D I A G N O S T I C F E AT U R E S

cranio-dental
• • • • • small, posteriorly placed sagittal crest convex area below the nasal aperture (clivus) U-shaped dental archade w/ divergent dental rows canine larger than any other hominin anterior premolar is larger than any except for some specimens of P. boisei

differs from A. afarensis

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• femur rel long compared to humerus – similar to modern humans, • absolutely larger postcanine dentition • M3 reduced mesio- buccal enamel line projection & less occlusal asymmetry

Lacks derived facial features of P. aethiopicus, P. boisei, & P. robustus

Australopithecus garhi
Timespan: Region: Specimens: Discovered: 2.0 – 3.0 mya Afar, East Africa 9 Asfaw 1999 Holotype: Lineage: Environment: Diet: BOU-VP-12/130 (descndt of) A. afarensis lake-side (likely) omnivorous

similar to A. afarensis

• forearm elongated • strong subnasal facial prognathism • differences from A. africanus reminiscent of A. afarensis

Differs from A. africanus & early Homo by its primitive frontal, facial, palatal, and subnasal regions ; frontal bone differs from A. africanus

B E H AV I O U R A L E V I D E N C E
• isolated cores & flakes found in survey at Gona ◦ similar age to Gona & Hadar, but much less concetrated aseemblages ◦ lack of local raw materials evidences transport of stone &/or finished tools • antelope bones found at ???? ◦ evidence modification (lithic cutmarks & hammerstone impacts)

Speculation/theories:
• Post-cranial elements not definitevely classified, so diagnoses may not be legitimate • Possible evidence of meat-eating & stone tool manufacture (association debatable) but would prove tools pre-dated encephalization • Chronologically btwn A. afarensis & early Homo • Sister-taxon to A. africanus

KEY SPECIMENS
• BOU-VP-11/1L: proximal fragment of ulna (1998) • BOU-VP-12/1A-G: proximal femur & associated forearm elements (1996) • BOU-VP-12/130: cranial fragments (frontals, parietals, & maxilla w/ dentition) Cranial capacity est 450cc, likely male Found in Hatayae Member of Bouri Formation • BOU-VP-12/87: cranial fragment, crested (1997) • BOU-VP-17/1: mandible (1997) • BOU-VP-35/1: humeral shaft (1998) • GAM-VP-1/1: mandibular fragment w/ tooth roots & corpus contours (obv not Paranthropus) • GAM-VP-1/2: parietal fragment – genus unknown • MAT-VP-1/1: distal left humerus – genus unknown •

BIBLIOGRAPHY MAJOR SITES
• Bouri, Afar, Ethiopia:
Aprox age 2.5 mya; Bouri peninsula, left of Awash River, Middle Awash area in Afar; Holotype found on top of Maoleem Tuff; Most (femur, right humerus, radius, ulna; fibular shaft, proximal foot phalanx) elements likely represent 1 indiv as all surface finds found w/in 2m diameter, except in situ femoral element; Esa Dibo (17 & 35) localities' specimens same age as more southerly localities (11 & 12) • Gamdeh • Matabaietu Asfaw, B. (1999) Australopithecus garhi: A New Species of Early Hominid from Ethiopia. Science, 284(5414), 629-635. Groves, C. (1999) Australopithecus garhi: A New-Found Link?, Reports of the National Center for Science Education 19(3) Wood, B. & B. Richmond (2000) Human evolution: taxonomy and paleobiology, Journal of Anatomy 196: 19-60

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