This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
GUA SHA AS COUNTERACTION
The Crisis is the Cure
I wish I could make a petechial fever; that is, I wish I could produce upon the skin that state of counteraction existing when petechial spots are formed. (Boerhave, Dutch physician 1668-1738) What is Gua Sha? Gua means to scrape or scratch. Sha is a ‘reddish, elevated, millet-like skin rash14’. Gua Sha is a technique that intentionally raises sha rash or petechiae. Sha is the term used to describe stuck surface blood before or after it is raised as petechiae. See figures 1 and 2. When is Gua Sha used? Gua Sha is applied for pain when external factors such as wind or cold have obstructed the blood in the surface tissues. When normal finger pressure on a patient’s skin causes blanching that is slow to fade,
Fig. 2: Gua Sha at neck and shoulder for pain subsequent to whiplash injury.
Fig. 2 Fig. 2
Fig. 1 Fig. 1
sha is present. See figures 3 and 4. Gua Sha is applied as treatment and prevention for common cold, 'flu, bronchitis and asthma, as well as chronic disorders involving congestion of qi and blood. Where is Gua Sha applied? Sha is raised primarily at the yang surface of the body: the back, neck, shoulders, buttocks, and limbs. On occasion, Gua Sha is applied at the chest and abdomen. How is Gua Sha applied? The area where Gua Sha is to be applied is lubricated with oil. I use Vick’s Vapo-rub because my patients are familiar with its smell and are comforted by it, although a thick oil such as peanut oil was traditionally used. The skin is pressured in downward strokes by a round-edged instrument such as a coin, spoon, metal jar lid etc. (see figure 5). Strokes are continued along one area until the petechiae that surface are completely raised. If there is no sha, petechiae will not form and the skin will only turn pink.
Fig. 1: Gua Sha at left shoulder and upper back for pain due to trauma.
What does the type of sha indicate? The colour of the sha is both diagnostic and prognostic. Very light coloured sha can indicate deficiency of blood.
counteractive medicine Fig. If brown. are not new to the West. What are the benefits of Gua Sha? Gua Sha moves stuck qi and blood. Gua Sha has been the most valuable technique that I know. Speaking in terms of excess and deficiency. 4 Fig. For some disorders it is all that is needed. Lastly. Cucumber was a cooling herb that countered heat. and modern Western cultural values that cast shadow status on some therapeutic methods and light on others. and facilitates the resolution of both acute and chronic disorders. or by inducing vomiting. plum blossom needling and so on? I believe the answer lies in our own history. 5: Gua Sha is applied with a round-edged tool. The slice in the foreground has an indentation for finger joints. or sweating. If the sha is fresh red. purging. or slice of water buffalo horn specifically made for this purpose. 4: Sha is indicated when finger pressure causes blanching that is distinct and disappears slowly. bleeding or blistering. and applying principles of hot and cold. moves fluids and metabolic waste 6 6 . Dietary or behavioural indiscretions as well as exposure to the elements led to illness 1. I will consider in more detail the clinical relevance of Gua Sha to modern practice. I was surprised to find many of the techniques used in Chinese medicine were a part of early Western medicine. cupping. or dry qualities. the humoural theory that informed them. The sha petechiae should fade in 2-3 days. the practitioner presses her fingers onto the flesh. Known as Hippocratic or counteractive. If it is slower to fade. Fig. The truth is that techniques like Gua Sha. and the humoural theory that drives them.JOURNAL OF CHINESE MEDICINE NUMBER 50 JANUARY 1996 Fig. diet. I have practised Chinese medicine for nearly twenty years. to be used when clinically appropriate. 5 PART ONE: CHINESE MEDICINE AND EARLY WESTERN MEDICINE As I was doing research for my book on Gua Sha . cold. salivation. the blood stasis is long-standing. 3: Palpating painful areas for sha. When the Western humoural perception of the body gave way to micro-analysis advanced by technology. It is my hope that they can be revived. pepper was a heating herb that countered cold. moxibustion. In this article I will examine the counteractive techniques of early Western medicine. herbs. 3 congesting surface tissues and muscles and promotes normal circulation and metabolic processes. The results of Gua Sha are visible and the relief it provides for patients immediate. Next to needles. 4 Fig. A simple metal lid with a rounded lip is the most comfortable tool I have found. and their decline in the West. 5 Fig. moist. food and behaviour were classified according to their warm. Fig. 3 Fig. Restorative treatment aimed at removing or diminishing the excess offending humour by manipulation. therapies like Gua Sha were rejected. and herbs or drugs2. If the sha is purple or black. the blood may be dry. releases the exterior mimicking sweating. it opens the way to a deeper process of healing. Drugs. urination. Hippocratic medicine held that sickness resulted when a body humour became impure. the patient has poor blood circulation. it is of recent penetration. It is a valuable treatment for both external and internal pain. For example. out of place or out of balance. for others. Dark red sha can indicate heat. In China this may be a soup spoon. A deficient humour was restored by manipulation. Why then has Gua Sha been slighted by practitioners in the West? Why do our schools venerate acupuncture and herbal therapy while de-emphasising techniques integral to the tradition of Chinese medicine like Gua Sha. bloodletting. early Western medicine has a language and intent strikingly similar to the theories of Chinese medicine. Fig.
