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IS
Digital
fi:.e:ality IS digi'tal • Tur[ngl comp..._ti:lbilit~
rutes,
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Why Universal
Universal
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Paul. Cockshott
~ University
S!, if Glasgow
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Why Computer
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Turinqs idea wath~5 ~Qm~hfng much more
tu nd(! menta l
;;I,11d lastillg than that of
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Turing's
rsal
Universal
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Digi
Cheapness
EUill\r'E!J':KIlmJcl1olJJeRas !! ;adv;aRt;Jg~ t~ cne
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Why Universal
Predecessors
TIi~r~ were lots. of computing mamirtl;!=? Ibl?f~Hlli:Turing put to practlca l uee
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Cheapness
The universal machine has the advantage that one design can be applied to any problem. This brings huge
Analogue·
Turing needed' self reference in order to address the decision problem. But this property was the key to the economical adoption of computer
economy of scale to
manufacturing.
technology. It gives Universality. "This special property of diqital computers, that they can mimic any discretestate machine, is described by saying that they are universal machines."
Predecessors
DigitalL
perfbrms
th:E!~ ratl~ digitallil'lULtlplicatiol\5: .;mr! MI(lftions
There were lots of cornputl ng machines before Turing put to practical use '"
Analogue
HlO vearsaqo navleshad to solve .~altim~ vector ariUh'l'leti~ problems lind reqression problems that were w.y beyond what could tJ.e done
malnuailly.
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p,ntjk.Yth~ra comnutcr, andenr G~ck tecMIl1c9Y. preelcrs umar ectrpses eno lunar pcsltlcns, perhaps ~i Df APJlolo.nfus
Ranges were aOO!,ilt10 milt;$.
relative velocities up to 60 mp'h
time oJ night of the order 20secs
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Digital
performs fixed ratio digital multiplications
and additions
machln
put to ~
Antikythera
computer, ancient Greek perhaps work
technoLogy, predicts Lunar eclipses
lunar positions;
andl of Appolonius
implements Appnlonius ecc e ntri c orbrtat model
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Antikythera computer, ancient Greek technology, predicts lunar eclipses and lunar positions, perhaps work of Appolonius
performs fixed ratio digital multiplications and additions
ruus
bold lines indicate eccentric model
dashed lines the epicycle model
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implements Appolonius eccentric orbital model
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groove in B
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re Turing l U5,e
Analogue
100 years ago navies had to solve realtime vector arithmetic problems and regression problems that were way beyond what coutd be diane
manually.
Ranqes were about 10 miles relative velocities up to 60 mph ti me of fUght of the order 20secs
A
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Rear Adrrniral Johm Dumaresq c~rnmand~r of' RQ}'al AMstralii.'ln N~vy descrlbed by his colleagues i nav3l gUrI'11B"i)' a matnemsncat as genius. and UI1SUllg pioneer of
fr'Ieeh~t'lie~~ C.:Jm:putlr.1J
100 years ago navies had to soLve reaLtime vector arithmetic probLems and regression probLems that were way beyond what couLd be done manuaLLy.
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Ranges were about 10 miLes reLative veLocities up to 60 mph time of flight of the order 20secs
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Bearing of Brelative _to A
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B
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Bearing of Bfelative __ A" to
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Velocity of B relative to A = [15,11]
Dumaresq
l Australian
lis colleaques in nathematical pioneer of . ~ng
Rear AdrmiraL John Dumaresq commander of RoyaLAustralian Navy described by his colleagues in navaL gunnery as a mathematicaL genius, and unsung pioneer of mechanical computing
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SeLf reference
Turing needed seLf reference in order to address the decision problem.
But this property was the key to the
economicaL adoption of computer technotoqy. It give's Universality.
'This speciaL property of digitaL computers, that they canl mimic any discretestate machine, is described by saying that they are universal machines."
Cheapness
The universal machine has the advantage that one design can be applied to any problem. This brings huqe economy of scale to manufacturing.
Turing's
rsal
Universal
U;ol!lr1:f
~I)o
Digi
Cheapness
EUill\r'E!J':KIlmJcl1olJJeRas !! ;adv;aRt;Jg~ t~ cne
!d~r'I ~r'I ue I!Ipplll!d
litilEl'iI. This 1linI.~~ hllQE!
(lm;Im"f'iJf:;«lLIJ iriuf;Jcruril1g.

