INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY

BY: Alicia Ray Dr Sugar’s EDTC6010 Spring 2011

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M Technology Instructional a r c h 1 4 , 2 0 1 1 Volume 1, Issue 1

What is Instructional Technology?
By Alicia Ray What is Instructional Technology? What fifth grader is able to create a succinct definition? When checking with Mrs. Ray’s fifth grade students, it is believed that Instructional Technology has to do with computers and our SMART board. It is “how our teacher uses the technology around her to teach us every day,” according to one student definition. In actuality, instructional technology is much more than just computers being used within our classroom. Instructional Technology should actually be called Instructional Design and Technology. The “design” is truly a large piece of the puzzle that is missing in the vocabulary. Design is reviewed later. Upon asking about a definition for Instructional Design and Technology, fifth grade students drew a blank. It is the purpose of this newsletter to answer the aforementioned question – “What is Instructional

INSIDE THIS ISSUE
What is Instructional Technology? “I” is for Instructional “D” is for Design “T” is for Technology ADDIE Events in History of IDT Where do we go from here? 1 1 2 2 3 3 5

Technology”. Through this newsletter, fifth grade students will have a better understanding of a career in Instructional Design and Technology. Students will be able to clearly define each piece of the terminology and give examples within the typical day in our classroom. When I first began looking for a program to receive my MAEd, Instructional Technology drew my attention because I thought it was going to be a breeze. I use technology every single day while I’m teaching. Little did I know, it’s much, much more than what meets the eye.

“I” is for Instructional
“Instructional”, according to Merriam-Webster dictionary online, is “a direction calling for compliance; order; action, practice, or profession of teaching”. In Instructional Technology, the “I” is the easiest to define. Instructional is just a method of educating. This education can occur in a corporate setting or in an educational setting. In other words, instruction can be for adults at work, or students in school. Parents of fifth graders will go to work and learn something new in a workshop or meeting. They are being “instructed” by someone else. That someone may be their boss, a coworker, or someone like an Instructional Technologist or Instructional Designer. Another term that can be used instead of Instructional is “Educational”. Sometimes one will hear the program in which I am enrolled “Educational Technology”. The foundations and concepts are the same as an “Instructional Technology” class. It’s just a difference in vocabulary used. Instead of saying it is “frigid”, Please see “I” is for Instructional on page 4

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Instructional Technology

“D” is for Design
Design is, in my opinion, the most underrepresented portion of IDT when thinking of what Instructional Technology is. The design, however, is the biggest part of IDT. Design involves the actual creation on instruction. This is the portion that embodies all that IDT truly is. Designing can be considered “lesson planning” for education. This is where I analyze the learner, you, my fifth graders, figure out what you need to know based on the Standard Course of Study, then I create a lesson that suites each of you the best. I deliver that lesson using various pieces of technology, which will be described in the next section.

The designer works diligently to create an appropriate lesson.

In the corporate world (non-education), this is where a designer comes to create a lesson for the people who work there. They ask the client what topic needs to be taught; they analyze the workers; they create a lesson that is best for each worker. Finally, they actually deliver the lesson.

“T” is for Technology
Technology is the reason I chose this degree above the others I could have attempted. As stated earlier, I use technology daily and I thought that was the extent of the program. Technology is a large piece; however, it’s important to know that technology actually has various meanings. In our EDTC6010 class, we looked up “technology” in different dictionaries and had several different definitions. One definition is “the practical application of knowledge” (Merriam-Webster Online). Notice that it says nothing about computers, laptops, or SMART boards. It’s basically taking what is taught and applying it to every day life. Technology can be considered media. Media is the actual computerized component of IDT. Media ranges from computers (obviously) to robotics. Media commonly used in our classroom are easily identifiable. We use computers, laptops carts, SMART board for interaction, videos from BrainPop and UnitedStreaming, and Kidspiration in the Please see “T” is for Technology on page 5

“Technology…has various meanings… taking what is taught and applying it…”

A caption describes the picture or graphic.