The subsequent surface infection. blood was let by drops until its colour changed from dark to light. month. for any considerable period in the same system4". cautery. A seton is the early Western medicine counteractive technique closest to acupuncture. and held that this irritation always resulted in an increased flow of blood to the part. This was inflammation. Theory of Counteraction It was a maxim of early Western medicine dating to the Hippocratic corpus that "no two diseased actions. The character for sha is sometimes translated as cholera14. setons and issues10. counteracted a deeper infection. ‘residue’. bloodletting became venesection. and so on. A patient’s asthma subsided with an attack of gout or was relieved by a discharge of blood from piles. The petechial or ecchymotic stage of cholera is naturally occurring sha. gravel or sand deposed by water. and collapse. As seen in figures 1 and 2. Hippocratic medicine never developed a procedure like acupuncture but utilised cupping.. cramps. and the seemingly reasonable way to act in such a case was. if possible. An end stage of choleric dehydration is rashlike petechiae and ecchymosis from ruptured blood vessels at the surface (italics mine)16. For example. application of Gua Sha results in the surfacing of sha petechiae that can range in colour from red to dark purple. Sites were bled according to channel theory.. In the West cholera was described as congestion of blood and internal heat at the pit of the stomach with excessive coldness at the surface: " . and year. excite counteraction at the surface. vomiting. prevent that flow of blood and that Inflammation. Gua Sha and Frictioning Frictioning applies rough pressure to chafe. It would stop the inflammation. it artificially induces ‘the crisis that is the cure’. patients were bled until they fainted8. Classical Chinese medicine describes cholera as disease from ‘evil water’ with exterior cold and interior damp. time of day. to be warm11” Broussais (1772-1838). to swell. 7 . Hippocratic method recorded these crises. An External irritant would serve this purpose. Gua Sha counteracts the action of cholera. A child’s seizures stopped when an accidental poker burn caused a small infection on his lower leg. affecting the general constitution. The Western counteractive analogue to Gua Sha was called frictioning. surmising that artificial crises could be created as intervention. In the East. It was thought the new disease action created a crisis that ‘counteracted’ the original disease5. Tracing the chronology and language of the Su Wen. suppression of urine. stress or irritate the surface. It would determine the flow of blood outwards and away from the diseased direction in which it might be going. The indications for frictioning share a similar history to Gua Sha. Natural critical haemorrhages preceding the crisis stage in acute disease were thought to have fostered bloodletting as counteraction. This is called counterirritant12. In the West. observing that fever resolves in sweating. cases of cholera. surgeon to the French army explains: The theory of disease took irritation to be at the bottom of every morbid condition. or loosely ‘sickness from discharge of water’15. poultices. hastening resolution. counterirritating and counteracting a deeper condition. Kaim describes “The part vexed by friction begins to be red. in this case of the eye. By raising the petechiae. Here the skin was pinched at the back of the head and a fibre or hair was threaded into the flesh. Frictioning in the West and Gua Sha in Asia were applied in Sha or cholera = + Chi to lie on a bed Sick/Sickness Sha Sediment. We relieve the internal congestion. It quickly dehydrates its victims. or sandlike rash from severe dehydration Cholera is characterised by diarrhoea. though mild. Bloodletting was practised by every ancient culture to prevent or reduce pathologic accumulation described as ‘heat’.JOURNAL OF CHINESE MEDICINE NUMBER 50 JANUARY 1996 used discutient3 ‘touch’ to scatter and disperse pathologic accumulation and revive a balanced circulation of humours. the definition of allopathy springs from this approach: "Allopathy is a therapeutic system in which a disease is treated by producing a second condition that is incompatible with or antagonistic to the first6". Warmth is the counteragent13". inducing sweat might cure a fever7. In fact. Epler argues convincingly that acupuncture descends from bloodletting9. can go on at the same time. ‘malevolent spirit’ or just ‘bad blood’.
