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Procurement is the acquisition of goods or services. It is favourable that the goods/services are appropriate and that they are procured at the best possible cost to meet the needs of the purchaser in terms of quality and quantity, time, and location.

Consequences of No Procurement Risk Management

Profit, budgets, and cash flow are all hurt: o substantial reductions in shareholder value occur o need to maintain a far higher than necessary level of risk capital Customers kept waiting or turned down. Helplessness in dealing with supplier price increases. Output prices forced up with loss of competitiveness. Poor supplier performance or, worse, allocation or loss of supply. Fragmentation and loss of procurement negotiating leverage. Legally unsound contracts heavily biased in suppliers favour. Unproductive use of human resources. Insufficient 'internal challenge of specifications and decision making. Decision-makers prey to the tactics of salespeople. Political embarrassment or damage to company image and reputation. Vulnerable to internal and external fraud. Exploited and manipulated by monopolies, cartels and hostile contractors. Supplier innovations passed to competitors. Beaten to the market by competitors with new products or services. Too quick or too late to market with own new offerings. Damage to brand and company reputation by unethical behaviour or incompetence. Organisation is penalised for non-compliance with regulatory requirements. Organisations activities become subject of public scrutiny and investigation

Example: - HP
In 1999-2000, HP was faced with significant price increases and an availability shortfall for Flash memory used in HPs highly profitable printer lines. Demand for Flash memory grew exponentially due to increasing demand from cell phone manufacturers, and an expected shortfall in Flash memory threatened printer shipments. To assure future availability of Flash memory, and protect HPs printer profits, HP decided to enter into a binding long-term contract with a major Flash memory supplier. The uncertainty in the future price and

availability of Flash memory, and HPs own demand uncertainty for Flash memory, made specifying the terms and conditions of this contract very difficult. HP had to evaluate the following to avoid a risky and imprudent long-term commitment: What should we pay for flash memory over the next few years and how should we structure our payments? How much should we buy and how should we structure delivery terms? How long a horizon should the contract cover and when is the best time to sign the agreement? What provisions should be included to secure compliance?

The Procurement Risk Management (PRM) program was launched at HP in August of 2000 to develop and standardize methods for addressing these kinds of questions. As a result of this work, and successful implementation for a range of strategic commodities and business units, risk management is becoming a cornerstone strategy for procurement at HP. Procurement and supply chain professionals at HP are taking lessons from Wall Street to manage uncertainty in component markets.

Benefits of Implementing Procurement Risk Management in HP

Over the past 5 years, HP has had success in developing procurement risk management framework, process and software, and implementing the risk management approach across HPs business units for the procurement of key strategic commodities. PRM has been applied at HP for range procurement situations from direct procurement of components to indirect and services procurement. In direct procurement PRM has been applied to standard components such as memory, hard disk drives, and plastic, to custom components such as microprocessors, ASICs, and custom assemblies. In indirect and services procurement PRM has applied to energy spare parts, and advertising procurement. This is wide range of application illustrates the power and generality of the PRM approach. The incremental benefit of implementing PRM is due the categories below: 1. Material costs savings: PRM deals with quantity commitments lower the supplier demand risks, while also enabling the supplier to cut costs through more efficient planning and production processes. The suppliers share some of this value with HP by the way of discounts on material costs. Through such PRM quantity commitments, HP has obtained incremental material cost discounts up to 5% for standard components, and an even higher discount for custom components, indirect and services procurement.

2. Cost predictability: PRM deals with specific pricing terms enable HP to proactively manage cost uncertainty. A significant portion of memory is procured using PRM deals thus enabling HP to obtain cost predictability required to protect margin on large customer deals. 3. Assurance of supply (AoS): Managing component demand and availability uncertainties is key objectives for PRM at HP. PRM deals have improved AoS for several commodities even under conditions of an industry-wide shortage. For example, sometimes back there was an industry-wide shortage for memory, but the PRM deals executed by a particular HP business unit ensured that they obtained 100% of their demand from the suppliers. 4. Inventory cost reductions: The precise measurement of demand uncertainty using PRM software enables HP to optimize inventory levels internally and externally at supplier sites. Such optimization has cut inventory driven costs be several percentage points for commodities implementing the PRM framework.

Implementing PRM has enabled over $100 million dollars in incremental savings. Given the risk sharing aspects of PRM, the suppliers have benefited substantially as well. The quantity commitments that HP makes to suppliers, as opposed to just exchanging nonbinding forecasts, has lowered suppliers demand risks; suppliers of several strategic commodities have locked-up a significant portion of their capacity through PRM deals with HP. Some suppliers are making commitments to their suppliers (who are HPs 2nd tier suppliers) tied to HPs quantity commitments to them. This results in quantity commitments cascading deeper into the supply chain resulting in a significant drop in the order volatility through the supply chain, and thus a reducing the bull-whip effect. Therefore the PRM approach has the effect of smoothing the supply chain.