This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The Clash of Civilizations
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia T oolbox Print/export Languages اﻟﻌﺮﺑﯿﺔ Català Cebuano Česky Deutsch Español Esperanto ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ Français Gàidhlig
The Clash of Civilizations is a theory, proposed by political scientist Samuel P. Huntington, that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. The theory was originally formulated in a 1992 lecture at the American Enterprise Institute, which was then developed in a 1993 Foreign Affairs article titled "The Clash of Civilizations?", in response to Francis Fukuyama's 1992 book, The End of History and the Last Man. Huntington later expanded his thesis in a 1996 book The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. The term itself was first used by Bernard Lewis in an article in the September 1990 issue of The Atlantic Monthly titled "The Roots of Muslim Rage". This expression derives from clash of cultures, already used during the colonial period and the Belle Époque.
Contents [hide] 1 Overview 2 Huntington's "major civilizations" 3 Huntington's thesis of civilizational clash 3.1 Core state and fault line conflicts 4 Modernization, westernization, and "torn countries" 5 Criticism 5.1 Opposing concepts 5.1.1 The Intermediate Region 6 See also 7 Bibliography 8 References 9 External links
The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order
Author Publisher ISBN OCLC Number
Samuel P Huntington . Simon & Schuster 0-684-84441-9 38269418
Publication date 1996
Hrvatski Italiano עברית Magyar Nederlands
Huntington began his thinking by surveying the diverse theories about the nature of global politics in the post-Cold War period. Some theorists and writers argued that human rights, liberal democracy and capitalist free market economy had become the only remaining ideological alternative for nations in the post-Cold War world. Specifically, Francis Fukuyama argued that the world had reached the 'end of history' in a Hegelian sense. Huntington believed that while the age of ideology had ended, the world had only reverted to a normal state of affairs characterized by cultural conflict. In his thesis, he argued that the primary axis of conflict in the future will be along cultural and religious lines. As an extension, he posits that the concept of different civilizations, as the highest rank of cultural identity, will become increasingly useful in analyzing the potential for conflict. In the 1993 Foreign Affairs article, Huntington writes: It is my hypothesis that the fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic. The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural. Nation states will remain the most powerful actors in world affairs, but the principal conflicts of global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilizations. The clash of civilizations will dominate global politics. The fault lines between civilizations will be the battle lines of the future. In the end of the article, he writes: This is not to advocate the desirability of conflicts between civilizations. It is to set forth descriptive hypothesis as to what the future may be like.
Polski Português Română Русский Suomi Türkçe
Huntington's "major civilizations"
converted by Web2PDFConvert.com
Sinic. Japan. and the West). the Dominican Republic. Brunei. according to Huntington. Hindu. but one which is extremely similar to the West. Huntington also includes the rest of Oceania. and T (all cleft ogo between Islam and Sub-Saharan Africa). Albania. Latin America. Instead of belonging to one of the "major" civilizations. Indonesia. Liberia. considered a hybrid of Chinese civilization and older Altaic patterns. regard themselves as full members of the Western civilization. Ukraine ("cleft" between its Eastern Rite Catholic-dominated western section and its Orthodox-dominated east). Ethiopia and Haiti are "Lone" countries. and that Israel could be considered a unique state with its own civilization. constitutes a distinct entity. located chiefly in India. Huntington sees the West as reluctant to accept this because it built the international system. Examples include India ("cleft" between its Hindu majority and large Muslim minority). Huntington divided the world into the "major civilizations" in his thesis as such: Western civilization.  