even acupuncture or herbs can intervene and cure. injuring all functions dependent upon fluid. shared by early Western medicine. Pain due to dampness is characterised by a steady heavy aching that is fixed in location. and Lungs first. the West focused on smaller and smaller body units. techniques and recommendations. fatigue. Cold Penetration by cold causes the body to contract. were discouraged as archaic. and sometimes heat is ‘blockage to the meridians’ or channels. can restore many patients to health. yin and yang. modern science dashed the religious and superstitious bias that saw illness as a cause for reproach. It is thus a primary cause of chronic illness18. The humoural approach. Humoural theory was replaced with the view that inflammation was caused by micro-organisms that could not be ‘rubbed away’ or flushed by letting blood17. hot and cold. On the downside. that disease can be caused by exposure to the elements or climatic factors. manifested as chilliness. or vomiting and diarrhoea. Wind Wind moves. The first is the notion. wind. contraction. Fever. The East continued to view health and disease as a play of natural forces. which tends to view the patient as a whole in a larger context. The patient became a passive recipient and rarely an agent to his or her own condition. The Eastern disease model included metaphors of war. Chinese medicine included the ‘attack the pathogen’ approach. even when useful. Dryness Dryness deprives the body of moisture. slowing things down just like a stream freezing over. which may collect as oedema or pour down as diarrhoea or discharge. On the positive side. held even by acupuncturists that science. it developed a micro-analysis of disease. It is no coincidence that many physical therapy departments are housed in hospital basements. who would not want it? However. patient from context and distanced the physician from the patient. and even facilitate movement itself. fever.JOURNAL OF CHINESE MEDICINE NUMBER 50 JANUARY 1996 Into the Shadows Counteractive therapies of early Western medicine were abandoned over time. Climatic elements act in the body like they act outside If a climatic element is able to penetrate the body’s resistance. damp. It can blow through openings carrying other factors into the body. and thirst. and a ‘win lose’ military model of immunity. 8 8 . Heat Heat causes things to stir and agitate. Acupuncturists generally use Gua Sha after acupuncture needling. medicine. "In many cases. medical science prevents the patient from dying.’ Cold inhibits circulation causing stagnation and hence pain characterised by chilliness. but also of peace in abiding observable laws of nature. Modern TCM describes Gua Sha as treatment for ‘sha syndrome’: A disease caused by the exposure of wind. As the West industrialised. without restoring him to health. Heat raises body temperature systemically or locally. came to be viewed as unsophisticated and unscientific. causing dry skin. cramps and spasms. but emphasised ‘supporting the body’s natural resistance’. Pain due to heat is characterised by a subjective sensation of heat and irritability. technology separated mind from body. summerheat or wetness evil in summer or autumn leading to blockage to meridians. refining an ‘attack the pathogen’ approach to cure. There is a modern expectation. 1. ‘Just as cold causes the water in rivers to freeze so it is said to cause the blood in the vessels to congeal20. This is the second significant point of the sha syndrome definition. dark infrequent urine. but it can be used outside of acupuncture practice. External dryness injures the skin and the Lungs first. PART TWO: OUT OF THE SHADOWS The Clinical Use of Gua Sha in the Context of Chinese Medicine Gua Sha is effective for any condition that involves pain. External wind affects the skin. head. fluid loss or inability to drink create internal dryness that can be life threatening. Wind pain can cause rigidity like a tree strained against a steady gale. throat. As dryness persists. Pain due to wind can be of sudden onset and tends to move around or shoot. not limited to the professional sector. There are three significant points to this definition. The common effect of the penetrating nature of cold. With some exception. And when a cure is obtainable." Chinese medicine practised with its traditional perceptions. The therapeutic techniques. excess and deficiency. Fluids conduct body nourishment and elimination. dry cough. Hippocrates understood fever to arise from excessive internal motion. He believed frictioning could augment the vital force and excite a warm fever in even the most ‘frigid dropsical person21’ . It is practised throughout Asia as popular medicine. or rigidity and numbness of extremities19 . it’s effects deepen in the body causing dry stool. it is the ‘character’ or ‘nature’ of the element that invades the body. Dryness as yin deficiency can also lead to internal wind that appears as dizziness or spasms. External factors obstruct the surface qi. cold. The inner qi is disturbed in a manner characteristic of that factor. Damp Penetration by dampness gives rise to wetness and sluggishness. to the body interior. Wind can advance itself as well as other factors inward. operating within and without. Wind acts internally in the same way it acts externally. and stiffness. and dries fluids. It is up to acupuncturists to utilise all of Chinese medicine even in a cultural setting that has abandoned much of its own hands-on interventions and humoural outlook. distension and pain of the body.
