You are on page 1of 50



GRAMMAR I An Upgrading Grammar Course For Secondary School Teachers

(Ti liu lu hnh ni b)

Danang - 2001





Noun phrases Adjective phrases Adverb phrases Preposition phrases Verb phrases Practice test B. SENTENCES - Sentences and Clauses - sentence elements - the subject & predicate - the object - the complement - the adverbial - classification according to structure - Practice test C. REVISION 4 Total : 30 13 16

THE NOUN PHRASE (NP) I. Structure: The basic structure of the NP is as follow: [Premodifier(s)] + HEAD + [Postmodifier(s)] 1. Pre-modifier(s) in a noun phrase: The premodifiers in a noun phrase comprise all the items placed before the head noun. Ex: The pretty girl Some pretty college girls Order of Premodifiers in the Noun Phrase: Determiners + Adjective Phrase + Noun premodifier + HEAD NOUN - Determiner(s): + Articles: a, an, the + Demonstratives: this, that, these, those + Possessives: my, your, our, John's, etc + Indefinite: some, any, another, each, every, no, enough, etc. - Adjective phrase(s) + single adjectives: e.g. beautiful, qualified, handsome... + two or more words phrases: very beautiful, really handsome, most expensive ... - Noun modifiers): E.g. paper, gold, biscuit, leather... Some examples of NPs with premodifier(s) the man the handsome man a very expensive leather handbag 2. Post-modifier(s) in a noun phrase: The post-modification in a noun phrase comprises all the items placed after the head noun. They are prepositional phrases, non finite clauses, and relative clauses. Ex: +Prepositional phrase: The man under the tree is my uncle. +To-infinitive clause: The man to play Gandhi is my uncle. + Ing-clause: The man carrying the shotgun is my uncle. + Ed-clause: The man bitten by the tortoise is my uncle. + Relative clause: The man who kissed you is my uncle.

II. Functions of noun phrases: 1. Noun phrases as subject Ex: Her proposal is impractical. That handsome man was asleep. 2. Noun phrases as complement Ex: This is my sister He becomes my colleague 3. Noun phrases as object: Ex: We prefer her proposal. He was flirting a beautiful young girl. THE ADJECTIVE PHRASE (Adj.P) I. Structure: Premodifier(s) + head adjective +


1. Pre-modifier in an adjective phrase: Pre-modifier in an adjective phrase is often an adverb of degree such as very, quite, somewhat, rather, extremely, fairy, highly E.g. very old, rather tired, extremely right... Other adverbs sometimes occur in this position Ex: beautifully cool, annoyingly simple, disgustingly rich, incredibly slow 2. Post-modifier in an adjective phrase:(complement of an adjective) The following kinds of post-modifier complement occur in adjective phrases: Prepositional phrases: Ex: very anxious about Jim's heath Infinitive clauses: Ex: very anxious to please everybody -ing-clause Ex: but police were busy handing out letters about the operation to residents. Finite clauses: Ex: very anxious that no one should accuse him of laziness. adverb: Ex: It certainly tasted strong enough II. Functions: 1. Attributive function: When an adjective phrase pre-modifies a noun, its function is attributive Ex: a very interesting story, a somewhat anxious mother 2. Predicative function/ complement Ex: Naomi is anxious about Jim's health. Jim seems concerned that Naomi will worry too much. 3. Post- modifier of a noun: Ex: London seems a city bright with theatre cinemas.

THE ADVERB PHRASE (Adv.P) I. Structure: The head of an adverb phrase is an adverb (Adv). Other-wise, the structure of AdvPs is the same as that of AdjPs : (MAv rather MAv too HAv quickly MPP for comfort ) ( MAv more HAv quickly MPP than last year ). II. Function : Adv.Ps function in the clause as adverbials (A). THE PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE (PP) I. Structure: Preposition + Noun phrase II. Functions: 1. Post-modifier of a noun phrase: Ex: Everybody questions the significance of the results. 2. Post-modifier of an adjective: Ex: He was ignorant of the crucial lack of an extradition treaty. 3. Adverbial: Ex: Every Tuesday I stood there waiting by the door expecting you to come. THE VERB PHRASE (VP) The VP always acts as predicator (P) in the clause. 1. We need to distinguish between finite and non-finite verb phrases: - The verb forms operate in finite and non-finite verb phrase, which are distinguished as follows: (i)- Finite verb phrases have tense distinction: He works as a builder. He worked as a builder. (ii)- Finite verb phrase occurs as the verb element of a clause. There is person and number concord between the subject and the finite-verb. Concord is particularly overt with BE. I am/ she is/ we are... With most lexical verbs, concord is restricted to a contrast between 3rd and non-3rd person singular present: He reads the paper every morning. They read the paper every morning. With modal auxiliaries there is, no concord: * I/ you / he / they/ we {could come. (iii)- Finite-verb phrases have mood. In contrast to the unmarked indicative mood, we distinguish the marked moods and imperative and subjunctive.

-Eg : He spoke to me as if I were deaf. (iiii)- The non-finite forms of the verb are the infinitive [ (to) call], the -ing participle [calling], and the -ed participle [called]. Non-finite verb phrases consist of one or more such items. Compare : * Finite - verb phrases Non - finite verb phrases He smokes heavily To smoke like that must be dangerous He is working I found him working. 2. The structure of finite - verb phrases: * The structure of the VP is mentioned in two kinds of elements: The main verb (Mv) and auxiliaries (Aux). The auxiliaries are optional, and precede the main verb. - At the most general level the structure of VP is : { Aux } {Aux } {Aux } Mv - In practice we can distinguish sixteen different kinds of VP, and moreover, four different functions performed by the auxiliaries (see the table below - Table 1 ). In this table, the general label Aux can be replaced by some more specific function labels: Modality, perfect aspect, progressive and passive. Table 1:


Mod m might




MAIN VERB Mv V shook shake shaken shaking shaken shaken shaking shaken shaking shaken shaken shaking shaken shaken shaken shaken 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

had was was The branch might might might have be be had had might might might might have have had have been was been Be been been been being been being being being

NOTE : Where there is no passive voice auxiliary, the verb phrase is in the ACTIVE VOICE. perfect, progressive and passive relate to the kinds of meaning expressed by the elements they label. The formula explains that the elements of the VP can only occur in a strict order; for example, could have worked and had been waiting are grammatical combinations, but *have could worked and *been had waiting are not. However, there is still something to be explained: namely, that each auxiliary determines the FORM of the verb which follows it, e.g. has worked occurs, but *has working does not. To explore this further, we have to return to the description of verb forms. EXERCISES 1. Make an analysis of the following noun phrases in items of the word classes that they comprise. 1. five green bottles 2. my currant bun 3. Jim's fatal mistakes 4. all grievous sins 5. some delicious rice puddings on the plate 6. his musical talent 7. her blue collapsible silk umbrella with a wood handle 8. the man standing there 9. the lion taken to the zoo yesterday 10. a biscuit factory near my house 11. the girl who delivers milk 12. people at your age 13. the value of labour 14. that brilliant student from the south who won the first prize 15. the effect of birth-control methods 16. the development of mechanized labour- saving devices 17. the speed limit in big cities 18. the speed limit raised by the government 19. the raising of speed limit 20. electric cars which use inexpensive electricity for power 2. Find out noun phrases in the following sentences, analyze their constituents and functions: 1. The bad weather compelled us to stay indoors. 2. Her chief fault is idling his time away. 3. I did not have time to visit her. 4. The man behind the door is my old teacher.

