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Introduction to Global Islamic Movements

Compiled by: Er. Zubair ul Islam (B.Tech.) Abdul Rouf (JNMC AMU Aligarh)

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Foreword Islam is the only Deen accept in the sight of Allah. By Deen, it doesn’t mean region in its narrow sense of a set of certain dogmas and rituals but it encompasses each and every sphere of life. It calls upon mankind to liberate themselves from slavery of men to slavery of one true Lord in all of their individual and collective affairs. So it gives directives and prescriptions that guide mankind from mothers lap till the last breathe. It offers guidelines at spiritual, social, economical and political levels. It accepts no distinction between religion and state affairs and expects its followers to be Muslims round the clock following divine directives in all day to day activities. It calls for establishment of a just society based on the principles of al-Quran. To achieve this goal Muslims are obliged to make collective efforts in an organised way and this organized, collective work, undertaken by the people, to restore Islam to the leadership of society, and to the helm of all walks of life is called an Islamic movement. Many Islamic movements started after the demolition of Khilfah in Turkey in 1924 and Muslim across the world overwhelmingly supported them. But with the development of “Media Bomb” by the enemies of Islam a completely different version of Islam started propagating leading to a state of confusion in the Young Muslim minds and an alienation from the Islamic movements. So it became a necessity to offer a right picture of our own movements so that the “developing gap” could be bridged. This book is for the same purpose. It offers an introduction to some major and most influential global Islamic movements. Even though the description is short but certainly it is sufficient for young Muslim minds to understand their own movements. The publication of this compilation is a part of “Islamic Conference and Exhibition 2012” organised for Three days (03 March 2012 to 05 March 2012) at AMU Aligarh. We hope and pray our intention of introducing Islamic movements proves successful and May Allah increase our understanding about the affairs of the world and the world after. Abdul Rouf

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Contents 1. Islamic Movements: An Introduction 2. Movements in the contemporary World 3. Muslim Brotherhood 4. Jamaat-e-Islami 5. Hamas 6. Sanusi Movement 7. Tableeg Jamaat 8. Islamic Movement in Turkey 9. Islamic Tendency Movement of Tunisia 10. Role of the youth in Islamic movements 11. Positive Criticism 04 09 11 13 20 24 26 28 32 35 39

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CHAPTER 1: Islamic Movements: An Introduction By "Islamic Movement", We mean that organized, collective work, undertaken by the people, to restore Islam to the leadership of society, and to the helm of life all walks of life. Before being anything else, the Islamic Movement is a work: persistent, industrious work, not just words to be said, speeches and lectures to be delivered, or books and articles written, they are indeed required, but they are merely parts of a movement, not the movement itself (Allah the Almighty says, Work, and Allah, His Messenger and the believers will see your work} [Surat al-Tawba: 1 05]. The Islamic movement is a popular work based mainly on self-motivation and personal conviction. It is a work performed out of faith and for nothing other than the sake of Allah, in the hope of being rewarded by Him, not by humans. The core of this self-motivation is that unrest which a Muslim feels when the Awakening visits him and he feels a turmoil deep inside him, as a result of the contradiction between his faith on the one hand and the actual state of affairs of his nation on the other. It is then that he launches himself into action, driven by his love for his religion, his devotion to Allah, His Messenger, the Quran and the Muslim Nation, and his feeling of his, and his people's, neglect of their duty. In so doing, he is also stimulated by his keenness to discharge his duty, eliminate deficiencies, contribute to the revival of the neglected faridas [enjoined duties] of enforcing the Sharia [Islamic Law] sent down by Allah; unifying the Muslim nation around the Holy Quran; supporting Allah's friends and fighting Allah's foes; liberating Muslim territories from all aggression; reinstating the Islamic caliphate system to the leadership anew as required by Sharia, and renewing the obligation to spread the call of Islam, enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and strive in Allah's cause by deed, by word or by heart - the latter being the weakest of beliefs - so that the word of Allah may be exalted to the heights. It is by this popular work performed solely for Allah's sake that the Islamic Movement is established. The official, or semi-official work, such as establishing boards, higher councils, associations or unions for Islamic affairs supervised by the ministries of awqaf [lit. endowments, used in a wider meaning to refer to Islamic affairs] or any other government bodies, could more or less benefit Islam and Muslims, in proportion to the intent and enthusiasm of those in charge of it, as well as to how much they place their loyalty to their religion before their loyalty to this earthly life that embraces them and embraces those who appoint them to their positions. However, this official or semi-official work is always inadequate and deficient in many ways, as follows: It revolves in the orbit of the domestic policy of the state that starts and finances it. Its very movement is dictated by that policy, and hence it does not express pure Islam or the greater Muslim nation as much as it expresses that particular state.It is not based, in most cases, on men proven by work, seasoned by struggle and tested in the field, but on "appointed" men who are in the favour of the financing state and therefore seek to please it out of their ambition or out of their fear. Such men cannot, therefore, disobey the state's orders, or ask "Why", or say "No". We speak of the

