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RECRUITMENT

INTRODUCTION People are integral part of any organization today. No organization can run without its human resources. In todays highly complex and competitive situation, choice of right person at the right place has far reaching implications for an organizations functioning. Employee well selected and well placed would not only contribute to the efficient running of the organization but offer significant potential for future replacement. This hiring is an important function. The process of hiring begins with human resource planning (HRP) which helps to determine the number and type of people on organization needs. Job analysis and job design enables to specify the task and duties of hobs and qualification expected from prospective job HRP, job analysis, hob design helps to identify the kind of people required in an organization and hence hiring. It should be noted that hiring is an ongoing process and not confined to formative stages of an organization. Employees leave the organization in search of greener pastures, some retire and some die in the saddle. More importantly an enterprises grows, diversifies, take over the other units all necessitating hiring of new men and women. In fact the hiring function stops only when the organization ceases to exist. Hiring involves two board activities:1. Recruitment 2. Selection

RECRUITMENT The word recruitment has many meaning and plays an important role. Employees leave the organization in search of greener pastures- some retire some die in saddle. The most important thing is that enterprise grows, diversifies, and takes over other units-all necessitating hiring of new men and women. In fact recruitment functions stop only when the organization ceases to exist. To understand recruitment in simple terms it is understood as process of searching for obtaining applications of job from among from whom the right people can be selected. To define recruitment we can define it formally as it is a process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruit are sought and ends when their application are submitted. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected. Theoretically, recruitment process is said to end with receipt of application in practice the activity extends to the screening applicants as to eliminate those who are not qualified for job. PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE The general purpose of recruitment is to provide a pool of potentially qualified job candidates. Specifically, the purposes are to: 1. Determine the present and future requirement of the organization in conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities; 2. Increase the job pool of job candidates at minimum cost; 3. Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number visibly under qualified or job application; 4. Help reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited selected, will leave the organization only after a short period of time; 5. Meet the organizations legal and social obligation regarding the composition of its workforce; 6. Being identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates; 7. Increase organization individual effectiveness in the short term and long term; 8. Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting technique and sources for all types of job applicants.

FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT There are a number of factors that affect recruitment. These are broadly classified into two categories: 1. Internal factors 2. External factors INTERNAL FACTORS The internal factors also called as endogenous factors are the factors within the organization that affect recruiting personnel in the organization. Some of these are:Size of the organization The size of the organization affects the recruitment process. Larger organization finds recruitment less problematic than organization with smaller in size. Recruiting policy The recruitment policy of the organization i.e. recruiting from internal sources and external sources also affect the recruitment process. Generally, recruitment through internal sources is preferred, because own employees know the organization and they can well fit in to the organization culture. Image of the organization Image of the organization is another factor having its influence on the recruitment process of the organization. Good image of the organization earned by the number of overt and covert action by management helps attract potential and complete candidates. Managerial actions like good public relations, rendering public service like building roads, public parks, hospitals and schools help earn image or goodwill for organization. That is why chip companies attract the larger numbers of application. Image of the job Better remuneration and working conditions are considered the characteristics of good image of a job. Besides, promotion and carrier development policies of organization also attract potential candidates.

EXTERNAL FACTORS Like internal factors, there are some factors external to organization, which have their influence on recruitment process. Some of these are given below:Demographic factors As demographics factors are intimately related to human beings, i.e. employees, these have profound influence on recruitment process. Demographic factors include age, sex, Literacy, economics status etc Labor market Labor market condition I.e. supply and demand of labor is of particular importance in affecting recruitment process. E.g. if the demand for specific skill is high relative to its supply is more than for particular skill, recruitment will be relatively easier. Unemployment situation The rate of unemployment is yet another external factor its influence on the recruitment process. When the employment rate in an area is high, the recruitment process tends to simpler. The reason is not difficult to seek. The number of application is expectedly very high which makes easier to attract the best-qualified applications. The reserve is also true. With low rate of unemployment, recruiting process tend to become difficult INTERNAL SOURCES Present employees: Promotions and transfer from among the present employees can be good sources of recruitment. Promotion implies upgrading of an employee to a higher position carrying higher status, pay and responsibilities. Promotion from among the present employees is advantageous because the employees promoted are well acquainted with the organization culture, they get motivated and it is cheaper also. Promotion from among the person employees also reduces the requirement of job training. However, the disadvantage lies in limiting the choice of the few people and denying hiring of outsiders who may be better qualified and skilled. Furthermore, promotion from among present employees also results in inbreeding, which creates frustration among those not promoted. Transfer refers to shifting an employee from one job to another without any change in the position/post, status and responsibilities. The need for transfer is felt to provide employees a broader and carried base, which is considered necessary for promotion. Job rotation involves transfer of employees from one job to another job on the lateral basis.