5. The next plane to arrive is from Bangkok. 6. The poor little boy is my friend's son. 7. She loves any dish involving cheese. 8. The elderly passengers in the front coach were Americans. 9. The place behind Jim was reserved for Peter. 10. The man to feed the kangaroo is my uncle. 11. He made no move to greet me. 12. Several farmers waiting for the prime minister came from the south. 13. This sudden disaster made us very worried. 14. The woman wearing a plastic nose is our history professor. 15. Opinions expressed here are not. 16. This is an experience you'll always remember. 17. We will need 3,000 sticks of satay to feed our guests. 18. His decision to use an all- female cast surprised all of us. 19. The clearest instructions that anybody could have been given were already made. 20. The dead rate among women is increasing. 3. Underline each noun phrase in the sentences: - Identify the head of each underlined noun phrase. - Label all premodifiers and postmodifiers in the underlined NPs. - Point out the function of each of the noun phrase. 1. My ancient gold watch still keeps perfect time. 2. This special vampire movie is a pain in the neck. 3. The national University of Singapore celebrated its 90th anniversary. 4. The two students from Toa Payoh did something stupid. 5. The old man in rags ordered that most expensive dish on the menu. 6. Mary's head hit the corner of the dinning-room table. 7. His two sons became famous fiction writers. 8. Some smart young ladies in Block 123 wear jeans. 9. People at your age should know the value of money. 10. A diamond that shape was once found in South Africa. 11. I often see the men who went to school with me. 12. The great fire of 1666 started in the house of a baker. 13. Where did you get that beautiful carpet in the hall? 14. George was wearing a spots shirt, light cotton slacks. 15. Jeremy Tailor, who called here last night, left this message for you. 16. The theatre to which we were taken was the oldest one in Paris. 17. All the articles you see here have been sold. 18. The students whose names are below the line on this list must sit the examination again. 19. My poor old mother suffers from arthritis. 20. Her devoted elder daughter takes care of her. 21. Roses do very well in my garden in which I never planted anything else.

4. Find out adjective phrases & adverb phrases in the following sentences and analyse their constituents 1. This is perfectly good conversation as far as I'm concerned. 2. He ran much slowly than me. 4. That is a bit premature, isn't it? 5. I found it rather tight. 6. I'd be quite keen to try anything like that really. 7. She spoke so softly that we couldnt hear anything. 8. He is glad that he isnt a vegetarian. 9. I am sure it isn't much difficult than you say. 10. She was uncertain what to do. 5. Identify each prepositional phrase in the sentences below, and indicate a, b, c or d whether it is. a. an adverbial b. A postmodifier in a noun phrase. c. verb complementation d. A postmodifier in an adjective phrase. 1. I met John Wilkins when I was at the bank. 2. Then I had lunch with him at a restaurant. 4. We went to see whether John Taylor was at home. 5. I spent five years at a medical school. 6. The students at the hospital were fond of practical jokes. 8. I regret to say that I fainted at my first operation. 9. As a result, I decided to give up medicine. 10. The professor was, in fact, afraid of us. 11. In any case, as he had taken his first degree in 1927, he must have been over the retirement age. 6. About the ambiguity of prepositional phrase, to which of the examples do these descriptions apply: (a) Two PPs postmodify the same head [...H (PP) (PP) ]. (b) One PP is subordinate to another PP [...H (p...H (PP)]. (c) The interpretation is ambiguous between (a) and (b). 1. (her interest in the coins of Roman Britain) 2. (the leader of the revolution in October). 3. (the courage of a stag at bay). 4. (a battle of words in Parliament). 5. (the fall of Rome in 1527). 6. (the highest rate of inflation in Europe). 7. (a father of ten children with a criminal record).

7. Identify the phrases in the following, and give an analysis in terms of the classes or subclasses of words that comprise them: 1. a very earnest look 2. He sounds very interested in our proposal. 3. Unfortunately, he is very busy now. 4. A ridiculously worded statement 5. Is he certain of our support? 6. I am quite sure that he is certain to win. 7. a rather baffling description. 8. So, that makes it awkward to find. 9. Astonishingly, he can walk very fast. 10. He was rather concerned that no-one should know immediately. 8. A part of each of the sentences below is underlined. Indicate by which of the following linguistic structures the underlined part is being realized: a. prepositional phrase b. noun phrase c. adjective phrase d. adverb phrase And state their functions 1. The Great Fire of London started in a bakery. 2. It burnt furiously for four days. 3. Peppy has given us a vivid account of it. 4. The man who has just spoken is Benjamin Hall. 5. The man who won the contract was Dent. 6. The next day we were sitting in the car. 7. Hand the man at the gate your tickets. 8. Meeting her again has left me very happy. 9. Name the underlined according to linguistic units (e.g. NP, VP, PP....) and then state their functions: E.g. a vegetarian boom : NP; function: object 1. Australia is currently experiencing a vegetarian boom 2. Activities that relieves stress and encourages relaxation are paid more attention. 3. From the heath point of view, we are living in a marvelous age. 4. Modern drugs and surgery can now cure a great number of once fatal diseases. 5. We all feel almost certain that one day remedies will be found for the most stubborn remaining diseases. 6. The smoke in the atmosphere is increasing so much that the amount of sunlight has been reduced in many cities .


(1)...................................................................................................................... (2)...................................................................................................................... (3)...................................................................................................................... (4)...................................................................................................................... (5)...................................................................................................................... (6)...................................................................................................................... 10.State whether the underlined prepositions function either as postmodifiers or as adverbs :
1. The koala consumed the leaves with boredom. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

.......................................................................... She had no desire to flatter her mother -in law. .......................................................................... Bugs fled from the wrath of Elmer. .......................................................................... Some people like the giraffe with its long neck and the camel with its hump. .......................................................................... The three men digging for gold discovered the body. .......................................................................... An old lady in the plane had a blanket over her head. .......................................................................... They used hunger strikes to engender awareness of their cause. .......................................................................... The cat was sitting in the kitchen to chase mice. ..........................................................................

11. Find out verb phrases in the following sentences and analyse them; 1. We were waiting for hours. 2. Yee Ling has never been to Scotland. 3. Those people are really lucky. 4. We will not give you that information. 5. They appointed him the chairman of the committee. 6. Ali must have spent a fortune last week. 7. They could help you. 8. They will arrive tomorrow morning. 9. The thieves may have left by now. 10. When did you see Mr. Lim 12. Underline verb phrases in the following sentences and decide whether they are finite or non finite: 1. At the station, we were met by a man carrying a copy of "The Times". 2. He was accompanied by a porter weighing at least 150 kilos.

3. A car, coming unexpectedly out of a side street, crashed into us. 4. We collided with a car driven by a young man without a license. 5. Any diver not having a license ought to be sent to jail right away. 6. The train standing at platform six is for Brussels and Ousted. 7. Any article left in this bus was taken at once to the Lost property Office. 8. Any dutiable articles not declared to the custom will be liable to confiscation. 9. Presents costing less than ten pounds in all may be imported duty free. 10.Anyone not hearing that noise must have been stone deaf. 13. Distinguish one-verb forms (a) verb-plus-particle constructions (b) Example : I/put on/ my coat in a hurry = (b). 1. I handed in my resignation last May. 2. The police looked at the photographs very carefully. 3. The soldiers may have blown up the bridge. 4. My brother fell through the open doorway. 5. The police caught up with the speeding car near Changi. 6. Three boys were running down the street. 7. The plane took off at 12 noon. 8. How can you cope with all that work? 9. The answer is blowing in the wind. 10. We aren't looking forward to the examinations next week. 11. Did you apply for that tutoring position? 12. Mr. Wong just can't give up cigarettes. 14. Name the underlined phrases and their functions: a. When sunlight enters a room where there is fire, the fire goes out. He was still standing at the truck when he heard the whistle that meant that they were turning off the arc lights. Four walls of glass with a glass door that let you into where there was a covered well and shelves of dead plants that at one time must have flourished in the heated room. b. Rescuers last night abandoned their search for a 12-year-old girl who was blown out to sea on an inflatable dinghy as her parents watched helplessly from the beach. An RAF helicopter and three lifeboats were recalled at 8.30 pm by coastguards after a four-and-a-half hour search yielded nothing. The child was last seen clinging to a paddle after having jumped or fallen from her plastic toy boat. The girl's parents had watched from the shore at Huttoft, eight miles north of Skegness, as the dinghy carrying their daughter gathered speed in force four winds, propelling her away from the beach. Her father, aided by other holidaymakers at the tiny seaside village, had attempted to reach the girl but failed. Two other children, who had been playing on the dinghy with her, managed to scramble to land. 15. Identify types of underlined phrases (or clauses) 1. The fireman battled an inferno fuelled by toxic chemicals.