Instructional Technology

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A.D.D.I.E.
A.D.D.I.E. is an acronym for one of the most popular instructional design models. It was created in the 1960’s and 1970’s by Dr. Robert Gagne and Dr. Leslie Briggs as a collection of other previous design models (Sugar). ADDIE is, in my opinion, a great representation of the design process. It is basic and easy to use. I find this one to be the easiest to comprehend. The “A” in ADDIE stands for Analyze. This includes the Learner Analysis (when I look at your cumulative folders to see your past history), Task Analysis (reading the Standard Course of Study to see what you should learn), and Needs Analysis (figuring out the gap between what you should know and what you actually know). The “D’s” in ADDIE stand for design and develop, respectively. This is similar to the design phase in
ADDIE model begins with Analyze and continues through steps to Evaluate.

IDT. The design and develop phase occurs during grade level meetings with other teachers. It is the equivalent to my lesson plans for each week. I plan each week depending on my analysis and evaluation of the previous week’s learning. The “I” in ADDIE stands for Implement. The actual teaching of the lessons I have designed and developed occurs in this phase. This may occur using technology, or it may be pencil and paper Please see A.D.D.I.E. on page 4

Events in IDT History
Instructional Design and Technology is not something that happened overnight. There are many years of research and study that have been of importance to my program in Graduate School. According to the Timeline lesson in EDTC6010, technology dates all the way back to 40,000 B.C. when paintings and drawings became a new way of communication. In 1453, the Bible was written with a moveable type by Gutenberg. Back in 1801, chalkboards were invented. These remained in schools for over 150 years. In fact, they still remain in schools today. One of our fifth grade classrooms has a chalkboard for daily use. In 1946, the first vacuum tube-based computers were developed. We have come a long way in technology since the 1940’s. In the 1950’s, public educational television became a priority with 242 channels devoted to it. The first formal definition of Instructional Technology came to be in 1963. As stated previously, the development of the ADDIE model came in the 1960’s. The 1970’s and 1980’s brought a tremendous wave of technological advances, both in design and media. Microcomputers became available in 1971. It is important to note that microcomputers were not like laptops. These computers were still about the size of a regular room. It was not until the late 70’s and 80’s that a desktop computer was available. Video-conferencing and electronicPlease see Events on page 4

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Instructional Technology

“I” is for Instructional from page 1 one could say it is “chilly”. Both mean relatively the same thing. This is the same concept as instructional versus educational. Without going into a lot of detail to confuse the reader, instruction pertains to the cognitive ability of the student. Cognitive just means the brainpower, in essence. I have to know how to create the correct instruction for the correct group of people. I would not make a lesson on addition with whole number for fifth grade students. Instead, I would teach about adding fractions with unlike denominators. The decision is made with the learners in mind. Instruction, again, is the profession of teaching. When I finish my degree, I will still be teaching, but I may be teaching older students or even adults while they are at work. I will still be a teacher, though.

Events from page 3 mail was implemented in the 1970’s. Now both seem to be a way of life. It is rare to receive a hand-written note in the mail. These days, email is much faster and more efficient, thus used much more often. Finally, the 1990’s and beyond have brought about amazing advances. I remember, in 1994, going to the computer lab to learn typing skills for the first time. Our computers were fairly

large and we used programs on 8” floppy disks. Now students learn to speak a foreign language on CDROMs using a headset and microphone. The creation of DVDs in the 1990’s changed even the way we watch television. The invention of touch technology, as evident through the iPod touch has led to a whole new avenue of learning. Today, we even have iPod touches for use in schools. It’s amazing to think of the changes from using pictures to communicate, to those pictures being shown on an iPod touch – a computer you hold in your hand.

A.D.D.I.E. from page 3 activities. It may be group work or individualized. Either way, it is the “teaching” portion of the ADDIE model. Finally, the “E” in ADDIE stands for evaluate. Whether you, as a fifth grader, know it or not, I evaluate work in the classroom every minute. It is a continuous portion of my job. I evaluate as I walk around and check work. If I see that there is a lag between what is learned and what needs to be learned, I stop and quickly design and develop another lesson to be implemented immediately. Evaluation is not just giving a test after each unit, but a constant way of thinking for teachers, as well as good instructional designers.