Other signs and symptoms His appetite and stools are normal. The following cases illustrate that Gua Sha is able to counteract long standing problems deep to the surface and hasten resolution. He presented five years later for a hand injury. His ear remained completely healed.I. the circulation is poor. making a patient sicker22. Gua Sha in front of ear. The surface becomes stabilised. During this time he had one more episode of clear fluid from the ear. The last three sessions treated his back. or anti-pathogenic qi. The darker the sha. keep the ear covered and warm. Gua Sha extravasates stagnant fluid and blood. Gua Sha prevents protraction of illness to chronic unresolved syndromes like chronic fatigue. This stabilises the ‘pores’ and halts further penetration of wind. may be deficient. the blood 9 . massage will not resolve it. If the blood becomes obstructed. Obstruction causes problems reflected by the maxim: Bu tong ze tong. dry and sticky. Yifeng SJ-17. ‘When you come in the house. bad smelling and his ear really hurt. even to the point of wearing a light hat indoors. He has a history of back problems and occasional haemorrhoids. By the sixth session he had no pain or draining. If there were no stagnation of blood. Palpating for sha can help elucidate whether there are in fact external pathogens present and help the practitioner avoid deepening them when they have not yet expressed as an acute illness. some headaches at the back of the head. along right sternocleidomastoid and scalenes.-4 were added). Male. tong ze bu tong which means no free flow. allowing the body’s wei. Hence Gua Sha is relevant to almost any presenting disorder. Tongue: red with thick white coating. Obstructed surface blood. Treatment of a chronic condition is postponed until any acute illness is resolved. promotes blood production and improves dissemination of fluids throughout the body. to resolve the acute illness. free flow. Tianyou SJ-16. reflecting a deficiency in qi or yang. When the pain is at the surface. and by removing stagnant blood. pain. Release of the exterior promotes a speedy resolution and rebound to health. even but for a moving Lung pulse. Fengchi GB-20. and by how fast it disappears. If the sha is pale. cold.JOURNAL OF CHINESE MEDICINE NUMBER 50 JANUARY 1996 2. This is reflected in the maxim Xian biao hou li: first treat the exterior. it can indicate obstruction by external factors or climates. and his hearing was much improved. *This is a pulse quality taught by Dr. Pulse: 64. massage will disperse the pain. If the sha itself clears slowly. Gua Sha resolves stagnation of blood at the surface Sha petechiae verify stagnation of blood at the surface. Aside from acute pain. it is a more recent penetration. the patient’s interior chronic condition can be safely treated. haemorrhoids and his ears secondarily. but remained sensitive to cold and noise. no pain. then the interior. Practitioners can diagnose and prognose by the colour and nature of sha. intervention is aimed at freeing the flow. clear*. Gua Sha or any other surface frictioning would only be rubifacient. James So meaning a pulse that has clear edges and is firm but not wiry. If only the qi is obstructed. By the third session he had some pain in the ear with clear fluid draining. Results: The day after the first treatment he had a rush of brown and red fluid from the right ear which abated. Treatment Back: Dazhui DU-14. (at the third session left Quchi L. Indirect moxa around ear. the older the blood stasis. sinusitis. Pain means obstruction: consider Gua Sha The ‘ceaseless flow of qi’ is a body concept analogous to the ceaseless flow of water in nature. there is sha (see Figures 3 and 4). can be verified by palpation. close the door’. Jianjing GB-21. Ermen SJ-21. shoulder and upper back. sha. He has earaches and drainage. and so on.I. The ear was less sensitive and hearing improved. with the ninth 5 weeks later. Tinghui GB-2. Tianyou SJ-16.