2. The decision to join a worshipping group requires some motivation. 3. You should be given a receipt showing the agent's ATOL number. 4. To make matters worse, the consumption demands from middle and upper classes could only be supplied through importation of sophisticated goods. 5. They are keen to stress shopping as a family activity. 6. Formulating such laws is by no means an easy task. 7. It is good to see those numbers again. 8. The problem is finding a company willing to do it. 9. They criticized the schools designed to deal with disruptive pupils. 10. Mustard cream, used as alternate dip for franks and pineapple tidbits, tastes best when served at room temperature. 11. Julius Cesar is about learning to cope with the fallout of betrayal. 12. For Australians, throwing a prawn on the barbecue will never be the same. 13. I asked an old guy running a fishing station if the boat was Moore's 14. Though fearful of road conditions, they decided to go by cars. 15. Story of how the people have lived for several weeks without food are sometimes told. 16. The injured lay unattended for several hours. 17. He felt hurt, angry, and impotent. 18. A pistol and three grenades were found in his suitcase. 19. You shouldn't wash handkerchiefs and socks together. 20. In the morning. I often go for a walk with my dog. 21. He always gives me a bunch of flowers on my birthday. 22. The girl whom I met was my friend's sister. 23. I am afraid of taking the English examination. 24. We are reluctant to leave this neighbourhood. 25. Honestly, I was nowhere near the scene of the accident when it happened. 26. The girl in the corner was a famous model. 27. We drove very fast. 28. The beautiful girl near the window seemed very interested in your dog. 29. Please look at my very wonderful painting. 30. Our book on English grammar became an instant best - seller . 31. We had the busiest time of our lives. 32. Jasmine, a tiny plant with fragrant flowers, grows only in warm places. 33. He believes everything he reads in advertisements. 34. Will you go to the concert that is raising funds for research into AIDS?





1.1. Sentences Traditional grammar defines a sentence in one of 2 ways. By meaning, a sentence is a complete thought. By function, a sentence consists of a subject and a predicate. In this course, we follow a definition which includes both functional and formal characteristics of a sentence: "A sentence is a full predication containing a subject plus a predicate with a finite verb". Its arrangement may be symbolized by such formulas as S V O (Subject + Verb + Object), N1 V N (Noun + Verb + Noun) or NP + VP (Noun phrase + Verb phrase). A sentence that cannot be subdivided into constituent sentences is known as a simple sentence. And a complicated sentence contains in it combined simple sentences. A sentence within a sentence is sometimes called in modern term an embedded sentence. The traditional term for embedded sentences is clauses. 1.2. Clauses A clause looks like a complete sentence appearing as part of something larger which also looks like a complete sentence. Like a sentence, clause must have a subject and a finite verb. Clauses are combined in two main ways to form more complex sentences; they may either be coordinated or independent as when a number of clauses of equal (grammatical) standing or importance are joined together (e.g., I ate steamed rice and you ate fried rice.) or one clause may be subordinate or dependent to another, which is known as the main or superordinate clause. Thus in I ate steamed rice while you ate fried rice, I ate steamed rice is the main clause to which the rest is subordinate or dependent. Dependent clauses may be classified either by Structural Type, i.e. in terms of the elements they themselves contain, or by Function, i.e. the part they play in the main/super-ordinate clause.

1.2.1. Analyzing by structural type, we arrive at the three main classes: Finite clause: a clause whose verb element is a finite verb phrase. E.g. John has visited New York. Because John is working, he may not hear what you say. The finite clause always contains a subject and a predicate, except in the case of commands and ellipsis. Non-finite clause: a clause whose verb element is a non-finite verb phrase. E.g. Having seen the pictures, he felt bored. For John to carry the parcels was a boring task. Non-finite clauses can be constructed without a subject and usually are. The four classes of non-finite verb phrase serve to distinguish four classes of non-finite clause: Infinitive without To Without subject: The best thing would be tell everybody. With subject: The best thing would be for you tell everybody. Infinitive with To Without subject: The best thing would be to tell everybody. With subject: The best thing would be for you to tell everybody. -Ing- participle Without subject: Leaving the room, he tripped over the mat. With subject: Her aunt having left the room, I declared my passionate love for Celia. -Ed Participle Without subject: Covered with confusion, I left the room. With subject: We left the room and went home, the job finished. Verbless clause: a clause containing no verb element. E.g. Although always helpful, he can't help you now. Too nervous to reply, he stared at the floor. John, then in New York, was quite an ordinary man.


1.2.2. Functional classification of dependent clauses. Dependent clauses may function as subject, object, complement, or adverbial in the super-ordinate / main clause: Subject: That we need more equipment is obvious. Direct object: I know that she is pretty. Indirect object: I gave whoever it was a cup of tea. Subject complement: The point is that were leaving. Object complement: I imagined him overcome with grief. Adjunct: When we meet, I shall explain everything. Disjunct: To be honest, Ive never liked him. Conjunct: What is more, he has lost the friend he had. - Adjuncts, disjuncts and conjuncts are different forms of adverbials. In addition, dependent clauses may function as post-modifier/ attributive, adjectival or prepositional complement. E.g. Post-modifier, in noun phrase: a friend who remains loyal Prepositional complement: It depends on what we decide. Adjectival complement: ready to act promptly 1.2.3. When the dependent clause is a finite clause, it may be a noun/nominal clause, an adjective/attributive/relative clause or an adverb/adverbial clause. E.g. That she is still alive is a consolation.
Noun/nominal clause

The first book he gave me was a dictionary.

Adjective clause

Because the soloist was ill, they cancelled the concert.

Adverbial clause

More detail about these kinds of dependent clauses will be mentioned in complex sentences.


1.3. Clause types The various units that make up the structure of a clause or a simple sentence are usually given functional labels, such as Subject (S), Verb (V), Complement (C), Object (O), and Adverbial (A). A number of clause types can be identified in this way, such as: S+V The girl + is dancing. S+V+O The girl + kissed + her dog. S+V+C The girl + is + sick. S+V+A The girl + lay + on the ground. S+V+O+O The girl + gave + her dog + a bone. S+V+O+C The girl + called + her dog + Honey. S+V+O+A The girl + put + her dog + on the sofa.

A sentence may consist of one of more words E.g. Thanks. Go away, please. Hungry? How nice! What? What a nuisance! Most sentences of more than one word consist of two nuclei: the subject and the predicate. 2.1. The subject & the predicate As you can see, every statement (leaving aside the other sentence forms for the moment) can be divided into two parts: the person or thing that is being spoken about the topic of the sentence and the things that are said about him/her/them/it, etc. In traditional terms, these are called subject and predicate. These labels are useful, since they reflect the fact that one of the two defining characteristics of the sentence is the message or information content. The subject is the topic, or what is being spoken about; the predicate is what is predicated (or said to be true) about the subject. Usually the subject and predicate occur in that order in a statement.


SUBJECT John The cat A stitch in time James Smith Captain Cook The people I like the best I

PREDICATE loves Mary. chased a mouse. saves nine. plays the piano beautifully. discovered Australia in 1776. never forget my birthday. met her down the street yesterday.

As these examples show, the subject is not necessarily a single word (a noun or a pronoun) it can be a noun phrase (NP), or even a clause. Clearly, in the sentence John loves Mary above, John is the one who is the focus of attention, but equally clearly Mary has an important role in the message, as the one who is the object of Johns loving. Loves is significant as the word which expresses the relation between the two; it is of course the verb, the word which carries the tense. In most statements, the verb is the first word (or word group) in the predicate. Thus, the most important factor in expressing the predicate is the verb; and the verb must agree with the subject, so the subject dictates the form of the verb. In other words, the predicate is a part of the sentence controlled by the subject. The distinction between the subject and predicate is a primary one in traditional grammars. We have said above that the subject can be expressed by means of a single word a noun or pronoun or a noun phrase, or even a clause. Some more examples are necessary for you to grasp this: A single word: Man is an emotional creature. Men do not know how to suffer; women do.