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Digital
machine is digital however mas a more subtle It means firstly tlhdt numbers can be represented by strlnqs of dirghs that can be as lonrg'as one wi~hes, One can therefore work <0 any d:esired d:egree ofacouracv. This; BCCL.U'aC)! is: not obtained by more careful machimin91 of parts, control of temperature vari at ions; and such means. but by a slf.ght increase in the amount of equipment in the macntne, To double the number of si'grnffiiGlnt figures, would involve increasing the amount of the equipment by a factor definitely less than two, and would also have some enect in increasing the time taken over each job. This is. in sharp contrast with analogue ma;Ctlj'nes., .and continuous. varIable machines such as the dUffelienti<lll analyser, where each additionaU declrnal dligit required necessltates a complete redeslqn of the machine, and an increase irn the cost ltIy as much as a focroroflQ_1 Turing, Lecture ron the AUlOmoti,
That the signifr.c:ance_ Computing, Engin@) More gener;]LLytherof is a fundamental limit to spatial
acc~r~c)' provided by the Planck lengl:h M around lOh{35} .meters whiCh limits the fundamental accuracy of ,any analoque cornputinq device .. proposals far trans: Turing ccrnputlnq are based the illusion that real numbers are 'reali' in the cntoloqical sense.
Most on
Tliley are based on continuum modets ot the world like Maxwells: equations or Newtonian mechanics.
arg~ment ~hNe is very pragmatic, There has a recent ternptanon to think that we {ian outperform d[gitaL (amputation by revertlnq to analcque <;Qmputing,
Turing. been
In the post Turing era we have to see thecrles llke equations or Newtoniam mechanics as software packag,es rer mak.ing p:red;ction; abcut real'ty, When combined with. computer to do, the maths they allow us to build models (hat m.m.c some part ofreal'ty.
M.axwells 6~tjust like
the Antikyt~era
of
DUIi
model, tnere are Limits paC"kages. But
OIlJ r
to the a [curacy T~iS is ~"ecl
software
software paekag,~~ ate not 'eality rtsell.
in reaUty·!:'vEliythirlg is false, everyt~ing
Reality is digital, Turing computability rules.
on a philQ~Ophi<;;j1 miSQoncepliQn that is continuous, but we know:thls
Is dligitalor quanttsed.
The norton of the coottnuurn arose [n, classics! Greek geometry from the proof <If the irrationality of tile leng;tm of til. h'llpotenu,,, of a rigiht triangle with unit sides, If on.. assumes, as the ·Greeksdid, that classical ge<lmetry was il true theory of the real world, this implied mat space must be continuou,sly
subdivistble.
S Ujp pose that UlS i ng 50 me to ntln uu m model 0 ~ mecnanrcs we show that a system with computable boundary cundltlons has some points where some parameters are uncomputable, does this 'leUIus that the real world can do thinqs which are uncomputable? No .. It tells you that the software packeqe, or phvslcaf theory you are using has a buq in it
lit was jU5t such a 'bug' in, M.>well. equations, the
wo.k,in
But do we know ,f Pyth.gorus theorem ,otu,Uy the real world? (oul.d we experimentally
test it?
ultraviolet catastrophe, quanmm t~~o""
that net Einsteifl to invent the
That the machine is digital however has a more subtle significance.
It means firstly that numbers can be rep
resented by strings of digits that can be as long as one wishes. One can therefore work to any desired deqree
of accuracy. This accuracy is not obtained by more
carefuL machining of parts, controL of temperature amount of equipment vari ations and such means, but by a slight increase in the in the machine. To doubLe the number of siqnificant fiqures, would involve increasing the amount of the equipment by a 'factor definitely less than two, and wouLd also have some effect in increasing the time taken over each job. This is in sharp contrast with analogue machines, and continuous variable machines such as the differential additional analyser, where each decimal digit required necessitates a compLete Lecture on the Automatic
redesiqn of the machine, and an increase in the cost by as much as a factor of 10. (Turing, Computing
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additional decimal diqit required necessitates a complete redesiqn of tlhe machine, and an increase in the cost by as much as a factor of 10. ( Turing, Lecture on the Automatic Cornputinq Engine)
Turings argument tlhere is very pragmatic. There has been a recent temptation to think that we can outperform digital computation by reverting to analogue computing.
This is based on a philosophical misconception that in reality everythinq is continuous, but we know this is faLse, everything is digital or quantised. The notion of the continuum arose in classical Greek geometry from the proof of th,e irrationality of the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle with unit sides. If one assumes, as the Greeks did, that classical geometry was a true theory of the real world, this implied that space' must be continuously subdivisible.
If one assumes" as the Greeks did, that cllassicaL geometry was a true theory of tlhe reaL world, this impLied that space must be contlnuously subdivisible. IBut do we know if Pythaqorus theorem actually works in the reaL world? CouLd we experimentally test it?