-11 and Hegu L. 55 Presenting Complaint This patient complained of a lifetime chronic infection in the right ear subsequent to a punctured ear drum as a child. and damp. Front: Zhongzhu SJ-3. Tinggong SI-19 all right side. If already sick the patient may get sicker for a day and then recover rather quickly. acupuncturists are most often asked to treat chronic disorders. Gua Sha releases the Exterior Gua Sha not only treats pain but treats and prevents acute illness by releasing the exterior. I palpate every patient I see for the presence of sha. Pain means obstruction. mimicking sweat. Gua Sha right neck. as described above. The pathogenic factor is said to be weakened. By the fifth treatment the ear stopped draining completely for the first time. the door to the outside is closed. diarrhoea. Decongesting blood at the surface moves blood internally. When finger pressure causes blanching that is distinct and disappears slowly. Urination is normal with some night-time urination. His neck was now feeling warm. 8 of them one week apart. He has 2 martinis each evening. By the fourth the fluid was once again brown. He works outside most of the day. Intervention is aimed at freeing the flow by ‘releasing the exterior’. sinus drainage and a peculiar taste in the mouth. 3. Course of treatment: 9 sessions. Cases 1. His sleep is good. Recommendations: Avoid cold and sour foods and drinks. The Jinkui yaolue fanglun warns that treatment directed toward the interior can drive external factors deeper into the body. in the muscles. If the sha surfaces quickly. cough. causing a pink blush.
NY. a sense of what petechial counteraction could do. lateral to Jianli REN-11. • Epps. 1931 Mathews’ Chinese-English Dictionary. A. Colonial Williamsburg MCMLXX. Ganshu BL-18. London . London. M. W. • McNeill. Beijing. *An extra point used by Dr. Avoid alcohol and coffee. has knee pain and swelling. James So. 1941 A History of Medicine. publ: Colonial Williamsburg MCMLXX. Gua Sha middle back. • Kluger. "Hippocrates’ . D. Gua Sha whole back and lateral gluteus medius. The Apothecary in Eighteenth-Century Williamsburg. ST-34. Eastland Press Seattle. and had refused medication.On Airs. Treatment Back: Feishu BL-13. but weak. • 1988 Chinese-English Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Tongue: flat. greasy and roasted. Bensky. 10 10 . Anchor Press New York. Philosophy. Weizhong BL-40. 1989 Plagues and Peoples. but also with the constitution of man and with the ethnic characteristics of nations". A Chinese-English dictionary compiled for the China inland mission and Presbyterian Mission Press. Female.1895 The Theory and Practice of Counter Irritation. • Gilles. Xiyan (Extra). Ou Ming (ed). Shenshu BL-23. Synopsis of the Golden Chamber. Cambridge MA. • Nielsen. Xuehai SP-10. Dover.JOURNAL OF CHINESE MEDICINE NUMBER 50 JANUARY 1996 2. Front: Zusanli ST-36. overall weak with middle jiao showing more strength. Front: Zusanli ST-36. a Comprehensive Text.. Hong Kong. • Porket. • Mathews. and How it Fits with the Medicine of the West.C . C. Course of treatment: 6 sessions. and mild low back pain. Williamsburg Craft Series. 1941. and ed. The first part of the book is a true work on climatology. Royal College of Physicians. pale pink. University of Pennsylvania. coating at the rear of the tongue is slightly yellow. constitutes the first example known to us of a rational attempt by a man of genius to put the phenomena of the macrocosm and the microcosm in direct causal relations . L. A Thorough Study from Chinese Documents. and Practice.. Male. Other signs and symptoms The patient works as a contractor. Viewed as a Means of Cure with Remarks of the Use of the Issue. 