A phrase:

The young girl with long hair walked confidently across the room.

A clause:

Learning English enables many people to make some social advancement. What to do with the money drove him mad To love and to be loved is the greatest happiness. That coffee grows in Brazil is famous to all. Whether or not he gets the money doesnt matter to me. What we are learning seems to be difficult. Why the minister committed suicide made the first headline on many newspapers today.

The subject of a sentence may be It as empty or preparatory subject, or There as introductory or anticipatory subject. (a) Empty subject We often use it in sentences referring to time, weather, temperature or distance. When used in this way, it is sometimes called an empty subject because it carries no real information. It is present because every English sentence has to contain a subject (and a verb): Time: Its 3 oclock. Its Thursday. Its November 23rd. Its time for us to leave. Weather: Its hot. Its raining. Temperature: Its 37oC. Distance: Its 5 km from here to the university. The tides: Its high tide at 11.44. Environment: Its noisy in here. Present situation: Isnt it awful! With since: Its three years since we last me. With say: It says here there was a big fire in Dong Xuan. With take: It takes 20 minutes to get to work. (b) Preparatory subject Sometimes sentences beginning with IT continue with an infinitive, a gerund or a noun clause. It is possible to begin such sentences with an infinitive or gerund, but we generally prefer IT. The true subject is the infinitive, gerund or noun clause, and it is preparatory to the subject.

Examples are: Its pleasant to lie in the sun. Its pleasant lying in the sun. Its a shame that Tom isnt here. It doesnt matter when we arrive. (c) Introductory There Sentences with There" may serve to assert or deny the existence of something or someone. In these sentences, the predicate verb is usually the verb to be or other verbs such as to live, to occur, to appear, to come etc. which indicate existence. e.g. There was a violent storm last night. There came a loud knock at the front door. There lived an old woman in that humble cottage. There have occurred many great changes since we last met. 2.2. The object The object is very closely tied to the predicator in terms of meaning, and typically denotes the person or thing most intimately affected by the action or state denoted by the predicate. An object is normally a noun, a pronoun, or noun phrase; it usually goes after the verb in the active. It can become the subject of the verb in the passive. An object can be a clause - finite or non-finite. E.g. She hit me. Mary threw the ball. Mary bought some ice cream. Mary likes to eat ice cream Mary bought whatever we wanted. Michael Swan and Catherine Walter wrote the Cambridge English Course. The Cambridge English Course was written by M. Swan and C. Walter.


Objects can be divided into two types: direct objects and indirect objects. - A direct object refers to the person or thing affected by the action of the verb. It comes immediately after a transitive verb: He kicked the dog. The dog bit him. - An indirect object usually refers to the person who benefits from the action expressed in the verb: Mary threw me the ball. The man bought his wife some flowers. - Indirect object can stand either after the verb or after the direct object with a preposition in between. In the latter case, another term which can be used for the indirect object is prepositional object. I brought him a cup of tea. I brought a cup of tea to him. She gave John some pocket money. She gave some pocket money to John. - Just like the subject, the object can be expressed by means of a single word (a noun or pronoun), a noun phrase, or even a clause. A single word John knows Barbara. Quang hates coffee. He never drinks coffee. A phrase He lives a humble life. Last weekend Phuong bought a second-hand compact disc stereo. He loves girls with long hair and brown eyes.


A clause Young children like climbing trees She doesnt know what to do with the money Nobody understands why the minister committed suicide. He suggested that we should dissolve the business. They didnt know whether the crowd had been dismissed. 2.3. The complement The complement can be defined as a sentence element that gives further information about the subject or the object; in other words, the complement completes the meaning of subject or the object, and therefore, there are two types of complement: subject complement (Cs) and object complement (Co). The subject complement can be expressed by a word, a phrase or a clause. Examples of subject complements are: He is the chairman. A pig is not a flying animal. She seems an honest person. His brother grew happier gradually. Our duty is that we must finish the problem. The object complement can be expressed by a word, a phrase or a clause. Examples of object complements are: They made Sam the chairman. They have proved me wrong. He called me James. He made her so happy. You push the door open.

He likes his coffee strong. He couldnt make his voice heard We found her in tears She wants all of us to go. I found what he said to mean nothing. I saw her running down the hill. I named my son what my father named me. NOTE: Another term for the subject complement (Cs) that follows a link-verb such as to be is predicative. E.g.: He is a doctor, she got tired. 2.5. The adverbial The adverb suggests the idea of adding to the meaning of a verb. They tell us something about the action in a sentence by modifying a verb, i.e. by telling how, when, where, etc. something happens or is done: Paganini must have played the violin beautifully. Adverbs are single words. Nevertheless, many phrases and clauses can perform a similar function of the adverb in the sentence; that is, adding some extra, circumstantial information about the action expressed by the verb. The term adverbial is used to describe any single words (adverbs), phrases or clauses that function as the adverb in the sentence. These phrases and clauses are called adverbial phrases and adverbial clauses respectively. Examples: She sang softly. She sang in a soft voice. She sang so softly that some people started to cry. As shown above, the adverbial can be expressed by a word (an adverb), a phrase or a clause. Examples can be:


By a word We work hard. They badly need a more effective banking system. By a phrase The cat ran under the bed. They will not come here next month. By a clause The students met to prepare for the Students Day ceremony. Having finished the work, they went out for a drink. Whenever she has a cold, she eats only fruit. We didnt come home until the rain started. I couldnt fee anger against her because I liked her too much. Adverbials are generally much more mobile in the sentence than the other elements. So mobile are certain adverbials that they can be placed in the middle of the predicate. E.g. Crabs are now being served. Crabs are being served now. Adverbials are also optional in most sentence types. E.g. (Sometimes) she (kindly) sends us some photographs. The girls are singing (loud) (in the room).

3. CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES Sentences classified according to structure 3.1. Simple sentences: A simple sentence normally contains a subject and a predicate. E.g. War is terrible.

Collecting stamps is one of her interests. The boy comes there everyday to help the old man. The window was broken by my younger son. She never comes here alone on Sundays. With the passage of time, the furniture became covered in dust. 3.2. Compound sentences: A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses usually connected by coordinating conjunctions (coordinators). In a compound sentence, all the independent clauses are of equal rank. E.g. John bought the tickets and Mary parked the car. There was no moon that night and, as a result, they took the wrong turning. The picture is not an original: in other words, it's a forgery. Two simple sentences may be combined into one compound sentence without any conjunction to link them together. In this case, they must be separated by a colon, a comma or a semi-colon. E.g. He is rich but hes unhappy. He is rich; hes unhappy. He is rich: hes unhappy. Sometimes, in order to avoid repetition, some parts of the compound sentence may be omitted. E.g. Man is guided by reason, beast (are guided) by instinct. My father wanted me to be a doctor and my mother (wanted me to be) a teacher. In a compound sentence, all the clauses are of equal importance and can stand on their own. The following coordinative conjunctions (and adverbs) connect the clauses of a compound sentence.

a) Copulative: and, not only... but also..., neither... nor..., now, then and others. Copulative conjunctions express that two ideas are connected. E.g. She drew up the curtain and the room was flooded with bright golden light. Not only was he dissatisfied but also he was extremely indignant. Neither the moon was visible in this dark night nor were the stars. b) Disjunctive: or, otherwise, else, either... or, etc. Disjunctive conjunctions indicate choices: E.g. We must hurry or we will miss the train. You must carry your raincoat along, otherwise you will get wet in the rain. Either you speak clearly or I do not understand what you say. c) Adversative: but, yet, still, nevertheless, however, etc. Adversative conjunctions denote that two ideas contradict each other. E.g. You can cross the river here, but be careful of the swift flow. I tried to persuade her to stay, still she would insist on leaving at such a late hour. She repeated it three times, yet I could not understand what it meant. d) Causal: for E.g. I could not buy it, for it is impossible for me to afford it. We cannot see the moon, for dark clouds cover the sky. e) Resultative: so, therefore, accordingly, then... E.g. It is getting late, then we had better go home. She did not feel well for some days, so she decided to go and see her doctor.


