MBA – PM0050

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Q1. Why should a manger know about research when the job entails managing people, products, events, environments, and the like? Answer: The manager, while managing people, products, events, and environments will invariably face problems, big and small, and will have to seek ways to find long lasting effective solutions. This can be achieved only through knowledge of research even if consultants are engaged to solve problems. The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so. The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge, which takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be fuzzy): Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems Constructive research, which develops solutions to a problem Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence The research room at the New York Public Library, an example of secondary research in progress. Research can also fall into two distinct types: Primary research Secondary research In social sciences and later in other disciplines, the following two research methods can be applied, depending on the properties of the subject matter and on the objective of the research: Qualitative research Quantitative research Research is often conducted using the hourglass model Structure of Research. The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the methodology of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. Research and development is nowadays of great importance in business as

higher R&D spending does not guarantee ―more creativity.How do you evolve research design for exploratory research? Briefly analyze. b. or to increase the researcher‘s familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. It is an organized inquiry. the discovery of relationships between variables. Briefly explain Independent. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. Q 2: a. Answer: A. since the defining feature of research is that the researchers do not know in advance exactly how to accomplish the desired result. Unfortunately. research and development are very difficult to manage.the level of competition. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. demands and desires of their customers. higher profit or a greater market share. Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It is also known as formulating research. production processes and methods are rapidly increasing. As a result. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. The purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas. Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary. ―At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations. Research design for exploratory research: Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. dependent and extraneous variables in a research design. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. It is of special importance in the field of marketing where companies keep an eagle eye on competitors and customers in order to keep pace with modern trends and analyze the needs.‖ . It is a purposive investigation. at the second.

Dependent and Independent variables: A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. In this context. However. in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former. Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as „continuous variables. demand is a dependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price. And if. weight. the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered.B. whereas the number of children is a non-continuous variable. like income and prices of substitute commodity. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables. The concept may assume different quantitative values. it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable. intelligence may . Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called „non-continuous variables. But. Even if he could. For example. he would have difficulty in understanding how these are inter-related. like height. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. the dependent variable. if demand depends upon price. income. For example. assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children‘s school performance and their self-concepts. then demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price. then demand is a dependent variable. For instance. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. all variables need not be continuous. more variables determine demand. They are also known as „discrete variable. In statistical term. and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables. income and price of substitute. Qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. Then. age is a continuous variable. Therefore. etc. he records his decisions on paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. while price is the independent variable. Such a symbolic construction may be called the research design or model. Independent and dependent and extraneous variables in a research design: The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions in his head.

The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. That is. as ample of the first stage sampling units is drawn. B. It is also useful when a . and then from each of the selected first stage sampling unit. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an experimental error. Q3: A . it would be known as an extraneous variable. a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables. Aanalyze multi-stage and sequential sampling: Multi-stage sampling: In multi-stage sampling method. there is margin for error in sample survey while census survey is more accurate. It is appropriate where the population is scattered over a wider geographical area and no frame or list is available for sampling. Appropriate random sampling methods adopted at each stage. Census Survey vs Sample Survey • Sample survey and census survey are method to gather information from people • Census survey takes each and every individual whereas sample survey takes a representative sample • Census survey is much bigger in proportion than sample survey • Census survey takes more time and money • However. a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage. The procedure continues down to the final sampling units or population elements.also influence the school performance. B. Therefore.Differentiate between ‘Census survey’ and ‘Sample Survey. However. sampling is carried out in two or more stages. First. a sample of the second stage sampling units is drawn. since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher. at each stage. Analyze multi-stage and sequential sampling Answer : A.

conducts his study. Its only hope of approaching representativeness is when the researcher chose to use a very large sample size significant enough to represent a big fraction of the entire population. Divide by the number of values to obtain the mean. Example: The mean of 7. Sequential sampling: Sequential sampling is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the researcher picks single or a group of subjects in a given time interval. It is not expensive.‖ Add all of the values together.   . 24.4. analyses the results then picks another group of subjects if needed and so on. 12. This sampling method is hardly representative of the entire population. This sampling technique gives the researcher limitless chances of fine tuning his research methods and gaining a vital insight into the study that he is currently pursuing. Due to the aforementioned disadvantages. The major disadvantage is that the procedure of estimating sampling error and cost advantage is complicated. Mean The sum of the values divided by the number of values–often called the ―average. not time consuming and not workforce extensive. 20. List down various measures of central tendency and explain the difference between them? Answer: – The three most commonly-used measures of central tendency and difference between them are as following. There is very little effort in the part of the researcher when performing this sampling technique.survey has to be made within a limited time and cost budget. results from this sampling technique cannot be used to create conclusions and interpretations pertaining to the entire population Q 4. 19 is (7 + 12 + 24 + 20 + 19) / 5 = 16.