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overwhelming majority here, as among the "official" workers there may exist some who do better than some "popular" workers in their loyalty to Allah, their jealousy for their religion and their endeavoring to realize this religion in a proper way.It often lacks the true intent to defend Islam, and may even be aimed at a purely political gain. For all these reasons, the official or semi-official Islamic work, so long as Muslim rule is absent, is unable to establish a true Islamic Movement. However, given its capabilities, it can render some academic and practical services and provide financial and moral support to the popular Islamic work and its institutions, especially if such official or semi-official work is headed by faithful, brave leaders. The Movement is an Organized, collective work Besides being a popular work done solely for Allah's sake, the Islamic Movement is an organized collective work. It is not enough for Islam's well - being that volunteering individuals should work (separately and in scattered areas, though their effort will be added to their balance on the Day of Judgment, for Allah shall not waste the effort of man or woman, and everyone shall be rewarded for his deeds according to his intention and perfection of his work. And anyone who has done an atom's weight of good shall see it)' [Surat Al-Zalzalah:7]. Individual work, under the contemporary circumstances of the Muslim Nation, will not be enough for bridging over the gap and realizing the aspired hope. Collective work is a must, and it is ordained by religion and necessitated by reality. Religion advocates "the sense of congregating" and opposes "straying". Allah's hand is with collective effort, and he who strays shall stray into Hell. It is only the stray sheep that the wolf devours, and a prayer is not invalid if the worshipper performs it separately from the congregation or stands ahead of the rank. A believer to another believer is like one firm brickwork each part supporting the other. Cooperation in righteousness and piety is one of the faridas of religion; and the mutual teaching of truth and patience is one of the preconditions of saving oneself from loss in earthly life and the Hereafter. The sheer state of affairs makes it inexitable for a hopefully fruitful work to be collectively done. It takes two hands to clap, and one is weak by himself, strong by his fellows. Great achievements are only made through concerted efforts, and decisive battles are won only through the unity of hands, as the Quran says: (Allah loves those who fight in His cause in battle array, as if they were a solid cemented structure) [Surat al-Saff: 4] Collective work should be organized and based on a responsible leadership, a solid base and clear- cut perceptions that define the relationships between the leadership and the grassroots according to fundamentals of obligatory shura [consultation] and compulsory seeing obedience. Islam recognizes no collective work that is not organized. Even collective prayer is based on organization, for Allah shall not look at the row which is not straightened; and rows are to be closed. No gap should be left in a row of worshippers for it will be filled by Satan standing shoulder to shoulder and foot to foot. It is a unit of movement and appearance as much as it is a unity of doctrine and direction "do not differ so that your hearts may not differ".