“Evaluation is not just giving a test after each unit, but a constant way of thinking for teachers.”

Instructional Technology

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“T” is for Technology from page 2 computer lab. We use calculators in math and science, as well as using ClassScape in all courses. We are able to go on virtual field trips to museums and zoos. I can pull up a live video of the ocean as the tides roll in and out. We use the webcam and microphones to speak to people across the globe through Skype. We use Flip camera to record lessons and iPods to play those lessons when you are sick and out of school. There are so many ways we use media and it’s because you are growing up in a technology filled world. Everything you learn needs to be directed back to the real world. There are other forms of media that we do not use as much, but are equally as cool. Virtual reality is an awesome instructional media that is becoming more and more popular. Virtual reality is a simulation of a real or imaginary place on the computer. Robotics is another type of media that is growing in use. When you think of robots, you think of the graphic source below. However, robots are just computers that are created to do the work a person can do, but in a quicker, more efficient way. Who knows, maybe your generation will be taught by robots one day? With the exponential growth of technology, I wouldn’t rule that thought out!

Could this be the future teachers of America?

Where do we go from here?
As evidenced in the History of IDT, technology, media, and design are changing with such speed that “new” technology is obsolete within a few years. Slideshows to VHS to DVD to Blu-Ray is a simple example of such speed. I have watched movies on each of these forms of media and I’m only 25 years old. Imagine what you, as fifth graders, will experience in the next 15 years. What will you be able to tell your children or students that you had when you were 10 years old? Will they, too, look at you with wide-eyes in disbelief? The answer is probably. Technology and media will obviously continue changing rapidly. The creation of new media and technology changes the future, thus changing the future of IDT. According to Brent Wilson of University of Colorado at Denver, the future of IDT will be as many choices, a diverging path. There will be the “road less traveled” as well as the straight and narrow. The straight and narrow will continue designing and using resources to better help learners. New ideas will come from professional practice, thinking “outside the box”, and science (think of the Scientific Method we Please see Future on page 6

“What will you be able to tell your children or students that you had when you were 10 years old?”

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Future from page 5 for new ideas and will have a more openminded approach to the future. Wilson feels that gaming and virtual worlds will be a distinct part of our future in IDT. There will be more e-learning (learning via internet) and more computer-based grading systems (like NCWise). Finally, a major change in IDT in the 21st century will be a focus on group work.

Instructional Technology

learned about this year). The “road less traveled” will allow Wilson says that everyone belongs to some community and the future of IDT will reflect that community mindset. Finally, the economy will continue to play a role in IDT in the future. Students will rely more on the internet and peers, as they will be enrolled in classes with 100s, perhaps 1000s of other students. This will be evident in online courses and other large-scale learning facilities. None of us are enclosed in a time-capsule, so hold on; the future of IDT is going to be a wild ride. In conclusion, what is Instructional Technology? According to Dr. Abbie Brown, it is “the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction.” According to AECT, “Instructional Technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation

Future classrooms – empty, as all students are at home on their computers learning from a virtual teacher… a possibility?

References
Reiser, R. and Dempsey, J. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. EDTC 6010 Group Work Top Ten Events. (2011). 1940s and before, 1950s and 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, 1990s and beyond. East Carolina University. "Technology - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary." Dictionary and Thesaurus Merriam-Webster Online. Web. 12 Mar. 2011. <http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/technology Brown, A., & Green, T. (2006). The essentials of instructional design. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education. Wilson, Brent G.. "The Future of Instructional Design and Technology." Web. 12 Mar. 2011. <http://carbon.ucdenver.edu/~bwilson "Association for Educational Communications and Technology." AECT. Web. 12 Mar. 2011. <http://www.aect.org/standards/k

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