3.3. Complex sentences: In traditional grammar, a complex sentence contains a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. The subordinate clause must be a finite clause and can be the Noun clause, the Adjective clause or the Adverb clause. E.g. He realizes that he hasn't understood his father. The man who knows no foreign language knows nothing about his mother tongue. When I was answering the telephone, he came back because he had forgotten his hat. In contemporary grammar, a complex sentence consists of one independent clause and one or more than one dependent clauses, linked in a relationship of subordination. The dependent clause may be finite or non-finite. E.g. All I did was hit him on the head. Having finished the work, the workers went together for a drink. How the book will sell depends on its author. Since he won't answer the phone, we'd better leave a note. Finite clauses as dependent ones in complex sentences can be: 3.3.1. The noun clause The clause doing the same functions as the noun is called the noun clause. a) Subordinate subject clauses have the function of the subject to the predicate of the main clause. They are introduced by: + Conjunctions: That / Whether + Conjunctive pronouns: Who / What / Which + Conjunctive adverbs: When / Where / How / Why E.g. That he will come is certain. Who broke the glass window remained unknown. How she managed to do it seemed a mystery to me. Whether (or not) he gets the money doesnt concern me.

Sometimes, the impersonal pronoun It is used to introduced the subject clause. E.g. It is necessary that we should all be present. It is still unknown when he will come. The subject clauses are not separated by a comma. b) Subordinate predicative clauses have the function of the predicative (subject complement) They are introduced by the same conjunctions and as if, conjunctive pronouns and adverbs as in the subject clauses. The link-verb is in the main clause. The predicative clause together with the link-verb forms a compound nominal predicative to the subject of the main clause: E.g. The question is whether it may rain or not. It looks as if it were going to rain. That is why she is so happy. Forget-me-not is what they call that kind of flower. No comma is needed when we used the predicative clauses. c) Subordinate object clauses have the function of the object to the predicate of the main clause. They are also introduced by the same conjunctions, conjunctive pronouns and adverbs as in the subject and predicative clauses. E.g. She told me that she was willing to help. I should like to know whether they will come. He forgot to tell me where he had put the keys. Give whoever comes to the door the money in this envelope. Please, show me who your boyfriend is. I consider what you have said a great insult. I wonder what made him do it. I was amazed at how beautiful his wife is. She did not remember when she had to make a phone-call. He always boasts about what a good cook his mother is. No comma is needed when the object clauses are used in the complex sentences.


d). Subordinate appositive clauses have the function of a noun used in apposition. E.g. His belief that coffee grows in Brazil is correct. He has told me the news that he has just been promoted. A few nouns followed by That - appositive clauses are fact, idea, notion, reason, theory, principle, thesis etc... Noun appositive clauses can be restrictive or non-restrictive. E.g. He carefully concealed his indignation that he was not given the My original question, why he did it at all, has not been answered. Your assumption, that things will improve, is unfounded. e). Subordinate adjective complement clauses In connection with types of noun clauses, we might refer to that-clauses after predicative adjectives denoting feeling and perception such as glad, happy, sure, certain, aware, sorry etc. These clauses can be classified either as "complement of the adjective" or as "complement of the combined verb and predicative adjective". E.g. Im sorry that she cannot come with us today. She wasnt certain whose house she was in. Are you sure that things will improve? 3.3.2. The attributive (adjective) clause An attributive clause serves as an attribute to some nouns or pronouns in the main clause. This noun or pronoun is called an antecedent. E.g. There is a man downstairs who wants to see you. I understand almost everything that you tell me. Attributive clauses are introduced by: + Relative pronouns: Who (m) / Which / That + Relative adverbs: When / Where Here are the keys that you lost yesterday.

appointment he had asked for.

The book which she bought last week is interesting. The man whom you saw yesterday is her new boyfriend. It was a year when I began to learn English. It is the village where I was born and grew up. Attributive clauses are of two kinds: defining and non-defining clauses. - Defining clauses limit and define more clearly the antecedent. They are not usually separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma. They are important parts of the sentence and cannot be omitted without causing misunderstanding the sentence as a whole. E.g. I met the boatman who had taken me across the ferry. The book which you told me about was sold out. The parcel that I got yesterday is a birthday present. The house where I had live was demolished. - Non-defining clauses give some additional information about the antecedent. They are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. They may be omitted without affecting the precise understanding of the sentence as a whole. E.g. This book, which has pictures in, is good for children to read. That taxi driver, who usually smiles, is a good and careful driver. Lenin Park, where many people come on festive days, is very popular in Hanoi. Sometimes, prepositions can be used with relative pronouns to show clearer, better relation and this use is very rare in everyday speech: to whom, in which, at which, from which, of which, for whom, etc. E.g. Both of them, neither of whom study hard, got bad marks at exams. This is the house in which I had lived for nearly two years. Relative pronoun that was the usual pronoun in Middle and Early Modern English. Generally that is used instead of who and which in relative clauses, however, that is seldom used in Modern English.


Nevertheless, that is used freely with the reference to persons and things in the following cases: a) With the following pronouns: all, everything, nothing, something, anything, much, little, few. E.g. Everything that we saw was of great interest. All that glitters is not gold. Please ask me anything that is not clear to you. b) Often with superlatives or the first E.g. It is the most dangerous corner that I have ever passed. The first book on the shelf that struck me was a novel by Hemingway. Appositive noun clauses refer to nouns (rarely pronoun) in the main clause. They are introduced by the conjunction that or the conjunctive adverbs how, when, where and why. Care should be taken to discriminate between noun appositive clauses and attributive clauses, which have the function of an attribute. E.g. The idea that it could be done in a very simple way did not surprise me. (appositive noun clause) The news that he has told me interests me much. ( attributive clause) 3.3.3. The adverbial clauses Adverbial clauses add meaning to a verb, an adjective or an adverb of the main clause in the function of an adverbial modifier. E.g. I will speak to him when he comes. He will follow her whenever she goes. Adverbial clauses are connected to the main clause by means of conjunctions: when, while, after, because, if, than, etc. On the ground of their meaning, adverbial clauses are classified into 8 different kinds: a) Adverbial clauses of time broadly answer the question WHEN? and can be introduced by the following conjunctions: when, while, after, as, as long as, as soon as, before, since, etc. E.g. Please tell him that as soon as he arrives.

She was in the kitchen while the telephone was ringing. He thought carefully before he decided to do this. You may enjoy yourself as long as you like to. To express that the action of the subordinate clause closely follows that of the main clause, some negative conjunctive adverbs, such as: hardly, scarcely, no sooner, etc. are used and the main clause is used in inversion structure. E.g. Hardly had I reached the station when the train started to leave the platform. Scarcely had she opened the door when all the lights were out. No sooner had she got home than it started raining cats and dogs. b) Adverbial clauses of place answer the question WHERE? and can be introduced by the conjunctions: where, wherever, anywhere, everywhere, etc. Adverbial clauses of place normally come after the main clause. Sometimes, they can begin a sentence for the sake of emphasis. E.g. The house was built where two roads meet. You can camp wherever you like to. Everywhere Mary went, she was mistaken for her sister. The pagoda was built where there had once been a Catholic church. c) Adverbial clauses of manner or comparison answer the question HOW? and can be introduced by the conjunctions: as, as if, as though, than, the more ... the more, the less ... the less, etc. They usually come after the main clause. E.g. I will do it exactly as you told me to. He worked much better than I had hoped. d) Adverbial clauses of reason / cause broadly answer the question WHY? and can be introduced by the following conjunctions: because, as, since, seeing that, for fear that, etc. E.g. They decided to give up the trip because the weather had turned out too bad. Since you insist, we will go together.