Former employees: Former employees are another source of applicant for vacancies to be filled up in the organization. Retired or retrenched employees may be interested to e come back the company to work on the part time basis. Similarly, some former employees who had left the organization for any reason, any come back to work. This source has the advantages of hiring people whose performance is already known to the organization. Employee referrals: This is yet another internal source of recruitment. The existing employees refer to the family members, friends and relatives to the company potential candidates for the vacancies to be filled up in the organization. This source serves as the most effective methods of recruiting people in the organizations because refer to those potential candidates who meet the company requirement known to them from their own experience. The referred individuals are expected to be similar in type in the of race and sex, for example, to those who are already working in the organization Previous applicant: This is considered as internal source in the sense that applications from the potential candidates are already lying with organization. Sometimes the organization contacts though mail or messengers these applicants to fill up the vacancies particularly for unskilled or semiskilled jobs. EXTERNAL SOURCES External sources of recruitment lie outside the organization. These outnumber internal sources. The main ones are listed as follows: Employment exchanges: The national commission labor (1969) observed in its report that in the pre-independence era, the main source of labor war rural areas surrounding the industries. Immediately after independence, national employment services were established to bring employer and job seeker together. In response to it, the compulsory notification of vacancies act of 1959 (Commonly called employment exchange act) was instituted which become operative in 1960.the main functions of these employment exchanges with the branches in most cities are registration of job seeker and tier placement in the notified vacancies. It is obligatory for employer to inform about the outcome of selection within 15 days to the employment exchange. Employment exchange is particularly useful in recruiting blue-collar, white- collar and technical workers. Employment agencies: In addition to the government agencies, there are number of private agencies that register candidates for employment and furnish a list of suitable candidates from the data bank as and when sought by the prospective employer. Generally, these agencies select personnel for 5

supervisory and the higher levels. The main function of these agencies is to invite application and short-list the suitable candidates for the organization. Of course, the representative of the organization takes the final decision on selection. The employer organizations derive several advantages through this source. The time saved in this method can be better utilized elsewhere by the organization. As the organizational identity remains unknown to the job speakers, it, thus, avoid receiving letters and attempts to influence. Advertisement: This method of recruitment can be used for jobs like clerical, technical, and managerial. The higher the position in the organization, the more specialized the skills or the shorter the supply of that resources in the labour market, the more widely dispersed the advertisement are likely to be. For instance, the search for a top executive might include advertisements in a national daily like the Hindu. Some employers/companies advertise their post by giving them post box number of the name of some recruiting agency. This is done to particular keep own identity secret to avoid unnecessary correspondence with the applicants. However the disadvantage of these blind advertisement, i.e., post box number is that the potential job seekers are the hesitant without unknowing the image of the organization, on the one hand, and the bad image/ reputation that the blind advertisement have received because of the organizations that placed such advertisements without position lying vacant just to know supply of labor/ workers in the labor market, on the other. While preparing advertisement, a lot of care has to be taken to make it clear and to the point. It must ensure that some self-selection among applicant take place and only qualified applicant responds the advertisement copy should be prepared by using a four-point guide called AIDA . The letters in the acronym denote that advertisement should attract Attention, gain Interest, arouse a Desire and result in action. However, not many organizations mention complete detail about job positions in there advertisement. What happened is that ambiguously worded and broad-based advertisements may generate a lot irrelevant application, which would, by necessity, increasing the cost of processing them. Professional Associations:Very often, recruitment for certain professional and technical positions is made through professionals association also called Headhunters. Institute of Engineers, All India Management Association, etc., provide placement service to the members. The professional associations prepare either list of jobseekers or publish or sponsor journal or magazines containing advertisements for their member. It is particularly useful for attracting highly skilled and professional personnel. However, in India, this is not a very common practice and those few provide such kind service have not been able to generating a large number of application.

Campus Recruitment:This is another source of recruitment. Though campus recruitment is a common phenomenon particularly in the American organizations, it has made rather recently. Of late, some organizations such as HLL, HCL, L&T, Citibank, Cadbury ANZ Grind lays, etc., in India have started visiting educational and training institute/ campuses for recruitment purposes. Many Institutes have regular placement cells / offices to serve liaison between the employer and the students. Tezpur Central University has one Deputy Director (Training and Placement) for purpose of campus recruitment and placement. The method of campus recruitment offers certain advantages to the employer organizations. First, the most of the candidates are available at one place; Second, the interviews are arranged at short notice; Third, the teaching is also met; Fourth, it gives them opportunity to sell the organization to a large students body who would be graduating subsequently. The disadvantages of this of recruitment are that organizations have to limit their selection to only entry positions and they interview the candidates who have similar education and experience, if at all. Deputation:Another source of recruitment is deputation I.e., sending an employees to another organization for the short duration of two to three years. This method of recruitment is practice in a pretty manner, in the Government department and public sector organization does not have to incurred the initial cast of induction and training. However, the disadvantages of this of deputation is that deputation period of two/three year is not enough for the deputed employee to provide employee to prove his/her mettle, on the one hand, and develop commitment with organization to become part of it, on the other. Word-of-mouth:Some organizations in India also practice the word-of-mouth method of recruitment. In this method , the word is passed around the vacancies or opening in the organization. Another from of word-of-mouth method of employee-pinching i.e., the employee working In another organization is offered by the rival organization. This method is economic, in terms of both time and money. Some of the organization maintain a file applications and sent a bio-data by a job seeker. These serve as a very handy as when there is vacancy in the organization. The advantage of this method is no cost involved in recruitment. However, the disadvantages of this method of recruitment are non- availability of the candidates when needed choice of candidates is restricted to a too small number.

Raiding or Poaching: This is another sources of recruitment whereby the rival firm by offering terms and conditions, try to attract qualified employees to join the. This raiding is a common feature in the Indian organizations. For instance, service executive of HMT left to join Titan Watch Company, so also exodus of pilot from Indian Airlines to join the private air taxi operator. In fact, raiding has become challenge for the human resource manager. Besides these, walk - ins, contractors, radio and television, acquisitions and merger, etc., art some other sources of recruitment used by organization. RECRUIMENT PROCESS As stated earlier, recruitment is the process of location, identifying, and attracting capable applications for jobs available in an organization. Accordingly, the recruitment process comprises the following five steps: Recruitment planning; Strategy Development; Searching; Screening; Evaluation and Control. Recruitment Planning:The first involved in the recruitment process is planning. Hire, planning involves to draft a comprehensive job specification for the vacant position, outline its major and minor responsibilities; the skills, experience and qualifications needed; grade and level of pay; starting date; whether temporary or permanent; and mention of special condition, if any, attached to the job to be filled. Strategy Development:Once it is known how many with what qualification of candidates are required, the next step involved in this regard is to device a suitable strategy for recruitment the candidates in the organization. The strategic considerations to be considered may include issues like whether to prepare the required candidates themselves or hire it from outside, what type of recruitment method to be used, what geographical area be considered, for searching the candidates, which source of recruitment to be practiced, and what sequence of activities to be followed in recruiting candidates in the organization. Searching:This step involves attracting job seeders to the organization. There are broadly two sources used to attract candidates. These are:

Internal Sources External Sources. Screening:Through some view screening as the starting point of selection, we have considered it as an integral part of recruitment. The reason being the selection process starts only after the application have been screened and short listed. Let it be exemplified with an example. In the Universities, application is invited for filling the post of Professors. Application received in respond to invitation, i.e. advertisement are screened and short listed on the basis of eligibility and suitability. Then, only the screened applicant are invited for seminar presentation and personal interview. The selection process starts from here, i.e., seminar presentation or interview. Job specification is invaluable n screening. Applications are screened against the qualification, knowledge, skills, abilities, interest and experience mentioned in the job specification. Those who do not qualify are straightway eliminated from the selection process. The techniques used for screening candidates are vary depending on the source of supply and method used for recruiting. Preliminary applications, de-selections tests and screening interviews are common techniques used for screening the candidates. Evaluation and control:Given the considerable involved in the recruitment process, its evaluation and control is, therefore, imperative. The costs generally incurred in a recruitment process include: Salary of recruiters; Cost of time spent for preparing job analysis, advertisement, etc; Administrative expenses; Cost of outsourcing or overtime while vacancies remain unfilled; Cost incurred in recruiting unsuitable candidates. In view of above, it is necessary for a prudent employed to try answering certain questions like: Whether the recruitment methods are appropriate and valid? Whether the recruitment process followed in the organization is effective at all or not? METHODS OF RECRUITMENT Recruitment methods refer to the means by which an organization reaches to the potential job seeker. It is important to mention that the recruitment methods are different from the resources of recruitment. The major line of distinction between the two is that while the former is the means of establishing links with the prospective candidates, the latter is location where the prospective employees are available. Dunn and Stephen have broadly classified methods of recruitment into three categories. These are; 9

Direct Method; Indirect Method; Third Party Method. Direct Method:In this method, the representatives of the organizations are sent to the potential candidates in the educational and training institutes. They establish contacts with the candidates seeking jobs. Person pursuing management, engineering, medical, etc. programmers are mostly picked up the manner. Sometimes, some employer firm establishes with professors and solicits information about student with excellent academic records. Sending the recruiter to the conventions, seminars, setting up exhibits at fairs and using mobile office to go to the desired centers are some other methods used establish direct contact with the job seekers. Indirect Method:Indirect methods include advertisements in the newspaper, on the radio and television, in professional journals, technical magazines, etc. this method is useful: when Organization dose not find suitable candidates to be promoted to fill up the higher posts, When the organization want to reach out a vast territory, and When organization wants to fill up scientific, professional and technical posts. The experience suggests that the higher the position to be filled up in the organization, or the skill sought by the sophisticated one, the more widely dispersed advertisement is likely to be used to reach too many suitable candidates. Sometimes, many organizations go for what referred to as blind advertisement in which only Box No. is given and the identity of the organization is not disclosed. However, organizations with regional or national repute do not usually use blind advertisements for obvious reasons. While placing an advertisement to reach to the potential candidates, the following three points need to borne in mind: To visualize the type of the applicant one is trying recruit; To write out a list of the advantages the job will offer; To decide where to run the advertisement , i.e., newspaper with local, state, nation-wide and international reach or circulation. Third Party Method: These include the use of private employment agencies, management consultants, professional bodies pr associations, employee referral or recommendation, voluntary organization, trade banks, labor contractors, etc., to establish contact with the job seekers.

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Now, a question arises; which particular method is to be used to recruit employee in the organization? The answer to it is that it will depend on the policy of the particular firm, the position of the labor supply, the government regulations in this regard and agreements with labor organizations. Notwithstanding, the best recruitment method is to look first within the organization.

TRAINING Training has been defined by a number of scholars and trainers like Change agents. Some of the definitions are as follows: According to Fllippo: the act of increasing the skills of an employee for doing a particular Job can be termed as training. Similarly Steinmetz has observed. Training is a term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which nonpersonnel learns technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. From the above definitions it can asserted training is a technique concerned with the development of skills and knowledge in particular actor discipline. Training enhances and improves persons skills. Imparts knowledge to change persons attitudes and values towards a particular direction. William G. Torpey has defined training as the process of developing skills. Habits. Knowledge and attitudes in employees for the purpose of increasing effectiveness of employees in their present government positions as well as preparing employees for future government positions. The above definition of training is based on assumption that all training is not necessary and all training is not beneficial. Training is a technique which properly focuses and direct towards the achievement of particular goals and objectives of the organization. Hence identification of training needs is first and probably the most important step towards the identification of training techniques. The process of identifying training needs is carefully thought out programme that needs to be carried out with sensitivity because success of a training programme may be crucial for the survival of the organization. Objectives of training must be determined to pave way for the assertion of proper techniques of training. Training is imparted to people in organization with certain defined objectives and goals. However it must be remembered that the goals and objectives of organization differ to a great extent. Hence the defined objectives of a training programme should be assessed in the light of the goals of that organization. In 1944. Assheton Committee stated the objectives of training in the following manner: It endeavors to produce a civil servant whose precision and clarity in the transaction of 11

business can be taken for granted. It helps attuning the civil servant to the task he is called upon to perform in a changing world. It in other words helps him to adjust his outlook and methods to the changing needs of new times. It saves the civil servant from becoming a robot like mechanically perfect civil servant. He is made aware of his work and the service that he is required to render to his community. It not only enables an individual to perform his current work more efficiently but also fits him for other duties. It develops in him capacity for higher work and greater responsibilities. It pays substantial regard to staff moral as latter have to perform tasks of a routine character throughout their lives. Bhagwan and Bhushan have also identified the following objectives of training: For the performance certain peculiar activities pertaining to the government training plays a significant part. Training helps the employees to become people oriented and inculcates in them respect and regard for general public. It broadens the vision and widens the outlook of the employees by explaining to them to make substantial contribution towards realization. It is vital to a career service. It lists them for advancement which is assured to the employees when they join the government service at young age. It improves the lone and adds to the quality of organization. Since it enhances the efficiency of the employees and develops their capacities. The efficiency and prestige of the department goes up. It fosters homogeneity of out look and esprit de crops in the employees. Identification of Training Needs Training is a specialized function. Hence trainer must know exactly what is required from the training programme in accordance to the identified tools framework techniques processes are identified in designing and implementing efficient effective timely and productive training programmes for those who require it. Training needs also determine the nature of training program. Formulation of training program includes those factors that are related to the evaluation of the program in terms of techniques and skills can be properly considered. Any training program must take into consideration three fundamental behavioral aspects:Organization, people, and environment as far as organization are concerned their survival rests on a certain minimum achievement of goals and objectives which are pre defined to customers owners, Employees. etc. all these factors are continuously interacting with the organization whose objectives and goals have been formulated so to benefit the members of the organization intermittently. The second assumption that needs to taken into consideration is the fact that these 12

objectives can be achieved only through harnessing the abilities of its people. Releasing potential and maximizing opportunities for development. In others words. The achievement of objectives and goals can be effectively and effectively achieved only if people within the organization possess adequate skills and abilities. If they do not possess the skills and abilities required. the objectives and goals cannot be achieved effectively and effectively achieved only if they do not possess the skills and abilities. if they do not possess the skills and abilities required. The objectives and goals cannot be achieved effectively and efficiently. Hence proper assessment of the abilities and skills of the employees must be considered before any training programme is be formulated . The third assumption is to assess the capability potential of the employees. The people who are engaged in the accomplishment of goals and objectives. In the new perspective, are capable of new learning. If the employees do not possess the required potential to adapt themselves to the new environment. The chances of training programs being a success will be doubtful. The fourth assumption about people is concernd with the level of ability and the desire to learn. Training is all about learning. learning organization basically involves people who make or break organization. the organization should be able to provide adequate opportunities and resources where people are able to learn through training new concepts. and techniques of management. the assumption is also concerned with matching of achieving organizational goals on one hand and on the other providing attractive learning opportunities. the third assumption basically requires that the programmers of training should be so designed so as to provide learning opportunities that are effective and efficient. the objective of training is fulfill the individual needs of the employees and that of the organization as well . The fifth assumption is concerned with the environment variable. In a dynamic situation. Environment continues to put new pressures and demands upon the system even if it is for survival only. Because of liberalization, competition has become severe and public sector as well private sector has to compete with each other in order to stay a viable entity. Hence changes in the environment can no more be overlooked but need to understood and adapted to. The need for training, therefore, becomes inevitable. Once it is established that need for training is a necessity. The question arises what type of training is required to meet the three challenges. Another important question that comes to mind is whether the training programmed is able to change the pattern of behavior for which it was trained and how effectiveness is will be measured. Before discussing venous types of techniques of evaluation. A close look at various types of training methods will be locked into. With regard to people working in the organization needs and aspiration of the people must be properly evaluated. Specification of training needs means translating the needs of people into specific needs and achieving those aspirations by training programmers. Basic idea behind this evaluation is to make organization learning organization. According to Senge. Where people continually expand their capacity to create results they truly desire. Where new 13

and expansive paupers are nurtured. Where collective aspiration is set free. And where people are continually learning how to learn together. FACTORS INFLUENCING TRAINING NEEDS Organizations are complex and dynamic in nature and their effectiveness depends on number of factors. Complexity of organization is again a multifaceted implication of various factors being determined by various environmental factors. Hence the nature of complexity of a given organization needs to be evaluated before determining its training needs. Some of the factors that increase complexity are being discussed keeping in view that all are not determinants of complexity for all organization. Technology in the computer age is being upgraded frequently and hence is the most important factors in increasing the complexity of an organization .. structurally as well as behaviorally. According of Frances and Bee. Technology is changing an ever increasing rate. Todays state of-the-art computer is tomorrows junk. Robot assembly pants. Laser printers. Transplant and genetic surgery--- wherever the workplace--- whatever the task. There appears to be a technological solution for everything The technological changes are influencing the basic settings of organization. The technological changes are not only concerned with the structure or gadgets of an organization but these changes also influence the behavioral aspect of the very people who are working in the organization. However people do not usually change in technology and its environment. Change can be brought about in a smooth manner only through training techniques. Another important factor that needs to be taken into consideration is concerned with social changes that are taking place in the new social environment. For most organization internal compilations are bound to change in the computer age. People from different backgrounds, women. People from diverse nations will from the workforce of modern organizations. With increasing diversity in the culture. The organizations are bound to receive culture shock. Organization with their exiting format will not be in position to absorb this culture shock. The change agent will be playing an important role in providing appropriate training to absorb culture shock. The third factor that has influenced training needs is related the new role that the government are being asked to play. The governments are being asked to play sensitive role of controlling the business ethical activities on one hand and safeguarding the interests of consumer on the other. In the era of privatization and globalization. The governments are formulating legislation to facilitate business activity both public and private as well as safeguarding the consumer interest. Thus managers and CEOs need to be acquainted to the new legislation that are being enacted from time to time. The fourth factor that has influenced the training needs is the emerging competitive market Conditions. It may be asserted that the public and private sector, even in monopolistic conditions. Have to face competition. The pertinent question is whether the new market situation will force the organization to go in for training as they are going to face new marketing situations in the times to come. Will the new emerging conditions give rise to pressure groups that have henceforth not 14

been seen in the business world. Basically organizations are going to face situations that are the result of competitive markets and development of consumerism. Many of the managers in the public and private sector could not possibly have been oriented towards these new situations. Hence need f training is unavoidable. The fifth factor influencing the training needs related to internal management of an organization. Internally organizations are going to face new dilemmas and problems. Business needs are fulfilled by the human resources that exist within the framework of internal structure.Any strategic plan which does not take this fact into account is bound to face numerous problems. There will be a continuous pressure on the organization to improve performance.Human resources, like managers, workers, staff, and others, have to be kept up to date in expertise and at the same times need to be motivated to perform better. This is a difficult task which cannot be handled by the staff of the organization. Experts called change agents are required to fulfill the task. Training needs cannot be overlooked because it is an on going process. In addition. Training is now considered a specialized function to be performed by the experts. TECHNIQUES OF TRAINING The object of this paper is not to discuss various techniques of training. Hence training techniques are being short listed for the purpose of their identification for evaluation purpose. However we would like to throw light on some of modern techniques of training. Some of the training techniques that are often used for reeducation purpose are: 1. On the-job- training. 2. Demonstration. 3. Job instruction training. 4. Vestibule training. 5. Apprenticeship. 6. Coaching Understudy. 7. Job rotation. 8. Lectures and conferences. 9. Syndicate. 10. Simulation training. 11. Role playing. 12. In-basket exercise. 13. Management game. 14. Sensitivity training. 15. Transactional analysis. 15

16. Organization development. Here we would like to discuss some of the training techniques that are considered by the experts as essential for improving the performance of organization in competitive situations. Diversity training is becoming extremely important for the organizations that are complex in nature. The work force of these enterprises is divers in nature. Various diverse group from different cultural and social background join one institution and thus submerging various cultural into one. The diverse work force has to be trained so as to provide some from of commonality. Various methods are adopted to provide diversity training. According to Fred Luthans one method of divers training involves putting trainees into groups based on ethnic origin. Then each group is asked to describe the others and listen to the way its own group is described. 9 Another methods of diversity training has been stated in the following manner. Another widely used approach is diversity board games. Which require the participants to answer questions related to areas such as gender. Race cultural differences. Age issues. Sexual orientation. And disabilities. On the basis of the response, the games players are able to advance on the board or are forced to back up. The objectives of theses types of games are to acquaint the players in a non threatening manner with legal rules and restrictions regarding how to manage members of the diverse groups. The third method of divers training concerned with participant focus on cultural issues such how to interact with personal from other countries. It may be added that many of the training programmers related to divers work force also use other training programmes.

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