FOR THIRD YEAR MECHANICAL

EMM 315 MATERIAL FORMING PROCESS CAT 2 1. With the aid of a flow diagram explain the common manufacturing operation for a ceramic operation-8 marks For those of you who are not familiar with ceramic processing here is a listing of the ceramic processes we will discuss in this series of articles on ceramic defects:

Formulating and Batching:

Selecting a composition for the ceramic and then choosing raw materials for the batch.

Forming or Making:

Shaping the part by slip casting, pressing, hand forming, injection molding, roll forming, jiggering, or any other of a number of ways available.

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Drying:

Controlled heating to dry the ware before firing or just leaving it on a shelf in Arizona.

Bisque Firing (or Bisk Firing) and Single Firing:

Glost Firing: Firing of glazed ware (see also above). . Decal Firing: Firing a decal or decals on ware. A single high-temperature fire in the (true) Stoneware Process where the body and glaze mature together.5 percent. A single lower-temperature firing in the Semi-vitreous Process resulting in a porous body and mature glaze. The body porosity is less than 0.A low-temperature firing followed by a high-temperature glost or gloss firing in the Porcelain Process. A high-temperature firing followed by a low temperature glost or gloss firing in the China Process. The body porosity is usually between 4 and 8 percent. Enamel Firing: Firing an enamel usually on decaled ware.

. so when the composite experiences loading. continuous fiber-reinforced composite. which avoids a catast • Fibres have very long lengths with respect to the surrounding material. Describe one main process that is used for making parts of reinforced plastics that have constant cross-sections of any length-7marks 3. Taking Young’s modulus for the shaft material as 200GN/m2. the load is redistributed to other fibers. or break down under far lower strains than are usually desired. and provide resistance to crack propagation and damage. Explain the main role matrix and binders in the manufacture of composite materials-3marks • The matrix transfers the load to the reinforcement fibres.) 2. fibers provide virtually all of the loadcarrying characteristics of the composite. (Now days. The matrix binds fibers together by virtue of its cohesive and adhesive characteristics. Consequently.. In a high-performance. strength and stiffness. rophic failure EMM 311 MECHANICS OF MACHINES CAT 2 1. or filaments. But matrices keep the reinforcing fibers in their proper orientation and position so that they can carry loads. the matrix may crack. The matrix is the weak link in the composite. The fibers in such a composite form bundles. A shaft 100 mm diameter and one metre long is fixed at one end and other end carries a flywheel of mass one tone. debond from the fiber surface. and tend to have a significantly higher strength along their length. Find the natural frequency of longitudinal and transverse vibrations. the decal may include enamel and gold so that a single firing can be used.e. Its purpose is to transfer load to and between fibers. Limitations in the matrix generally determine the overall service temperature limitations of the composite. distribute loads evenly among fibers. and it protects the fibres from environmental effects. even if several fibers break.Gild (Precious Metal) Firing: Firing gold or other precious metal decorations. i. and to protect the fibers from hostile environments and handling.

what will be the frequency of vibration? Take E=200GN/m2.2. . A steel bar 25mm wide and 50mm deep is freely supported at two points 1m a part and carries a mass of 200kg in the middle of the bar. If an additional mass of 200kg is distributed uniformly over the length of the shaft. find the frequency of transverse vibration. Neglecting the mass of the bar.

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