As the day was clear and there was sunshine, we decided to go on a camping holiday among the hills. I bought his house at once for fear that they might change their mind. e) Adverbial clauses of result are used to describe consequences and are introduced by the conjunctions: so that, so ... that, and so on. E.g. High mountains and trees surround the valley so that the valley itself is gloomy even in the daytime. The problem is so simple that even a child can understand. It was such a cold day that the streets were almost empty. f) Adverbial clauses of purpose answer the question WHAT FOR? FOR WHAT PURPOSE? and can be introduced by the following conjunctions: so that, in order that, lest, for fear that, etc. E.g. We will write down her name so that we may not forget. We must hurry lest we should be late for the train. She worked hard for her exams in order that she could get good marks. g) Adverbial clauses of concession introduce an element of contrast into a sentence and are introduced by the following conjunctions: though, although, even if, even though, however, whoever, whatever, whichever, no matter how, etc. E.g. Though we could see nothing, we distinctively heard the sound in the distance. Whatever you say, I would never change my mind. No matter how hard he tries, he will not pass this exam. h) Adverbial clauses of condition express a condition by which an action can or cannot happen. They are introduced by the following conjunctions: if, unless, on condition that, supposing that, so long as, etc. E.g. If it is late, we should stop our work here. Supposing that he doesnt come, what shall we do?

So long as you did not work hard, you would never pass your exams. In conditional clause, there are two types: Real or Open condition, and Unreal condition. In unreal condition, the conjunction IF can be omitted, and in such cases there are the inversion in the IF clause. E.g. Had she known of it, she would have come. Did he have time, he would be ready for help. Sometimes the main clause is not expressed, then the IF clause (unreal condition) denotes a wish. E.g. If only it could be avoided! If only we were at home now! 3.4. Compound-complex sentences: A compound-complex sentence contains two or more main clauses and one or more subordinate clauses. E.g. -He wanted to return where he was born but we asked him to stay. -The idea that he was going away, that I should never see him again, made me very sad and I forgot all the punishment and the blows with the ruler. -While Mary was parking the car, John bought the tickets, then started back across the road without looking to right or left and, just as he was reaching the other side, he was knocked down by a bus and badly injured. Such above sentences, in contemporary grammar, may be called complex.


EXERCISES 1. Identify the constituent which realizes Subject function in each of the following clauses. 1. The use of caves for smuggling is as old as the hills. 2. There were about half a dozen men seated in the bar. 3. The light of a torch flickered. 4. What the critics failed to understand is that his art was not sacrificed to popularity. 5. The list of people who she says helped her is long. 6. It was my great good fortune to meet him before he died. 7. The wind coming down form the snowfields above woke us every night as we lay in our tent. 8. It makes sense to tell the neighbours you are going away on holiday. 9. It is sometimes argued that there is no real progress. 10.Theres no way of knowing what goes on in their minds. 2. Identify the constituent which functions as Direct Object in each of the following clauses, and the class of unit which realizes this function. 1. Shoppers are flouting the no-sales-on-Sunday trading laws. 2. He banged the door as he went out.

He pointed out that foreign doctors were not permitted to practice in that

country. 4. The negotiations have achieved very little. 5. Dont expect a classical rendering of Shakespeares text at this years International Theatre Festival. 6. A team of divers have discovered what they believe to be sunken treasure. 7. One doubts that many will survive the long trek over the mountains. 8. You might ask what is the use of all this.

He shoveled a ton of gravel into the back garden.


10. Do you mind waiting a few minutes? 3. Some of the following clauses contain Subject Complements, others Object Complements. Identify each and state the class of unit which realises each of these constituents. 1. Leave him alone. 2. They must prove themselves fit for the task. 3. Spying on firms has become a multi-million pound industry. 4. What will they call the baby? 5. Archies bar is where its at. 6. Life is a series of accidents. Thats what he thinks.

He makes his films accessible to a wide public.

8. He kept us laughing all evening with his jokes. 9. The weather has turned unexpectedly cold lately. 10.Make the coffee a bit stronger, would you? 11.I am an animal lover working in a department dedicated to cancer research. 12.I think you have mistaken the gentlemens lavatory for the stage door. 13.They found Winstons sense of humour rather disconcerting. 14.What colour is she going to dye her hair? 15.Any attempt to re-establish control over the liberated areas would prove self-defeating. 4. Identify the functional constituents (subject, object, complement) in each sentence. 1. All the eleven Tiong Bahru players will be there. 2. These four huge Japanese sumo wrestlers are our friends. 3. A millionaire businessman from California bought those three incredibly expensive oil paintings. 4. That frightening book about mountaineering accidents was written by Eileen Dover.

5. Half Brazil's natural resources have still not been discovered. 6. Paul McCartney today is not the same man I knew in the sixties. 7. The first twenty people who give the right answers will win fabulous winter holidays in Siberia. 8. The nation's road ahead will be difficult but our efforts should eventually produce something extremely worthwhile. 9. Those delicious chocolate biscuits on the table were all eaten by the cat. 10. The situation over there requires very careful diplomacy. 11. All those seven boys from Toa Payoh won scholarships. 12. Shoes that colour would not be my personal choice. 13. The Queen's three sons were at the party. 14. This movie deals with a murder investigation in Bangkok.
15. TV

programmes which contain unnecessary violence should be banned.

5. Identify each clause type (sentence structure) in the following sentences: Example: He seems nice. (Answer = SVCs) 1. They gave us a lift yesterday. 2. It rained hard. 3. Your friend is extremely intelligent. 4. She was sleeping in the chair. 5. The little boy got his shoes wet. 6. The rock singer became angry. 7. Where do you live? 8. Did he put all his money under the mattress? 9. We were looking for more information. 10.She appeared happy. 11.She appeared at the door. 12.Drop me a postcard some time. 13.The medicine made Yee Ling sleepy.

She was carrying a red umbrella in Orchestra Road.


15.Yoko sent me a birthday card. 6. Identify the clause type for each of the following. 1. He has become what he always wanted to be. 2. They arrived at the hotel and sat on the terrace. 3. What an extraordinary dancer she is! 4. I warn you that a villa in that area is not cheap. 5. Passing through the sound barrier doesnt affect the passengers. 6. The precise number of heart attacks from using cocaine is not known. 7. The authorities claim that everything possible has been done. 8. The doctor gave the injured man treatment for shock. 9. The party will have to draw on whatever resources it can. 10.The only thing I did was tell him to go away. 11.Lend whoever calls the bicycle pump in the shed. 12.The governments import policy has made the farmers furious. 13.Can you imagine yourself the owner of a luxury yatch? 14.Somebody snatched her bag in the park. 15.He hesitated for a moment, wondering what to do. 16.Sierra Leone is one of the worlds biggest producers of diamonds. 17.Save your brother a piece of your birthday cake. 18.She felt her face turn red. 19.It is not easy to learn a new language. 20.An official declared the place to be free of infection. 7. Underline all nonfinite subordinate clause. Identify their functions. 1. He's interested in learning Maths. 2. Flattering your boss doesn't ensure career advancement. 3. We will need 3.000 stickers of satay to feed our guests. 4. He made no move to greet me. 5. The next plane to arrive is from Bangkok. 6. She loves any dish involving cheese.

7. He wore a suit to please his parents. 8. She had no desire to flatter his parents.
9. 10.

Ms. Pickers will be the best person to oversee the project. She uses her computer to do all her banking.

11.His decision to use an all-female cast surprised all of us. 12.Any article left students in this office will be taken to the Lost Property Office. 13.She stood in the middle of the shop, looking around with interest. 14.We didn't receive any instruction to open the gate. 15.He has been dieting these days to lose weight. 16. For a bridge to collapse like that is unbelievable. 17. She's very glad to help us with the housework.
18. 19. 20.

His ambition to become a famous writer was never fulfilled. The children were on the beach, busy building sand castles. Discouraged by the failure, he became an alcoholic.