converted by Web2PDFConvert. the Koreas. and Sierra Leone. Sinic. Cambodia. Benin. Cyprus. Whether Latin America and the former member states of the Soviet Union are included. Huntington also believes that the Anglophone Caribbean. centered on Australasia. T aiwan. Bangladesh. and culturally adhered to by the global Indian diaspora. The Eastern world is the mix of the Buddhist. and the West). Mongolia. former British colonies in the Caribbean. Kazakhstan. most of Central Asia and Azerbaijan). instead of belonging to one of the "major" civilizations. Bulgaria. Northern America. and the Philippines (cleft between Islam. The Orthodox world of the former Soviet Union (excluding the Baltic states. Georgia. Ghana. Cyprus. Myanmar. Israel could be considered a unique state with its own civilization. Mauritius. Considered as a possible 8th civilization by Huntington. constitutes a distinct entity. in the case of French Guiana. Greece. and Romania. in the case of Tibet. Nigeria. France (cleft between SubSaharan African. Huntington writes. in Chechnya. There are also others which are considered "cleft countries" because they contain large groups of people identifying with separate civilizations. and Thailand are identified as separate from other civilizations. Comoros. Chad. and Europe (excluding Orthodox Eastern and South-Eastern Europe but including Catholic Central and East-Central Europe). however. May be considered a part of Western civilization. Guyana and Suriname (cleft between Hindu and Sub-Saharan African). Cuba. northern West Africa. Middle Africa (excluding Chad). Malta. Singapore. and Vietnam. and between India and Pakistan were cited as evidence of intercivilizational conflict. though it has slightly distinct social and political structures from Europe and Northern America. the former Yugoslavia (excluding Slovenia and Croatia). The Buddhist areas of Bhutan. Many people of the Southern Cone. Sri Lanka. Laos. Includes Central America (excluding Belize ). The civilization of Sub-Saharan Africa located in Southern Africa. and Maldives. Pakistan. Sudan was also included as "cleft" between Islam and SubSaharan Africa. The Sinic civilization of China. and T anzania). This group also includes the Chinese diaspora.com . Ethiopia and Haiti are labeled as "Lone" countries. or are instead their own separate civilizations. and Mexico. Hindu civilization. but one which is extremely similar to the West. East Africa (excluding the Horn of Africa. but Huntington believes that they do not constitute a major civilization in the sense of international affairs. and Japonic civilizations. T anzania. this division is set to become a formal split in July 2011 following an overwhelming vote for independence by Southern Sudan in a January 2011 referendum. The Muslim world of the Greater Middle East (excluding Armenia. Bhutan and Nepal. in the case of Hong Kong and Macau). in the case of Mindanao. Côte d'Ivoire. Kenya. Greece. Buddhist. Malaysia. Israel. Wars such as those following the break up of Yugoslavia. The author states that. Cape Verde. Huntington's thesis of civilizational clash Huntington argues that the trends of global conflict after the end of the Cold War are increasingly appearing at these civilizational divisions.The clash of civilizations according to Huntington (1996). Comoros. Huntington also argues that the widespread Western belief in the universality of the West's values and political systems is naïve and that continued insistence on democratization and such "universal" norms will only further antagonize other civilizations. and the West. Kenya. will be an important future consideration for those regions. China (cleft between Sinic. former British colonies in the Caribbean. as presented in the book. South America (excluding the Guianas). especially in relation to Southeast Asia. and Sudan). Ethiopia. Huntington also believes that the Anglophone Caribbean.
intervention to protect kinsmen in a different civilization. and India are what Huntington terms 'swing civilizations' and may favor either side. growth. intercivilizational conflict manifests itself in two forms: fault line conflicts and core state conflicts. Manifestations of what he terms the "Islamic Resurgence" include the 1979 Iranian revolution and the first Gulf War. where fundamentalist movements are becoming increasingly popular.  Core state and fault line conflicts In Huntington's view. Western. This conflict dates back as far as the initial thrust of Islam into Europe. seeking conversion of others Universal. such as: relative influence or power (military or economic). especially the West. Specifically. and democracy that conflict with those of the West. its eventual expulsion in the Iberian reconquest. and gave it substance in the form of the United Nations. those[who?] who consider the Clash of Civilizations thesis accurate often point to the example of Japan. Huntington argues that the Islamic civilization has experienced a massive population explosion which is fueling instability both on the borders of Islam and in its interior. most significantly to what he identifies as the two "challenger civilizations". Huntington wrote. More recent factors contributing to a Western-Islamic clash.that is. Perhaps the most controversial statement Huntington made in the Foreign Affairs article was that "Islam has bloody borders". Orthodox. The political party Hizb ut-T ahrir also reiterate Huntington's views in their published book. Japan. In Huntington's