BIOMETRIC TECHNOLOGY Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical

or behavioral traits. In computer science, in particu lar, biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access contr ol. Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes: Physiological are related to the shape of the body. Examples include, fingerpr int, face recognition, DNA, Palm print, hand geometry, iris recognition, which h as largely replaced retina, and odour/scent. Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. Examples include, typing r hythm, gait, and voice. Strictly spea ing, voice is also a physiological trait because every person has a different vocal tract, but voice recognition is mainly based on the study of t he way a person spea s, commonly classified as behavioral. It is possible to understand if a human characteristic can be used for biometri cs in terms of the following parameters: Universality each person should have the characteristic. Uniqueness is how well the biometric separates individuals from another. Permanence measures how well a biometric resists aging and other variance over t ime. Collectability ease of acquisition for measurement. Performance accuracy, speed, and robustness of technology used. Acceptability degree of approval of a technology. Circumvention ease of use of a substitute. A biometric system can operate in the following two modes Verification A one to one comparison of a captured biometric with a stored templ ate to verify that the individual is who he claims to be. Can be done in conjunc tion with a smart card, username or ID number. Identification A one to many comparison of the captured biometric against a biom etric database in attempt to identify an un nown individual. The identification only succeeds in identifying the individual if the comparison of the biometric s ample to a template in the database falls within a previously set threshold. Performance s: The following are used as performance metrics for biometric system

false accept rate or false match rate (FAR or FMR) the probability that the syst em incorrectly matches the input pattern to a non-matching template in the datab ase. It measures the percent of invalid inputs which are incorrectly accepted. false reject rate or false non-match rate (FRR or FNMR) the probability that the system fails to detect a match between the input pattern and a matching templat e in the database. It measures the percent of valid inputs which are incorrectly rejected. equal error rate or crossover error rate (EER or CER) the rate at which both acc ept and reject errors are equal. In general, the device with the lowest EER is m ost accurate. failure to enroll rate (FTE or FER) the rate at which attempts to create a templ ate from an input is unsuccessful. This is most commonly caused by low quality i nputs.




unique to each applicant applying for a car d. A N ational Identification Number (NIN). a former Director of US National Intelligence. If a t o en or a password is lost or stolen. An individual s data. This is not naturally available in biometrics. If someone s face is com promised from a database. If the item is secured with a biometric device. A basic premise in the above proposal is that the person that has uniquely authe nticated themselves using biometrics with the computer is in fact also the agent performing potentially malicious actions from that computer. is an ID card issued to a ll US Service personnel and contractors on US Military sites. However. This card contains biometric data and digitized photographs. for example in which the computer is part of a botnet controlled by a hac er. they cannot cancel or reissue it. and Senior Vice President of Booz Allen Hamilton pr omoted the development of a future capability to require biometric authenticatio n to access certain public networ s in his Keynote Speech at the 2009 Biometric Consortium Conference. non-Gambian ID cards and driver licen                 . the damage to the owner could be irreversible. incl uding their biometric information (thumbprints) is captured in the database. emerging and future applications of biometrics Proposal calls for biometric authentication to access certain public networ sJo hn Michael . Cancelable biometric s is a way in which to incorporate protection and the replacement features into biometrics. there is a chance that the thieves will stal and assault the property owner to gain access.template capacity system. the maximum number of sets of data which can be stored in the Current. Countries applying biometrics United States The US Department of Defense (DoD) Common Access Card. It also has laser-etched photographs and holograms to add security and reduce the ris of falsification. a former vice admiral in the United States Navy.[citation needed] Gambia The Gambia Biometric Identification System (GAMBIS) allowed for the issuance of Gambia s first biometric identity documents in July 2009. then nowledge of the identity of the user a t the terminal does not materially improve networ security. Biometric documents issued for Gambia include nat ional identity cards. it can be cancelled and replaced by a newe r version. is issued to the applicant. residential permits. Danger to owners of secured items When thieves cannot get access to secure properties. Employing biometrically enabled tr avel documents will increase security and expedite travel for legitimate travele rs. if contro l of the computer has been subverted. and potentially cost more than the secured property. The United States (US) and European Union (EU) are proposing new methods for bor der crossing procedures utilizing biometrics. Cancelable biometrics One advantage of passwords over biometrics is that they can be re-issued.

.CANADA. Vrious other countries using dis technology are.BRAZIL. GERMANY..etc..ISRAEL. immune to forgery.. Iraq Biometrics are being used extensively in Iraq to catalogue as many Iraqis as pos sible providing Iraqis with a verifiable identification card.. KINGDOM.

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