1806 On Efficacy of Certain External Applications. • 1988 Chinese-English Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine. ahshi on the left side. W. • Stedman’s Medical Dictionary. • Weiger. • Jackson. 4 months later she asked to be treated again for knee weakness.. 1965 Chinese Characters: Their Origin. Her knees were no longer swollen or painful. • Epler. 1954 Ancient Therapeutic Arts. R. • Castiglione. Weishu BL-21. Zhongwan REN-12. Course of treatment: 2 sessions 8 days apart. 3. London 1832. C . A. Macmillan and Company. In: Fitzpatrick Lectures. The answer to his prayer is Gua Sha and next to needles. He had been medically diagnosed as suffering from a stomach ulcer.. slightly pinker at the tip. It considers the diseases that occur in a given locality in relation to its climatic position and to the seasons. 36 Presenting Complaint: Patient complained of sharp epigastric pain. Inaugural Dissertation printed in Medical Theses. Pulse: wiry and full. Krumbhaar E B (trans.1980 Bloodletting in Early Chinese Medicine and its Relation to the Origin of Acupuncture. first published c. pub.. 33 Presenting Complaint Patient feels very cold. Treatment Back: Kunlun BL-60.AD 220. it is the most valuable technique I know. Counteraction. The second part treats of the difference between Europe and Asia and without doubt constitutes one of the most interesting books that classical antiquity has transmitted to us. H. Quoted in: 2. 1995 Gua Sha. Henry Holt. Baltimore MD. Philadelphia. • Kaim. New York. 1978 The History of Bloodletting. Castiglione. 1987 Williams and Wilkins. Results: This patient experienced steady improvement over the 6 sessions and his symptoms resolved completely. Joint Publishing. especially at both middle jiao positions. Classification and Signification. 1982 Chinese Medicine as a Scientific System: its History. his job involves physical and mental stress. translated for Arya Nielsen by Chipok R 1994. Kaliwodian Press. TW Bradford. D. J. New World Press. more pronounced after eating. References • The Apothecary in Eighteenth-Century Williamsburg. New York first published 1915. Liangmen ST-21. William Heineman Medical Books. Natural History Vol 87 No11 p78-83. Hong Kong.. It is satisfying for practitioners to be able to deepen their reach into the body and quicken the process of healing. History. There has been no recurrence in the ten years since. The Hippocratic physician Boerhave had a vision. Tongue: red with a crack in the stomach region. University of Vienna. Guandong Science and Technology Publishing House. 1981 Acupuncture. Etymology. Harvard University Press. Churchill Livingstone Edinburgh. Waters and Places . yellow greasy coating thicker in the central stomach region. A Traditional Technique for Modern Practice.H. with a dislike of touch or pressure. • 1987 Jinkui yaolue fanglun. Practitioners or patients interested in learning exactly how and when to use Gua Sha can refer to the book below. Renshaw and Rush. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 54:337-367. Ullman. Neiguan P-6. Williamsburg Craft Series.. Pulse: slow. Notes 1. 1756 Dissertatio Inauguralis Medica de Frictionibus. • O’Connor. S. She reported that the sensation of warmth had remained. Dachangshu BL-25.) Knopf. • Brockbank. M. J. Results: After the first session she felt warm all over.. Recommendations: Avoid overheating foods: spicy. medial Wing of Knee (Extra)*. It is the first attempt to put external causes in direct connection with the origin of diseases. ahshi (lateral gluteus medius trigger point for knee).