view. and African. claiming that it is not a Western state at its core. and that other countries in the region will 'bandwagon' with China due to the history of hierarchical command structures implicit in the Confucian Sinic civilization. and "torn countries"  Critics of Huntington's ideas often extend their criticisms to traditional cultures and internal reformers who wish to modernize without adopting the values and attitudes of Western culture. or different values and culture. Core state conflicts can arise out of fault line conflicts when core states become involved. and political power from the West to the other civilizations of the world. human rights. Core state conflicts are on a global level between the major states of different civilizations. Huntington also believes that some of the factors contributing to this conflict are that both Christianity (upon which Western civilization is based) and Islam are: Missionary religions. They argue that it adopted much Western technology (also inventing technology of its own in recent times). and the European imperial division of the Islamic nations in the 1800s and 1900s.  Fault line conflicts are on a local level and occur between adjacent states belonging to different civilizations or within states that are home to populations from different civilizations. "all-or-nothing" religions. as opposed to the individualism and pluralism valued in the West. both having more revisionist goals and sharing common conflicts with other civilizations. Specifically.that infuriate Islamic fundamentalists. clashes with the many Muslim ethnic groups on its southern border (such as Chechnya) but—according to Huntington—cooperates with Iran to avoid further Muslim-Orthodox violence in Southern Russia.com . Huntington believes this to be a real consequence of several factors. Sinic and Islam. and free enterprise. Huntington sees Islamic civilization as a potential ally to China. and other states to augment its international position. These critics[who?] sometimes claim that to modernize is necessarily to become Westernized to a very large extent. he believes that China's goals are to reassert itself as the regional hegemon. the view that all civilizations should adopt Western values . itself and its values relative to the West due to its rapid economic Thicker lines represent more conflictual relationships. coupled with the values of Western universalism . while maintaining traditional or authoritarian social government. Pakistan. These conflicts may result from a number of causes. East Asian Sinic civilization is culturally asserting Emerging alignments as predicted by Huntington in 1996. as Chinese cultural assertion clashes with the American desire for the lack of a regional hegemony in East Asia. Huntington wrote briefly in his Foreign Affairs article and in much more detail in his 1996 book. are the Islamic Resurgence and demographic explosion in Islam. Huntington argues that a "Sino-Islamic connection" is emerging in which China will cooperate more closely with Iran. military. and to help continue the flow of oil. Many[who?] also point out the East Asian Tigers or neighboring states as having adapted western economics. Huntington also argues that civilizational conflicts are "particularly prevalent between Muslims and non-Muslims". in the sense that it is believed by both sides that only their faith is the correct one T eleological religions. the attacks of the Ottoman Turks on Eastern Europe and Vienna. including the previously mentioned Muslim youth bulge and population growth and Islamic proximity to many civilizations including Sinic. for example. Huntington therefore believes that the rise of China poses one of the most significant problems and the most powerful long-term threat to the West. that their values and beliefs represent the goals of existence and purpose in human existence. identifying the "bloody borders" between Islamic and non-Islamic civilizations. that is. would lead to a bloody clash between the Islamic and Western civilizations. and feels that these are areas in which the two civilizations will cooperate. parliamentary democracy. but has remained culturally very distinct from the West. he identifies common Chinese and Islamic interests in the areas of weapons proliferation. In other words. Huntington identifies a major shift of economic. regional powers such as the two Koreas and Vietnam will acquiesce to Chinese demands and become more supportive of China rather than attempting to oppose it. westernization. Russia. particularly when one civilization attempts to impose its values on people of a different civilization. In reply. Russia. All these historical and modern factors combined. discrimination against people from a different civilization. converted by Web2PDFConvert. Modernization. "The Inevitability of Clash of Civilisation".wrote its laws. China is also cited by some[who?] as a rising non-Western economy.