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An Imam is required to oversee the alignment of the row behind him until it is straightened and closed before starting prayer, and he advises the worshippers to "be responsive to the [guiding] hands of your brothers", as the prayer in congregation requires a measure of flexiband responsiveness for harmony of the rank as a whole. Then comes the obedience to the imam, (The imam is appointed to be followed: say "Allah Akbar" after he utters it bow when he bows; prostrate when he prostates and listen when he recites. Nobody is allowed to break the rank, or precede the imam in bowing or prostrating so that he may not introduce a wrong note into this harmony and create an irregularity in such an organized, coordinated structure. He who does that should fear that Allah will metamorphose him into a man with a donkey's head. However, should the imam make a mistake, it is the right, even duty, of those behind him to rectify this mistake, whether it is the result of impropriety or forgetfulness, involves word or deed, or happens in recital (of the Quran) or in other fundamental parts of prayer. Even women in the back ranks in prayer are allowed to clap their hands if the imam makes a mistake, so as to attract his attention to the mistake. Congregational prayer is a miniaturization of the overall Islamic congregational system and of what the interrelation between the commander and the troops should be like: there is neither infallible leadership nor absolute, blind obedience. What is the mission of the Islamic Movement? The Islamic Movement has come into existence to revive Islam and reinstate it at the helm of life once again, after removing the obstacles from its path. The revival of Islam "is not an expression of ours: it was used by the Prophet (peace be upon him) in the sound hadith narrated by Abu-Hurayra: (Allah shall send down a man who will revive the religion of this Nation at the start of every hundred years) [Abu-Dawud & AlHakim]. How should the required revival be achieved? The revival to be achieved by the Islamic Movement should take three directions: The first direction would be the formation of an Islamic vanguard, capable, through integration and cooperation, of leading the contemporary society with Islam without isolation or leniency, and remedying the ailments of Muslims with medicines that have been prescribed by Islam alone. This vanguard must comprise individuals whose ranks are glued by deep-rooted faith, sound learning and close ties. The second direction would be the formation of a Muslim public opinion representing the broad popular base which stands behind Islam's protagonists, loving and supporting them after having become aware of their general objectives and confident of their faithfulness and capability, and also after having rid itself of the effects of the mud-throwing campaigns against Islam and Islam's protagonists and movements. The third direction would be the preparation of a world, public climate that will accept the existence of the Muslim Nation when it understands the true aspects of the Islamic Message and civilization, and becomes free of the evil effects left by the fanaticism of the Medieval Ages and the lies and distortions concocted by anti-Islam

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campaigns. Such public opinion would tolerate the emergence of Muslim power beside other global powers, realizing that Muslims have a right to rule themselves according to their own creed since they are the majority in their own countries - as called for by the democratic principles that are so often praised and advocated - and to promote their universal humanitarian message as one of the great ideologies of the world: an ideology that has a past, a present and a future and lays claim to over one thousand million adherents in this world in which we now live. Diversification of Fields of Work The fields of work awaiting the Islamic Movement in the coming phase are wide and expansive. The activist leaders and intellectual theorists of the Movement should make a careful scientific study of these fields. Such a study must be based on documented and confirmed statistics and data. There is Educational Work This field of work is important for forming human "cadres" and Islamic vanguards bringing up the aspired generation of victory, whose members will understand and believe in Islam in full, including knowledge, work, call and struggle. Members of this generation will carry the call of Islam to their Nation first and then to the rest of the world. They will be able to do that only after they commit themselves to Islam as a clear - cut perception in their minds, a deep - rooted doctrine in their hearts, a line of behaviour governing all aspects of their life, worship of Allah and dealing with other people, and a path of culture that will improve the state of affairs of the Nation and bring it together on the Word of Allah and lead the confused humanity to what is best and most proper. There is Political Work This kind of work would be aimed at extricating the rule from the hands of weaklings all traitors to place it in the hands of the powerful and honest who seek neither to be high and mighty on the land nor to corrupt it, who, if Allah establishes them in the land, establish prayer and give alms, enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong. There is Social Work This work would be aimed at remedying poverty, ignorance, disease and vice, and facing up to those suspect institutions that make social and philanthropic work a tool for altering the Nation's identity and weakening its ties with its creed. There is Economic Work This sort of work would contribute to the development of the community to free it from subordination and lift off its burden of usury - based loans, as a prelude to building Islamic economic institutions. There is the Work of Struggle

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It would be aimed at liberating Muslims and Non Muslims from all sorts of oppression. There is Media and Propaganda Work It would be aimed at spreading Islamic ideas and explaining the teachings of Islam in such a way that would restore their middle - course nature and comprehensiveness and eliminate all the ambiguities and lies that may mar their clarity. It should use all the types of media available, from publications to audio and visual aids. There is Intellectual and Scientific Work It would be aimed at correcting the perception of Islam in the minds of Muslims and non-Muslims alike and setting right those wrong concepts and deficient fatwas (legal Islamic opinion) which have proliferated among some groups of the Islamists themselves, so as to lay down a mature, inspired understanding of the Islamic Movement. Such understanding will be based on a legal foundation derived from the texts and goals of Sharia, and it must be especially established among the elite of educated and cultured Muslims who did not actually have a chance to know Islam in a right and proper way. Distribution of Forces among the Fields of Work All these fields are necessary and that none of them should be neglected or put off. What must be done is to distribute forces and capabilities among them according to what each of them needs on the one hand and what forces and capabilities we have on the other hand. The Holy Quran forbade that all of the Muslims at the Prophet's time should go to the field of jihad - and what a holy field it was! - and neglect another field that was no less sacred than the field of jihad, and might even have been more sacred at some times because it paved the way for it and reminded Muslims of it and warned them against neglecting it: it is the field of learning their religion well.

