Brand valuation

Brand valuation and intangible asset valuation can be approached in a number of possible ways. Intangible Business draws on all available approaches to brand valuation so that decisions can be made on a more informed basis. Our general brand valuation approach is to look at intangible asset valuations on a number of different bases. There are generally three different approaches to brand valuation: the income brand valuation approach, the market brand valuation approach and the cost approach to brand valuation. Other brand valuation methodologies are also used on a needs specific basis. Generally we find that an income basis (relief from royalty) drives the brand valuation with the other approaches to brand valuation used in support or as sense checks. We therefore normally carry out in depth analysis into: • Consumer/customer perception compared with competitors • Market mapping and analysis, size share and growth • Royalty analysis, supply chain price points and profitability analysis • Effective financial analysis • Meaningful benchmarking This resulting useful information can be used in a number of ways including on-going brand management and development, a benchmark of return on investment (ROI); compliance with US GAAP, IAS and IFRS and negotiating with licensees or joint venture partners. Information from abrand valuation is also useful in brand transactions, dispute resolution and for investor relations.

What is brand valuation?
‘What is brand valuation?’ is a frequently asked question. Brand valuation is the process used to calculate the value of brands. Historically, most of a company’s value was in tangible assets such as property, stock, machinery or land. This has now changed and the majority of most company’s value is in intangible assets, such as their brand name or names.

The value of brand has been recognised for over a hundred years. John Stuart, Chairman of Quaker said in about 1900, "If this business were split up, I would give you the land and bricks and mortar, and I would take the brands and trade marks, and I would fare better than you." However, techniques to quantify brand value have become more sophisticated with the advent of computerised software such as Excel in the mid 1980s. Brand valuations hit the financial headlines when they were tabled to defend Rank Hovis McDougall (RHM) from a hostile takeover from Goodman Fielder Wattie (GFW).

Since 1988, brand valuation methods have improved and consolidated, thanks in part to their acceptance in 2005 under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). IFRS stated that, for the first time, brands and other acquired intangible assets could be reported on a company’s balance sheet.

Brands are valued for many different reasons, such as for legal disputes, strategic management, internal communications, business management, brand securitisation and M&A. Brand valuation models follow standard guidelines. Models for valuing brands follow the same principles of valuation that are used for valuing other tangible assets – economic income approach, market approach and cost approach.

Why is Brand Valuable? A brand is a name or a symbol . Others will say that those are just the symbols of what the brand stands for and that what the brand stands for really is the brand. Applications of Brand Valuation. A brand designates a product or service as being different from competitors' products and services by signaling certain key values specific to a particular brand. This resulted in huge levels of 'goodwill' arising on acquisition. staff knowledge. it is nothing but a glorified product name. BRAND Introduction: VALUATION A brand is an intangible asset. They are like the wonderful creations of Pablo Picasso and Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn.and it is associated with tangible and emotional attributes . Some of these acquisitions included Nestlé buying Rowntree.The application of the brand valuation models requires specialist knowledge and experience. A direct measurement process is one that arrives at a price based on the communication investment made behind the brand.that is intended to identify the goods or services of one seller in order to differentiate them from those of competitors. The brand is a covenant with the consumer. etc. These works of art have a market. At the heart of a brand are trademark rights. Applications of Brand Valuation     Brand management and development Enhancing management communications Benchmarking of competitors Monitoring value year on year . but the values at which they change hands are not computed mechanistically. In return businesses will enjoy an earnings stream secured by loyalty of customers who have 'bought into' the brand. Grand Metropolitan buying Pillsbury and Danone buying Nabisco's European businesses. Consumers no longer want just a service or product but a relationship based on trust and familiarity. patents. The values associated with the product or services are communicated through the brand to the consumer. How did Brand Valuation Originate? It was the wave of brand acquisitions in the late 1980's that exposed the hidden value in highly branded companies and brought brand valuation to the fore. An indirect measurement will value the brand based on what it can add to the bottom line. distribution contracts. United Biscuits buying and later selling Keebler. Some see it as a name and a logo. A brand exists only because of its commitment to its internal values. This 'goodwill' actually disguised a mix of intangible assets . The amount being paid for the acquisition of a strongly branded company was increasingly higher than the value of the company's net tangible assets. a promise that the brand and the products it names will conform to the expectations that have been created over time. copyrights. customer loyalty. All these acquisitions were at high multiple price tags. Without that commitment.brands. Brands are like works of art. Determining the value of a brand is usually a combination of direct and indirect processes. Why are Brands Valued? Companies are increasingly recognizing the importance of brand guardianship and management as key to the successful running of any business.

1 shows how big the economic contribution made by brands to companies can be.evaluating the economic damage of trade mark infringement Financing and insolvency. Table 2.       Creating a brand-centric culture Internal licensing. 4. The Coca-Cola brand alone accounts for 51 percent of the stock market value of the Coca-Cola Company. o Awareness Valuation. An indirect measurement. Balance sheet Methods of Brand Valuation: 1. Yet some other methods can be used for Brand Valuation: 1. A direct measurement process o Discount rate / Net Present Value.to assess competitive strengths and weaknesses of the brand and hence the security of future earnings expected from that brand (this is measured by an indicator referred to as the 'Brand Strength Score') Legal Analysis .1) concluded that on average brands account for more than one-third of shareholder value. The study reveals that brands create significant value either as consumer or corporate brands or as a combination of both. A study by Interbrand in association with JP Morgan (see Table 2. Financial Analysis . The McDonald’s brand accounts for more than 70 percent of shareholder value. This is despite the fact that the company owns a large portfolio of other drinks brands such as Sprite and Fanta http://www. o Excess-Earnings Method.to establish that the brand is a true piece of 'property' 3. 2. o Relief-from-Royalty. Contribution that brands make to shareholder value. Several studies have tried to estimate the contribution that brands make to shareholder value.to measure the role that a brand plays in driving demand for services in the markets in which it operates and hence to determine what proportion of Earnings from Intangibles are attributable to the brand (this is measured by an indicator referred to as the 'Role of Branding Index') Brand Analysis . 2.scribd.com/doc/20067466/Pepsi-Brand-Valuation-Final .to identify business earnings and 'Earnings from Intangibles' for each of the distinct segments being assessed Market Analysis .securing funds through identification of value of intangible assets. brand control and tax planning Mergers & Acquisitions Joint-venture negotiations Expert Witness . o Franchise Valuation methods.

From SBC Global's move to acquire AT&T for US$ 16 billion to P&G's lunge for Gillette for a record $57 billion. is the year of the mega merger. Brand valuation techniques originally developed in response to mergers and acquisitions activity: valuing the brands owned by a company to help calculate the true value of the business. thereby significantly enhancing the final sell or purchase price.2005. The year. Since then other applications of brand valuation have developed into important strategic management techniques. The choice of the appropriate brand can be based on a clear economic rationale. Strength Factor Leadership Maximum Score 25 . CNN reported that this may be the fourth year in history to have merger and acquisition activity valued over $1 trillion. In many transactions. Brand valuation assesses not only the current but also the potential value of the brand asset.Brand Valuation in case of M & A: Brand valuation provides fair and robust sell or purchase value for brand assets as well as clear identification of the value that brands add to a transaction. the brand valuation has identified additional value. Here are the seven key applications of brand valuation:         External investor relations Internal marketing management Internal royalty rates Licensing and franchising Tax planning Securitized borrowing Litigation support Choice of brand after merger Brand valuation identifies the value of each of the merging parties’ brands to assist management in the choice of the appropriate brand for the merged entity.

Stability Market Internationality Trend Support Protection Total Score 15 10 25 10 10 5 100 .

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