You are on page 1of 12

Literacy Leads the Way Best Practices

including Accommodations for ELLs and Special Education

KWL Strategy Think-Pair-Share Strategy Frayer Model Strategy Summary Frames Strategy Two-Column Notes Strategy Rubrics Strategy Think-Aloud Strategy RAFT Strategy Anticipation Guide Strategy Graphic Organizers Strategy

What is it we want all students to learn?

Houston ISD Curriculum DRAFT 2010-2011 Page 1 of 12

Literacy Leads the Way Best Practices


including Accommodations for ELLs and Special Education Teachers are encouraged to extend these strategies so that they are used: by individuals, small groups and whole class before, during and after a lesson to help students think critically as they read, write and discuss Its crucial that all teachers consider the developmental process and the learning style(s) of all students. When introducing a new skill or instructional strategy to students with learning disabilities, the teacher should: introduce LLTW by using a brief, yet familiar passage or text; model the LLTW strategy using the familiar text.

Using this approach allows the students to focus on learning the strategy to improve comprehension versus reading the text for comprehension and applying the new strategy. Once students have mastered the LLTW strategy, the teacher should: plan instructional activities in which the students can utilize the strategies using brief unfamiliar passages and increasing to longer passages; provide multiple opportunities for students to practice using the LLTW strategy before introducing other strategies. Always debrief the use of strategy by asking students, How did this strategy help you?

What is it we want all students to learn?

Houston ISD Curriculum DRAFT 2010-2011 Page 2 of 12

Literacy Leads the Way Best Practices


including Accommodations for ELLs and Special Education
Table of Contents Accommodations for ELLs Strategy KWL Explanation What is it? A graphic organizer used to help students predict and connect new information with prior knowledge. (Ogle, 1986) How do I use it? Create a three column chart labeled K (know), W (want to know) and L (learned). Brainstorm what you know about a topic. List what you want to know about the topic. Experience the lesson (i.e. read a text, perform an experiment, watch a video, listen to a lecture) and fill in what you have learned about the topic. What does it look like? K W What I know What I want to know _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Model and demonstrate the strategy first, using guided practice and mixed-ability partner support, before expecting independent application. Partner ELL students with students more proficient in English and/or partners proficient in a common native language (for Beginners). Model and scaffold the sequential use of the columns and their meanings by using short labels, realia, picture icons (including international icons), visuals, cognates, word walls, drama, role-play, body gestures and facial expressions. Accommodate questions asked in the W column to the needs of beginner/intermediate ELLs. Avoid negative questions if possible. Accommodations for Students with Disabilities Before Reading Select a short passage with a familiar theme to introduce the KWL strategy. What I Know Teacher will list ideas/thoughts about the topics using the think aloud strategy. Initially, students can complete the column by drawing pictures, and/or writing words/phrases from similar stories or events regarding topic. What I Want to Know Model questioning strategy using information from the K column. Assist students with asking (think aloud) questions about the topic. After Reading What I Learned After reading the text, teacher adds new information to the column and answers questions from the W column. If questions in the W column were not answered in the text, search for answers using other resources.

L What I learned _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

What is it we want all students to learn?

