principles responsible for the antioxidant activity of the tested extracts have not yet been isolated in this study.3 12.9 ± 2.2 ± 2..1 ± 1. Ramezani et al.9 ± 2.6 ± 5.6 9. 2002). 1998).9 ± 2. Table 5 shows the activities of the representative 10 extracts.0 ± 1. Although there are no direct evidences in this study.G.7 88. More than 4000 naturally occurring flavonoids have been described (Hollman and Katan.6 16.3 56.9 ± 1.4 97. Hatano et al.3 ± 0.1 93. against lipid peroxidation of the rat brain homogenate.1 94..9 17.E.3 43.7 25.5 ± 3.8 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.0 ± 2.

M. Life Sciences 66.. 255–262. Hatano. Ng. Free-radical chain oxidation of rat red blood cells by molecular oxygen and its inhibition by alpha-tocopherol. T. Franco... Y. Effects of tannins and related polyphenols on superoxide anion radical. 1482–1488. Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy 32. 25–31. S. 1998. Ghattas. 1987.J. 237–248. K. Abad. cell damage. E.. Oxidative hemolysis of erythrocytes and its inhibition by free radical scavengers. Y. metabolism. Yamamoto. H. Nunez. 471–478. 1998. P.. M. T.E.. Comparison of the total antioxidant content of 30 widely used medicinal plants of New Mexico. Sanford. Hong. Fitoterapia 72. Parshad. Antioxidative and free radical scavenging activities of selected medicinal herbs. 2000.A. Okuda. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46.B. D. Kang. J.. 1998. R.. Protective action of plant polyphenols on radiation-induced chromatid breaks in cultured human cells. J. Mori.. Urano. Science 283.M. Lancet 1. Tsuchiya. H..I. A. Niki. Z.J.. Lehtonen. Katan.G. Crossey. M.K.. Hermes-Lima. K..C... Bioavailability and health effects of dietary flavonols in man.M. An improved method in screening of superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of plant medicinal extracts. C.. M.. M. T. 1999. M.J. and nutritional significance.... Heinonen. Yesilada. P.C.. 3263–3266. Fujita.K. D. Schulman. Y. 725–735. C.. 3890– 3897. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 87 (2003) 231–236 damage after transient global ischemia in gerbils. Antioxidant Activity of Berry and Fruit Wines and Liquors. Benedi. 1988. Antiinflammatory and antioxidant activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Ecuador.... Iglesias. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48. 2000.. D. Komuro. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 73. Water extract of 1:1 mixture of Phellodendron cortex and Aralia cortex has inhibitory effects on oxidative stress in kidney of diabetic rats... 1035–1040.. Lee. Lopes. Then it would lead to a better understanding of the kinds of antioxidants used in Korea as herbal medicines. M. Liu. Antioxidative activity of natural products from plants..J. S. Carretero. Tarone.. R. 429–436.. Lee. P. K. 2000.. Isolation and characterization of free radical scavenging flavonoid glycosides from the flowers of Spartium junceum by activity-guided fractionation. 2000. Kelloff.. 1999. 2000. in order to identify the active principles.. Kawazoe. and antioxidant therapy. 253–256..G. J. A. 317–333.. Acknowledgements This study was supported by the Brain Korea 21 Project and grant of the Oriental Medicine R&D Project. Ministry of Health & Welfare. Kim. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 61. Wang. 2002. H. Anticancer Research 18.J.. Ramezani... Ng.. M. Evaluation of extracts from Gevuina avellana hulls as antioxidants.. 373–380. S.. Polyphenols: chemistry.... Biochimica Biophysica Acta 1472.. Nutrition Reviews 56. Gomez-Serranillos. A.. Republic of Korea (HMP-00-CO03-0003). Haramatsu. E... G. X. T. 709–723. Takahashi. I.. Glew.. Neuroscience Letter 287. E. 2016–2021. 2001.B. References Bravo. Moure. Niki. Mitochondrial diseases in man and mouse. D. de las Heras. P. oxygen radicals.. Sineiro. H... VanderJagt.H... H. Daneshmand.M. E. Yoshida... Steele. R. dietary sources. Kim. Mino. 1989. Edamatsu. F.. L. K. Takaishi. Liso.M. 142– 152. H.. Toxicology Supplement 20. 1984.W. 1396–1397. 2001. P. Antinociceptive effect of Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit seeds in mice.. 161–166. Kim. M. Ortega.M. N... S.H. Hollman. E. and on DPPH radical. 191–194.. I. Miki. Life Sciences 70. Kang. E. Halliwell... Villar.. J.. Gutteridge. Journal of Biological Chemistry 263. S. Y. VanderJagt. Liu. Dominguez. T.B. K. Ito.K. M.. Slowing. Lee. Life Sciences 66... Bermejo. E. Price.. Toledo. 1998. Hosseinzadeh. 2000.J. V.J. T. T. T.E. R. Protective effects of the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate against hippocampal neuronal .. Effects of the interaction of tannins with co-existing substances VI.. Lema. Archives of Biochemisty and Biophysics 258. B. Lipid peroxidation. F.236 D. B. F.. Chiriboga.T.. Kang et al.. Yasyhara. R. Terao. Tamai. 19809– 19814... Hopia. B. Boone. A.. Polyphenol tannic acid inhibits hydroxyl radical formation from Fenton reaction by complexing ferrous ions. Suh. Wallace.S. Chemical Pharmaceutical Bulletin 37.. 1998. G.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 73.M..

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful