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Writing Skills 1

UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE WRITING PROCESS

LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the unit, students should be able to 1. 2. 3. 4. understand the various steps involved in writing use various strategies to generate ideas for a particular topic provide various kinds of supporting details for a particular topic draft, revise and draft again for a particular topic

1.1

What is the writing process?

Writing is always hard at the beginning, when the page is blank. We start to write, find it going slow, and imagine our secret fears about our inability to write confirmed. The truth is that for nearly everyone, writing is a hard and slow work. The only solution to the slow start is to understand the process of writing. By definition, a process is a series of actions, changes, or functions that bring about a result. According to Langan (2002), writing is a process of discovery which involves a series of steps and those steps are very often a zigzag journey. In addition, writing is often a process of continuing discovery. Very often writers discover the direction and shape of a paper during the process of writing. Lannon (2004) argues that most writing is a conscious, deliberate process not the result of divine intervention, magic, miracles, or last-minute inspiration. Nothing ever leaps from the mind to the page in one neat and painless motion- not even for creative geniuses. Instead we generate ideas, focus, support, draft, revise and draft again. Sometimes we know right away what we want to say, sometimes we discover our purpose and meaning only as we write. But our finish product takes shape through our decisions at different stages in the writing process.

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Look at the following illustrations of the writing process:

Taken from Troyka (1999)

As you can see, the writing process is like a spiral. The components in the process are not isolated; there is a constant interaction among them. Working on one component influences how you look at another. You may even work on two elements at the same time. For example, while writers are generating ideas, they may also discover a focus for their essay. Very often, writers discover the direction and shape of a paper during the writing process. In fact, discovering new ideas, focusing, supporting, and revising go on in some form at each stage. Although there is a continual interplay among the components, we need to look at each one separately in order to understand what good writers do.

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1.2 Steps involved in writing

1.

Generating ideas: Listing details, searching your mind for relationships, and locating topics much as the generator of electricity emits sparks and provides energy. Focusing: Choosing from among your ideas, narrowing your vision, making clear your main idea, and formulating a thesis sentence similar to the photographer who selects an interesting subject, frames it in the viewfinder, and sharply focuses the camera. Supporting: Finding details, examples, facts, or description to explain and reinforce your focus statement or thesis just as a lawyer searches for facts to prove a case. Drafting: Determining your audience and your specific purpose and organizing the essay with these in mind; putting your pen on the paper to write the essay. Revising: Reshaping your thesis; reshuffling the draft; improving the thinking and evidence; tightening the transitions; proofreading for grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Drafting again: Rewriting the composition in a form that satisfies the writer and the writers audience.

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1.3

Generating ideas

Generating ideas is the first step in the process of writing. It is extremely important because it provides the ideas from which to write an essay. There are many methods of generating ideas. The four strategies which are commonly used are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Listing The Reporters Formula Fish boning Webbing

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1.3.1 Listing
Here you list words and phrases sparked by a particular topic. Steps:

Jot down any images, ideas and phrases that come to mind regarding the topic (review your background knowledge). ii) Do not evaluate or be critical of your ideas while jotting them down. iii) after you have completed the list, go through it and mark out all the ideas that are irrelevant or that you are not interested in including in your essay. iv) Of the remaining ideas, pick a few that you think you can write on.
i)

Example: Here is a list formulated by a student in response to the topic My First Day in the U.K. Horrible lost passport missed my parents scared, wanted to go home what would I do without a passport go to jail? What are British police like? -

Pakistani lady asked me what was wrong she helped me airport was too big, crowded Heathrow London afraid of crime from TV Id watched back home end of story ok passport found under seat of airplane

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Take Note i) put a title at the top of your list so that you will stay on purpose and always know why you are making the list. write as fast as possible and use short words or phrases generate questions that will enhance your thinking about a topic.

ii) iii)

Task 1.1
Using listing, generate ideas for the topic My most unforgettable experience.

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1.3.2 The Reporters Formula


Put yourself in the shoes of a reporter. Ask the following questions about a topic: Who? What? Example: Topic: An Embarrassing Incident - What is the incident? - Where did it occur? - Who were involved? - When did it happen? - Who helped you? - Why was it so embarrassing? Where? When? Why? How?

Take Note Students must use their question-generating ability to the fullest to ensure you have a pool of ideas.

Task 1.2
Using the The Reporters Formula strategy, generate ideas for the topic An Unlucky Day.

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1.3.3 Fish boning


This method of generating ideas helps you form connections between your thoughts. Write the topic on the left of your page and draw a horizontal line across. This line is the fishbone (which represents the thesis statement). From the backbone, you will represent your ideas on the topic (topic sentences) by drawing in lines to represent sub-topics. You can branch out from these, adding more lines to represent supporting details. Example:

Taken from Troyka (1999)

In the above example, the thesis statement is teenagers face many problems. Based on this fish bone, you can write four content paragraphs, each with one of the topic sentences given. For example, in one content paragraph, the topic sentence is teenagers face a lot of pressure to do well in school. The supporting ideas for this are pressure by teachers and pressure by students.

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Take Note Work on the fishbone chart quickly and feel free to jump from one level to another as you think of ideas, rather than trying to complete everything at one level before proceeding to the next.

Task 1.3
Using the fish boning strategy, generate ideas for the topic Social issues in Malaysia.

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1.3.4 Webbing
This is another useful strategy to help you to both generate idea and begin to focus on a question as the basis of the essay. Write the topic in the centre of your page. On a web radiating out from the topic, identify issues or problems related to the topic which will form the topic sentences. On the next set of webs, state the issues in the form of a question. The web can be continued by next stating where the answers to the questions can be found (supporting details). Example:

Taken from Troyka (1999)

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In the above example, the thesis statement is watching television brings about many disadvantages. There are six points to support this thesis statement. Each point represents the topic sentence/main idea. The answers to the questions will form the supporting details. For instance, one of the topic sentences is about violence; i.e. one of the disadvantages of watching television is there is too much violence shown on TV. By answering the question What is influence of TV violence? We can get supporting details such as an increase in crime rate among teenagers gangsterism, fights etc.

Task 1.4
Using the webbing strategy, generate ideas for the topic Suggest some ways to make your holidays more interesting.

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1.4

Focus
Ideas are certainly the beginning of the process of writing. Without them, you would have no materials from which to build an essay. However, ideas can be just a jumble of words and phrases on a page unless you see some links or connections between them. Frequently these connections are discoveries that writers make when they search through their ideas for a central theme or focus. It is these discoveries of meaning that make writing challenging for the writer and interesting to the reader. When they are put into sentence form, they are called focus or thesis statements.

1.4.1 What is a thesis?


A thesis is the clear focus of your essay, the opinion you express about a subject, the basic attitude you have toward a limited subject. It is the idea that controls and ties together all the separate elements in your essay. The first step in creating a thesis is to sort through your ideas for general connections in meaning, to focus on the truth in those ideas. The next step is to write one sentence which expresses this truth or central idea. This sentence is called a thesis statement. The thesis statement can be expressed in various ways, as in these examples: As an opinion: Starting university after the age of 30 hasnt been easy, but the good points definitely outweigh the bad. I want my life to be better than that of my parents. Laptops should be provided for all students. Should examination be abolished?

As an evaluation: As a suggestion: As a question:

As a debatable claim: University is not for everyone.

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From the examples above, it is obvious that each of those thesis statements creates a clear expectation. They dont keep readers guessing. They make their points quickly.

Task 1.5
Using the 5 ways, write a thesis statement for each of the following topic. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. As an opinion: Marrying at a young age As an evaluation: Imported cars As a suggestion: University accommodation As a question: Television commercials As a debatable claim: Good health

1.5

Supporting Details
What kind of supporting details do paragraph writers most often use? That depends on the topic sentence. A topic sentence is a single sentence that sums up the main point of your paragraph. The good topic sentence suggests the kinds of details needed for its support. Basically, there are five kinds of supporting details: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Examples Facts Testimony Reason Personal observation

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1.5.1 Examples
An example is a part used to represent the whole. To use examples, simply introduce them with a suitable phrase, such as for example, for instance, or take the case of, and then spell out the example you have in mind. Naturally, any example you use should support your point. Example: Topic sentence: UPSI provides many facilities for the students. First example: It has a large library with thousands of books on various subjects. Second example: It also has a gymnasium. Third example: Besides these, there are many big hostels.

Task 1.6
Write three appropriate examples that support the following points. 1. Topic Sentence: There are many places in Malaysia which will interest tourists. First example: ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Second example: _____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Third example: _______________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

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2.

Topic sentence: There are many disadvantages of living in a big city. First example: ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Second example: _____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Third example: _______________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

3.

Topic sentence: Sometimes it hurts to tell the truth. First example: ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Second example: _____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Third example: _______________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

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1.5.2 Facts
A fact is a statement that is true or can be verified. Anyone who is curious can look up the statement in a proper source and confirm its truth. For instance, the fact that Tun Mahathir was born in Alor Star, can be confirmed by checking any biography of Malaysias fourth prime minister. Some facts are simply accepted by everyone because they have never been proven untrue. That sooner or later humans die is one fact. The opposite of a fact is an opinion. Unlike a fact, an opinion is a personal belief, often accompanied by emotion, that cannot be proved either true or false. Here are some examples of facts and opinions: Accepted Fact: Verifiable Fact: Opinion: The sun will always rise in the East. John Steinbeck wrote Of Mice and Men. Steinbecks best book is Of Mice and Men.

Here is a paragraph that supports its topic sentence with facts. Food at Abuya Restaurant is cheaper than at the University Cafeteria. A can of 100 plus at the University Cafeteria was RM1.80. But I found the same drink at Abuya Restaurant for RM1.50. The price of a packet of nasi lemak was RM1.20 at the University Cafeteria but RM1.00 at Abuya. Likewise, I paid 50 sen less for a plate of chicken rice at Abuya than I would have to at the University Cafeteria. These cheaper prices are the reasons why I buy my food at Abuya.

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Task 1.7
Support the following topic sentences with at least three facts. You may need to interview or survey classmates or visit your library. 1. Topic sentence: The students in my English class come from many different backgrounds. First fact: ___________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Second fact: _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Third fact: ___________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

2.

Topic sentence: Tuanku Bainun Library has an adequate book collection and excellent facilities. First fact: ___________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Second fact: _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Third fact: ___________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

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3.

Topic sentence: A car is expensive to run and maintain. First fact: ___________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

Second fact: _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Third fact: ___________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

1.5.3 Testimony
Testimony is expert opinion that backs up your topic sentence. The expert may be someone who is recognized in the field or who has had personal experience with your topic. Of course, getting the testimony you need may require you to check a newspaper or interview the right people. Here is a paragraph that has both kinds of testimony the personal experience and expert opinion. If you are stopped by the police for a traffic violation, there are some things you should not do. You should not, for one, get out of your car unless the officer asks you to. My friend Joe was pulled over by the police late one night on a lonely city street and he got out of the car, thinking that it would make him seem friendly. It had the opposite effect on the officer. Joe says she put her hand on her gun and ordered him to get back into the car. He said he was afraid she would shoot him. Corporal Aishah of the federal police headquarters, Bukit Aman says a motorist who gets out of the car without being told is considered a threat. Says Corporal Aishah, Im always cautious

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when a motorist gets out of the car and walks toward me. I think hes being aggressive. As a testimony, the writer quotes his friends personal experience as well as the expert opinion of Corporal Aishah.

Task 1.8
Cite at least two opinions as testimony, supporting the following topic sentences. 1. Topic sentence: When youre in university, parents should treat you like an adult, not a child.

First fact: _____________________________________________________


______________________________________________________________

Second fact: ___________________________________________________


______________________________________________________________

2.

Topic sentence: Working your way through university can be a stressful experience. First fact: _____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

Second fact: ___________________________________________________


______________________________________________________________

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1.5.4 Reasons
Some topic sentences are best supported by reasons explanations based on common sense, good judgment, clear thinking, and logic. This kind of support is most commonly used when a writer is trying to persuade the reader to change an opinion. In the following paragraph, reason is used to support the writers argument that heavy rain stops many of our activities. Heavy rain stops many of our activities. We cannot move about without getting wet. Many accidents may occur on a wet road and traffic can be held up. Games, sports, picnics and other outdoor activities are interrupted by rain. Heavy rain also prevents fishermen from going out to sea.

Task 1.9
Provide at least three reasons to support the following topic sentences. 1. 2. Everyone should play a sport. Capital punishment does not stop murder.

1.5.5 Personal Observation


Some topics are strictly personal and must be supported mainly by your own personal observation. That old stand-by topic, Write about how you spent your endof-semester vacation, is a classic example of a personal topic. Unless he or she vacationed with you, no librarian can help you find support for it. You must draw entirely on your personal observations for support. Personal observation includes descriptive details and examples. Here is an example of both in a paragraph: Last end-of- semester vacation I spent a week hiking and discovered that I hate it. To begin with, we got caught in a two-day rain on Gunung Tahan Trail. The tent turned out not to be waterproof, and for one whole night I tried to

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sleep with water dripping on my nose. When I moved, it dripped on my belly. I turned over, and it dripped on my butt. I also found out that aside from weather problems, hiking is unhealthy for you. For example, I ate poorly for the week that I was starving and pigged-out afterward on double beef chicken burger and french fries for a month. So I ended up gaining weight.

Task 1.10
Develop a topic sentence on the topic An incident that changed me in some way and write a paragraph about it, supporting the topic sentence with personal observations.

1.6

Drafting

When you have generated ideas, focused on a central theme, and selected supporting details, you must next consider your audience, your purpose in writing, and the way in which you will organize your essay.

1.6.1 Audience
Readers are the audience for your writing. Your ability to reach your intended audience determines how good your writing is. Your writing must show that you are aware of your readers and are trying to reach them. If you write without considering your readers, you risk communicating with yourself. To orient yourself to remaining aware of your readers as you write, think about the various reader characteristics listed in the table below.

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Checklist of basic audience characteristics Who are they? age, gender ethnic backgrounds, political philosophies, religious beliefs roles (students, parent, voter, teacher, veteran, others) interests, hobbies

What do they know? level of education amount of general or specialized knowledge about the topic preconceptions brought to the material

If you know or can reasonably assume even a few of the characteristics listed in the table above, your chances of reaching your audience improve. In short, you can reach your audience better when your knowledge about your audience is more explicit.

1.6.2 Purpose
The next step in beginning your first draft is to determine your purpose, which may be to inform, to explain, to persuade, or to interact with your audience in some other way. In determining your own purpose, you can simply complete this sentence: In this paper I want to ______________. This sentence doesnt usually appear in the actual finished paper, but it does give direction to your writing as you go through the process of essay writing. It also implies that there is an audience. If your purpose is to inform, you are assuming that someone needs to be informed, if it is to persuade, someone needs to be persuaded.

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1.6.3 Organizing your essay


Now you face the task of arranging the focus statement and the support you have chosen to form a unified, coherent essay. Since the first kind of writing you probably will have to do in a university English class is the expository essay, lets look at the basic parts in this type of essay. The four basic parts of an expository essay include: 1. 2. The introduction: This is the beginning of the essay, the first paragraph. The focus statement: This statement is the thesis or main idea of the essay. It is usually located at the end of the introduction but may be placed elsewhere in the essay. 3. The body: This section is the middle of the essay. The paragraphs may explain, define, clarify, or illustrate the focus statement. Each paragraph in the body has a topic sentence and several supporting sentences. If the assigned essay is long and complicated, more paragraphs will be needed. 4. The conclusion: The end of the essay, the last paragraph, which ties together the major points of the essay.

Task 1.11
Consulting section 1.7, 1.8, and 1.9, draft an essay for any one of the topics you had done in Section 1.3 (Generating ideas) above.

1.7

Revising

To revise, you must evaluate. You assess each draft to determine where improvements are:

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needed. Then you make the improvements and evaluate each on its own and in the context of surrounding material. This process continues until you are satisfied that the essay is the best that you can make it in the time available. To revise effectively, you likely need to engage in all the activities in the tables below:

Steps for revising Shift mentally from suspending judgment (during the generating idea and drafting) to make judgments. Read your draft critically to evaluate it. Decide whether to write an entirely new draft or to revise the one you have. Be systematic. Do not evaluate at random. You need to pay attention to many different elements of a draft, from overall organization to choice of words.

Major activities during revision Add. Insert needed words, sentences and paragraphs. If your additions require new content, return to gathering idea strategies. Cut. Get rid of whatever goes off the topic or repeats what has already been said. Replace. As needed, substitute new words, sentences, and paragraphs for what you have cut. Move material around. Change the sequence of paragraphs if the material is not presented in logical order. Move sentences within paragraphs or to other paragraphs if any paragraph arrangement seems illogical.

Task 1.12
Revise the draft you had prepared for Task 1.11.

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1.8 Draft again


After revising the essay, the last step in the writing process is to draft again. In this stage you can make changes in wording, development of ideas, supporting details etc. and edit the essay for mistakes in grammar, punctuation, mechanics, usage and spelling. Finally, proofread your final draft closely for typos and careless errors.

Task 1.13
Draft again the revised draft in Task 1.12.

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SELF-ASSESSMENT

Test 1
What are the 6 steps in the writing process?

Test 2
Write a thesis statement for each of the following topic. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. As an opinion: Money can buy happiness As an evaluation: Studying overseas As a suggestion: Healthy lifestyle As a question: Facebook As a debatable claim: Euthanasia

Test 3
Write a topic sentence and 2 supporting details for each of the thesis statement you have written in Test 2.

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REFERENCES
Langan, J. (2004). English Skills With Readings (5th ed.) Boston: McGraw Hill. Lannon, J.M. (2004). The Writing Process (8th ed.) New York: Pearson Education. Shoemaker, C. (1985). Write in the corner where you are Fort Worth: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Troyka, L. Q. (1999). Simon & Schuster Handbook For Writers. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Winkler, A.C. & Mc Cuen, J. R. (1997) Writing Talk: Sentences and Paragraphs New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

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Answer for Test 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Generating ideas Focusing Supporting Drafting Revising Drafting again

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UNIT 2 THESIS STATEMENT, TOPIC SENTENCES AND SUPPORTING DETAILS

LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the unit, students should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Write good thesis statements Write good topic sentences and supporting details Understand and recognize the characteristics of an effective paragraph Write an effective paragraph

2.1

Thesis statement
You have learned in Unit 1 that a thesis statement is a sentence which expresses the central idea of your essay. It is evident that you have something definite to say about the topic. An effective thesis statement prepares your readers for the essence of what you discuss in an essay. As the writer, you want to compose a thesis statement with care so that it accurately reflects the content of your essay. If you discern a mismatch between your thesis statement and the rest of your essay, revise to coordinate them better. Troyka (1999) lists five basic requirements for a thesis statement:

It states the essays subject the topic that you are discussing It reflects the essays purpose either to give your readers information or to persuade your readers to agree with you. It includes a focus your assertion that conveys your point of view.

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It uses specific language vague words are avoided. It may briefly state the major subdivisions of the essays topic.

Here are some examples of thesis statements, written for 500-600 word essays with an informative purpose. 1. Topic: classical music Thesis statement: Classical music can be played by groups of various sizes, ranging from chamber ensembles to full symphony orchestras. 2. Topic: discomforts of city living Thesis statement: Rising crime rates, increasingly overcrowded conditions and growing expenses make living comfortably in a modern city difficult. 3. Topic: deceptive advertising Thesis statement: Deceptive advertising can cost consumers not only money but also their health. 4. Topic: government loans for higher education Thesis statement: The federal government should enact a law setting up an education loan for each Malaysian citizen for university or college. 5. Topic: Malaysian food Thesis statement: A variety of spices make Malaysian food much more interesting than American food.

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Task 2.1
The following weak thesis statements were used as focus statements for essays. Change each one so that it clearly expresses the main idea of the essay. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I want to discuss my ideas about the ideal wife. My son decided to major in mechanical engineering. Drug addiction among teenagers. The treatment of handicapped people in my country Electricity is a phenomenon arising from the existence and interactions of electric charge.

Task 2.2
Evaluate each thesis statement below according to the five basic requirements listed by Troyka (1999). 1. The university cafeteria could attract more students if it improved the quality of its food, its appearance, and the friendliness of its staff. The United States should increase efforts to slow the destruction of the ozone layer. Playing tennis for fun and exercise requires agility, stamina and strategy. Cattle ranchers biggest challenge is survival for their business. The best features of my apartment are its large windows, roomy closets and great location.

2.

3. 4. 5.

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Task 2.3
Construct appropriate thesis statement for each of the following essay topics. 1. 2. My best vacation What are some of the factors you would consider when buying a mobile phone? Do you think that, in Malaysian schools, too much attention is paid to examinations? 4. 5. What are the characteristics of an ideal teacher? Write about someone you fear.

3.

2.2

Topic sentence
You learned in Unit 1 that sometimes the main idea of a paragraph is stated in one sentence. This sentence can usually be found at the beginning, the middle or the end of the paragraph. If the main idea is conveyed in one sentence, that sentence is called the topic sentence. When you look closely at a topic sentence, you can see that it is made of two parts: 1. 2. the limited topic the writers attitude towards the limited topic

The writers attitude, point of view, or idea is usually expressed in one or more key words. All the details in a paragraph should support the idea expressed in the key words. Examples:

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1. 2.

My girlfriend is very aggressive. Highway accidents are often caused by absentmindedness.

In the first sentence, the topic is girlfriend, and the word that expresses the writers idea about the topic is that his girlfriend is aggressive. In the second sentence, the topic is highway accidents, and the key word that determine the focus of the paragraph is that such accidents are often caused by absentmindedness.

Task 2.4
For each topic sentence below, draw a single line under the topic and a double line under the idea about the topic. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Billboards should be abolished. My boss is an ambitious man. The car needed repairs. The language in many movies today is offensive. Looking for a job can be a degrading experience.

Task 2.5
Each group of sentences below could be written as a short paragraph. Circle the letter of the topic sentence in each case. To find the topic sentence, ask yourself Which is a general statement supported by the specific details in the other three statements?

1.

A B C D

If you stop carrying matches or lighter, you can cut down on impulse smoking. If you sit in no-smoking areas, you will smoke less. You can behave in ways that will help you smoke less. By keeping a record of when and where you smoke, you can identify the most tempting situations and avoid them.

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2.

A B C D

Its brakes are badly worn. My old car is ready for the junk pile. Its floor has rusted through, and water splashes on my feet when the highway is wet. My mechanic says its engine is too old to be repaired, and the car isnt worth the cost of a new engine. Tobacco is one of the most addictive of all drugs. Selling cigarettes ought to be against the law. Nonsmokers are put in danger by breathing the smoke from other peoples cigarettes. Cigarette smoking kills many more people than all illegal drugs combined. Part-time workers can be easily laid-off. Most part-time workers get no fringe benefits. The average part-timer earns three ringgit less an hour than a full-timer. Part-time workers have second-class status. The last time I ate at the restaurant, I got food poisoning and was sick for two days. The health inspector found matches and mice in the restaurants kitchen. Our town restaurant is a health hazard and ought to be closed down. The toilets in the restaurant often back up, and the sinks have only a trickle of water.

3.

A B C D

4.

A B C D A B C D

5.

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Task 2.6
Construct a topic sentence for each set of statements below. 1. A B C D First I lost my notebook. Then I broke the mirror in my compact when I dropped it. I got sick during lunch and flunked my geometry mid-semester exam after lunch. I cried all the way to the dorm.

Topic sentence: ________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________

2.

A B C D

Open the microwave oven door and put your leftovers. Then shut the door and set the timer to about two minutes. After that press the on button and wait. When the bell goes off, take the leftovers out.

Topic sentence: ________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________

3.

A B C D

Only thirty people came to the dance, instead of the expected two hundred. The band arrived late and spent an hour setting up. There were at least three males at the dance to every female. An hour later the dance started, it ended because of power failure.

Topic sentence: ________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________

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4.

A B C D

We had to wait an hour even though we had reserved a table. Our appetizer and main course arrived at the same time. The waiter ignored our request for more water. The wrong desserts were served to us.

Topic sentence: ________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________

5.

A B C D

When we brought a welcome to the neighbourhood present, the family next door didnt even say thank you. The family never attends the annual block party. The familys children arent allowed to play with other neighbourhood kids. Our neighbours keep their curtains closed and never sit out in their yard.

Topic sentence: ________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________

Task 2.7
The followings are five general topics and a series of limited topics that fit under them. Make a point out of one of the limited topics in each group. To create a topic sentence, ask yourself, What point do I want to make about __________________ (my limited topic)? Example: Recreation Movies Dancing TV shows Reading Sports parks

Your point: Sports parks today have some truly exciting games.

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1.

Your hometown Location Development Facilities Food Tourist attractions

Your point: _____________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________

2.

Job Pay Boss Duties Coworkers Working conditions Customers or clients

Your point: _____________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________

3.

Money Budgets Credit cards Dealing with a bank Family expenses Ways to get it Ways to save it

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Your point: _____________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________

4.

Cars First car Accident Drivers test Safety problems Road conditions Mandatory speed limit

Your point: _____________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________

5.

Sports Womens team Favourite team Outstanding athlete A teams chances Recreational versus spectator

Your point: _______________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________

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2.3

Supporting Details
You have learned in Unit 1 that specific details are examples, facts, testimony, reasons and personal observations. Such details are needed to support and explain a topic sentence effectively. They provide the evidence needed for readers to understand, as well as to feel and experience, a writers point. Here is a topic sentence followed by two sets of supporting sentences. Which set provide sharp, specific details? Topic sentence Some poor people must struggle to make meals for themselves. Set A They gather whatever free food they can find in fast-food restaurants and take it home to use however they can. Instead of planning well-balanced meals, they base their diet on anything they can buy that is cheap and filling. Set B Some make tomato soup by adding hot water to the free packets of ketchup they get at McDonalds. Others buy cans of cheap dog food and fry it like hamburger. Set B provides specific details: instead of a general statement about free food they find in fast-food restaurants and take home to use however they can, we get a vivid detail we can see and picture clearly: make tomato soup from free packets of ketchup. Instead of a general statement about how the poor will base their diet on anything they can buy that is cheap and filling, we get exact and vivid details: Others buy cans of cheap dog food and fry it like hamburger.

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Task 2.8
Each topic sentence below is followed by two sets of supporting details. Write S (for specific) in the space next to the set that provides specific support for the point. Write G (for general) next to the set that offers only vague, general support.

1. Topic sentence: My roommate is messy. _____ a. He doesnt seem to mind that he cant find any clean clothes or dishes. He never puts anything back in its proper place; he just drops it wherever he happens to be. His side of the room looks as if a hurricane has gone through.
______b.

His coffee cup is covered inside with a thick layer of green mold. I cant tell you what colour his easy chair is; it has disappeared under a pile of laundry. When he turns over in bed, I can hear the crunch of cracker crumbs beneath his body. Our new kitten causes us lots of trouble.

2.

Topic sentence:

_____ a.

He has shredded the curtains in my bedroom with his claws. He nearly drowned when he crawled into the washing machine. And my hands look like raw hamburger from his playful bites and scratches. He seems to destroy everything he touches. Hes always getting into places where he doesnt belong. Sometimes he plays too roughly, and that can be painful. My landlord is softhearted.

_____ b.

3.

Topic sentence: a.

Even though he wrote them himself, he sometimes ignores the official apartment rules in order to make his tenants happy. Although the lease states No pets, he bought my daughter a puppy after she told him how much she missed having one.

b.

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Task 2.9
Each of the following paragraphs needs specific details to back up its supporting points. In the spaces provided, add a sentence or two of realistic details for each supporting point. The more specific you are, the more convincing your details are likely to be.
1.

Helping a Parent in University There are several ways a family can help a parent who is attending university. First, family members can take over some of the household chores that the parent usually does.

Also, family members can make sure that the parent has some quiet study time.
__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

Last, families can take an interest in the parents problem and accomplishments.
__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

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2.

A Pushover Teacher We knew after the first few classes that the teacher was a pushover. First of all, he didnt seem able to control the class.
__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

In addition, he made some course requirements easier when a few students complained.
__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

Finally, he gave the easiest quiz we had ever taken.


__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

2.4

Characteristics of an effective paragraph


Troyka (1999) lists three characteristics of an effective paragraph: Unity: clear, logical relationship between the main idea of a paragraph and supporting evidence for that main idea. Coherence: smooth progression from one sentence to the next within a paragraph. Development: logical arrangement of paragraphs and specific, concrete support for the main idea of each paragraph.

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2.5

Unity
In every paragraph, there must be unity of ideas. In other words, there is a main idea which contributes to the central theme of the entire text and every point in the paragraph must support and develop that idea. Therefore, a paragraph is unified when all its sentences clarify or help support the main idea. Unity is lost if a paragraph goes off the topic by including sentences unrelated to the main idea. The sentence that introduces the main idea in a paragraph is called the topic sentence. The remaining sentences are called supporting sentences because they contain details that support or control the topic sentence. The final sentence of a paragraph is called the concluding sentence. It relates the main idea or summarize it in a new way. Read the sample paragraph below and notice how the main idea and details are arranged.

Interacting with American Students If you are an international student interested in interacting with American students, try making plans to study in a group and join some campus organizations. First of all, at the beginning of the semester, arrange to study with a group of students in one of your classes. You can do this by asking the lecturer to announce to the class a group study opportunity. After that, you can meet with other interested students to decide on the day, time, and place of your regular meetings. When you meet, you can review vocabulary, discuss ideas and assignments, and prepare for exams. Secondly, you can join some campus organizations that attract American students. Very often clubs are formed that are related to various major fields and subject areas. These clubs can give you the opportunity to learn more about a subject while hearing English spoken by Americans. A benefit of interacting with Americans in these two ways is that friendships are sometimes formed, even though your primary goal may be to just participate in the language.

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Interacting With American Students 1. International students interested in interacting with American students can do two things. A. First of all, at the beginning of the semester you can arrange to study with a group of students. 1. Ask your instructor opportunity. to announce a group study

2.

Meet with other interested students to decide the day, time, and place of your regular meetings. When you meet, study vocabulary, discuss ideas and assignments, and prepare for exams.

3.

B.

Join campus organizations that attract American students. 1. Clubs are formed that are related to various major fields and subject areas. These clubs can help you to learn more about a subject while allowing you to hear more spoken English.

2.

C.

A benefit of forming study groups with American and joining campus organizations is that you may make friends, in addition to improving your English.

The diagram below offers another way to visualize the structure of a paragraph: Topic sentence Supporting details Conclusion

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Task 2.10
Read the paragraph below and answer the questions that follow. I have been living in a dormitory for two months with two Australians. This has caused many good results. First, I can learn English. When I talk with the Australian students, they always correct my English. I have become used to the native speed. It improves my listening ability. Second, I can learn about Australian culture. We talk about many topics and I can understand Australian thinking. I find many differences between my culture and theirs. Third, I dont feel lonely because I always stay and talk with them. When I worry about something, I can discuss it with them and so I dont feel lonely. Due to these reasons, I really enjoy living in a dormitory. 1. State the main idea/topic sentence of this paragraph.
____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

2.

How many supporting sentences are there? What are they?


____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

3.

What is the concluding sentence?


____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

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Task 2.11
Write a paragraph of about 50-70 words on the following topic. Make sure there is a clear topic sentence and supporting ideas that support the topic sentence. How has the computer changed our lives?

2.6

Coherence
Another element that an effective paragraph needs is coherence. A coherent paragraph contains sentences that are logically arranged and that flow smoothly. Coherence within paragraphs can be achieved by: 1. using pronouns to refer to previous nouns. Example: Honour is very important in Japanese culture. It is the centre of family and professional life. 2. repeating key words and phrases from the topic sentence. Example: Egypt has been famous for fine textiles from ancient times. The worlds earliest known textiles, in fact were woven in Egypt. Synonyms can also be used for key words. Example: Egypt has been famous for fine textiles from ancient times. The worlds earliest known fabrics, in fact were woven in the land of the pharaohs.

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3.

Using transitional words and phrases to indicate the relationship of one idea to another. Example: All the ancient Greeks worshipped the same gods, but one city would choose a particular god or goddess to protect it. The Athenians. For example, choose Athens as their protector. All Greeks believed that Zeus was the greatest of all gods. Under him were a number of divine powers which were thought of as looking like humans. There were Ares, God of War; Aelos, God of the Wind; Poseidon, God of the Sea; Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love; and many others. In addition, there were a great number of heroes, humans who had become half-gods, like Herakles and Achilles.

4.

Using parallel structures Parallelism is created when grammatically equivalent forms appear in a set of two or a series of three or more. The repeated tempos and sounds of parallel structures reinforce connections among ideas and create a dramatic effect. Example: Superstitions are sometimes smiled at and sometimes frowned upon as observances characteristic of the old-fashioned, the unenlightened, children, peasants, servants, immigrants, foreigners or back-woods people. Nevertheless, they give all of us ways of moving back and forth among the different worlds in which we live the sacred, the secular, and the scientific. They allow us to keep a private world also, where, smiling a little, we can banish danger with a gesture and summon luck with a rhyme, make the sun shine in spite of storm clouds, force the stranger to do our bidding, keep an enemy at bay and straighten the paths of those we love.

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Task 2.12
Fill in the blanks with pronouns to refer to previous nouns in the following paragraph. My host family is a typical American family. 1.____________ have only two children and live in a three-bedroom house in the suburbs. The father, Mel Stinson, is very busy as a vice president of his company. 2._____________ works at least fifty hours a week. Mrs. Stinson also works, but 3. __________ is not in as important a job as her husband. Even the children in the family are terribly busy. 4. ___________ go to music lessons after school and sometimes 5. __________ play on organized soccer teams. Nobody seems to have time for 6. _____________ own relaxation and freedom of choice. 7._________ in the family has meetings, lessons, appointments, and many other commitments. When do 8. _________ find time to relax and talk together? When do 9._________ find time for family life?

Task 2.13
Fill the blanks with key words and phrases from the topic sentence. To many people of other cultures, Americans ask too many personal questions and come on too fast and too strong. This barrage of 1.____________ seems like an invasion of privacy for people from 2. ____________ where privacy is important. Where do you work?, Do you have any children?, Do you play tennis? are not 3.__________ 4. ____________ by 5.___________ standards. They are a way of searching for common interests on which to base a conversation or build a relationship. Such 6. ____________ are meant to be friendly, not rude.

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Task 2.14
Use suitable transition words from the list in the box to complete the text below. also although and because meanwhile but but also for however too incidentally in particular in this way instead indeed not only on the other hand since therefore for the moment

Janet Wests sister is an air hostess for a famous international airline, 1._____________ Janet wants to become one 2.______________, she is still too young: the minimum age for an air hostess is twenty 3.____________ Janet is only just over sixteen. 4.__________ has taken a job in an office 5. ___________ she 6. ___________ attends evening classes. 7.___________ she wants to improve her French and Spanish, 8.__________ foreign languages are an essential qualification for an air hostess. 9.__________ Janet is gaining experience through her present job 10.__________ the office where she works is a travel agency 11.___________ she is learning 12.________ how to deal with people 13._____________ quite a lot about the places she one day hopes to visit.

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Task 2.15
The following sentences contain faulty parallelisms. Underline the faulty parallelism and correct the sentence.

1.

Fikri enjoys hunting for birds, socializing with friends, and to read the comics.
______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

2.

When I saw my roommate with my girlfriend, I felt worried, angry and embarrassment as well.
______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

3.

Najwa enjoys shopping for new clothes, to try different cosmetics and reading beauty magazines.
______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

4.

When Jessica doesnt have class, she uses her time to clean house, getting her laundry done and to buy groceries.
______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

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5.

The video store has sections devoted to comedy films, dramatic films and films made in foreign countries.
______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

2.7

Development
Development involves arranging a paragraph and knowing patterns for paragraph development. Arranging a paragraph means you put its sentences into an order logical for communicating the message of the paragraph clearly and effectively. Choices for arranging a paragraph include sequencing according to time and to location; moving from general to specific, from specific to general and from least to most important; and progressing from problem to solution. Patterns for paragraph development have evolved as writers created better methods to express their ideas. If you get to know a variety of patterns for paragraph development, you will always have more choices as a writer to help your paragraphs deliver their meanings most effectively. In the next unit and the other consecutive units you will learn the common patterns for paragraph development such as narrative, cause and effect, process, comparing and contrasting and classification.

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SELF-ASSESSMENT Test 1
Read the paragraph below and explain why it lacks unity.

Automated Customer Service Today people have fewer human contacts as they go about their personal business. To buy petrol, you can pull up alongside a petrol pump, insert a credit card, and fill the tank without the help of an attendant. The charge is made automatically to your credit card. You can pay for your purchase inside the station office. If you want to make a deposit or withdraw some money from the bank, you can step up to an automated teller machine (ATM) to complete your business without talking to a teller. In fact, banking services charges are rising rapidly. Moreover, to park in a public lot, you drive alongside a ticket dispenser machine, from which an automated voice explains what you should do. The gate then opens and allows the car in. When you leave, you insert the ticket in a machine, the gate opens, and you are on your way. What are the disadvantages of automated customer service?

Test 2
Read the incoherent paragraph below and then make changes and additions so that the paragraph is more coherent. Miswan is very good in English and always make straight As. Miswan doesnt seem like a person who would study hard. Miswan loves to have good time. Miswan loves western music and plays the guitar for hours everyday. He has three sisters and two brothers at home in Indonesia. Miswan likes to dance and to have parties with friends from Japan, Korea and Malaysia. I dont know when Miswan finds time to study. I guess thats his secret.

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Test 3
Write a coherent paragraph on one of the following topics. Make sure you use appropriate transitional words and there is consistent subject viewpoint in your paragraph. You may use the order or pattern specified in brackets. 1. What do children expect from their parents today? (General to Specific) 2. What benefits can be gained from studying at a university? (Specific to General)

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REFERENCES
Langan, J. (2004). English Skills With Readings (5th ed.) Boston: McGraw Hill. Lannon, J.M. (2004). The Writing Process (8th ed.) New York: Pearson Education. Ramanoff, M. R. (1986). Language and Study Skills For Learners of English. Massachusettes: Newburry House Publishers. Shoemaker, C. (1985). Write in the corner where you are Fort Worth: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc. Troyka, L. Q. (1999). Simon & Schuster Handbook For Writers. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

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Answers Unit 2
Task 2.4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Single line: Double line: Single line: Double line: Single line: Double line: Single line: Double line: Single line: Double line: Billboards should be abolished My boss is an ambitious man The car needed repair The language in many movies today is offensive Looking for a job can be a degrading experience

Task 2.5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C B A D C

Task 2.8 1. 2. 3. aG aS aG bS bG bS

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Task 2.10 1. Staying in a dormitory for two months with two Australians has caused many good results. Two. First, I can learn English. Second, I can learn about Australian culture. Due to these reasons, I really enjoy living in a dormitory.

2. 3.

Task 2.12 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They He she They they their Everyone they they

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Task 2.13 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. personal questions other cultures personal questions Americans question

Task 2.14 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. incidentally But However For the moment and also in particular since Therefore because too not only but also

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Task 2.15 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. to read = reading embarrassment =embarrassed to try = trying getting = to get made in foreign countries = foreign

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UNIT 3 NARRATIVE ESSAY

LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the unit, students should be able to: 1. produce the structure of a narrative essay 2. complete the tasks given on narrative essays 3. write a narrative essay

3.1

What is a narrative essay?


A narrative essay is often written to tell a story. It is a kind of writing that is usually written based on an individuals or someone elses past or present experience. A narrative type of essay often relates a central idea that reflects a lesson learned from the experience or simply telling a story.

3.2

Steps to write narrative essays


Make decision on the topic. Brainstorm for ideas on how to write the essay. Start writing the essay. Reread the essay. Check whether you have described the events vividly. Identify the parts that need further development or details. Identify parts that are irrelevant and stray away from the main point. Edit the essay. Check for any grammatical errors or spelling and punctuation errors.

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3.3

Guidelines for narration


It must have a central point or a thesis statement to ensure the essay is developed around the central point. The scene should be described immediately in the essay. It should give the answer to the question who, what, where and when. Pace the story. Do not recount all the details of the story. Instead, select the details that would support your central point. Provide details that answer the questions who, what, why, when and where. The description should be vivid so that the readers could feel as if they were at the scene and witnessing the event. In narratives, the writer often uses first person perspective in their writings (I took, I checked). The essay should use transitions to indicate the changes in time, character and location. In showing the change of time of the events, you have to be careful of your tenses: present, past, past perfect or future tense. Be consistent in using the tenses. Most of the time, when you are reporting past events, you use past tense. As I walked, I saw a tiger. However, when you are reflecting from present to past you may change the tense from present tense to past tense as follows: Now I realize how impulsive I was back then. The story should be chronologically sequenced so that the readers can follow the story line and do not get confuse when reading the story. Use transitions or sequence connectors to link the ideas you presented like afterwards, then, now. The story should move toward a climax, which gives an interesting or surprising closure to the story. The climax is the moment the ending is exposed and the story becomes clear.

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3.3.1 Thesis Statement


Some people think that a narrative essay does not need a thesis statement. That is not true. Even a narrative essay requires a thesis statement. The thesis statement can give a general idea to the readers what the story is going to be all about. For example, if the writer writes My school days were the happiest moments in my life as his thesis statement, the readers would then know that they will be reading about the writers memorable school days moments. The thesis of a narrative essay helps the writer presents the central point or the main idea of the essay to the readers. Then, the writer will be able to build the essay around the thesis. A narrative essay thesis statement guides the writer in writing the essay so that it does not stray away from the central focus. The thesis of a narrative essay depends on the story. It can be a general statement, a lesson learned or a key message to be related to the readers. For example: The incident taught the family just how important following simple directions is when travelling to a destination. The readers would expect that they will be reading an essay on the importance of simple directions and about a familys trip. The following are examples of introductory paragraph without a thesis statement and with a thesis statement.

Example A: An introduction without a thesis statement It was late November. My neighbour, Johan and his wife have been planning for a trip to Penang where they will take their two boys to visit their relatives. They were all looking forward to the trip as they have decided to stop at several places along the journey.

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Example B:

An introduction with a thesis statement

It was late November. My neighbour, Johan and his wife have been planning for a trip to Penang where they will take their two boys to visit their relatives. They were all looking forward to the trip as they have decided to stop at several places along the journey. Little did they know that an unforgettable incident happens during the journey because they did not follow a simple direction.

Based on the examples given, you can see that it is difficult to make out the focus of the essay without the thesis statement. The readers would wonder what the writer plans to write about. In contrast, the introductory paragraph with the thesis statement provides a clear idea of the central point of the essay. Therefore, it can be concluded that without the thesis statement the essay seems lack focus and pointless. Writers should also take note of constructing interesting thesis statement. An interesting thesis statement can attract readers to read your essay while a dull thesis statement has the opposite effect. Here are some examples:

Dull

Interesting

I first travelled to a foreign country when I I can still recall the excitement I felt when was nineteen years old. I travelled overseas at the age of nineteen.

I had a great time at the wedding The wedding ceremony was one of the ceremony. most memorable events in my life.

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Task 3.1
Rewrite the following thesis statements to make them more interesting.

We almost died that day.

It was an interesting Sunday.

I had a good time at the farewell party.

The memories of my childhood are unforgettable.

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It was my last day at school.

3.4

Organization of the story

The sequence or the chronology of the story is important in a narrative essay. The story should be presented following a sequence of events. When the readers follow the chronological order, they will understand the story better. In order to show the sequence of events in the story, you should use transitional words. The following are useful time transitions that can be used in a narrative essay. first afterward when soon now then following second later immediately while suddenly the next day finally

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Task 3.2
Read the following extract taken from an essay entitled My childhood memory (Abraham Sung, 2000). The sentences have been jumbled up. Try to arrange the sentences accordingly in the given table.

1.

Then, invariably our enthusiasm would turn to neglect and the whole collection of fish would die. My elder brother taught me many things.

2.

3.

We used to catch fighting-fish, tiger barbs, guppies and various other colourful fishes. After some time, the enthusiasm would suddenly grip us again and we would start all over again mending our nets and venturing out into the countryside again. I learned to make flyable kites and spinnable tops. We kept them in all sorts of containers. In addition, we would go around the neighbouring countryside catching tiny tropical fishes.

4.

5. 6. 7.

The correct sequence


2.

My elder brother taught me many things.

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Task 3.3
Now write the transitions you were able to identify from the rearranged sentences.
____________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

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Task 3.4
The following paragraph is another extract adapted from the essay My childhood memory (Abraham Sung, 2000). Fill in the blanks with suitable transitions given below. Instead Fortunately Before Often However When Suddenly Unfortunately

(1) __________, my elder brother went overseas to further his studies. I miss him terribly. (2) __________, I had a group of friends living in the neighbourhood. (3) __________We would play all sort of games and explore all sorts of places. We were lucky to live at the fringe of town where the natural surroundings were not destroyed yet. (4) __________, the streams and farm are gone now. They are the victims of development. No longer can we catch any fish in the stream of cool water. (5) __________ the stream has turned into polluted waters. No longer too can we hear the call of the birds and animals. (6) __________, we hear impatient blast of horns and the roar of bulldozers churning up the once beautiful land. I mourn the destruction of the living bountiful land and the subsequent erection of nameless houses all arranged in neat sterile rows. I wonder what sort of childhood memories the children living in these houses will have.

3.5

Description

The writers of a narrative essay should give vivid descriptions of the events or incidents they present so that the readers are hooked to the story and they feel as if they were at the scene.

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The paragraph presented in Task 3.4 presents some vivid descriptions of the writers childhood memory. Some of the words and phrases used enable the readers to imagine the situation described. The examples are as follows: impatient blast of horns the roar of bulldozers neat sterile rows

3.5.1 Details
Details are important to give the readers supports and descriptions related to the central idea of the narrative essay. Without details, the essay will be boring and dull. Compare the two examples below. The first example lack details as compared to the second example.

As the years passed, many of my friends left our neighbourhood. I seldom see them anymore. We live our separate lives. The only thing binding us is our childhood memories.

As the years passed, my friends and I grew up. Most of them have left the neighbourhood for more lucrative jobs in the big cities. Some of us remained. However, many things happened. A few years ago, one of my childhood friends committed suicide and then another one died in a tragic accident. Things became awkward and strange since then. We have lost our childhood. We are like strangers now for we have our separate lives to live. The only thing that binds us together is the fact that we share the same childhood memories, memories we will always treasure.

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The first example given above clearly shows that when the paragraph lacks details, the presentation of ideas becomes dull and uninteresting. Unlike the presentation of ideas in the second example which is livelier because of the details being included to elaborate the idea that things are not the same anymore between the writer and his friends.

Task 3.5
The following paragraph lack details. Rewrite it by adding some details to make it more realistic and livelier. On the way home from work today, I witnessed a terrible accident. It happened in front of my eyes. I saw a car was hit by a trailer. The car then hit another car. A few people were injured including a five months old baby.

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Task 3.6
Choose any of the following topics and write five episodes to develop the narrative. Add a transition word to connect each episode. 1. 2. 3. A change in your life. An unusual incident. Think about an incident that makes you realize how important someone was for you.

Episode 1 :

Transition :

Episode 2 :

Transition:

Episode 3:

Transition :

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Episode 4 :

Transition :

3.6

The structure of a narrative essay

The following is the structure of a narrative essay that can help a writer to structure the essay.

Introduction

The writer can start the story with a quotation, a question or a statement to catch readers attention or known as the hook. Provide the readers with the scene; where it happens and the major characters. Write a thesis statement to show the main the story or what the story will be about. The thesis statement will provide the readers with a general idea on what the story will be about. An example of a thesis statement is as the following: It was a wonderful day to go hiking. So, I asked two of my good friends to join me hiking at the Maxwell Hill. Little did I know that the journey turned out to be a scary experience. *The underlined thesis statement guides the writer in writing the essay and presents the readers with what to expect when reading the essay; a scary experience.

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Body Paragraph

The writer writes details and descriptions related to the experience to support and explain the main idea. It would be good to describe the events by using all five senses what you saw, heard, smelled and felt. Organize the events chronologically.

Conclusion

You can end the story by giving the moral of the story or show the lesson you learnt from the experience or story.

Task 3.7
Now, try to complete the following outline. Choose any of the titles in Task 3.6.

Introduction

Begin with a hook to attract readers attention.

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Set the scene by answering these questions: Where the event happened? When it happened? How old were you when it happened?

State the statement.

thesis

Body Paragraph

Paragraph 1 Starting of the event/action

Topic sentence:

Detail 1:

Detail 2:

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Detail 3:

Paragraph 2 Middle of the event/action

Topic sentence:

Detail 1:

Detail 2:

Detail 3:

Paragraph 3 End of the event/action

Topic sentence:

Detail 1:

Detail 2:

Detail 3:

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Conclusion

Reflect on the events/actions and state the moral value gained from the story.

Task 3.8
Now, write a narrative essay based on the outline you have developed above. The essay should be about 300 words. Remember to follow the following stages:

1) 2) 3) 4)

Brainstorm for ideas and present them in the form of a fishbone or a list. Outline the essay according to the structure suggested in table 3.1. Write your draft based on the outline developed. Edit and revise the draft using the following self-evaluation checklist presented in table 3.1.

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Language Check on the basic grammar (tenses, transitions, word forms, word choice) Correct usage of punctuation Correct spelling

Tick

Organization Introduction Thesis statement in the introductory paragraph Topic sentence in each body paragraph Conclusion Use of transitional markers to connect the ideas within the paragraphs and between paragraphs Events are chronologically sequenced

Content The introduction attracts readers attention Thesis statement clearly states the central idea. Clear topic sentences in each body paragraph Topic sentences are clearly developed with details The conclusion consists of a reflection of the events and/ or the moral value of the story

Table 3.1 Self-evaluation checklist for a cause and effect essay

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3.7

Prompts to help in a narrative essay

There are times that you might find it difficult to decide on an experience to write about. The followings are some prompts to help you identify a significant life experience to write about.

A childhood event. Think of an experience when you learned something for the first time, or when you realized how important someone was for you. Achieving a goal. Think about a particularly meaningful achievement in your life. This could be something as seemingly minor as achieving a good grade on a difficult assignment, or this could be something with more long-lasting effects, like getting the job you desired or getting into the best school to which you applied. A failure. Think about a time when you did not perform as well as you had wanted. Focusing on an experience like this can result in rewarding reflections about the positive emerging from the negative. A good or bad deed. Think about a time when you did or did not stand up for yourself or someone else in the face of adversity or challenge. A realization. Think about a time when you experienced a realization. This could be anything from understanding a complicated math equation to gaining a deeper understanding of a philosophical issue or life situation.

Task 3.9
Use the prompts in 3.7 to write outlines and practice writing essays.

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SELF ASSESSMENT Test 1


Fill in the blanks with the correct transition words from the box below. so fortunately surprisingly then however and hence At first but immediately suddenly as

It was my first cross-country race and I can still recall that day. All the students were at the school gate waiting impatiently for the shattering sound of the gun. (1)__________ after hearing the blast of the gun, the crowd rushed out of the school gate. (2) __________ I was hemmed in by a crowd of school runners so I had to keep pace with them. (3) __________, the runners were running at a quick pace, much too quick for me. (4) __________I tried my best to stay with the group (5)__________ I found myself short of breath. I was struggling to keep up. (6) __________, I slowed down and let the runners past ahead of me. (7) __________ I slowed down to catch my breath, (8) __________, Silva, the overweight little fellow in my class flashed past me. That really jolted me. (9) __________, I found myself picking up the pace (10) __________ trying to overtake Silva with such strong determination.

Test 2
Write the introductory paragraph with the thesis statement for the following topics. 1) A picnic on a rainy day. 2) A new beginning

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REFERENCES
Abraham Sung. (2000). 330 English essays. Seremban: Minerva Publications. Jarrett, J.M., Lee, M.G. & Mbalia, D.D. (1999). Pathways: A text for developing writers. Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon. Lannon, J.M. (2001). The writing process: A concise rhetoric. (7th edn.). New York: Addison Wesley Longman. Lyons, C.C. (1984). Discover Writing: A rhetoric workbook for the beginning writer. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Mayers. A. (2003). Writing with confidence: Writing effective sentences and paragraphs. New York: Addison Wesley-Longman. Paxton, L.K. (1999). Writing power: Elements of effective writing. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Winkler, A.C, Metherell, J.R. (2003). Writing talk: Paragraphs and short essays with readings. (3rd edn.). New Jersey: Pearson Education. http://www.writeexpress.com/narrative-essay.html

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Answers Task 3.2 2. 5. 3. 6. 7. 1. 4. My elder brother taught me many things. I learned to make flyable kites and spinnable tops. We used to catch fighting-fish, tiger barbs, guppies and various other colourful fishes. We kept them in all sorts of containers. In addition, we would go around the neighbouring countryside catching tiny tropical fishes. Then, invariably our enthusiasm would turn to neglect and the whole collection of fish would die. After some time, the enthusiasm would suddenly grip us again and we would start all over again mending our nets and venturing out into the countryside again.

Task 3.3 Then, after some time, in addition

Task 3.4 1. When 2. Fortunately 3. Often 4. However 5. Unfortunately 6. Instead

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Answers for Test 1 1) Immediately 2) At first 3) However 4) Hence 5) but 6) So 7) As 8) Suddenly 9) Surprisingly 10) and

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UNIT 4 CAUSE AND EFFECT ESSAY

LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the unit, students should be able to: 4. produce the structure of a cause and effect essay 5. complete the tasks given on cause and effect essays 6. write a cause and effect essay

4.1

Causes and Effects

Causes refer to the reasons a particular situation occur, for example the causes of teenage social problems. Effects on the other hand refer to the results of the causes. For instance, one of the causes of teenage social problems is lack parents attention while the effect of lacking in parents attention is teenage social problem.

Causes of Road accidents

Effects Of Road accidents

Reckless driving Faulty car condition Bad weather

Death Serious injury Damage to the vehicle

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One is usually asked to write either on causes or effects in their essay. To ensure that you have identified causes and effects clearly, you must be able to differentiate between the two of them.

Task 4.1
Classify the following points into the columns labeled causes and effects of teenage stress. 1. the pressure from teachers

2.

disruptive behaviour in class

3.

becomes aggressive and disrespectful

4.

refuse to go to school separation of parents or parents divorce

5.

6.

being neglected or abandoned by people they love

7.

get involved in illegal and reckless activities

8.

peer and social pressures

9.

the pressure due to poor grades

10.

like to be alone and isolate himself or herself from other people

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Causes of Teenage stress

Effects Of Teenage stress

1) the pressure from teachers

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4.2

Writing a cause and effect essay


As in order writing process, you need to go through stages in writing you essay. The following are the stages you can follow when writing an essay: a) Pre-writing b) Writing c) Editing

4.2.1 Prewriting
Before you start writing, you should allow some time to list or brainstorm for possible ideas to be included in your essay. In the case of a cause and effect essay, you may want to list out the causes or/and effects. When you list the causes and effects, your essay will be more focused and organized. When brainstorming for the causes and effects, you can use a mind map to jot down all the points that come to mind in relation to the topic.

4.2.2 Fish bone


The following is an example of a mind map called fish bone for a cause and effect essay.

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Cause 1

Cause 2

Detail 1 Detail 2

Detail 1 Detail 2

Thesis Statement

TITLE
Detail 1 Detail 2

Detail 1 Detail 2

Cause 3

Cause 4

Figure 4.1

Fishbone for a cause and effect essay

Fishbone can be used to organize your ideas for a cause and effect essay. The thesis statement that is the central idea to your essay is placed in the middle of the fish bone to show the focus of the essay. You can put the causes in the respective cause boxes. The details are the supporting points or the evidence you want to use in order to support the causes. The supporting details can be examples of cases or situations. It is best to have two supporting details for each cause. This will ensure a strong development of your points. The following figure 3.2 shows a sample of a fishbone developed under the topic causes of teenage social problems.

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The condition of the car

The drivers condition

Faulty tyre Faulty brakes

sleepy consume alcohol

Thesis Statement

Causes of Road Accidents speeding disregard road signs

Slippery road potholes

The condition of the road

The drivers attitude

Figure 4.2

Fishbone for an essay titled Causes of Teenage Social Problem

Task 4.2
Now, fill in the blanks using the points given under the topic the causes of teenage stress as presented in Task 4.1.

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Thesis Statement

4.2.3 Listing Besides using a mind map such as a fishbone, you can also jot down the main points that you want to use in your essay by listing them out. Then you choose the best 3 or 4 points you would like to focus on in your essay.

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Task 4.3
For task 4.3, list out the causes and effects of stress. Cause 1

Supporting details

Cause 2

Supporting details

Cause 3

Supporting details

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Effect 1

Supporting details

Effect 2

Supporting details

Effect 3

Supporting details

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When writing a cause and effect essay, you must classify the causes and effects clearly so that the readers can see your main causes and effects and these main points do not overlap with one another. For example, if your first point for the causes of stress is excessive workload and you put a lot of assignments to mark as your second point, then there is an overlap because a lot of assignments can be considered as the supporting point for the main point excessive workload. Look through the causes and effects of stress that you have written down in Task 4.3 and check whether the points in each category overlap with one another.

4.3

Arrangement of causes and effects

When writing a cause and effect essay, you should follow the following structure:

Introduction

Body Paragraph 1

Body Paragraph 2

Body Paragraph 3

Conclusion

Figure 4.3

Structure of a cause and effect essay

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4.3.1 Introduction
The introduction paragraph should contain some background information of the topic. It should attract the readers attention to read the essay. It should consist of a thesis statement that presents the central idea or the focus of the essay. The following are examples of thesis statements for a cause and effect essay:

There are numerous causes of teenage stress and among them are social pressure, parents high expectations and poor examination results. A lot of road accidents in Malaysia are caused by faulty condition of the car, drivers behaviour and the road condition.

From the examples given above, you can see that the thesis statement usually states the main points that will be discussed in the essay. Hence, it gives the readers a general idea what the essay will be about.

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Task 4.4
Underline the thesis statement in the following introductory paragraphs.

There have been numerous campaigns against cigarette smoking communicating that this vice causes death. But a threat to health doesnt seem to be a good reason for quitting anymore. People somehow block themselves and ignore all the information that is given to them. The purpose of this essay is to discuss three effects of cigarette smoking, besides the broadly mentioned possibility of developing cancer or dying, which are the smell of smoke, the stained teeth, and the cost of doing it.
Taken from http://www.tailoredessays.com/samples

Are you aware that 20 million people in Mexico live on less than two dollars a day? Sixty million people, half the Mexican population, live in poverty, and 20 million of them live in extreme poverty. Most of the time, garbage is their food, and some days, they dont even eat anything. This critical poverty situation in Mexico is caused by individual, geographic and political factors.
Taken from http://www.tailoredessays.com/samples

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Entering a university is a very important and interesting experience in a persons life, but at the same time it is an experience that will change your lifestyle and personality forever. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the three main effects of entering a university which are missing old friends, learning how to survive during university, and developing responsible behavior which must accompany university studies.
Taken from http://www.tailoredessays.com/samples

Task 4.5
Now, based on the following topics, write your thesis statement. Make sure you state the three points you will discuss in your essay, in the thesis statement.

1. The effects of introducing the English for Science and Technology subject at

upper secondary level.

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2. The causes of social problems among teenagers nowadays.

4.3.2 Topic sentence and supporting details.


When you write a thesis statement, you should include at least three main points like the examples given above. For instance, for the thesis statement on the causes of teenage stress, the three main points presented are as underlined : There are numerous causes of teenage stress and among them are social pressure, parents high expectations and poor examination results. In an essay, each of the point presented in the thesis statement should be developed to form a topic sentence. The topic sentence is usually the first sentence in a body paragraph to give readers the main idea of a particular body paragraph. Each topic sentence should be supported with examples or specific details. Details help to explain the writers main point and provide evidence to support the main idea presented. Hence, if you have three main points, you should have three body paragraphs and each body paragraph should contain a topic sentence.

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The following diagram shows the topic sentence of each body paragraph. The topic sentence is usually the first sentence in the body paragraph.

Thesis Statement There are numerous causes of teenage stress and among them are social pressure, parents high expectations and poor examination results.

Body Paragraph 1 Topic Sentence Many teenagers experience stress due to peer pressure.

Body Paragraph 2 Topic Sentence Another source of teenage stress is parents high expectations.

Body Paragraph 3 Topic Sentence Finally, stress among teenagers is a result of poor examination results.

From the diagram, you can see that each body paragraph usually starts with a topic sentence that states the main idea of the respective paragraph. Each body paragraph also should contain details that provide evidence or examples to support the main idea stated in the topic sentence. Read the following example of a thesis statement, topic sentences and supporting details.

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Title: The positive effects of modern inventions.

Introduction

Thesis statement

Modern inventions build up the economy, save time and energy and develop creativity.

Body Paragraph 1

Topic sentence

Modern inventions help to boost up the economy.

Supporting details

a) They increase productions from factories. b) They develop the business industry faster.

Body Paragraph 2

Topic Sentence

Modern inventions save time and energy.

Supporting details

a) One can gain information from around the world. b) Research can be carried out easily

Body Paragraph 3

Topic Sentence

Modern inventions also develop human creativity.

Supporting details

a) The making of movies became more advanced. b) Advertisements are well presented.

Conclusion

Restate the main points and close the essay effectively.

Table 4.1 Outline of a cause and effect essay

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Read the sample essay below. Then, complete the table that follows with the thesis statement, topic sentences and supporting details taken from the essay.

Task 4.6

The impacts of advertisements There is no doubt that advertisements perform a useful service to the consumers. They reduce the cost of goods, give educational benefits and provide service to the public. Advertisements help reduce the cost of goods in the market. The cost of newspapers and magazines would be astronomical if not for the advertisements which subsidise the cost of production. Besides that, manufacturers spend vast sums of money on advertising their products to inform the public of the goods available in the market. Far from increasing the cost of the product, advertisements help to promote sales of that product. When sales of the product increased, it helps to keep the cost down. Advertisements also give the public educational benefits. For instance, advertisements on road safety provides advises on safety measures to be taken seriously by road users before and while driving. This is to ensure the safety of those in the car and other road users. Other than that, some advertisements also present consumers with information about products that can cure particular illness and products that can give bad impact to their well being. Finally, advertisements provide services to the public. Some advertisements in the newspaper or online advertise invaluable services to the consumers. For example, advertisements on banking services to help consumers manage the payments of their bills effectively. Other services like typing and editing services for students can easily be found online. To sum up, advertisements have brought innumerable benefits hence; they are useful to the public. Without advertisements, the cost of living would be higher as the price of goods and services would not be subsidized.

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Thesis statement

Topic sentence 1

Supporting details :

a)

b)

Topic sentence 2

Supporting details :

a)

b)

Topic sentence 3

Supporting details :

a)

b)

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Task 4.7
Below is a short task with a topic for you to practise writing out the thesis statement, topic sentences and supporting details. Title The effects of face book.

Thesis statement

Topic sentence 1

Supporting details :

a)

b)

Topic sentence 2

Supporting details :

a)

b)

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Topic sentence 3

Supporting details :

a)

b)

4.3.3 Conclusion
You could restate your points in the concluding paragraph. You could also restate the main supporting points. Some of the ways to conclude your essay are: a) end with a final thought Cigarette smoking clearly causes lung cancer, stained teeth and smelly odour. Hence, to those smokers out there, you should stop smoking as it makes other people around you feel uneasy.

b) a thought-provoking question

So, cigarette smoking clearly causes lung cancer, stained teeth and smelly odour. Do you want to be one of those people whom other people stay away from?

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c) a recommendation or prediction

It is important that smokers realized that smoking is bad for their health and it creates a bad image of themselves. Therefore, smokers should not take the effects of smoking lightly. They should take measures to stop the smoking habit for their own good.

4.4

Useful expressions
Here are some expressions you can use in writing a cause and effect essay.

one of the causes is the result of contributes to because for this purpose

as a result results from in addition

is caused by results in moreover

is due to leads to accordingly eventually so

consequently hence therefore thus

Task 4.8
Now, write a cause and effect essay on the topic the effects of the internet. The essay should be about 300 words. Remember to follow the following stages:

1) 2)

Brainstorm for ideas and present them in the form of a fishbone or a list. Outline the essay according to the structure suggested in table 3.1.

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3) 4)

Write your draft based on the outline developed. Edit and revise the draft using the following self-evaluation checklist presented in table 4.2.

Language Check on the basic grammar (tenses, connectors, word forms, word choice) Correct usage of punctuation Correct spelling sequence

Tick

Organization Introduction Thesis statement in the introductory paragraph Topic sentence in each body paragraph Conclusion Use of transitional markers to connect the ideas within the paragraphs and between paragraphs

Content The introduction attracts readers attention Thesis statement clearly states the main points Clear topic sentences in each body paragraph Topic sentences are clearly supported with examples and evidence The conclusion summarizes the main points of the essay Self-evaluation checklist for a cause and effect essay

Table 4.2

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SELF ASSESSMENT
Test 1 What are the 3 stages in writing a cause and effect essay? Test 2 Draw a fish bone for the essay entitled the causes of stress. Test 3 From the points developed in the fish bone in Test 2, write an outline for the essay entitled the causes of stress. Thesis statement

Topic sentence 1 a) Supporting details : b)

Topic sentence 2 a) Supporting details : b) Topic sentence 3

Supporting details :

a) b)

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REFERENCES

K C Lee, Happy Goh, Janet Chan & Ying Yang. (2007). Effective college writing: A process- genre approach. Singapore: Mc. Graw-Hill Education. Langan, J. (2002). English skills with readings. Boston: McGraw Hill Companies. Lannon, J.M. 2001. The writing process: A concise rhetoric. (7th edn.). New York: Addison Wesley Longman. Lyons, C.C. (1984). Discover Writing: A rhetoric workbook for the beginning writer. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Mayers. A. (2003). Writing with confidence: Writing effective sentences and paragraphs. New York: Addison Wesley-Longman. Paxton, L.K. (1999). Writing power: Elements of effective writing. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. http://www.tailoredessays.com/samples

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Answers
Task 4.1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. the pressure from teachers disruptive behaviour in class Causes of teenage stress Effects of teenage stress

becomes aggressive and disrespectful Effects of teenage stress refuse to go to school separation of parents or parents divorce being neglected or abandoned by people they love get involved in illegal and reckless activities peer and social pressures the pressure due to poor grades like to be alone and isolate himself or herself from other people Effects of teenage stress Causes of teenage stress Causes of teenage stress Effects of teenage tress Causes of teenage stress Causes of teenage stress Effects of teenage stress

Task 4.4 1. The purpose of this essay is to discuss three effects of cigarette smoking, besides the broadly mentioned possibility of developing cancer or dying, which are the smell of smoke, the stained teeth, and the cost of doing it. 2. This critical poverty situation in Mexico is caused by individual, geographic and political factors. 3. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the three main effects of entering a university which are missing old friends, learning how to survive during university, and developing responsible behavior which must accompany university studie

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UNIT 5 PROCESS ESSAY

LEARNING OUTCOMES:

At the end of the unit, students should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. understand process essay recognize the elements of a process essay identify the steps to write a process essay write a process essay

5.1. What is a Process Essay?


A process essay is written when you want to describe a process. Normally, it involves step by step descriptions of the followings: a) How something is done (providing instructions) b) How something works (providing information) c) How something happened (providing the history)

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Task 5.1
In the blanks provided, write A for how something is done, B for how something works or C for how something happened. 1. __________ How to bake cookies. 2. __________ Three most effective steps to lose weight. 3. __________ How Malaysia became an independent nation. 4. __________ How to become a good student. 5. __________ Things to do during an emergency. 6. __________ How smoking becomes addictive.

Task 5.2
In the space provided, state whether the paragraph describes a process or not. If yes, please indicate whether it shows how something is done, how something works or how something happened. 1. To be a good friend, an individual has to spend time working on the friendships, or they will eventually fade. When two people first meet, they both need to be sure they are acting in good manner, so they dont scare the other away. After they meet and start talking a few times, they will start getting to know each other, calling each other, and spending more time with each other. That is how a friendship begins. After they call each other friends, the friendship can be maintained through the effort of both parties. Friendships should not take a lot of money but they do take a lot of time and care. Friends should always listen to what the other has to say, and then should give advice only when asked for it.
__________________________________________________________________

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2.

I am fifty years old, rather tall and I have brown eyes and short black hair. I wear casual clothes as I attend to my patients in a relaxed atmosphere. I enjoy my job because I get to meet and help so many different people from all over the country. During my spare time, I like playing golf which I play at least three times a week (much to wifes chagrin!). I also love listening to traditional music and enjoy occasional movie nights with the family. I live in a small town with my wife and two children. I always try to make the best out of my life and I hope one day I would be able to look back and have no regrets.

_________________________________________________________________

3.

In order to live on a tight budget, you may have to find a new job, keep a record of your money, and spend your free time wisely. The first step is to consider getting a second or third job because doing so has two advantages: you can make more money, and you have less time to spend the money! Secondly, you must record all the money that you receive and spend. The money you receive is called your salary, and it should be more than the money you spend. This is called a budget. Finally, try to spend your free time without spending money! Spare time activities like movies, parties, and eating out at fancy restaurants will require you to spend some money. You should cut back on these unnecessary expenses. If you follow these steps, you may not notice that you are actually living on a tight budget.
__________________________________________________________________

4.

There are three different types of rock music, alternative rock, classic rock, and hard rock, also known as metal. Alternative rock features a steady bass drum laying down the beat, with easy flowing guitar riffs over the top. The bass line is toned town, and the lyrics are sung with intensity an authority. Depending on the song, the guitars can either be acoustic guitars or electric guitars. Classic rock combines a steady driving bass drum sound, with high

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snare overtones, steady and often repeating guitar riffs, and an intensive bass line. The guitars are more often than not all electric guitars, and distortion is rarely used. The lyrics are sung with style and enthusiasm. Hard rock, or metal, features a hard rolling bass drum with an abundant amount of cymbal work. This style of rock uses several electric guitars with heavy distortion to bring a very intense sound. A hard, intense, driving bass line rounds out the style. The lyrics arent really sung so much as screamed. It doesnt matter what your preference is, each different style of rock music is unique on its own.

___________________________________________________________________

5.

The problem of hairballs that have already formed in cats fur can be solved by proper brushing. In order to brush your cats hairballs, youll need two kinds of brushes: a wide-teeth wipe and a metallic one. The former will help you dissolve and, partially, remove tightly knotted hairballs without causing any pain or discomfort to your cat. The latter, used subsequently, will remove excess of loose puffy hair and decrease the possibility of reoccurrence the next day. Once brushing is over, make sure to polish your cats fur all over his body with the help of a clean, cotton, or woolen cloth.
___________________________________________________________________

6.

Since my daughter has been in daycare she has become better at a few different things. To start off, her vocabulary is much larger and more developed. Before she started daycare, my daughter had a few select words that she would say like; mama, papa and some other simple words. Now she tries to repeat everything that is said. Another result of her being in daycare is that she has the ability to interact with other children better. In the past, she was only around one child. Now she is around about six to eight kids, and she has learned to share her toys and to play in a group with the other children. A third outcome of her being in daycare is the fact that she is becoming more self-reliant. Before daycare, she wouldnt try very hard to

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help me with getting dressed, but now she wants to try to do it all on her own. She tries to pull on her shirts and pants herself. Socks still go on upside down, but at least her shoes go on the correct feet I am really glad that I decided to put her in a daycare, for the benefits have been great.
___________________________________________________________________

5.2. How to Write a Process Essay


Writing a process essay involves the followings: 1. At the beginning of the essay, you must state the purpose very clearly. 2. Each step of the process must be presented in logical order. 3. To help readers understand your essay, you must use some transitions.

5.3. Stating a Clear Purpose

When you write a paragraph describing a process, you must begin with a very clear topic sentence. The topic sentence will help you and your readers to understand your paragraph better. Examples: Baking cookies involves five easy steps To drive a car, you need to follow some instructions. The building was constructed over several phases.

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Task 5.3
Write a topic sentence for each process below.

1.

How to prepare a cup of coffee.


________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

2.

Three most effective steps to lose weight.


________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

3.

How Malaysia became an independent nation.


________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

4.

How to become a good student.


________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

5.

Things to do during an emergency.


________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

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6.

How smoking becomes addictive.


________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

7.

Getting a dream job.


________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

5.4. Presenting a Logical Order

Having a logical order is another important element of a process essay. You need to be clear of which step should come first and which one should come later. In some processes such as baking cookies, you need to make sure that each step follows a chronological order or else you may end up not having any cookies to eat! On the other hand, there are processes which do not have obvious order of sequence (i.e. how to become a good student). For these kinds of processes, you need to decide the order of which you want your ideas be presented. The most important thing to remember is that, your paragraph must be presented in a logical order.

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Task 5.4
List the steps for each of the process below.

1.

Three most effective steps to lose weight.


________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

2.

Things to do during an emergency.


________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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3.

Getting a dream job.

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

4.

How to become a good student.


________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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5.5. Using Some Transition Words


A process essay is normally organized according to time. It begins with the first step in the process and proceed in time until the last step in the process. Transition words indicate that one step has been completed and a new one will begin. Some common transitional words used in process essays are as follows:

Firstly First In the beginning At first Initially Then Next Second Third Immediately After that Afterward Eventually Simultaneously

Meanwhile While During Later After a few seconds/minutes At the same time In the mean time Soon after At the end Before When Last of all Finally Lastly

Please take note that there are other transition words which you can used in your process essay besides the ones listed above.

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Task 5.5

Based on Task 5.4, choose four of the processes and connect each step you have listed using transition words.

1.

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

3.

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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4.

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

5.6. The Structure of a Process Essay


When you write a process essay, you need to use the following structure:

Introductory Paragraph In the introduction you reveal the basic aim of the process leaving out specific details. You also need to provide basic background information. Another important thing to mention is the true meaning of this process and its everyday life application. Therefore the reader learns in which spheres he can later apply the knowledge of this process. The thesis statement is always the final sentence of the introduction.

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Here is an example of an introductory paragraph of a process essay:

Many students feel uncomfortable when they are faced with the task of writing an essay. While they may have many ideas when they discuss a topic, picking up pen and paper seems to dry up all ideas. Some students aren't even sure what an essay is. Basically, an essay is an organized way to express an opinion and prove that I is valid. This can take a variety of forms, but the standard format starts with an introduction, has a body, and ends with a conclusion. There are a few simple steps to writing an essay.

In the above example, the writer does the followings:

a) introduces the topic (sentence 1 and 2) b) provides basic background information about the topic (sentence 4 and 5) c) write a thesis statement (last sentence of the paragraph)

Task 5.6
Based on the topics in Task 5.1, choose two of them and write the introductory paragraphs.

1.

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Body Paragraph
The number of body paragraphs of a process essay depends on the amount of processes involved. If the process you are describing consists of five main steps for example, your essay must have five body paragraphs one paragraph for each step. Each step or stage should have its specific purpose the reader needs to understand. All the stages need to be presented in a logical order to avoid confusion. In each paragraph you must include all the necessary details for the procedure including equipment (should there be any), cautions readers must take and the stages main difficulties.

The following is an example of the body paragraphs for the essay describing the steps involved in writing an essay.

First, students must generate ideas. They have to think about what they know about a topic and what they want to write. Students do this in different ways. Some students do brainstorming. That is, they sit with a piece of paper and write words and try to relate them to other words. Some students just make a list of ideas. Other students find they need to do some prewriting because they think better when they are writing out their ideas. Some students just sit and think and get the ideas sorted out in their minds. One way is not better than another way. Everyone is different, so everyone writes in a different way. The important thing is not the method but the results. Sometimes, students think that the ideas have to be perfect from the beginning, but this is not true. Sometimes they might find that their ideas need revision or that some can be eliminated. Once they have generated ideas, they have a starting point so they can begin to write, and that is what is important.

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Next, students need to organize their ideas. They need to make sure that they have a statement of opinion, and then they need to put their supporting ideas into some kind of order. That is, they need to decide what will come first and so forth. For example, if students are writing about history, most of the time they will organize their ideas chronologically because that is the way that people usually think about history--from past to present. Sometimes, the decision students have to make is whether to start with something very simple first and then building up to something big, or whether to hit the reader right away with something important. Students need to look carefully at their ideas and think about what will make the strongest paper--and the most interesting paper.

