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Ahmad I al-Mansur
Sultan of Morocco
Reign Coronation Born Birthplace Died Place of death Predecessor Successor
1578 - 1603 1578 1549 Fes, Morocco 1603 Outskirts of Fes, Morocco Abd al-Malik Zidan Abu Maali (in Marrakesh) Abou Fares Abdallah (in Fes) Zidan Abu Maali Abou Fares Abdallah
Religious beliefs Islam
Ahmad I al-Mansur (Arabic: ,ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱalso El-Mansour Eddahbi [the Golden], Arabic: ;ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻲ and Ahmed el-Mansour) (1549 in Fes - 25 August 1603, outskirts of Fes) was Sultan of the Saadi dynasty from 1578 to his death in 1603, the sixth and most famous of all rulers of the Saadis. He was the fifth son of Mohammed ash-Sheikh who was the first Saadi sultan of Morocco. Ahmad al-Mansur was an important figure in both Europe and Africa in the sixteenth century, his powerful army and strategic location made him an important power player in the late Renaissance period.
Ahmad al-Mansur developed friendly relations with England in view of an Anglo-Moroccan alliance. Shortly after. the palace and other urban building projects. Eventually the coffers began to run dry due to the great expense of supporting the military. leave Morocco and stay abroad until 1576. 1640. Relations with Europe Morocco's standing with the Christian states was still in flux. he began construction on the great architectural symbol of this new birth of Moroccan power and relevance. Sultan Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik I Saadi. but al-Mansur knew Marrakech and El Badi Palace. Ahmad was named his brother's successor and began his reign amid newly won prestige and wealth from the ransom of Portuguese captives. The two brothers spent 17 years among the Ottomans between the Regency of Algiers and Constantinople. a royal lifestyle and a propaganda campaign aimed at building support for his controversial claim to the Caliphate. In 1600 he sent his Secretary Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud as ambassador of the Barbary States to the Court of Queen . extensive spy services. the two brothers Ahmad al-Mansur and Abd al-Malik had to flee their elder brother Abdallah al-Ghalib (1557–1574). The Spaniards and the Portuguese were still popularly seen as the infidel. Accordingly. by Adriaen Matham. and benefited from Ottoman training and contacts with Ottoman culture. Ahmad's brother.Ahmad al-Mansur 2 Exile to the Ottoman Empire After the murder of their father Mohammed ash-Sheikh in 1557 and the following struggle for power. the collection of which filled the Moroccan royal coffers. To do that Morocco had to control sizable gold resources of its own. Battle of Ksar el Kebir In 1578. that the only way his Sultanate would thrive was to continue to benefit from alliances with the Christian economies. In 1600 Ahmad al-Mansur sent his Secretary Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud (pictured) as ambassador of Morocco to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I of England to negotiate an alliance against Spain. the grand palace in Marrakesh called Al Badi. died in battle against the Portuguese army at Ksar-el-Kebir. Rule (1578–1603) Al-Mansur began his reign by leveraging his dominant position with the vanquished Portuguese during prisoner ransom talks. or "the marvelous". al-Mansur was drawn irresistibly to the trans-Saharan gold trade of the Songhai in hopes of solving Morocco's economic deficit with Europe.
By playing the Europeans and Ottomans against one another al-Mansur excelled in the art of balance of power diplomacy. com/ books?id=cPlP5Y4of7AC& pg=PA103)  Smith 2006 . Ahmad Ibn al-Qadi and Al-Masfiwi. [etc. Ahmad took advantage of recent civil strife in the empire and dispatched an army of 4. google. Ahmad al-Mansur had French physicians at his Court. Arnoult de Lisle was physician to the Sultan from 1588 to 1598. In that city is also his El Badi Palace. pp. ISBN 0-8386-3999-2. Marrakech. the Moroccans found it increasingly difficult to maintain control over the conquered locals as time went on. it was one of the largest African empires in history. 100 great Africans. He was buried in the mausoleum of the Saadian Tombs in Marrakech. 48. pp. Eventually though he repeated the age-old error. as well as the capital Gao. Alan (1994). Columbia.]. ISBN 978-1-85168-610-0. Both in turn returned to France to become professors of Arabic at the Collège de France. Leeds. ISBN 0-8108-2929-0.  García-Arenal. their power and prestige on the world stage declined significantly. And though initially successful in their military campaign against the Songhay Empire.103ff (http:/ / books. On October 16. and by Abou Fares Abdallah. Well-known writers at his court were Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari. Ahmad al-Mansur (Makers of the Muslim World). Ahmad advanced. References  Rake. to preserve Moroccan independence. the logistics of controlling a territory across the Sahara soon grew too difficult.  Barroll.Ahmad al-Mansur Elizabeth I of England to negotiate an alliance against Spain. Oneworld Publications. Meanwhile. Legacy Ahmad al-Mansur died of the plague in 1603 and was succeeded by Zidan Abu Maali.000 men across the Sahara desert under the command of converted Spaniard Judar Pasha. who was based in Fes and had only local power. Mercedes. was a western African state centered in eastern Mali. who was based in Marrakech. they lacked the maghrebian's gunpowder weapons and quickly fled. as the Moroccans continued to struggle in the Songhay. Abd al-Aziz al-Fishtali. J. Built by Al-Mansur in 1578. 1590.  The last great Muslim empires: history of the Muslim world by Frank Ronald Charles Bagley. Metuchen. Though the Songhai met them at the Battle of Tondibi with a force of 40. 3 Songhai campaign The Songhai Empire. 137. sacking the West Africa after the Moroccan invasion.: Scarecrow Press. Despite these initial successes.C. S. N. pp. and the Saadians lost control of the cities not long after 1620.J. Songhai cities of Timbuktu and Djenné. he spent far more than he collected. 121. To fix the problem. and continued with diplomatic endeavours. From the early 15th to the late 16th century. He was then succeeded by Etienne Hubert from 1598 to 1600. Shakespeare studies. like many he attempted to expand his holdings through conquest.] University of South Carolina Press [etc.000. Hans Joachim Kissling p. Through masterfully astute diplomacy al-Mansur resisted the demands of the Ottoman sultan. El Badi Palace.
Lansiné (1981). . google. Basil (1995). • Mouline. Le califat imaginaire d'Ahmad al-Mansûr. New York: Pearson Longman. ISBN 0-321-25044-3. Toomer (http:/ / books. "Archers.Ahmad al-Mansur  Eastern wisedome and learning: the study of Arabic in seventeenth-century England by [[G. com/ books?id=Sl8fniRER4kC& pg=PA28)] p. Richard L. Africa in history : themes and outlines. and mosquitoes: The Moroccan invasion of the Sudan and the Songhay resistance (1591–1612)".28ff]  Kaba. 4 Bibliography • Davidson. Journal of African History 22: 457–475. J. JSTOR 181298. • Smith. Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 0-684-82667-4. Nabil (2009). musketeers. New York: Simon & Schuster. (2006). Ahmad al-Mansur: Islamic Visionary.
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