Houston ISD Curriculum DRAFT 2010-2011 Page 3 of 12

Literacy Leads the Way Best Practices


including Accommodations for ELLs and Special Education
Table of Contents Accommodations for ELLs Strategy ThinkPairShare Explanation What is it? A discussion strategy that partners students in small groups so that everyone actively participates. (Kagan, 1989) When grouping students for instructional activities, rank students in order academically from highest to lowest. If you have 20 students in your class, pair 1 and 11, 2 and 12, 3 and 13 and so on. If placing students in groups of 4, group student 1, 6, 11, and 16, and 2, 7, 12, and 17. How do I use it? Teacher: May choose to use this as a pre-reading activity, a break in a lecture or long lesson, or as a follow-up activity. Poses a question. Students: Individually think or write in response. Share their thoughts with another student or small group of students. Teacher: May conclude with a large-group discussion. Language Starters/Stems 1. What do you think about? What is your opinion about? 2. I think I believe In my opinion 3. My partner thinks My partner believes 4. We think We believe Partner beginner ELL students with students more proficient in English and/or partners proficient in a common native language. Model and demonstrate the strategy first with a student partner. Provide structured guided practice and feedback before expecting independent student partner application of the strategy. Accommodate the open-ended question asked in this strategy to the needs of ELLs. Use simple oral and written sentence structure in questions, verb-subjectobject, and familiar high frequency words. Provide visuals. Avoid passive voice, compound sentences, and negative questions. Scaffold the academic language and vocabulary needed to answer before posing the question. Provide sentence stems with visuals and provide support for responses in English. Elicit, scribe, and chorally practice responses before expecting independent partner response. Accommodations for Students with Disabilities Before, During, After Reading Pair students into mixed ability partners. Model the strategy using the suggested Language Starters/Stems with students acting as your partner(s) as indicate below: Introduce a picture, prompt or problem to students. Then, Teacher asks: 1. What do you think? Allow wait time for students to think, draw or write their responses. Partners take turns responding 2. I think.. Partners share each others responses 3. My partner thinks. Teacher shares responses with the class. 4. We think..

What is it we want all students to learn?

Houston ISD Curriculum DRAFT 2010-2011 Page 4 of 12

Literacy Leads the Way Best Practices


including Accommodations for ELLs and Special Education
Table of Contents Accommodations for ELLs Strategy Frayer Model Explanation What is it? A graphic organizer used to help students deepen their understanding of a key concept or content-specific vocabulary term by analyzing its essential and non-essential characteristics, drawing an illustration, and giving examples and non-examples. (Frayer, Frederick & Klausmeier, 1969) How do I use it? Divide a square into four sections with an oval where they intersect. Write the concept term in the oval. Assign labels to each quadrant. Model the use of the Frayer Model with an easy term. Allow students to refine their original answers in order to deepen their understanding of the term, after initially completing the graphic and beginning the unit of study. What does it look like? Definition (What is it?)
(Essential characteristics)

Preteach and scaffold the academic language and vocabulary needed to develop the Frayer model. Accommodate key vocabulary and/or high frequency words by using realia, visuals and pictures, cognates, native language and partner support. Accept students initial responses to vocabulary in native language and follow up by modeling in English. Accommodate instruction as necessary to meet student needs. For instance, while assigning quadrant instructions, have ELLs: Draw/write a short student friendly definition for upper left quadrant. Draw an illustration /write a word /expression/match an illustration to a short label, etc. representing
o an example from their own life for the lower left quadrant. An illustration for the upper left hand column. a non-example from their own life for the lower left quadrant.

Accommodations for Students with Disabilities Before Reading Teacher should explain that the graphic organizer will assist students in understanding key vocabulary in the text. To model this graphic organizer, the teacher should choose a vocabulary word, picture, or prompt that students are familiar with or can relate to. Complete each section. Allow to student practice a different familiar word in a small group or with a partner. Monitor and provide support as needed. Allow students to share their work. Other students can give feedback to determine if examples are appropriate for each quadrant.

Illustration (Draw a picture)

Examples

Non-examples (What it is not)

o o

What is it we want all students to learn?

Houston ISD Curriculum DRAFT 2010-2011 Page 5 of 12

Literacy Leads the Way Best Practices


including Accommodations for ELLs and Special Education
Table of Contents Accommodations for ELLs Strategy Summary Frames Explanation What is it? A series of questions or stems designed to highlight important elements in order to produce a summary. Questions or stems are chosen based on the specific type of information to be summarized. How do I use it? Point out that texts often have certain structures: descriptive, cause and effect, sequence, compare/contrast, and problem-solution. Provide sentence starters that help students deconstruct the relationships in the text. Provide opportunities for students to read text to determine type of text and to apply the appropriate summary frame sentence. Allow time for students to share their summary and discuss their thinking. What does it look like? Description: is a kind of A Model using summary frames, then provide guided practice and coaching before expecting independent use. Provide accommodated written and oral summary frames. Use short labels, realia, picture icons, visuals, cognates, word walls, drama, role-play, body and facial gestures and expressions to reinforce the meaning and the sequence of summary frames. Partner ELL students with students more proficient in English and/or partners proficient in a common native language (for Beginners). Accommodations for Students with Disabilities After Reading Model using summary frames by using a familiar passage. Identify the no more than 10 ideas/keywords for each paragraph. Decide whether the main idea of the paragraph is description/definition, compare/contrast, sequence, problem/solution, or cause/effect. Model how to combine these ideas/words into a one-sentence summary. Allow students to practice other summary frames using a familiar passage.

that . . . .