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CHAPTER 2: Islamic Movements in the contemporary World Islamic movements and the need for total change There are two distinct but diametrically opposite views competing for dominance in the Muslim world today. The ruling elites, totally subservient to the West, while paying lip service to Islam for fear of their people, promote secularism and the Westernization of society; the Islamic movement insists on the establishment of Islamic values and principles. The secular elites, though numerically a tiny minority, control the levers of power in all Muslim societies except Iran, yet under their stewardship the Muslim world remains mired in poverty, corruption and stagnation. This is not due to any lack of resources; the Muslim world is endowed with enormous material, natural and human resources; the real problem is their improper utilization. This is compounded by the intellectual stagnation that grips the Ummah. While the ruling elites decry such stagnation, they starve the very institutions of much-needed resources that could help lift Muslims out of their present state of decline. The Islamic movement, standing at the opposite pole, represents the aspirations of the Muslim masses but finds itself under attack not only from the ruling elites, who use the myriad State instruments of oppression against them, but also from their foreign backers and sponsors. In many parts of the Muslim world, members of the Islamic movement languish in jails in appalling conditions, and suffering physical and psychological torture. Many have been killed; an even greater number have simply disappeared without trace. Human rights organizations in the West seldom bother to express concern about such State oppression. Such degrading and inhuman treatment is meted out to members of the Islamic movement under the rubric of 'fighting terrorism', promoting 'moderation' and preserving 'freedom'. The real sponsors of such policies are the Muslim rulers' foreign masters, who have launched a full-scale war on Islam and Muslims. Islam 'or, to use the West's favourite expression, 'Political Islam' 'is perceived as a challenge to their imperial designs. They know that only Islam is capable of mobilizing the Muslims to confront the exploitative policies of the West, led by the US. Muslims who want to end US occupation and exploitation of their lands are branded as terrorists; since the Islamic movement also opposes US policies, it too is tarred with the 'terrorist' brush. In this war 'and let there be no mistake, it is total war 'no effort is spared to undermine the Islamic movement while propping up the corrupt Muslim rulers and their regimes. The Islamic movement promises change that would lead to a dignified existence; the ruling elites offer more of the same: subservience to the West that only brings greater humiliation. Another characteristic of the ruling elites is their gross incompetence; even if one were to ignore the political mess that is the natural consequence of oppression and unrepresentative rule, their failures are equally glaring on other fronts. Despite massive military spending, for instance, not one Muslim army has won a single battle against any enemy; in contrast, major victories have been achieved by ordinary Muslims led by muttaqi leaders in defence of their honour and

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their lands. The Islamic movement insists on changing the status quo so that an Islamic system can be re-established in Muslim societies.

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CHAPTER 3: Muslim Brotherhood (Ikhwan ul Muslimoon) The Society of the Muslim Brothers is the world's oldest and one of the largest Islamist movements and is the largest political opposition organization in many Arab states. Founded in 1928 in Egypt by the Islamic scholar and school teacher Hassan alBanna, by the late 1940s the MB had an estimated two million members. Its ideas had gained its supporters throughout the Arab world and influenced other Islamist groups with its "model of political activism combined with Islamic charity work. Hassan al-Banna(ar) founded the Muslim Brotherhood in the city of Ismailia in March 1928 along with six workers of the Suez Canal Company, as a Pan-Islamic, religious, political, and social movement. According to al-Banna, contemporary Islam had lost its social dominance, because most Muslims had been corrupted by Western influences. Sharia law based on the Qur'an and the Sunnah were seen as laws passed down by God that should be applied to all parts of life, including the organization of the government and the handling of everyday problems. Al-Banna was populist in his message of protecting workers against the tyranny of foreign and monopolist companies. The Brotherhood's stated goal is to instill the Qur'an and Sunnah as the "sole reference point for ordering the life of the Muslim family, individual, community and state". Since its inception in 1928 the movement has officially opposed violent means to achieve its goals. The Muslim Brotherhood started off as a religious social organization, preaching Islam, teaching the illiterate, setting up hospitals and even launching commercial enterprises. As it continued to rise in influence, starting in 1936, it began to oppose British rule in Egypt. Many Egyptian nationalists accuse the MB of violent killings during this period. After the Arab defeat in the First Arab-Israeli war, the Egyptian government dissolved the organisation and arrested its members. It supported the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, but after an alleged attempt of assassination of Egypt's president it was once again banned and repressed. The MB has been suppressed in other countries as well, most notably in Syria in 1982 during the Hama massacre. Afterwards hundreds of thousands of members of Muslim Brotherhood, then called ikhwaan ul Muslimeen were massacred brutally in jails and whole of the criminal, barbaric act was curtailed from the eyes of whole of the world. The MB is financed by contributions from its members, who are required to allocate a portion of their income to the movement. Some of these contributions are from members who work in Saudi Arabia and other oil-rich countries. Beliefs: The Brotherhood's credo was and is, "God is our objective; the Quran is our constitution, the Prophet (saw) is our leader; Jihad is our way; and death for the sake of God is the highest of our aspirations." The Brotherhood's English language website describes the "principles of the Muslim Brotherhood" as including firstly the introduction of the Islamic Shari`ah as "the basis controlling the affairs of state and

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society;" and secondly work to unify "Islamic countries and states, mainly among the Arab states, and liberating them from foreign imperialism". According to a spokesman, the MB believes in reform, democracy, freedom of assembly, press, etc. "We believe that the political reform is the true and natural gateway for all other kinds of reform. We have announced our acceptance of democracy that acknowledges political pluralism, the peaceful rotation of power and the fact that the nation is the source of all powers. As we see it, political reform includes the termination of the state of emergency, restoring public freedoms, including the right to establish political parties, whatever their tendencies may be, and the freedom of the press, freedom of criticism and thought, freedom of peaceful demonstrations, freedom of assembly, etc. It also includes the dismantling of all exceptional courts and the annulment of all exceptional laws, establishing the independence of the judiciary, enabling the judiciary to fully and truly supervise general elections so as to ensure that they authentically express people's will, removing all obstacles that restrict the functioning of civil society organizations, etc." Its founder, Hassan Al-Banna, was influenced by Islamic reformers Muhammad Abduh and Rashid Rida. In the group's belief, the Quran and Sunnah constitute a perfect way of life and social and political organization that God has set out for man. Islamic governments must be based on this system and eventually unified in a Caliphate. The Muslim Brotherhood's goal, as stated by Brotherhood founder Hassan al-Banna was to reclaim Islam's manifest destiny, an empire, stretching from Spain to Indonesia. It preaches that Islam enjoins man to strive for social justice, the eradication of poverty and corruption, and political freedom to the extent allowed by the laws of Islam. The Brotherhood strongly opposes Western colonialism, and helped overthrow the prowestern monarchies in Egypt and other Muslim countries during the early 20th century. Muslim Brotherhood was the key organisation in Arab Springs that led to end of dictatorship in many Arab lands in the last year. Muslim Brotherhood’s “Freedom and Justice Party” emerged as largest party in the 2011 parliamentary elections in Egypt after Tehrir Square revolutions toppled the tyrant Hosni Mubarak’s decade’s long rule. “Muslim sisters” – the women’s wing of Muslim Brotherhood are a part of every step walked by Muslim Brothers. No matter how oppressive any regime could be, still Islam maintains its power to rule over hearts and minds, over society and state is a clear message delivered by these free and fair elections. Muslims still hold to Islam very strongly. Egyptians have shouldered a heavy responsibility of the state on Muslim Brothers and we pray to Allah to help them at all fronts of peace and prosperity.

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CHAPTER 4: JAMAAT E ISLAMI The movement of Jama‘at-e-Islami ranks among the foremost movements for Islamic revival in the contemporary world. Formally established on 26 August 1941, its intellectual inspiration came from the thoughts of Mawlana Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi, who, along with Dr. Muhammad Iqbal, set the pace for contemporary Muslim thinking in the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent. Its ideological message has reached all the corners of the globe. A number of independent organizations and groups are operating in major countries of Europe, America, Africa, Asia and Australia drawing their inspiration from the message and mission of the Jama‘at-e-Islami, although they may not have any formal or legal organizational link. All of these organizations are like members of an extended ideological family. Yet each one has its own legal personality and distinct organizational form and strategies program. It was the first organised Islamic reformist movement in the Indian subcontinent formed on 26th August 1941 in Lahore under the leadership of Syed Abul Ala Maududi, the Jamaat Addressed all Indians regardless of caste and creed. It appeals to all sections of humanity to eschew the path of violence and mutual hatred, terrorism and oppression, and to settle down to the task of building a Righteous Society on stable and abiding foundations. From its very inception it advocated the cause of the Righteous Way, the way of peace and abiding well-being. It recalls to the Indian mind the message and teachings of all apostles, prophets and divine messengers. It believes that Islam and Muslims have a special commitment to building a peaceful and prosperous world, a world where there is no material exploitation, no division of human life into separate material and spiritual domains, and where divine values hold good in all walks of life. A world where religion is no tool for hegemonisation, but is a way of life that is holistic and profoundly positive. The Jamaat-e-Islami was not one more school among several religious schools, nor even a religious organisation in the narrow sense. Nor did it claim to be the AlJama'at founded by the Prophet (peace be upon him). The doors of the organisation are thrown open to any citizen who accepts the sacred motto La ilaha illallah, Muhammadur Rasulullah in its entirety and all its implications, and is ready to work for the establishment of the divine order in the land. It rejects the un-Islamic principle 'the end justifies the means'; instead, the Islamic movement professes the way adopted by the prophets, the way of peaceful and non-violent transmission of ideas. Even so, the unique approach of this new organisation made a deep impression on a substantial section of the educated intellectuals, particularly of the middle class. Mawlana Mawdudi and His Approach Mawlana Sayyid Abul A’la Mawdudi (1903-1979) was one of the chief architects of contemporary Islamic resurgence of the Ummah and the principal founder of the movement of Jama‘at-e-Islami. Born in Aurangabad (Deccan) presently, Andhera Pradesh, India, he started his career as a journalist, writer, and social reformer. In his early youth he moved to Delhi, the intellectual and cultural center of Muslim India. At the young age of twenty-two he became the Editor of the leading Muslim daily of India,

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Al-Jamiyat (1925-1928). His first major work of scholarship, al-Jihad fi al-Islam appeared in 1930. In 1932 he moved back to Hyderabad and took up the editorship of the monthly Tarjuman al-Qur’an, a journal that became the main vehicle for the dissemination of his ideas. This journal has played a significant role in the revival of Islamic thought in the 20th Century. Mawdudi used this journal for presenting his vision of Islam, causes of Muslim decline and the ways out of their predicament. Other scholars also contributed through this medium. It became a catalyst for the development of revivalist thought in the sub-continent and beyond. Naturally the main focus was on the central message of Islam with reference to our own time, particularly in the context of the intellectual and cultural challenge from the Western civilization. He paid special attention to the questions arising out of the conflict between the Islamic and contemporary Western worldviews. He also attempted to discuss some of the major problems of the modern age and looked upon these problems from an Islamic perspective, elucidating the way in which Islam tries to solve them. Mawlana Mawdudi died in September, 1979, completing nearly sixty years of public life. During these many years, he had been continually active and vocal. He wrote over one hundred and thirty books and pamphlets and has made over a thousand speeches and press statements of which at least seven hundred are available on record. Several volumes of his letters have also been published over the years. Mawdudi’s pen has been at once prolific, forceful and versatile. The range of subjects he has covered is unusually wide. Disciplines such as tafsir, hadith, law, philosophy, kalam, tazkiyya, and history, all have received the due share of his attention. He has discussed a wide variety of problems – political, economic, cultural, social, theological and so on – and has attempted to state how the teachings of Islam are related to those problems. He has also dealt profusely with the inner dimensions of faith, worship and life in obedience to Allah. Mawdudi without necessarily going into the technical world of the specialists, has expounded the essentials of the Islamic approach in most of the fields of learning and inquiry, particularly law, ethics, economics, state and politics, war and peace, family and society. His main contribution, however, has been in the fields of the Qur’anic exegesis (tafsir), politics, social studies and the problems facing the international movement of Islamic revival. His last work has been the first two volumes on the life of the Prophet (s) covering the Makkan period. Unfortunately, the book remains incomplete. His greatest work however, is his monumental tafsir of the Qur’an in Urdu, Tafhim al-Qur’an (six volumes) a work he took thirty years to complete. Its chief characteristic lies in presenting the meaning of the message of the Qur’an in a language and style that penetrates the hearts and minds of the men and women of today, and show the relevance of the Qur’an to their everyday problems, both on the individual and social planes. He has translated the Qur’an into direct and forceful modern Urdu idiom. His translation is much more readable and eloquent than ordinary literal translations of the Qur’an. He has presented the Qur’an as a book of guidance for human life and as a guidebook for change, to initiate and guide the movement to implement and enforce divine guidance in human life. He has attempted to explain the verses of the Qur’an in the context of its total message. This tafsir has made a far-reaching impact on contemporary Islamic thinking in the sub-continent, and through its translations, even

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abroad. Translations of his tafsir have been offered in Persian, Turkish, Russian, Sindhi, Bengali and a host of local vernacular of the sub-continent. Six volumes conveying almost half of the Urdu tafsir, have now appeared in English from the Islamic Foundation, Leicester, UK. Certain parts of the tafsir have also been published in the Arabic language. Ideology of Jamaat-e-Islami Islam is the ideology of the Jamaat. Its structure is based on its belief on the three-fold concept of the Oneness and sovereignty of God (Monotheism), the Concept of Prophethood and the Concept of Life after Death. From these fundamentals of belief follow the concepts of unity of all mankind, the purposefulness of man's life, and the universality of the way of life taught by the Holy Prophet. Oneness and Sovereignty of God, Unity of Man, Prophethood, Universality of the Islamic Way of Life, Life After Death , Purposefulness of Man's Life , Islamic Conception of Religion. Such, in brief, are the answers that Islam gives to man's fundamental questions. Now these answers are not mere abstractions that cease to be of utility the moment they are arrived at. They afford us an understanding of the ends and values of existence, and provide a comprehensive pattern of behaviour. This pattern of behaviour, contrary to popular belief, includes all the aspects of life, the moral and spiritual, as well as the mundane and secular. Islam is not simply a compendium of religious rites and rituals. It is concerned with the overall approach of man to life in all its multiple aspects. The concept of the Hereafter is vital to the Islamic system. But it is only through life on this planet that one attains the Hereafter; and Islam desires to convince human beings that only by a proper ordering of the whole of life on this planet in conformity with the Divine Guidance can they hope to realise their spiritual ambitions. Jama‘at-e-Islami has grown into a strong and highly organized religio-political organization which has attracted people from all classes, but has an especially strong influence over the intelligentsia and the youth of the sub-continent and the world. The first major element of this programme is intellectual revolution and reconstruction of human thought on Islamic values and principles. A major contribution of the movement lies in a clear exposition of the teachings of Islam in a simple, forthright and clear manner, which is shorn of verbosity and free from all unhealthy accretions clustered around it over the years. This exposition is also geared to showing how the teachings of Islam can be applied in the present day world, and what steps are required to be taken up so as to develop a sound and healthy Islamic personality and a just and balanced society. This naturally necessitates a stock taking both of the Muslim heritage and of modern civilization, followed by a discriminate appropriation of healthy elements from them. That is why the interaction has a critical ring around it and stimulates critical thought and reflection. So far as the teaching of the Qur’an and the Sunnah are concerned, they are eternally binding and should thus be followed by the Muslims in all periods of history. Yet the challenge that confronts the Ummah relates in the application of the eternal and the absolute in the demands of the temporal, the current and the specific. This intellectual movement has produced vast literature dealing with different aspects of Islamic thought and culture. Most of this literature is available in over