embraced the Latin alphabet. Edward Said issued a response to Huntington's thesis in his own essay entitled "The Clash of Ignorance. Criticism This article contains weasel words. culture. though if Turkey gained membership of the European Union it has been noted that many of its people would support Westernization[who?]. a response to Huntington's Clash of Civilizations. The initiative is intended to galvanize collective action across diverse societies to combat extremism. i. housewife. As noted in the book. The differences among the modern Slavic states can still be seen today.. Huntington argues that Russia is primarily a non-Western state although he seems to agree that it shares a considerable amount of cultural ancestry with the modern West. vague phrasing that often accompanies biased or unverifiable information. It also happened to be a non-Western power. economic and political views and norms which radically differ from those in the West and the Far East. he cites the fact that many Islamic extremists spent a significant amount of time living and/or studying in the western world. Opposing concepts  Also. The variant of this argument that uses Russia as an example relies on the acceptance of a unique non-Western civilization headed by an Orthodox state such as Russia or perhaps an Eastern European country. Alevism and Judaism. with respect to the Far East) but is considered distinct. According to Huntington.Perhaps the ultimate example of non-Western modernization is Russia. In addition. Concerning this region. the core state of the Orthodox civilization. He argues there is no "Islamic civilization" nor a "Western civilization". joined NATO. artist.etc. Hindu or Muslim. social. Third.com . Its political and economic elite must support the move. mother. Kitsikis establishes an integrated civilization comprising these two peoples along with those belonging to the less dominant religions of Shiite Islam. and a recent reinfusion of Classical culture through Rome rather than through the continuous trajectory of the Byzantine Empire. is his chief example. a torn country must meet three requirements to redefine its civilizational identity. Reformation. but rather an internal conflict. is neither western nor eastern (at least. and is seeking to join the European Union." Said argues that Huntington's categorization of the world's fixed "civilizations" omits the dynamic interdependency and interaction of culture. converted by Web2PDFConvert. According to Berman conflict arises because of philosophical beliefs between groups. The Intermediate Region  Huntington's geopolitical model. Such statements should be clarified or removed. the public must be willing to accept the redefinition. In the Intermediate Region. the rise of the Islamic caliphates from the Christianized Roman Empire and the rise of Ottoman rule from the Islamic caliphates and the Christianized Roman Empire. If this were to happen it would be the first to redefine its civilizational identity. was the basis for United Nations' resolution to name the year 2001 as the Year of Dialogue among Civilizations. According to Berman. therefore. Second. the elites of the civilization that the torn country is trying to join must accept the country. as opposed to multiple affiliations: Hindu. the Enlightenment. member of a particular socio-economic class. and to reduce the tensions and polarization between societies which differ in religious and cultural values. is largely derived from the "Intermediate Region" geopolitical model first formulated by Dimitri Kitsikis and published in 1978. He also gives the example of Australia as a country torn between its Western civilizational heritage and its growing economic engagement with Asia. In this book he argues that a root cause of violence is when people see each other as having a singular affiliation.. daughter. whose political leadership has systematically tried to Westernize the country since the 1920s. However. The Intermediate Region.e. Russia was one of the great powers during World War I. and that the evidence for a civilization clash is not convincing. Mexico and Russia are also considered to be torn by Huntington. and traditions are derived from Islamic civilization. regardless of cultural or religious identity. José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero and co-sponsored by the Turkish Prime Minister Recep T ayyip Erdoğan. which spans the Adriatic Sea and the Indus River. which was introduced by former Iranian president Mohammad Khatami. overseas colonialism rather than contiguous expansion and colonialism. Huntington departs from Kitsikis contending that a civilizational fault line exists between the two dominant yet differing religions (Orthodox Christianity and Sunni Islam). the West is distinguished from Orthodox Christian countries by the experience of the Renaissance. They have a set of mutual cultural. not for cultural domination. This issue is also linked to the "universalizing factor" exhibited in some civilizations[clarification needed]. especially when considering relationships such as that between the United States and Saudi Arabia. distinct cultural boundaries do not exist in the present day." Turkey. (April 2010)  Amartya Sen wrote a book called Identity and Violence: The illusion of destiny in critique of Huntington's main concept of an inevitable clash along civilizational lines. According to Huntington. Turkey's history. one cannot speak of a civiliational clash or external conflict. to overcome cultural and social barriers between mainly the Western and predominantly Muslim worlds. to date no torn country has successfully redefined its civilizational identity. Paul Berman proposes another criticism of the civilization clash hypothesis. all of which can be a source of a person's identity. hence a dynamic of external conflict. The Alliance of Civilizations (AOC) initiative was proposed at the 59th General Assembly of the United Nations in 2005 by the President of the Spanish Government. The concept. woman. Huntington refers to countries that are seeking to affiliate with another civilization as "torn countries. has become the center of some international attention. This has been successfully demonstrated by documenting the rise of Christianity from the hellenized Roman Empire. especially the structures for North Africa and Eurasia. this mostly due to the elites of the 'host' civilization refusing to accept the torn country. but Turkey's Caucasian elite imposed western institutions and dress. In his book Terror and Liberalism. but for political succession. in recent years the theory of Dialogue Among Civilizations.