Compare/Contrast: X and Y are similar in that they both . . . but X . . . while Y . . . . Sequence begins with . . . continues with. . . and ends with . . . . Problem/Solution wanted . . . but . . . so, then. . . . Cause/Effect happens because . . . OR

causes . . . .

What is it we want all students to learn?

Houston ISD Curriculum DRAFT 2010-2011 Page 6 of 12

Literacy Leads the Way Best Practices


including Accommodations for ELLs and Special Education
Table of Contents Accommodations for ELLs Strategy TwoColumn Notes Explanation What is it? An active reading strategy that requires processing of information as notes are taken. The use of columns separate main ideas, concepts and higher level thinking questions from the supporting details. The most commonly used is the Cornell note-taking technique. (Pauk, 1989) How do I use it? Draw a table with two columns or fold a piece of paper vertically into 1/3 (left column) and 2/3 (right column). Label the columns and add lines based on the text or assignment (see examples below). Encourage the use of higher order questioning. Include a summary section. What does it look like? Topic/Theme/Title Annotations (questions) Big ideas Commentary Symbols Reflective work And so on Summary/Reflection This should be completed after the student has had time to reflect on and discuss his/her notes. Vocabulary body = cuerpo segment = segmento unusual = raro Notes Students take notes here Model and accommodate the use of the columns: Use short labels, realia, picture icons (including international icons), visuals, cognates, word walls, drama, role-play, body gestures and facial expressions to reinforce the meaning and the sequential use of the Annotations and Notes columns for students. Consider adding graphics or illustrations to support and reinforce the meaning of the annotations for ELLs. Accommodations for Students with Disabilities After Reading Introduce this strategy to students using a familiar text or paragraph. Use the modified two-column notes graphic organizer to introduce topic. (Adding lines or additional bullet points to the graphic assists students in organizing their work.)
Two Column Notes Modified

Add a Vocabulary row below the Summary/ Reflection row. ELLs can list new words encountered in this activity.

Summary/Reflection________________ ______________________________ _________________________________ _______________________________

Model the graphic organizer using main ideas and details, note taking, or reflection. Use the Think-Aloud strategy to complete each column. For additional practice, allow students to practice in small groups.

What is it we want all students to learn?

Houston ISD Curriculum DRAFT 2010-2011 Page 7 of 12

Literacy Leads the Way Best Practices


including Accommodations for ELLs and Special Education
Table of Contents Accommodations for ELLs Strategy Rubrics Explanation What is it? A scoring tool that explicitly charts the criteria and describes the level of quality for student work. Because rubrics are more specific and detailed than a grade, they can show strengths and weaknesses in the student product or performance. How do I use it? Make a chart. Decide on main criteria of a project, assignment, or performance. Describe different levels of quality in each category. Use before assigning project to illustrate assignment expectations. Use as a grading tool to guide students toward improvement. What does it look like?
Category Problem Level 3 Restated in your own words with all information included. Level 2 Restated in your own words but missing information, OR Not stated in your own words. Explanation of the solution was clear. Only one strategy was given. Level 1 Not enough information is given to solve the problem.

Scaffold, accommodate and model creating and/or using a rubric before ELLs practice creating and/or using their own. Use short labels, realia, picture icons, visuals, cognates, word walls, drama, role-play, body gestures and facial expressions to reinforce the meaning and sequential use of the assessment criteria. Consider creating short checklists with Beginners at earlier stages before moving to more complex rubric designs. Accommodate rubric statements to meet the needs of Beginner and Intermediate ELLs. Consider: Using simple sentence structure (subject-verbobject) and familiar high frequency words; Avoiding the passive voice and very complex or compound sentences.