Last, students need to write. This seems easy enough, but many students delay this part of the paper until the last minute. Write here means writing the first draft because, whenever possible, it is good to save time to write, look at it and make corrections, and then write it again. Students need to give themselves time--especially in the beginning--to learn from their writing. If they wait until an hour before class, the paper becomes a burden instead of an opportunity to learn and share ideas. Sam, for example, had a 1000 word essay due at 11:00pm in his English class. He waited until 9:00pm the night before to begin. By then, he was so nervous about getting the paper finished on time that he couldn't think of anything to write about. He kept thinking about the F he was going to get and what it would do to his grade point average. Students should just start writing and not expect a perfect product the first time, but even an imperfect paper is better than no paper.

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In the example above, the writer does the followings: 1. 2. 3. 4. divide three important steps into three different paragraphs start each paragraph with a very clear topic sentence use transitional words describe each step in detail by providing lengthy explanations and examples. This helps readers to understand the process better.

Task 5.7

Based on the topic sentences you wrote in Task 5.3, choose two of them and write 2 main steps involved in the processes. Pay attention to the logical order of your paragraphs and please use transition words.

1.

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Concluding Paragraph
Your concluding paragraph should tell the readers the result of the process. You must also reinstate the thesis restatement to reinforce the significance of the procedure.

Here is an example of the concluding paragraph of an essay describing the process of writing an essay.

In conclusion, writing an essay is really not so difficult. Students simply need to have a plan for writing. First, they need to find a way to generate ideas, and then they need to organize these ideas in some way that makes sense to them. Lastly, but most importantly, the students have to sit down and pick up their pencils and begin to write. The more students practice writing, the easier it will become because it's really only thinking and sharing ideassomething they do all of the time. In the above example, the writer has done the followings: 1. informs the readers the result of the process (sentence 1) 2. reinstate thesis statement (sentence 2) 3. reinforce the significance of the procedure (sentence 3 and 4 and 5)

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Task 5.8
Write the concluding paragraphs for the two topics you have chosen in Task 5.6.

1.

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

5.7. Things to Remember


As you are writing your process essay, consider the followings:

What process are you trying to explain? Why is it important? Who or what does the process affect? Are there different ways of doing the process? If so, what are they? Who are the readers? What knowledge do they need to understand this process? What skills/equipment is needed for this? How long does the process take? Is the outcome always the same? How many steps are there in the process? Why is each step important? What difficulties are involved in each step? How can they be overcome? Do any cautions need to be given? Does the process have definitions that need to be clarified? Are there other processes that are similar and could help illustrate the process that you are writing about? If needed, tell what should not be done or why something should be done.

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This is a checklist to help you when writing a Process Paragraph: Narrow the topic. Think of who you are writing to. Make a topic sentence that clearly states what your process will be. Free write or brainstorm some ideas that might help with the process. Drop unnecessary information that is not necessary in the process. Make an outline with the steps of how you will write it. Write a draft of the process and use transitional words to indicate order. Revise. Proofread to make sure that you have no errors in grammar or spelling, punctuation, or mechanics.

Task 5.9
Write a process essay of your choice. Bear in mind that you should be writing about a process you are very familiar about. Please make sure that you do not leave any critical steps in the process and always remember your audience when you are writing.

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SELF ASSESSMENT

Based on the topic Preparing for an Examination, complete the followings: 1. Write the thesis statement.

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

2.

Write the first topic sentence.

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

3.

List three supporting details for the first topic sentence.

a)

__________________________________________________________

b)

__________________________________________________________

c)

__________________________________________________________

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4.

Write the second topic sentence.

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

5.

List three supporting details for the second topic sentence.

a)

__________________________________________________________

b)

__________________________________________________________

c)

__________________________________________________________

6.

Write the third topic sentence.

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

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7.

List three supporting details for the third topic sentence.

a)

__________________________________________________________

b)

__________________________________________________________

c)

__________________________________________________________

8.

Write the concluding statement.

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

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REFERENCES
Meyer, A. (2003). Writing with confidence. New York: Longman Winkler, A.C & McCuen-Metherell, J.R. (2003). Writing talk. New Jersey: Prentice Hall http://daria-przybyla.suite101.com Jessi Johnson 2005 http://english120.pbworks.com Kristian Anderson 2005 http://english120.pbworks.com http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/process.html http://english120.pbworks.com/w/page/19007022/process%20paragraph http://www.mpc.edu/academics/Humanities/ESSC/Handouts/sampleprocess.pdf

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UNIT 6 COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY

LEARNING OUTCOMES:
At the end of the unit, students should be able to: 1. understand compare and contrast essay 2. recognize the elements of a compare and contrast essay 3. identify the steps to write a compare and contrast essay 4. write a compare and contrast essay

6.1. What is a Compare and Contrast Essay?


When you compare, you discuss similarities. When you contrast, you discuss differences. Most of the time, when you write a compare and contrast essay, you discuss both, the similarities and the differences. Comparing and contrasting can only be done on entities that share similar features. For example, it is possible for you to compare and contrast two people. However, you cannot compare or contrast a person to a table.

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Task 6.1
In the blanks provided, write CC if you think it is possible for you to compare and contrast and write X if you think it is not possible.

1. __________ The advantage of using computers. 2. __________ The wonderful features of two cars 3. __________ How Malaysia became an independent nation. 4. __________ How Malaysia and Indonesia became independent nations. 5. __________ Why conventional classrooms are better than virtual classrooms. 6. __________ Television programmes then and now.

6.2. How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay


Writing a compare and contrast essay involves the followings: a) comparing and contrasting things that share similar features b) writing a clear topic sentence to state the purpose c) choosing a pattern d) using transition words

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6.3. Comparing and Contrasting


As stated earlier, compare and contrast can only be conducted on things which carry similar features. As such, it is not possible for you to compare or contrast your favourite food to your cat. However, you may compare these two if your essay focuses on why you like your favourite food and your cat. Here, the discussion is not on the similarities or differences between the food and the cat but rather on your two favourite things the food and the cat.

Task 6.2
The followings are two things which may not be suitable for comparing and contrasting. In the space provided, provide a brief explanation on the focus of your discussion so that you are able to compare and contrast them. Example: 1. Reading and My brother Both are annoying. 2. Exercising and Apples ______________________________________________________________ 3. Shoes and Study ______________________________________________________________ 4. Maps and Hobbies ______________________________________________________________ 5. Clothes and Babies ______________________________________________________________

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6.

Songs and Chairs ______________________________________________________________

7.

Sickness and Holidays ______________________________________________________________

8.

Dancing and Grandparents ______________________________________________________________

9.

Hong Kong and Flowers ______________________________________________________________

10.

Football and Hornbill ______________________________________________________________

Task 6.3
In the space provided, state three similarities or differences of the followings: 1. Football and tennis a. b. c. 2. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

An iron and a remote control a. b. c. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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3.

A teacher and a mother

a. b. c. 4.

_________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

America and Britain a. b. c. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

5.

Day and night a. b.


c.

_________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

6.4. Writing a Clear Topic Sentence


Similar to writing other types of essays, a compare and contrast essay also requires you to write a very clear topic sentence. This is to ensure that your readers are aware of the purpose of your essay. Some examples of clear topic sentences for compare and contrast essays are as follows: Both Mathematics and Science are difficult subjects. Even though they are twins who share some similarities, they do have their differences. Walking is a lot better than jogging.

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Task 6.4
In the space provided, write a topic sentence for each of the following:

1.

Exercising and Apples


________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

2.

Shoes and Study


________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

3.

Maps and Hobbies


________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

4.

Clothes and Babies ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

5.

Dancing and Grandparents


________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

6.

Football and tennis


________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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7.

An iron and a remote control


________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

8.

A teacher and a mother


_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

America and Britain


________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

6.5. Choosing a Pattern


A compare and contrast essay may follow two patterns : Pattern A and Pattern B. If for example, you are writing an essay comparing or contrasting conventional classrooms and virtual classrooms, this is how you may write your essay.

First of all, you need to decide the features of the two classrooms that you want to compare or contrast. For example:

Expenses Convenience Accessibility

Based on these three features, you may decide whether you want to follow Pattern A or Pattern B.

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Pattern A

Pattern B

Point 1 : Expences Conventional Classrooms Virtual Classrooms Point 2 : Convenience Conventional Classrooms Virtual Classrooms Point 3 : Accessibility Conventional Classrooms Virtual Classrooms

Conventional Classrooms Point 1 : Expenses Point 2 : Convenience Point 3 : Accessibility Virtual Classrooms Point 1 : Expenses Point 2 : Convenience Point 3 : Accessibility

Task 6.5
The followings are four possible topics that you can develop into a compare and contrast essay. In the space provided, write down the points for each topic using the two patterns.

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1. Two friends Pattern A Pattern B

2. Two feature films Pattern A Pattern B

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3. Two favourite hobbies Pattern A Pattern B

4. Two secrets nobody knows Pattern A Pattern B

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6.6. Using Transition Words


Similar to writing a process essay, you need to use transition words to make your ideas clear. Read the following paragraphs. Do you notice the difference between the two? Maisy and Kiki are best firiends. They both have very different personalities. Maisy is a petite young woman who is soft spoken. Kiki is tall and is almost always very loud. Maisy likes to stay indoor. Kiki prefers outdoor activities. Maisy is shy and quite reserve. Kiki is very friendly and enjoys meeting people. The fact that they are best friend makes it hard to believe that they are so different. Although Maisy and Kiki are best firiends, they both have very different personalities. While Maisy is a petite young woman who is soft spoken, Kiki on the other hand is tall and is almost always very loud. Unlike Maisy who likes to stay indoor, Kiki prefers outdoor activities. Maisy is shy and quite reserve. However, Kiki is very friendly and enjoys meeting people. The fact that they are best friend makes it hard to believe that they are so different.

The second paragraph uses some transition words and this has made it easier for us to follow the idea. Can you list all the transition words used in the second paragraph?

1. 2. 3.

__________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________

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4. 5.

__________________________________ __________________________________

The followings are some of the transition words you can use in your essay.

Similarities

Differences

Similar to Also Additionally As well as Both Too Furthermore In addition And In the same way Like Just as .. so

Conversely However Unlike Yet Although In contrast On the other hand Whereas While The opposite

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There are other transition words that you may use in your essay in addition to the ones listed above. It is important that you use the correct transition words or else your readers may not be able to understand your ideas.

6.7. The Structure of a Compare and Contrast Essay


When you write a compare and contrast essay, you need to use the following structure:

Introductory Paragraph In the introduction, you should provide some basic background information about the two things being compared or contrasted. This paragraph should end with a very clear thesis statement. Here is an example of an introductory paragraph of a process essay: It is a fact that not all the people have the opportunity to go on vacation. The ones who have the facilities like to go out of town once in a while in order to leave their worries behind. When we go on vacation, we have to decide the best place to go according to what we have in mind. The purpose of this essay is to contrast the differences between vacation at a beach or in a city. We will look at the kinds of activities, the clothing required and the pace of life available while vacationing on the beach or in the city. In the above example, the writer does the followings:

a) b) c)

introduces the topic (sentence 1 and 2) provides basic background information about the topic (sentence 3 and 4) write a thesis statement (last sentence of the paragraph all the three features to be contrasted are mentioned)

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Task 6.6
Based on the topics in Task 6.5, choose two of them and write the introductory paragraphs. 1.
________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

Body Paragraph
For the body paragraphs, you need to follow the two patterns we discuss in 6.5. The following is an example of the body paragraphs for the essay describing the differences between vacationing on the beach and in the city. The first major difference between vacationing on the beach or in a city is the kind of activities you are able to do. On the beach, for example, you can go sailing, fishing, surfing, skiing, or take advantage of the sun and lie in the sand to get tan, or even in some cases feed sharks and swim with dolphins. On the other hand, in a city you can visit different sites such as museums, theaters, important buildings, downtown, among other things. This means that you have many places to know and you will need much more time and organization in a city than on the beach.

Another difference between vacationing on the beach or in a city is the clothing and equipment you need to take with you. If you decide to go to the beach, you will have to take mainly a bathing suit, shorts, short-sleeve shirts, sandals, sunglasses, goggles, and sun block. Considering that you are going to the city where you will have to walk a lot, you will need comfortable and casual clothing such as jeans and tennis shoes. You will also have to take fancy clothes in case you want to go, for example, to watch a play or to a concer.

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The final difference between vacationing on the beach or in a city is the pace of life. If you want a relaxing plan, your option will be the beach. When you are on the beach you just let things happen while in the city you will have to schedule all your activities in order to have time to visit the different sites you want to. In the example above, the writer does the followings: a) choose Pattern A to present the ideas and stick to it (You may want to choose Pattern B when you write your essay). b) start each paragraph with a very clear topic sentence c) use transitional words d) describe each step in detail by providing explanations and examples. This helps readers to understand the process better.

Task 6.7
Based on the topic sentences you wrote in Task 6.4, choose two and write 2 paragraphs of compare and contrast for each of them. Please use transition words. 1.
_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

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_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

2.

_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

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Concluding Paragraph
In this paragraph, you need to restate your thesis statement and briefly concludes how you have discussed what you claim you would in the introductory paragraph. Here is an example of the concluding paragraph for the essay describing the differences between vacationing on the beach and in the city. In conclusion, here you have these differences to consider when deciding where to go on vacation. Although both places are interesting and exciting, it all depends on what you are looking for. Keep in mind that wherever you decide to go you will enjoy it. In the above example, the writer has done the followings: a) concludes the essay (sentence 1) b) reinstate thesis statement (sentence 2)

Task 6.8
Write the concluding paragraphs for the two topics you have chosen in Task 6.6. 1.
_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

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_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

2.

_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

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6.8. Things to Remember


To write a good compare and contrast essay, remember the followings:

Be sure of the pattern you want to use Stick to the pattern you choose. Narrow the topic. State the features you want to compare or contrast very clearly so that you would not write anything irrelevant. Think of who you are writing to. Write clear topic sentences. Free write or brainstorm some ideas that might help. Drop unnecessary information that is not necessary. Make an outline with the steps of how you will write it. Revise. Proofread to make sure that you have no errors in grammar or spelling, punctuation, or mechanics.

Task 6.9
Write a compare and contrast essay of your choice. Bear in mind that you should choose a pattern in presenting your ideas.

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SELF ASSESSMENT
Based on the topic Studying and Working, complete the followings:

1.

Write the thesis statement to compare or contrast studying and working. ______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

2.

Write the first topic sentence. ______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

3.

List three supporting details for the first topic sentence.

a) __________________________________________________________

b) __________________________________________________________

c) __________________________________________________________

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4.

Write the second topic sentence.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

5.

List three supporting details for the second topic sentence.

a) __________________________________________________________

b) __________________________________________________________

c) __________________________________________________________

6.

Write the third topic sentence.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

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7.

List three supporting details for the third topic sentence.

a) __________________________________________________________

b) __________________________________________________________

c) __________________________________________________________

8.

Write the concluding statement.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

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REFERENCES

Langan, J. (2002). English skills with readings. Boston: McGraw Hill Lannon, J.M. (2001). The Writing Process. New York: Longman Meyer, A. (2003). Writing with confidence. New York: Longman Winkler, A.C & McCuen-Metherell, J.R. (2003). Writing talk. New Jersey: Prentice Hall http://eslbee.com/contrast_vacation_beach_or_city.htm

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UNIT 7 CLASSIFICATION ESSAY

LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the unit, students should be able to: 1. classify things into categories and provide examples for them. 2. write thesis statement in the introductory paragraph of the classification essay. 3. develop the body of classification essay into paragraphs with each paragraph consisting of a topic sentence. 4. write concluding statements for the conclusion paragraph of a classification essay. 5. use language that represents categories accurately.