marital status. population. Inferences based on imagination or guess work cannot provide      . Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of individuals: Age.3. functions. districts. 20. state and the nation. etc. awareness. Without an analysis of factual data. knowledge. with half of the values being lower than the median and half higher than the median. the median is the middle value. If you have an odd number of values. resources. 12. opinions. 18. occupational pattern infrastructure degree of development. cities. occupation income.Median The value which divides the values into two equal halves. 24. education. etc. intentions. Mode The most frequently-occurring value (or values). Behavioral variables: Attitudes. The data serve as the bases or raw materials for analysis. Example: The median of the same five numbers (7. location of the household lifestyle etc. Sort the values into ascending order. 19. the median is the arithmetic mean (see above) of the two middle values. 20. social class.2. resource endowment.4. Calculate the frequencies for all of the values in the data. The mode is the value (or values) with the highest frequency. of spatial divisions like villages. If you have an even number of values. performance and growth. 21. Example: For individuals having the following ages — 18. sex. More specifically the primary sources of data collection is suggested in this regard. 19) is 19. the primary and secondary sources of data can be used very effectively. talks. Territorial data are related to geo-physical characteristics. the mode is 20 Q5: Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information. family size. 20. objectives. religion. ownership. and 23. Answer: For performing research on the literacy levels among families. Because personal data or data related to human beings consist of:1. race. practice. no specific inferences can be drawn on the questions under study. Organizational data consist of data relating to an organizations origin. 20.

the scientific process of measurements. brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behavior from a sample of consumers by interviewing them. Secondary sources. Primary Sources of Data Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that have not been previously collected e. Data form the basis for testing the hypothesis formulated in a study. collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness.. Data also provide the facts and figures required for constructing measurement scales and tables. It flexible to the advantage of researcher. It is difficult to administer Methods of Collecting Primary Data: Primary data are directly collected by the researcher from their original sources.. Hence. brand preference. primary data have to be gathered. testing and inferences depends on the availability of relevant data and their accuracy. inadequate or obsolete. interviewing. adequacy and reliability of data determine the quality of the findings of a study. Thus. for several types of social science research required data are not available from secondary sources and they have to be directly gathered from the primary sources. the researcher can collect the required date precisely according to his research needs. Primary sources b. In this case.g. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. mailing etc.. The relevance. They include: socioeconomic surveys. the importance of data for any research studies The sources of data may be classified into: a. Extensive research study is based on primary data Disadvantage of Primary Data: Primary data is expensive to obtain It is time consuming It requires extensive research personnel who are skilled. Inferences on the results of statistical analysis and tests of significance provide the answers to research questions. Advantage of Primary Data: It is original source of data it is possible to capture the changes occurring in the course of time. In such cases where the available data are in appropriate. social anthropological . he can collect them when he wants them and in the form he needs them. analysis. which are analyzed with statistical techniques. Yet. Primary data are first-hand information collected through various methods such as observation.correct answers to research questions.

There are various methods of data collection. The secondary sources consists of readily compendia and already compiled statistical statements and reports whose data may be used by researchers for their studies e. Marketing research. Secondary sources consist of not only published records and reports. Secondary Sources of Data: These are sources containing data which have been collected and compiled for another purpose.WHO. accounting and financial records. attitudinal surveys.. viewing surveys.g. Reports of the National sample survey Organization. sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. ILO. (b) Interviewing. e. etc. radio listening and T. (d) Experimentation. (e) Simulation and (f) Projective technique. knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies. IMF. For example. Annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India. World Bank. annual reports and financial statements of companies. Trade and Financial journals newspapers etc. minutes of meetings.V. farm managements studies. a schedule is used for interviewing. (c) Mail survey.studies of rural communities and tribal communities.. . Each of these methods is discussed in detail in the subsequent sections in the later chapters. Reports of Government Departments. leadership studies. a tool is an instruments used for the method. register of members. but also unpublished records. publications of international organizations such as UNO. Reports of trade associations. inventory records etc.g. The latter category includes various records and registers maintained by the firms and organizations. business management studies etc. census reports . personnel records. Statistical statement. readership. Statistical statements relating to Cooperatives and Regional Banks. A ‗Method‘ is different from a ‗Tool‘ while a method refers to the way or mode of gathering data. opinion polls. The important methods are (a) Observation.. published by the NABARD.

Q 6: A. and do. The word ‗Data‘ is plural for ‗datum‘.Explain the role of Graphs and Diagrams B. Diagrams attract a large number of researchers from virtually all related fields. play. and problem solving. both across disciplines and across subfields of psychology. everyday use of diagrams for communicating information and ideas serves to illustrate the importance of providing a sound understanding of the role that diagrams can. computation. rhetorically powerful way of representing research findings. These concerns have triggered surge of interest in the study of diagrams. datum means facts. The study of diagrammatic communication as a whole must be pursued as an interdisciplinary endeavor. weight and scores on achievement and intelligence tests. b) Types and General rules for graphical representation of data: Graphical representation is done of the data available. to enable effective communication. Statistically the term is used for numerical facts such as measures of height. creative thought. Graphs and diagram leave a . cognition. Role of Diagrams: Recent technological advances have enabled the large-scale adoption of diagrams in a diverse range of areas. The pervasive. sketches and other visualizations in communication. Increasingly sophisticated visual representations are emerging and. This is very important step of statistical analysis. What are the Types and General rules for graphical representation of data? Answer: a) Role of Graphs and Diagrams: Role of Graphs: Because graphs provide a compact. insight is required into how diagrams are used and when they are appropriate for use. placing the conference as a major international event in the area. Studies have shown that the use of graphs in journal articles correlates highly with the hardness of scientific fields. recent theories of science have postulated their use as a distinguishing feature of science. We will be discussing the organization of data. Research in the field of diagrams aims to improve our understanding of the role of diagrams.

Forecasting also becomes easier with the help of graph.lasting impression on the mind and make intelligible and easily understandable the salient features of the data. Thus it is of interest to study the graphical representation of data. The graphical representation of data is categorized as basic five types: 1) Bar graph 2) Pie graph .

3) Line graph 4) Scatter plot 5) Histogram .

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