Mechanicsburg. p. Continuum.com . in "Journal of Peace Research". Senza radici: Europa. Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress. Bad Moon Rising: a chronicle of the Middle East today. and the Indivisibility of Territory.org/issue/29196 ^ a b c Official copy (free preview): The Clash of Civilizations? . The Clash of Civilizations?: The Debate. Washington. 1991 ISBN 0-02-933155-2 Venn. Princeton. Mondadori. 2. Pennsylvania. le clash of cultures entre l'ancienne Chrétienté et l'Islam prit un nouvel aspect. 1996. Foreign Affairs. in "Foreign Affairs". Huntington (eds. New York & London. no. ISBN 9782752602084 Barber.C. New York. Perseus Books Group. 2004 Pera. Editions de l'Aube. Lawrence E. The "Clash of Civilizations": Perception and Reality in the Context of Globalization and International Power Politics . Civilizations: Conflict or Dialogue?. New oft. D. Summer 1993. Philadelphia.. Paris. vol. 2008.. Civilization and Its Enemies: The Next Stage of History. The Free Press. T ony. Philippe. London. ISBN 2-88155-004-5. in Idem. Relativismo. I. 2005 ISBN 0-89526-015-8 Harris. International Progress Organization. 2001 ISBN 0-465-03176-5 Huntington.. The Geography of Ethnic Violence: Identity. The Dignity of Difference: How to Avoid the Clash of Civilizations. References 1. Vienna.See also Balkanization Civilizing mission Cultural relativism Criticism of multiculturalism Fault Line War Partition of India Protracted social conflict Religious Pluralism Individuals: Jacob Burckhardt Niall Ferguson. Fighting for the Future: Will America Triumph?. 4. Pennsylvania. La psychologie musulmane (1931). 1995. and Samuel P. "L'Anti-Choc des Civilisations: Méditations Méditerranéennes". Marcello and Joseph Ratzinger (Pope Benedict XVI). New York.. Paperback: Ballantine Books. Lee. Regnery Publishing. Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures--Continental Europe and its Empires. Oswald Spengler's The Decline of the West Emmanuel T odd's After the Empire: The Breakdown of the American Order Arnold J. vol.aei. Basic Books. Stackpole Books. 2006 ISBN 0465-00634-5]. Edinburgh University Press. The West's Last Chance: Will We Win the Clash of Civilizations?. Samuel P. ^ The Inevitability of Clash of Civilisation  converted by Web2PDFConvert. Couze "Clash of Civilisations". The Transformation of War. McWorld. Hans. Bharati. 1996 ISBN 0-684-84441-9 Huntington.: Without Roots: The West.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations: Arabo-Muslim. Jersey. New York. Ralph. New York. Guy. ^ http://www. INU societal research. London. Samuel P. Christianity. 1999 ISBN 3-90070418-X (Google Print ) Köchler. 1999 ISBN 0-8117-0651-6 Sacks. Islam [transl. Saqi Books. 2004. 3. 5. an American political economist and author of The End of History and the Last Man. 1996 ISBN 0-87609-164-8 Kepel.). Vol. ISBN 0812923502. 22–49 Huntington. Jihad vs. (ed. Inc. Longer. 2003 ISBN 0-691-11354-8 Tusicisny. and Bloodier?. Summer 1993 ^ Bernard Lewis: The Roots of Muslim Rage The Atlantic Monthly. 72. Cristianesimo. T oynbee's A Study of History The West's Last Chance: Will We Win the Clash of Civilizations?  Bibliography  Ankerl. no. Tbilisi (Georgia). Thomas Barnett (geostrategist) Carroll Quigley Authors & Books Francis Fukuyama. and Western. Global communication without universal civilization.). Chinese. 2002 ISBN 0-82646397-5 T Monica Duffy. 2003 ISBN 0-863-56303-1 Köchler. Hans (ed. Ecrits mémorables. Benjamin R. 485–498 (available online ) Van Creveld. 3. Gilles. par invasion (sans échange) de l'échelle de valeurs occidentales dans la mentalité collective musulmane". 2009. Samuel P. t. Relativism. Interests. The Clash of Civilizations?. Professor of History at Harvard University. Foreign Affairs. ISBN 0345383044 Blankley. Hardcover: Crown. Milano. Princeton University Press. Robert Laffont. Simon & Schuster. Geneva: INU Press. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Jonathan. Martin. ^ THE WORLD OF CIVILIZATIONS: POST-1990 scanned image 6. September 1990 ^ Louis Massignon.). pp. pp. 2004 ISBN 88-04-54474-0 Peters. Barbé. Islam.. 2004 ISBN 0-7432-5749-9 Harrison. Andrej. 41. 629: "Après la venue de Bonaparte au Caire. 2006. The Free Press. in Prem Poddar et al . 4. Civilizational Conflicts: More Frequent.