7.1

Understanding Classification Essay

Do you know what a classification essay is? Have you heard of it? Have you been asked to write one? According to Ozagac (2004), a classification essay requires a person to classify things into categories and provide examples of things that fit into each category. Lets look at the examples below provided by Ozagac (2004) on different types of computers (PCs & servers). 5 types of computers 1.PC 2. Workstation Criteria: Functions General use by a single person Criteria: Capabilities

desktop: permanent laptop: portable Used by 3D graphics, game powerful microprocessor, development additional memory and enhanced capabilities

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3. Server

4. Main Frame 5.Super Computer

Used to provide services to other have powerful processors, computers lots of memory and large hard drives Used in business enables hundreds of people to work together Used for jobs that take massive very powerful amount of calculating

For example, if you are interested to write about types of residential colleges, each of your developmental paragraphs should discuss the features of a different type of residential college.

Task 7.1
Lets try this. First, think of the different types of residential colleges that you know. Then, think of the different features of those residential colleges that you can classify.

HOUSE

Figure 7.1: Different Type of Residential Colleges

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Table 7.1: Types of Residential Colleges and Their Features


Features

Types Of Residential Colleges

Task 7.2
You may also choose the following topics as your classification essay and brainstorm your ideas as in Task 7.1. a. Favourite Shopping Malls

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i)

Types of Favourite Shopping Malls

ii)

Criteria of the Shopping Mall

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b. Reality Shows on Television

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c. Social Networking Sites

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7.2

Organization

The organization of a classification essay is very simple. Like any other essays, you need to divide your paragraphs into the Introduction, Body of the Essay and Conclusion section. In the Introduction Paragraph, you need to have a thesis statement. This thesis statement should state that there are how many types of something that you have chosen and what are their features or properties. For instance, in the case of the computer as mentioned above, your thesis statement should state that there are 5 types of computers and each of the computers is compared in terms of their functions and capabilities. The body paragraphs should include the number of types mentioned in the thesis statement. So, in the case of the computers just now, you need to have at least 5 paragraphs for the Body of the Essay. You need to define and provide explanation of each of the type. You also need to show the similarities and differences of these types. This would enable your readers to understand better.
Tips on Organizing the Classification Essay a. Identify the group and try to distinguish it by giving a specific name to avoid the reader from being confused. b. Describe the category properly. State the similarities of the members in the category. Once the category is defined, discuss the common characteristics of the categorys members. c. Supply relevant examples with good elaborations on the categories used in your classification. Remain objective by providing vivid descriptions of the categories. d. Give clear distinction on how one category is different from another. Use the compare and contrast techniques when discussing different categories. Stay coherent in terms of order when discussing the categories.

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Lets look at the following essay:

TITLE OF THE ESSAY

TYPES OF COMPUTERS There are a lot of terms used to describe computers. Most of these words imply the size, expected use or capability of the computer. While the term computer can apply to virtually any device that has a microprocessor in it, most people think of a computer as a device that receives input from the user through a mouse or keyboard, processes it in some fashion and displays the result on a screen. Computers can be divided into five according to the purpose they are used for and their capabilities. Look at the sentence in red. This is the thesis statement. PC
Capabilities

Introduction

Topic Sentence The functions of a PC

The most familiar type of microprocessor is the personal computer (PC). (It designed for general use by a single person. While a Mac is also a PC, most people relate the term with systems that run the Windows operating system. PCs were first known as microcomputers because they were a complete computer but built on a smaller scale than the huge systems in use by most businesses.) A PC can come in two types (three if we include the Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) that differ from PCs not by the working policy but in appearance as well.): Desktop and laptop. The former is not designed for portability. The expectation with desktop systems is that you will set the computer up in a permanent location. Most desktops offer more power, storage and versatility for less cost than their portable brethren. On the other hand, the laptops - also called notebooks - are portable computers that integrate the display, keyboard, a pointing device or trackball, processor, memory and hard drive all in a battery-operated package slightly larger than an average hardcover book.

Paragraph 1 Personal Computer (Body)

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TOPIC SENTENCE Another purpose for using a microprocessor is as a workstation. [The computers used for this purpose have a more powerful processor, additional memory and enhanced capabilities for performing a special group of task,] such as 3D Graphics or game development. Function of the workstation Topic Sentence

Paragraph 2 Workstation (Body)

Capabilities of Workstation

Function of the server

A fourth type, a main frame or terminals which allows

is the heart of a network of computers hundreds of people to work at the Paragraph 3 Server (Body)

same time on the same data. It is indispensable for the business world. These machines are huge both in size and in capacity. Generally they are kept in a separate room where nobody can reach since their breakdown can cause a fortune to the company. Capabilities of the server Topic Sentence Sometimes, computers can be used for specialized fields as well. The supercomputer is the top of the heap in power and expense. It is used for jobs that take massive amounts of calculating, like weather forecasting, engineering design and testing, serious decryption, and economic forecasting.

Paragraph 4 Supercomputer (Body)

Capabilities of the supercomputer

Function of the Supercomputer

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Concluding Remark

With the increasing demand in

different

specialties,

new

adjustments are being made to microprocessors and new types of computers that serve different purposes emerge. In this ongoing process, it would not possible to put a full stop here. What we suggest is that it is better to keep en eye on the development of science in this field and keep updating our knowledge in order not to be out-ofdate like the computers of old times that were as big as a room. Suggestions Concluding Paragraph

http://www.buowl.boun.edu.tr/students/types%20of%20essays/Classification%20Essay.htm

How to write the thesis statement of a classification essay? The following are some tips: The thesis statement usually includes the topic and how it is classified. Sometimes the categories are named. e.g. Tourists in Pulau Tioman can enjoy three water sports: snorkeling, surfing, and sailing.

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Task 7.3
Underline the thesis statement in the following introductory paragraph of the classification essay. a. Working at a supermarket has given me a chance to observe the different ways human beings behave. I like to think of the shoppers as rats in a lab experiment, and the aisles are a maze designed by a psychologist. Most of the customers follow a dependable route, walking up and down the aisles, checking through my counter, and then escaping through the exit door. But not everybody is so dependable.
(taken from: http://www.bestessaytips.com/classification_essay.php)

b. Money is the foremost incentive why infinite people work around the world. There are unequal classifications of jobs that contain more physical labor or deskwork. Some work as rescuers, businessmen, consultants, a student, doctors, or even garbage men. No matter where an individual works, they will always encounter three types of workers: Hard-Workers, Slackers, and Mediocres. (taken from: http://www.123helpme.com/preview.asp?id=42948)

c. There are three types of domestic cats: indoor domestic cats, outdoor domestic cats, and indoor-outdoor domestic cats. Though these cats would look very similar if they were clean and sitting next to each other, they would also be very different. (taken from: http://www.123helpme.com/preview.asp?id=42948)

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Task 7.4
Based on the ideas that you have brainstormed in Task 7.2, write the introductory paragraph for each of the following topic. Make sure that your introductory paragraph has a thesis statement.

a. Favourite Shopping Malls


____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ b. Reality Shows on Television ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

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c. Social Networking Sites

___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

Task 7.5
Underline the topic sentence in each of the paragraph below. Identify the main points and elaboration of the main points. a. The first type of unusual shopper is one that I call the amnesiac. He always seems to be going down the aisles against the normal flow of traffic. He mutters things to himself because he left his shopping list at home. When he finally makes it to my register and starts unloading the cart, he suddenly remembers the one item of food that brought him here in the first place. He then resumes his trip around the store while the customers waiting in line start to grumble impatiently. Inevitably, when it comes time to pay for the goods, the amnesiac discovers that he has left his wallet at home. I don't say a word. I just void his receipt and tell him to have a nice day.

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Main Point:
_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

Elaborations:
_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

b. Senior citizens mean well, I guess, but they can also try my patience. One man stops by several times a week, more to pay a visit than to shop. He wanders around the aisles slowly, pausing now and then to read a box of cereal or squeeze a roll or sniff one of those lemon-scented blobs of room freshener. But he never buys very much. When he finally comes up to the checkout, this type likes to chat with me--about my hair, his bunions, or that pretty tune tinkling out of the ceiling speakers. Although the people waiting behind him in line are usually fuming, I try to be friendly. I really don't think this man has anywhere else to go. MainPoint: ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

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Elaborations:
_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

c. Even more annoying is someone I call the hot shopper. You can tell that she plans her shopping trip days in advance. She enters the store with a pocketbook on her arm and a calculator in her hip pocket, and she carries a shopping list that makes the Dewey Decimal System look chaotic. Like a soldier marching in a parade, she struts from one sale item to another, carefully organizing things in her basket by size, weight, and shape. Of course, she is the biggest complainer: something she wants always seems to be missing or mispriced or out of stock. Often the manager has to be called in to settle her down and set her back on course. Then, when she reaches my lane, she begins barking orders at me, like "Don't put the grapes in with the Nutty Ho Hos!" In the meantime, she stares at the prices on the register, just waiting to jump on me for making a mistake. If my total doesn't match the one on her calculator, she insists on a complete recount. Sometimes I make up the difference myself just to get her out of the store. Main Point: ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Elaborations: ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ (taken from: http://www.bestessaytips.com/classification_essay.php)

Task 7.6
Write three paragraphs which contain the body of the classification essay based on the ideas that you have brainstormed and categorized in Task 7.2. Make sure you write one topic sentence and three sentences to elaborate the main point for each of the paragraph.

a. Favourite Shopping Malls


___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Task 7.7
Underline the concluding statement in the paragraph below. a. To be truthful, most of the people who pass through my checkout are quietly efficient and polite--and a little boring. Though the abnormal ones may try my patience, they also help to make a dull job more interesting. So, for your own amusement keep an eye out for these characters the next time you pull into the parking lot of the Piggly Wiggly: a fellow trying to unlock his car with a coat hanger, a woman fussing at the bag boy for squashing a grape, and a sweet old man who may try to tell you about the arthritis in his knees or the expiration date on his buttermilk. ( taken from: http://www.bestessaytips.com/classification_essay.php)

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Write the concluding paragraph for Task 7.6 based on the paragraphs that you have developed and make sure that the paragraph consists of the concluding statement. b. Favourite Shopping Malls
_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

7.3

Language

The most common transition used while classifying are the first kind/type/group, the second kind/type/group or the third kind/type/group. Look at the example below: One of the quickest and most popular breakfast foods is cold cereal. There's a wide selection and various name brands to choose from. For people with a sweet tooth, the choice is plentiful. For instance, Frosted Corn Flakes, made by Kellogg's, is a grain cereal that consists of fine corn flour, sugar, sugar, and sugar, plus corn syrup, calcium carbonate, trisodiumphosphate, and topopherol to preserve freshness. For the health conscious, Honey Bunches of Oats is one of many alternatives. Made by Post, it is also a grain

cereal which comes with a list of ingredients that doesn't sound like Chemistry 101! It contains corn, whole wheat, rolled oats, and brown sugar instead of processed sugar, almond, rice, and of course, honey. Sure, one can disguise a bowl of cereal with slices of banana or juicy strawberries, but that's where the excitement ends! No matter the camouflage, a bowl of cereal has the potential to become redundant quickly.

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The following phrases are examples on how the reference for categories can be made as in the above paragraph. One of the quickest and most popular For people with a sweet tooth For the health conscious

Task 7.8
Underline the phrases that show reference to the categories. a. Another option that might satisfy one's palate in the morning is hot cereal. Perhaps not as popular as cold cereal but just as quick to get to the table, this breakfast food does not fall in the "exciting" category. It does, however, command the respect of other health foods; it is wholesome and known to lower cholesterol levels. The only disadvantage is its extremely fixed quantity of assortment. One can only find three or four selections in any given supermarket. One of the most sold is Quaker Oats. Its ingredient is quite simple: one hundred percent rolled oats! Oats can be prepared effortlessly. With just two parts boiling water and one part oats, breakfast is served. Another variety of hot cereal, grits, is equal in taste but very different in texture. It is made of finely ground wheat and salt. It comes in twelve individual packets to a box which makes it convenient. Grits is prepared in the same manner as oats and just as quickly, so quickly that there would still be time to prepare a bowl of corn flakes instead! b. The last category of the breakfast dilemma is the greasy food group which includes the likes of bacon, eggs, and their associates. This type of meal is not the quickest to make, but for certain, is the most desirable. After days of corn flakes and grits, this is a criminal's last meal before the execution! The list of choices is endless. Topping it, of course, is bacon and eggs. Bacon comes not only in different brands but also in different thicknesses, smoked and regular. Some bacon comes with less fat than others, but all comes with much more fat than it should. Eggs come in various sizes and colors: small, medium, large, and extra large. They're packed in half dozen, one dozen, or a baker's dozen of eighteen to a carton. Their shell's colors range from white, brown to

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pastel blue and pale yellow. Though there's only one way to prepare bacon, eggs can be cooked in numerous ways. They can be scrambled, hard-boiled, poached, pan fried, or made into omelettes. For those who prefer a "hardier" breakfast, a variety of sausage can be added to the menu. Beef sausage and Kielbasa sausage are the most popular. They can be baked and served sliced with warm bread. Although they're delicious, most sausage contains nitrite, a quantity. However, preferable this group of breakfast food is, it contains too much fat and cholesterol and should be consumed with moderation. (taken from: faculty.ksu.edu.sa/aldarby/Pages/example-classification-essay.aspx)

Task 7.9
From the process that you have gone through on how to write a classification essay, lets try to brainstorm ideas and write a complete classification essay. You may choose one of the following topics: On-campus jobs for students Online educational resources Videos on YouTube Styles of eating in the cafeteria High school teachers or college professors Ways of protecting the environment

Title

___________________________________

_____________________________________________________________ Introduction Paragraph _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

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Body of Essay _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Category 1 Paragraph 1 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Category 2 Paragraph 2 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Category 3 Paragraph 3 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Concluding Paragraph _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

7.4

Revisiting Your Draft

Once you have finished writing your essay, revised your work by going through the questions in the following checklist: Have I made my ideas clear by stating my thesis statement in the introduction paragraph? What is the purpose of my classification essay? Do I intend to inform, entertain, evaluate or persuade? Have I made my purpose clear to the readers? Have I made the introduction paragraph interesting for my readers? Have I organized my essay accordingly? Is there a continuity and coherence in the paragraphs I develop? Have I stated the topic sentence clearly in each of the paragraph? Have I elaborated on the topic sentence by elaborating my ideas and providing examples? Have I used correct words and phrases to provide reference to the categories? Have I maintained a consistent tone in the essay?

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Have I used the correct words to convey my ideas? Is the structure of my sentence correct? Is there any glaring grammatical mistakes made? Have I written a concluding statement in my conclusion paragraph? Have my conclusion paragraph summed up the main ideas in the essay?

SELF ASSESSMENT
Test 1 Topic: Compulsive Shopper 1) Brainstorm on how you can classify on the topic of Compulsive Shopper.

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Test 2 Write an introductory paragraph for the classification essay entitled Compulsive Shopper. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

Test 3 Choose one of the main points that you have brainstormed above and write a paragraph which consists of a thesis statement and elaborate the ideas into three sentences. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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Test 4 Write a concluding paragraph for the topic Compulsive Shopper.