Accommodations for Students with Disabilities Before Reading Explain to students that rubrics are often used in grading students creative assignments such as projects, writing and artwork to determine the standard and quality of their work. Display the rubric and describe categories and levels. Provide samples of work which represents both categories and levels. Share key aspects of each sample and identify the criteria to meet the level of expectation.

Strategy

Explanation of how to solve the problem was clear. Several strategies were given, including charts that graphically explain.

Explanation was not enough to solve the problem. Incomplete or missing strategy.

What is it we want all students to learn?

Houston ISD Curriculum DRAFT 2010-2011 Page 8 of 12

Literacy Leads the Way Best Practices


including Accommodations for ELLs and Special Education
Table of Contents Accommodations for ELLs Strategy ThinkAloud Explanation What is it? The Think-Aloud is a strategy that helps readers think about how they make meaning from texts. As students read/review texts, they pause to think about connections they are making, images they are creating, and problems they might be experiencing. This oral thinking is a metacognitive practice that builds reading independence. (Davey, 1983; Olshavsky, 1976-77) How do I use it? Model the strategy with the type of text the student will be using. Tell students, As I read aloud, I will be stopping to voice my thinking about the text. Read a short section, stopping frequently to talk about what you are visualizing, predicting, questioning, comparing or determining cause and effect. Have students practice the strategy with a partner. What does it look like? Students can record their thoughts by annotating text using post-it notes or can be reminded of key think-aloud sentence stems by using a bookmark with stems such as these: . Language Stems Visualize- I wonder why Connection- This made me think of Prediction- I think____ will Summarization- The happen next. paragraph is mostly about Think-Aloud Stems Visualize- I imagine Connection- This reminds me of Prediction- I wonder if. Identifying a Problem- The problem is Use a Think-Aloud to model the use of reading and content area literacy strategies. Accommodate the language used in the Think-Aloud by using visuals, gestures, drama, role play, and simple language structures. Partner ELL students with students more proficient in English and/or partners proficient in a common native language (for Beginners). Provide written text (such as sentence frames or cloze paragraphs) for students to practice Think-Alouds. Have the more proficient partner model the Think-Aloud first. Accommodations for Students with Disabilities During Reading Model the think-aloud strategy by reading a familiar text. Pause during the selection and use language stems to summarize what has been read and predict what will happen next. Allow student partners to practice the strategy using brief texts.

What is it we want all students to learn?

Houston ISD Curriculum DRAFT 2010-2011 Page 9 of 12

Literacy Leads the Way Best Practices


including Accommodations for ELLs and Special Education
Table of Contents Accommodations for ELLs Strategy RAFT Explanation What is it? A writing-to-learn strategy that allows students to process information by writing about it in a non-traditional format. (Vandevanter, 1982) ROLE of the writer: Who are you? AUDIENCE: To whom is this written? FORMAT: What form will it take? TOPIC: What is the subject of this writing? How do I use it? Make a chart. Analyze the important ideas or information that students need to learn. Brainstorm possible roles, format and audiences. Use a strong verb in assigning the topic (e.g. persuade, plead, demand). Ask students to write their paper using the Role, etc. from the chart. What does it look like? Role (Writer) Who are you? Plant Audience To whom is this written? Sun Format What form will it take? Thank you letter Diary Topic What is the subject of this writing? Praise the suns role in growth Complain about how students misuse you Model and demonstrate the strategy first, then use guided practice and mixed-ability partner support before expecting independent application. Model and scaffold the sequential use of the RAFT columns and their meanings by using short labels, realia, picture icons, visuals, cognates, word walls, drama, role-play, body gestures and facial expressions. Accommodations for Students with Disabilities After Reading Select a familiar text or topic to model the strategy. To scaffold, change only one aspect of the RAFT. For example, have students brainstorm possible Roles, but keep the remaining columns the same. (See example below.)
Role Audience President Lincoln Format Topic Explain the impact of the Civil War Explain the impact of the Civil War Explain the impact of the Civil War

Soldier

letter

Solidiers Mother

President Lincoln

letter

Partner ELL students with a more proficient language model in English and/or partners proficient in a common native language (for Beginners). Have partners work together to create their RAFT charts and RAFT papers using sentence frames or cloze paragraphs as needed.