8. Combine each of the pairs of sentences below so as to produce one single sentence containing an adjective complemented by a finite clause, omitting what is in brackets: 1. You must resign. We are adamant (on that point). 2. You have made a serious error. We are afraid that (that is so). 3. Why did you behave in that way? I'm ashamed. 4. There will be a public inquiry. I am certain (of it). 5. Why do you feel so offended? We are concerned (about that). 6. You will understand. We are fully confident (of it). 7. Why do you say that? It is curious. 8. You see our point of view at last. We're delighted. 9. You must have complete trust in us. It is essential. 10.You revealed the secret. The Captain is furious. 11.You have received us so magnificently. We feel greatly honoured.

12.We are happy. You feel at home in our country. 13.You must prolong your stay. Everyone insists (on it).

We shall have no more traveling. That is a great relief to us.

15.You were kept waiting at the gate. I am deeply shocked. 16.My husband will not be able to attend your meeting. He is very sorry. 17.I may not be able to come with you. I'm not sure yet. 18.Did you really say that? Is it true? 19.Don't you know your program? I'm surprised. 20.Everyone should vote on Thursday. It is vital. 9. Underline the subordinate clauses. Identify their functions in the higher clauses. 1. What he saw frightened him. 2. Whenever I visit my in-laws, I feel an outsider. 3. Why she suddenly disappeared is a complete mystery. 4. I noticed that she had spilled a little tea. 5. We walk everywhere as we dont have a car. 6. You can do it if you try. 7. I doubt if he is telling the truth. 8. It surprised me that she couldnt speak Hebrew at all. 9. The ribs may be a bit tough but they taste pretty good. 10.My concern is why you drink.

Even if Mr. Bean is innocent, the President will not help.

12.The question remains how these children became computer addicts. 13.He conducts the tutorials as if we were sheep. 14.I told him that I would telephone him the next day. 15.It seems fair that these tourists should be expelled from the country. 16.That she didnt use her real name showed that she was afraid. 17. Home is where your friends and family are.

Where the fire had been, we saw nothing but blackened ruins.

10. Rewrite the sentences, replacing each of the underlined with an equivalent finite clause

Do it to the best of your ability.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Nobody must expect to be rich without hard work. His silence proves his guilt. They recommend banning the sale of alcohol at football matches. His birthplace is a small and quiet village. He is a man of great courage. The old man has gone abroad to be cured. He is too young to become a politician. With all his money he couldnt buy happiness. The police has found the stolen property. You can choose anything of your liking. Please tell us your thoughts about our city. Owing to bad health, the director has resigned. The house at the end of the road has been sold.

11. Rewrite the sentences, replacing each subordinate clause with an equivalent phrase or non-finite clause. 1. Though I am not rich, I am contented. 2. The soldiers fought as heroes do. 3. It is a long lane that has no turning. 4. The explanation he gave me was not satisfactory. 5. The law will punish whosoever is guilty. 6. We all hope that our life will be better. 7. I remember that Ive met her twice. 8. The man has not been well since he returned from prison. 9. We will buy it, cost what it may.

10.Theyll have a holiday that lasts three weeks. 11.Peace will come to all people who love peace. 12.He came in quietly lest he should wake up his children. 13.Why he became popular is still a secret. 14.Because weve seen the film twice, we wont see it again. 15.No man can become a great artist unless he applies himself continually to his art. 12. Classify the following sentences according to structure. If the sentence is a complex or a compound complex, pick out the finite subordinate clause(s). 1. I'm glad that my mother made me take piano lessons when I was a child. 2. Joe jumped into the river to rescue the little girl who was drowning even though he wasn't a good swimmer. 3. I knew that I should get some sleep, but I just couldn't put my book down because I was really enjoying it. 4. Thomas was thirsty yet he refused to drink the water that I offered him. 5. The Comedian made people laugh by telling jokes and making funny faces. 6. Most 15th century Europeans believed that the world was flat and that a ship could conceivably sail off the end of the earth. 7. Please tell me soon whether you will go or not so that I can decide what I'm going to do. 8. My sister can fall asleep under any conditions, but I can't get to sleep unless the light is off and the room is perfectly quiet. 9. The cheapest way to get from an airport to a hotel is to take an airport bus, but I'm not sure if River City has one. 10. I asked Angela to run the office while I 'm gone since I know I can depend on her. 11. You'd better give me your answer quickly, or else I'll withdraw the invitation. 12. As long as you're going to the fruit market, would you please pick up a few apples for me? 13. Even though Jack hates going to the dentist, he should see his dentist soon because he has a very bad toothache. 14. Robert is totally exhausted after playing tennis whereas Marge isn't even tired despite the fact that she ran around a lot more during the game. 15. I'm sorry you've decided not to go with us on the river trip, but if you change your mind there will still be enough room on the boat for you. 16. Jack insisted that he didn't need any help but I helped him anyway. 17. Minerals such as nickel, copper and zinc can be found in seawater. 18. Tom eats a lot of fish but avoids red meat because of its high fat content. 19. That pollution diminishes the quality of our lives is a fact that is hard to deny.


20. When I asked Ann where she was going, she said she was on her way to the market and invited me to come with her. 21. Studying psychology last year made me realize what kind of career I wanted to have. 22. I didn't know where I was supposed to get off the bus so I asked the driver where the science museum was. 23. Is it true that the law says there is no smoking in restaurants in this city? 24. He simply looked around and wondered what he was supposed to do. 25. It 's my grandmother 's recipe but she forgot to tell me how long I should bake it.

13. Classify the following sentences according to structure. If a sentence is complex or compound complex, pick out the subordinate clause(s) 1. Life, although so short, can sometimes be so rich in experiences. 2. The flames of the fires were no longer dancing and all that was left of them was the faint glow of the embers. 3. It has been my experience that anyone who went to a single-sex school has finished with a severe lack of social interaction skills with the opposite sex. 4. Each civilization is born, it culminates, and it decays. 5. Had I not seen this last week with my own eyes, Id not have believed. 6. Little minds are tamed and subdued by misfortune but great minds rise above it. 7. Virtue ennobles, vice degrades. 8. Like many developing countries in South East Asia, Vietnam exports its natural resources against importation of machinery and chemicals. 9. Convinced of the importance of education, modern states invest in institutions of learning to get back interest in the form of a large group of enlightened young men and women who are potential leaders. 10.Perhaps he just takes everyday as it comes and doesnt worry himself about the past any more. 11.Hatred is blind, as well as love.

12.It is of paramount importance that attention should be paid to the order of the words in an English sentence, because, as the English language is not inflectional, by the object being placed before the verb, exactly the opposite meaning of what is desired may be the result. 13.When ripe, these apples will be delicious. 14.There was not a woman present but wept to hear such news. 15.A room without a book is like a body without a soul. 16.While many citizens are suffering from stress and anxiety, the effects of the accident are less serious than many had feared.

Over the next decade, automation and the mechanization of production

will improve and transform farming, industrial plants and service industries and also make our leisure time more productive, creative and interesting. 18.The marketing Managers ingenious plan to promote sales has failed. 19.It has been suggested that age is an important factor in opinion polls.

In the 17th century scientific works began to be published systematically.

14. Identify the noun clauses in the following sentences and describe the function of each: 1. That it was done deliberately is quite clear. 2. We greatly regret that we were obliged to refuse your invitation. 3. Many people are wondering when inter-planetary travel will become possible. 4. Can you explain to me where he lives? 5. What you are attempting is really too difficult for you. 6. What you are attempting is really too difficult for you. 7. The hospital will greatly appreciate all you can do for the patients. 8. We were greatly amused by what you tell us. 9. It seemed that he is not coming to the party after all. 10.The notion that people can work less and earn more is contrary to reason. 11.I am delighted that you have succeeded in getting the job. 15. Combine each of the pairs of sentences below so as to form one sentence containing a nominal that clause. Say what function the clause is fulfilling in the sentence. 1. We have enough water for two more days. I told you so. 2. We have only enough for two days. I am very sorry.