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~ ~ We can envisage an experimental setup that allows us to test Pythagoras theorem in the real world. Look at Figure 5.41.Suppose that we have previously measured AB and AC by means of interferometry to be the same integra]. number of wavelengths long. Clearly, if it is the case that the optical path FOund the entire system is also an integral number of wavelengths, then we would either have shown that J2 is a rational number or that Pythagoras theorem did not hold in the real world.
a lL sorts of practical and Logical A
problems, • can not simu ltaneousl measure
works In tne test it?
real WOrlO{ LOUlO we
expenrnentauy
B~
We can envisage an experimental setup that allows Us to test Pythagoras theorem in the real world. Look at Figure 5.4. Suppose that we have previously measured AB and AC by means of interferometry to be the same integral number of wavelengths long. Clearly, if it is the case that the optical path round the entire system is also an integral number of wavelengths, then we would either have shown that J2 is a rational number or that Pythagoras theorem did not hold in the real world.
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all sorts of practical and logical problems, • can not simuLtaneousl measure Be and AC because of mirror o rie ntati 0 n, • can not know you have a right angle without pre assuming pythagoras theorem
More generally there is a fundamental Limit to spatiaiL accuracy provided by the PLanclklength of around 1,OA{3,S} .rneters which Limits the fundamental accuracy of any analoque cornputinq device. Most proposaLs for trans Turing cornputlnq are based on the illusion that real numbers are 'real' in the ontological sense.
They are based 'onl continuum models of the world Like MlaxweLLsequations or Newtonian mechanics.
In the' postTuring era we have to, see theories like Maxwells equations or Newtonian mechanics as software packaqes for making predictions about reality, When comlbined with a computer to do the maths they alLow us to build models that mimic some part of reaLity.
But just like the Antikytlhera model, there are limits to the accuracy of our software packaqes, But our
software packaqes are not reality itself.
Suppose that using some continuum model of mechanics w'e slhow that a system with computable' boundary conditions has some points where some parameters are uncomputable, does this tell us that the real world can do things which are uncomputable? No. It tells you that the software' package" ,or physical theory you are using has a buq in it. It was just such a 'bug' in Maxwells equations, the ultraviolet catastrophe, that let Einstein to invent the quantum theory.
stial
sed
e
ts
ReaLity is dig ita L, Turing computabiLity ruLes.
Why Computer
Univer!;OlL'C(lmp uter
Equivalent to Lambda Caclulus? No! As at controlled experiment a simple tambda expression was left overnight on tOIP of book with relevant theory. but it failed to evaluate.
But pUI ,;n~o Ihe L,rned. Can it""'r~ed
Pilot Ace Console
Turings idea wa thus something much more
This 'Was s"metM~fl real, not
tJ!
Th. I..mda calculus i. only eqllivulent to tne ".i.e"aI Computer if by the La,"oo.' ",Ieu/". we mean' either • A l.arnbdlll i"mrp.rete.r .0'11' Q UiJiver!iil!J~ Computer . Or a Mathematlclo", a /l{ackb(IQrd and a' <lefioltJM o/'the ,a'co'". that the matllem.rJrlan undilmand., Tu,;n9 brings OU! the import,,",e of phy;ic,,1 embodimen.t for <alculation. Bylntro<lucil1g a Mllchi.', h. introduce> MECHANICS and indi,.clly Physic< .s a support far mathematics...
thrnlght narmitl€ ..
fundamental and lasting
than that of
'Church
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Pilot Ace Console
This was something real; not a thought machine.
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tlnlversal Computer Equivalent to Lambda Caclulus? Nlo! As a controled experiment
a simple lambda expression was Left overnight on to'p of book with relevant theory, but it failed to evaLuate.
But put into the Lambda Can
it worked
Type a term, Help for info or Quit to exit. > (\x .(x+l)) 2
3
(7 Lei>
uctions, 0.005 CPU)
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LIICUI
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to eva Luate.
But put into the Lambda Can it worked
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Type a term, Help for info or Quit to exit.
> {\x .(x+1)) 2 3
(7
I
uctions, 0.005 CPU)
Lei>
Missing secret ingredient miversal computer
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Type a term, Help for info or Quit to exit.
> {\x .(x+1)) 2 3
(7
I
uctions, 0.005 CPU)
Lei>
Missing secret ingredient niversaL computer
The Lamda calculus is only equivaLent to the UniversaL Computer if by the Lambda calculus we mean either • A Lambda interpreter on a Universal Computer
• Or a Mathematician, a blackboard and a definition of the calculus that the mathematician understands. Turing brings out the importance of physical embodiment for calculation.
By introducing a Machine he introduces MECHANICS and indirectLy Physics as a supportfor
mathematics.
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