Dr. . lecture notes 1976). See Nielsen 1995. causing a small surface infection which counters the deeper one. 220 Clause 1-15 11 . 18. outside UK: 0131535-1022. (So. seasons. Arthur Jores 19 Ou Ming 1988 20 Epler 1980 21 Kaim 1756 22 Jinkue yaolue fanglun. 1-3 Baxter Place. and O’Connor & Bensky 1981 (threading) 11 Kaim 1756 12 Gilles 1985 13 Jackson 1806 14 Mathews 1931. ‘At elevated temperatures. The thread or metal is left in place. 19. 1978.’ refers to early medicines humoural view. Weiger 1965. Epler 1980. Waters and Places. 44 Linden Street. Setons and Issues introduce a thread or piece of metal posterior to an infection. quoted in 2 The Apothecary in Eighteenth-Century Williamsburg. Tel: within UK toll free: 0500 556 242. 6. bacteria appear to be even more sensitive to reduced levels of iron". Tel: 1-800-873-3946. It considers the diseases that occur in a given locality in relation to its climatic position and to the introduce a thread or piece of metal posterior to an infection. but also with the constitution of man and with the ethnic characteristics of nations. until the mid 1970’s malaria was used to treat syphilis. Gilles 1985.JOURNAL OF CHINESE MEDICINE NUMBER 50 JANUARY 1996 3.. Tel: 1-800-5535426. (Ou Ming 1988). Brockbank 1954. 11. Ou Ming 1988. 4 Epps 1832 5 Ibid 6 Stedmans 1987 7 This approach has survived its humoural context. and O’Connor & Bensky 1981 (threading). Robert Stevenson House. (So.So translated sha as sand or sharkskin. and Chair of the New York State Board for Acupuncture. It is the first attempt to put external causes in direct connection with the origin of diseases. bacteria appear to be even more sensitive to reduced levels of iron. The book can be purchased from Customer Services. until the mid 1970’s malaria was used to treat syphilis. Brookline MA 02146. United Kingdom. Jinkue yaolue fanglun.. Edinburgh EH1 3AF. 21.constitutes the first example known to us of a rational attempt by a man of genius to put the phenomena of the marcrocosm and the microcosm in direct causal relations. This approach has survived its humoural context. NY 10114. Epps 1832. a Fellow of the National Academy of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine. See Nielsen 1995. The second part treats of the difference between Europe and Asia and without doubt constitutes one of the most interesting books that classical antiquity has transmitted to us. 5. 22. Jackson 1806. Ibid. "At elevated temperatures. refers to early medicine's humoural view. 220 Clause 1-15. 4. The body can also create its own antagonistic condition to a disease as seen in sickle cell trait as defense against malaria. 8 Kluger 1978 9 Epler 1980 10 Cautery is like direct moxibustion. The book can be ordered in the US through: Redwing Book Company. 9. 17. 12. and is currently being researched as a treatment for Aids. A Traditional Technique for Modern Practice. Stedman’s 1987 Discutient: Scattering or Dispersing a Pathologic Accumulation. causing a small surface infection which counters the deeper one. New York. The book gives details on how to use Gua Shain clinical practice. 20. Leith Walk. Setons and Issues Biography Arya Nielsen is National Board Certified in Acupuncture and Chinese Herbal Medicine. The thread or metal is left in place.So translated sha as sand or sharkskin. Cautery is like direct moxibustion. The character for sha has several translations: ‘reddish elevated millet-like skin rash’. Mathews 1931. 650 Avenue of the America’s.The first part of the book is a true work on climatology. Porkert 1982 quoting Dr. The character for sha has several translations. Fax: 031-535-1022. The body can also create its own antagonistic condition to a disease as seen in sickle cell trait as defense against malaria. Epler 1980. includes over 40 cases and gives classical point prescriptions used with Gua Shafor treatment of common disorders. publ: Colonial Williamsburg MCMLXX 3 Stedman’s 1987 ‘Discutient: Scattering or dispersing a pathologic accumulation. For example. and is currently being researched as a treatment for AIDS. 15. 16. lecture notes 1976) 15 Weiger 1965 16 McNeil 1989 17 Kluger 1978 Bloodletting may be therapeutic in cases of infection from bacteria. Kaim 1756. 1 irs. For example. ‘reddish elevated millet-like skin rash’. 14. Kluger 1978. 7. Bacteria are dependent upon trace amounts of iron for growth. Kaim 1756. Dr. Williamsburg Craft Series. Brockbank 1954.’ 18 Porket 1982 quoting Dr. All illustrations and cases are taken from Gua Sha. 8. She has been in private practice for nearly 20 years and is a Senior Faculty member at the Tri-State Institute of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture in New York City. Stedmans 1987. (Ou Ming 1988). Bloodletting may be therapeutic in cases of infection from bacteria. Arthur Jores.. or Churchill Livingstone. 10. McNeil 1989. Bacteria are dependent upon trace amounts of iron for growth. Churchill Livingstone. 13. Kluger.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.