3. We have only enough for two days. That is our conclusion. 4. In view of the drought, there is only enough water for two days. I estimate that having taken very careful measurements. 5. We have only enough for two days. That is very alarming. 6. We conclude that there is only enough for two days. Our conclusion has been reached after very careful checking. 7. We cannot stay here. We must face that fact. 8. I am convinced we cannot stay here. The results will be disastrous if we do. 9. We have almost exhausted our supplies. How can I convince you of that? 16. Combine each of the pairs of sentences below so as to form one sentence containing a WH-clause. State their function in the sentence 1. What caused the explosion? No one ever discovered. 2. What damage did the explosion cause? It took three weeks to estimate. 3. Where did the first start? That was a complete mystery. 4. Where did the fever begin? The seriousness of his condition depends on that. 5. Where did the fever begin? I am not quite sure. 6. Which drawer does he keep his money in? I can never remember. 7. How can we reduce this high temperature? My problem is that. 8. Why didn't he say he was feeling ill? The question is irrelevant at this stage. 9. How often do these fevers occur? I cannot tell you that precisely. 10.How much will all this cost? I am concerned about that. 17. Identify whether the following THAT-clauses are adjective or noun clauses 1. Everyone tends to think that he is not sufficiently appreciated. 2. Everyone that thinks so is not necessarily concerned. 3. My opinion that you disagree with so strongly has not been properly represented. 4. The main difficulties lie in the fact that we have nobody properly qualified for this work. 5. We are at a serious disadvantage in that we have nobody properly qualified for this work. 6. I understand you have had some trouble with your telephone. 7. You've had some trouble with your telephone, I understand. 8. John never actually took the money, I believe. 9. That John never actually took the money, I believe. 10. 18. All the following sentences contain errors in adjective clause structures. Correct the errors. 1. 2. 3. 4. In our village, there were many people didn't have much money. I enjoyed the book that you told me to read it. Almost all the people appear on television wear make up. I showed my father a picture of the car I am going to buy it as soon as I save enough money.

5. I sit next to a person who his name is Ahmed. 6. The woman about who I was talking about suddenly walked into the room. I hope she didn't hear me. 19. Identify the adverb clauses in the following sentences: 1. When we arrived at the football field, the game had started. 2. Richard left dirty footmarks whenever he went. 3. Kick the ball as Richard did. 4. Don't handle those cups as if they were made of iron. 5. I need a hammer and nails, because I am going to repair the shed. 6. We shall come and see you if we have a holiday. 7. Although it was rather foggy, we played the match. 8. They went swimming although the sea was very rough. 9. He told the secret so that I should help him. 10.He was so stupid that he couldn't pass the exam. 20. Read the sentences and identify subordinate finite clauses as well as nonfinite ones. 1. Buying clothes is often a very time-consuming practice because those clothes that a person likes are rarely the ones that fit him or her.

At the moment husbands in all industrialized countries contribute very

little to domestic work and recent research shows that this contribution does not increase when the wife goes out to work.

The mosquito, at best, is an insect we could do without, but some kinds

of mosquitoes are so dangerous that they may have changed the course of history. 4. When mother works economic advantages accrue, but children lose something of great value if mothers employment prevents her from being home to greet them when they return from school. 5. Insects would make it impossible for us to live in the world; they would devour all our crops and kill our flocks and herds, if it were not for the protection we get from insect-eating animals. 6. It is always a bitter blow to lose a beloved one, and twice as bitter when the person managed to survive right through to the end of the war only to be killed in the last few weeks.

7. By their example the Olympic Champions teach us to strive with all our might to reach our aims in life, no matter how difficult these dreams may be to realize. 8. The assumption that children of divorced parents prefer to remain with their mother, and indeed that the mother wants them, may oftentimes be false. 9. In recent years, it has been observed that in those societies where women work outside their home in the company of men, there exist many serious social problems. 10.Through the classroom activities, the teacher can develop creativity in the preschool child by giving importance and value to what the child has made and by encouraging him to develop his own ideas and thoughts. 11.Vietnamese electricity network engineers are to have their skills enhanced in computer technology under an aid agreement signed in Hanoi yesterday between Canadas Hydro-Quebec International (HQI) and Electricity of Vietnam.

"I am always amazed when I hear people saying that sport creates good

will between the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the world could meet one another at football or cricket, they would have no inclination to meet on the battlefield." 13.That language is highly complex is shown by the fact that up to now it has not proved possible to translate mechanically from one language to another with really satisfactory results.

The way that people spend their money, and the objects on which they

spend it, are the last areas where free choice and individuality can be expressed. 21. Add a clause to the following and name the kind of clause you add.
1. 2.

I saw the lady ____________________________________________ The little boy said _________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________ when they reach home. 4. The girl ran quickly ________________________________________

5. I noticed _________________________________________________ when he rose to speak. 6. We stood on the very spot ___________________________________ 7. ________________________________________ if you can not swim. 8. The dog barked loudly ______________________________________ 9. The lady _____________________________________ was my sister. 10. Will you let me know ___________________________________? 11.The lady _____________________________________ was my sister. 12. I hope ___________________________________________________ 13. We saw the train __________________________________________ 14. __________________________________________________ while they listened. 15. The boy hurt himself badly __________________________________ 16. The man ________________________________________________ was caught by the police. 17. I saw ___________________________________________________ 18. She bought an umbrella _____________________________________ 19. _____________________________________________ as she spoke. 20. The messenger arrived _____________________________________ 21. I watched the man _________________________________________ 22. I do not know ____________________________________________ 23. As the girl approached the house _____________________________ 24.We saw ________________________________________________ when we returned. 25.______________________________________________ if you are ill.


22. Pick out all the finite subordinate clauses in the text, then identify the form and the function of each of them. Text 1 People who are deprived of sleep lose energy and become quick-tempered. After two days without sleep, a person finds that length concentration becomes difficult. He can force himself to perform tasks well for short periods, but he is easily distracted. He makes many mistakes, especially at routine tasks, and his attention slips at times. He falls completely asleep unless he is kept active continuously. Persons without three days sleep have great difficulty thinking, seeing and hearing clearly. Text 2 Wide-ranging research on tooth decay has recently produced some surprising findings. One indicates that cheddar cheese may actually inhibit the tooth-decay process. It seems to have decay-slowing effect on human teeth if it is eaten immediately after sugar. Why cheese should have such an effect is unknown. It is speculated that the food might interfere with the acid that decay teeth or with bacteria that produce the acid. If so, it would be the first common food found to have this useful property. The other surprising research finding was that heavily sweetened cereals proved about equally potent in causing decay whether they contained eight percent sugar or almost eight times that much. Text 3 Ever since humans have inhabited the earth, they have made use of various forms of communication. Generally, these expressions of thoughts and feelings have been in the form of oral speech. When there is language barrier, communication is accomplished through sign language in which motions stand for letters, words, and ideas. Tourists, the deaf, and the mute have had to resort to this form of expression. Many of these symbols of whole words are very picturesque and exact and can be used internationally; spelling, however, can not. Body language transmits ideas or

thoughts by certain actions, either intentionally or unintentionally. A wink can be a way of flirting or indicating that the party is only joking. A nod signifies approval, while shaking that head indicates a negative reaction Text 4 There is little doubt that one of the chief roles of the horse in art, just as in life, is that of our servant and companion. We can have very little idea of how a horse feels in its natural state. Left to itself, it is unlikely that it would pull a plough, take a soldier through a dangerous situation in battle, or do most of the other things that have attracted painters and writers to the animal ever since the dawn of history. The horse is controlled by the wishes of its owner. When we describe it, we say it has the virtues and qualities we most admire in ourselves and it is as the symbol of these qualities that it has so often been praised by painters and poets. Then we must consider the horses own beauty, speed and strength. Text 5 There are some diseases for which we know no cure. For many of these, however, scientists have been able to discover a means of prevention. Smallpox is such a disease. In the 18th century, millions of people died of smallpox, while many others who recovered from the disease were left scarred for life. Today, it is rare to find such a case. By 1780, doctors have noticed that once a person has smallpox, he became immune to it. From this observation, the theory of inoculation was developed. Inoculation is a way of deliberately giving a person a disease by placing diseased matter under the skin. When this is done, the person may develop a mild case of the disease, from then on he is safe from a severe attack.