_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

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REFERENCES
http://www.buowl.boun.edu.tr/students/types%20of%20essays/Classification%20Ess ay.htm http://www.essaymall.com/Classification_essay.php http://grammar.about.com/od/developingessays/a/draftclass07.htm http://essayinfo.com/essays/classification_essay.php http://www.bestessaytips.com/classification_essay.php http://www.ehow.com/about_4597015_what-classification-essay.html http://www.123helpme.com/preview.asp?id=42948 http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/aldarby/Pages/example-classification-essay.aspx

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UNIT 8 RECOGNIZING SENTENCES AND FIXING FRAGMENTS

LEARNING OUTCOMES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. At the end of this unit, students should be able to: identify subjects and verbs in sentences. write complete sentences with subject-verb and agreement. recognize and identify group of words with sentence fragments. rewrite group of words with fragments into complete sentence.

8.1

How do we identify subjects and verbs?

When you write a sentence in your essay, you have to remember that every sentence has a subject and a verb. A subject is the who or what the sentence is all about. A verb is what the sentence says about the subject. The verb usually is in the form of an action or what the subject is doing. Usually S stands for subject and V stands for verb. For example: The boys laughed.

Most graduates attended the convocation.

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Task 8.1
Identify the subject and the verb in the following sentences. 1. A huge thunderstorm ruined the air display in Langkawi. Subject: Verb: _______________ _______________

2. A bee stung the baby on his cheeks. Subject: Verb: _______________ _______________

3. The two celebrities like to quarrel over small issues. Subject: Verb: _______________ _______________

4. The old lady sat a few minutes on the park bench. Subject: Verb: _______________ _______________

5. My laptop and computer tablet are stolen from my office. Subjects: Verbs: _______________ _______________

6. Mikhail and Haikal ate at Mac. Donalds and then went shopping. Subjects: Verbs: _______________ _______________

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7. Liza and Anne have bought a glittering golden pendant. Subjects: Verbs: _______________ _______________

8. The lorry began to sputter on the highway. Subjects: Verbs: _______________ _______________

9. The newlywed couples have decided to go to Bangkok for their honeymoon. Subjects: Verbs: _______________ _______________

10. Vampires and werewolves are repelled by garlic. Subjects: Verbs: _______________ _______________

8.2

Do you know what a subject-verb agreement is?

Subjects can be nouns or pronouns. They can be singular in which they represent one particular thing, place or a person. They can also be plural in which they represent two or more things, places or persons. A singular subject takes a singular verb and a plural subject takes a plural verb. For example:

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SINGULAR VERB The lady boss requires a lot of help and support from her subordinates.

PLURAL VERB Many professional footballers make a lot of money.

NOTES Verb + -s = singular Noun + -s = plural

That magazine on political views is interesting.

The ideas in his biography are interesting.

A prepositional phrase that comes between a subject and a verb does not affect the verb.

Some of the equipment is good.

Some of the equipments are good.

The verb is determined by the noun which follows an expression of quantity. Examples of the expressions of quantity: most of, half of, some of and two thirds of.

The number of students in the class is fifteen.

A number of students are late.

The number is a subject. A number of is an expression of quantity. It is followed by a plural noun and a plural verb. There is a vase singular There are vases plural Every or each require singular verb.

There is a vase on the table.

There are vases on the table.

Every girl has been given a room. Each baby requires a mothers love. Everyone is here. Everybody is there. One of my nieces is getting married.

Everyone and everybody take a singular verb. One of + plural noun + singular verb

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None of the volunteers is here.

Subjects with none of are considered as singular in formal English.

The news is interesting yet shocking to many people. Six hours of sleep is enough. Five dollars is too little to pay. Physics is easy for her. Statistics is a discipline to be studied. Chinese is a difficult language. The Chinese are kind and helpful. The statistics in that report are not accurate.

News is usually used as singular. Expressions of time, money and distance are usually singular.

Task 8.2
Choose the correct answer from the two words in the parentheses. 1. Half of this money ______________ (belong, belongs) to my brother. 2. One of the lectures ______________ (is, are) going to meet me at the conference. 3. Many people in this world _______________ (do, does) not have a place to live. 4. Thirty minutes _____________ (is, are) the maximum hour to answer the quiz. 5. The English _________________ (drink, drinks) more tea than the American. 6. None of my friends ____________ (is, are) at the party.

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7. A lot of students in the class ___________________ (is, are) from European countries. 8. January and February ________________ (is, are) the coldest month of the year. 9. The taxes for our car ___________________ (is, are) high because we live in the city. 10. The blind _____________________ (read, reads) using Braille.

Task 8.3
Each of the following passage contains two mistakes in subject-verb agreement. Find these two mistakes and cross them out. Then write the correct form of each verb in the space provided. 1. Few people recalls of seeing baby crow. The reason is simple. Baby crows in the nest eats a huge amount of food every day. Before leaving the nest, they are close to the size of their parents. a. __________________ b. __________________ 2. Everything in the supermarket are on sale today. Customers from everywhere are overcrowding the spaces. There is terrific bargains in many departments. a. __________________ b. __________________ 3. All the neighbours meets once a year for the Hari Raya gathering. Everyone talks and has fun until late night. Many delicious foods is served on the tables. Later, everyone goes home and sleeps all day. a. __________________ b. __________________

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4. The members of the football team paces nervously at the side of the football field. The referee blows a whistle. The new footballer run into the field to get to his position. a. __________________ b. __________________

5. When Mila comes home from school each day, her work is just starting. The members of her family all works in their Caf. Nobody rest until the last customer has gone home. Only then Mila and her brother start doing their homework. a. __________________ b. __________________

8.3

Have you heard of Sentence Fragments?

As mentioned at the beginning of this unit, every sentence must have a subject and a verb and they must also express a complete thought. According to Langan (2002), a word group that lacks a subject or a verb and that does not express a complete thought is a fragment. Based on your understanding of subject and verb, underline the following statements that you think are not a complete sentence. 1. 2. 3. 4. Because I could not eat. I start reading the magazines in the restaurant. Calling his cats name. Ash walked into the backyard of his house. My little sister will drink anything. Except milk, soya and yogurt drinks. The copy writer turned on her laptop computer. Then began to type frantically.

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Lets analyze the above statements. Statements Explanation

1. Because I could not eat. I start Because I could not eat is not a complete reading the magazines in the sentence because the writer does not restaurant. complete the verb by telling us why he could not eat. 2. Calling his cats name. Ash Calling his cats name. This word group no subject and no verb and

walked into the backyard of his has house.

therefore, does not express a complete thought.

3. My little sister will drink anything. Except milk, soya and yogurt drinks. This Except milk, soya and yogurt word group also does not have a subject drinks and a verb so it does not express a complete thought. 4. The copy writer turned on her Then began to type frantically is not a laptop computer. Then began to complete sentence. This word group has type frantically. no subject. One way to correct is to add the subject she.

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8.3.1 The Most Common Types of Fragments


Type 1: Dependent Word Fragments Types of Fragment Dependent-word fragments Dependent Words After, although, even if, whenever, although, in order that, where, as, since, whether, because, while, even though, until, unless, whose, whoever, how. Fragmented Sentence After I left him. I went overseas to pursue my career. A dependent word group like after cannot stand on its own. My sister refused to diet. Unless I diet also. A dependent word group like unless I diet also cannot stand on its own. Correcting Fragmented Sentence After I left him, I went overseas to pursue my studies. The phrase with the dependent word above has been attached to the next sentence so the phrase no longer stands on its own. My sister refused to diet unless I diet also. The phrase with the dependent word has been combined with the sentence before to make it complete. Examples

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Task 8.4
Turn each of the following dependent word groups into a sentence by adding a complete thought. Put a comma after the dependent word group if a dependent word starts the sentence.

1. Although the jet fighters are nervous to perform the aerobatics display __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

2. Because it was raining __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

3. If your mother lend you twenty thousand ringgit __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

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4. Since the driver was so exhausted ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

5. Before the examiner entered the hall ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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Type 2: -ing and to Fragments Types of Fragments -ing and to Fragments Examples When an ing words appear at or near the start of a word group, a fragment may result. Fragmented Sentence I spent almost one hour on the phone yesterday. Trying to find a petrol station to fill in the gas for my car. Eventually I ran out of it and had to stop by the roadside. It is a fragmented sentence because there is no subject in trying to find a petrol station to fill in gas for my car. Jamie is very happy with the satin gown that she bought for graduation ball. Not realizing after a few days later that her best friend had also bought the same gown. It is a fragmented sentence because there is no subject in not realizing after a few days later that her best friend also bought the same gown. She looked forward to be on her own. It being the only time that she has some peace from the chaos of her busy life. It is a fragmented sentence because being is not the correct form of the word to be used.

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Correcting Fragmented Sentence I spent almost an hour on the phone yesterday, trying to find a petrol station to fill in the gas for my car. By joining the previous sentence to the dependent word with ing, the sentence becomes a complete thought. Jamie is very happy with the satin gown that she bought for graduation ball. She did not realize after a few days later that her best friend had also bought the same gown. By adding the subject she, it becomes a complete sentence. She looked forward to be on her own. It was the only time that she had some peace from the chaos of her busy life. By changing the verb being to was, the sentence is no longer fragmented.

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Task 8.5
Underline the ing or to fragment or fragments in each item. Use one of the methods of correction as shown in the above examples.

1. A mysterious letter arrived under my office door yesterday. Bearing no senders address. I was shocked to find a book inside. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

2. Eisha covered herself and went to work in the cold bitter morning. To attend an important meeting with the business partners from Moscow. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

3. Looking sad and miserable. The parents waited anxiously outside the operation theatre. The operation was due to finish in an hour time. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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4. Planning for a trip. Delia switched on her JPS. She wondered if she could get there on time since she didnt know much about the area. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

5. Hitting the table with his fist. He was upset with the outcome of his hard work. He should have known who he could trust. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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Type 3: Added Detail Fragments Types of Fragments Added Detail Fragments Examples Added detail fragments lack a subject and a verb. They often begin with the following words: also, especially, except, for example, including, such as. Fragmented Sentence I love to cook and eat Malaysian food. Especially nasi lemak and sambal tumis. I dont mind spending time in the kitchen. Especially nasi lemak and sambal tumis cannot stand on its own as it is not a complete sentence. The meeting always starts late. For example, yesterday at half past two instead of at two. There is a fragment in the second sentence because there is no subject and a verb. Faiz scored low marks in a number of papers in his final examination. Among English, Science and Mathematics. There is a fragment because the dependent clause cannot stand on its own so the idea is not complete. Correcting Fragmented Sentence I love to cook and eat Malaysian food, especially nasi lemak and sambal tumis. I dont mind spending time in the kitchen. When attached to the sentence which them

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precedes the fragment, the ideas become complete. The meeting always starts late. For example, yesterday it began at half past two instead of at two. The ideas in the fragment become complete when the subject it and the verb began are added. Among the papers that Faiz scored low marks in his final examination were English, Science and Mathematics. By changing the words and the structure of the sentence that precedes the fragment, the idea in the sentence becomes complete.

Task 8.6
Underline the fragment in each of the items below. Then make it a sentence by rewriting it, using the examples shown above.

There are many little things that I hate about this hotel. Especially things related to bed sheets and towels. I will give the manager a piece of my mind. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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I could feel Fitris hatred building listening to his comments. Like a volcano ready to explode. I was just observing what was to happen next. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

We went hiking without a few essential equipments. Among other things, our medical supplies and extra sneakers. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

Its always hard for me to get back to work. Especially after a long break. However, I always force myself to be motivated. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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Shaqira did most of her shopping online through fashion blogs. Especially the executive apparel blogspot.com. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

Jibrel has an enormous energy. For example, the ability to play tennis in the morning and then go swimming all afternoon. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

One of my greatest satisfaction is life is eating desserts. Such as cheese cakes, ice-cream and chocolate clairs. Chocolate fondue drives me crazy. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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The grandmother couldnt stand to be touched. Except by her own daughter. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

The finance officer gave her some excellent suggestions for staying out of debt. Including creating a budget. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

Mokhtar is so paranoid hes put four locks on his bedroom door. In addition to installing a security system. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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Type 3: Missing Subject Fragments Types of Fragments Missing subject fragments Examples People usually write missing subject fragments because they assume that the subject in the sentence which precedes the fragment has already been applied. Fragmented Sentence Normah eats too much appetizers. And then realized that, when the main course arrived, her stomach was already full. The clause is fragmented because there is no subject. The tour bus skidded on the snow slick motorway. But missed a signage on the side of the road. The clause is fragmented because it is a dependant clause and therefore cannot stand on its own. Correcting Fragmented Sentence Normah eats too much appetizers. She then realized that, when the main course arrived, her stomach was already full. By adding the subject she, the sentence becomes complete. The tour bus skidded on the snow slick motorway but missed a signage on the side of the road. By joining the fragment with the preceding complete. sentence, the idea becomes

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Task 8.7
Underline the missing-subject fragment in each item. Then rewrite the part of the item needed to correct the fragment. 1. I tried on my blouse that had been hanging in my wardrobe for quite some time. And discovered, to my surprise, that it was too loose to be worn.
_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

2. When Aidan had a sore throat, his mom told him to gargle with salt water. Or suck on an ice cube. The bizarre advice that he got was to stop swallowing. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

3. One of my college lecturers annoyed me with her criticism. Also, seated us in rows from the highest achiever to the lowest achiever. I can imagine how the student in the last seat must have felt listening to her critiques.
_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

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8.4

Reviewing for Fragments

How do we help ourselves to check for fragments? The following are some tips. Read your essay aloud from the beginning until the last sentence. This is to make sure whether you see or hear that each word group is a complete thought. If you feel that a word group is fragment, see whether it contains a subject and a verb. See also whether it expresses a complete thought. Be on the lookout of the most common fragments that you have learned. For instance, the dependent word fragments, the ing and to fragments, the added detail fragments and the missing subject fragments.

Task 8.8
Turn each of the following word groups into a complete sentence. Use the spaces provided. 1. With sweaty face ________________________________________________________

2. Even when it is flooding ________________________________________________________

3. When the alarm went off ________________________________________________________

4. In order to save some money ________________________________________________________

5. We are having a celebration ________________________________________________________

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6. During the holiday season ________________________________________________________

7. The store where I worked ________________________________________________________

8. Before the movie started ___________________________________________________________

9. Down in the basement ___________________________________________________________

10. Feeling very confident


_______________________________________________________________

SELF ASSESSMENT
Test 1 Read the passage carefully and underline the sentence which is a fragment. Zara wasnt watching her plate of barbecue very carefully. So, Ashman, the family Denis the Menace, took a chicken leg hanging at the edge of the plate. As baked beans and potato salad slid into her new sandals.

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Test 2 Rewrite the following sentence which contains a subject verb agreement.

There is many reasons as to why I love that man till I die. ___________________________________________________________

Test 3 Rewrite the following sentence so that it doesnt become a run-on sentence.

This computer doesn't make sense to me, it came without a manual. ___________________________________________________________

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REFERENCES:
Azar, Betty Schramper. (2003) . Understanding and using English Grammar. New York: Pearson Education. Langan, J. (2002). English Skills with Readings. Boston, USA: Mc Graw Hill. Lannan, J. M. (2001). The Writing Process. 7th. Ed. New York: Longman. Meyers, A. (2003). Writing with Confidence. Writing Effective Sentence and Paragraph. New York: USA. Winkler, A.C. and Mccuen-Metherell, J. R. (2003). Writing Talk : Paragraphs and Short Essays with Readings. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.