Southern Plantation Owner

President Lincoln

letter

Use a think-aloud to talk through how the assignment might sound from the differing Roles. Allow student partners to select another role and write their papers.

Comma

Self

What is it we want all students to learn?

Houston ISD Curriculum DRAFT 2010-2011 Page 10 of 12

Literacy Leads the Way Best Practices


including Accommodations for ELLs and Special Education
Table of Contents Accommodations for ELLs Strategy
Anticipation

Explanation What is it? A series of statements based on the key concepts of a reading. Students are asked to agree (true) or disagree (false) in order to activate prior knowledge, focus reading and motivate readers. (Herber, 1978) Teacher Note: When creating the anticipation guide, start with an age appropriate number of statements. Provide at least one statement that would challenge students thinking. How do I use it? Teacher: Makes a chart. Identifies major concepts and creates four to six statements. Creates statements that support or challenge students beliefs about the topic. Students: React to each statement by agreeing or disagreeing. Read text to find evidence that supports or disproves their responses on the guide. What does it look like? MATH CLASS ON INTEGERS Me Text The sum of two __________ ______ integers is greater than both of the numbers being added. __________ ______ The product of two negative integers is always negative. Preteach, scaffold, and accommodate the academic language and vocabulary needed to understand and respond to the statements in the Anticipation Guide. Use mixed ability partners, realia, picture icons, international symbols or signs, visual cues, cognates, actions or gestures, dramatization, role play, native language support, graphic organizers and printed word/sentences according to students functional language levels. Model the strategy first: Use Think-Alouds, along with Read-Alouds and appropriate ESL instructional strategies (Total Physical Response (thumbs up/thumbs down), oral cloze sentences, etc.), to model the strategy before students are expected to develop and/or respond to anticipation guides independently.

Guide

Accommodations for Students with Disabilities Before Reading Introduce the anticipation guide using a familiar passage. Model this strategy using the think aloud strategy stating why you agree or disagree with each statement. Students can agree or disagree with each statement by showing a sign such as thumbsup/thumbs-down. Allow students to work with a partner or small group to complete additional statements. Make sure at least one statement challenges their thinking.

What is it we want all students to learn?

Houston ISD Curriculum DRAFT 2010-2011 Page 11 of 12

Literacy Leads the Way Best Practices


including Accommodations for ELLs and Special Education
Table of Contents Accommodations for ELLs Strategy
Graphic Organizers

Explanation What is it? A flexible instructional tool to help students construct meaning and organize their knowledge before, during or after instruction. They can be completed linguistically or non-linguistically. How do I use it? Model how to use a specific organizer with familiar content. Allow students to help complete a class graphic organizer. Show several completed examples. Monitor students as they complete their own graphic organizer with new content. What does it look like? Model and demonstrate the strategy first, using guided practice and mixed-ability partner support before expecting independent application. Partner ELL students with students more proficient in English. Preteach and accommodate the academic language and vocabulary needed to understand and complete the corresponding graphic organizer. Use realia, picture icons, international symbols or signs, visual cues, cognates, actions or gestures, dramatization, role play, or native language support. Use short labels and diagrams to reinforce meaning and sequential use of the graphic organizers for ELL students. Provide ELLs with graphic organizers that are appropriate for the text structure and language acquisition level of the students.

Accommodations for Students with Disabilities Before, During, and After Reading When introducing a graphic organizer, explain the purpose for using the tool. Model using the organizer with a familiar text or passage. Allow students to practice using a brief passage. Reflect on the usefulness of the tool by discussing with students the benefits of using the graphic organizer. Gradually allow students to practice using the graphic organizers using short paragraphs or passages. Then introduce longer text and passages for independent practice.

For more information about these strategies, consult the following texts: Teaching Reading in the Content Areas Project CRISS Handbook for Classroom Instruction that Works When Kids Cant Read, What Teachers Can Do Reading with Meaning

What is it we want all students to learn?

Houston ISD Curriculum DRAFT 2010-2011 Page 12 of 12