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twenty-five languages of the world. The most distinct feature of this intellectual effort is to present Islam as a complete way of life and as an alternative civilization. The second element of the program is to reach out to all those persons who are disposed to righteousness, and are inclined to work for the establishment and enthronement of righteousness in human life. Such persons should be identified and brought together into an organized movement. Not only that, an effort should also be made to help such people develop a clear outlook, to purify their lives, and cultivate the qualities of good moral character. It is only after a group of people, combining true Islamic vision and Islamic character side by side with intellectual competence and with the skills needed to run the affairs of this world, emerges on the stage of human history, pools its strength and resources, and strives in a systematic manner that the way would be paved for an Islamic Order to be established. Hence, the Jamaat tries to emphasize the necessity of maintaining an inner core of highly dedicated and upright men and women as the foundation, the core-group and catalysts of Islamic revival. The third point of the program consists of striving to bring about societal change, to bring about individual and instituted reforms in the light of Islamic teachings. The idea is that the people who are dedicated to the cause of Islam, or at least have an Islamic orientation and a concern for the well-being of human society should take the initiative and expend their time, effort and resources to bring about maximum healthy change and improvement in other human beings and the society in general. This program of societal reform is quite a comprehensive one. It begins with individual reform and purification: the strengthening and deepening of the spiritual foundation of one’s personality. It seeks to make the mosque the hub of all Islamic activity. Moreover, there is heavy emphasis on education: the basic teachings of Islam should be communicated to the common people, arrangements should be made for adult education, reading rooms should be opened to create enlightenment and educational institutions should be established at different levels. An essential element of this program is moral uplift of the people and cultivating in them the spirit to defend their rights and extend help to others in protecting their rights, including resort to public pressure to protect people from being subjected to injustice. At a highly personal level, the social program of the Jamaat aims at inculcating in every human being the basic personal ethics of Islam, starting with creation of sense of personal hygiene and cleanliness and fostering co-operation among people so as to ensure healthy conditions of living; drawing up lists of orphans and widows, of the crippled and the incapacitated people, and of poor students, arranging for their financial assistance and catering for the health requirements of people, especially the poor. Clearly, inspired by Islamic ideals, the objective is to foster the religious, moral, social and material welfare of the people and to move towards creating the social conditions which are conducive to the total transformation of human life. Distinctive Contributions of the Jama‘at Finally, let us briefly sum up the distinctive contributions of the Jamaat and also sum up the problems it faces: The Jamaat has emerged as a powerful ideological movement and not merely as a religious or political party. It has tried to influence almost all dimensions of Muslim life; intellectual, cultural, moral, educational, literary,

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economic and political. It stands, not for partial reform, but for total change. Yet it is opposed to totalitarianism or oppressive approaches. Its uniqueness comes from its comprehensiveness without being totalitarian: this constitutes its distinctive merit and perhaps which is also responsible for some of the difficulties and complexities it has to face. Every vested group of the society has somehow been affected by its work. Its followers have come from all walks of life but its challenge has also been felt in all corners. Secondly, Saiyyid Mawdudi and the Jama‘at stand out as unique influences in bringing about a world wide awakening that Islam is not a religion in the limited sense of the word; it is a din, a complete way of life. The demands of faith are not fulfilled merely by offering ibadat; ibadat are an objective as well as a means to a life that links every aspect of human life and activity to obedience to Allah and fulfils Haququllah (Rights of God) and Haququl‘ibad (Rights of People). If munkar and fawahish are not eradicated with the offering of salah, our prayers are not fulfilling their role in society. The sovereignty of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala must be established in all fields of human existence. Mosque and Parliament, taqwa and adl, dikr and shariah, prayer and progress are inalienable dimensions of the same reality. Islamic fulfilment is possible only through complete submission and total transformation of individual and collective behaviour in harmony with Divine Will and tenets of equity and justice. The establishment of the Islamic society and state is as much a part of the prophetic model as individual godliness, social ethics and sexual morality. This may have been a meek voice in the 1920’s and 30’s but al-hamdullillah today this is acknowledged as the language of Islamic resurgence and a formidable influence in shaping the future of the Muslim world, by the human civilization in the next century. The Jama‘at, drawing its inspiration from the prophetic models of Makkah and Madinah and the Islamic tradition of tajdid wa ihya (revival and renewal) has challenged the Western approach to social change, which consists primarily in social and structural reform. Islamic strategy for change gives equal importance to change within man (Iman, taqwa and character building) and change from without, i.e. society, law and state and its institutions. That is why the Jama‘at has emphasized that while the revival of Iman and the moral transformation of the individual are the key to healthy social change, society and its institutions have to be changed and a new leadership evolved to see that the socio-economic and political order also reflect the same values on which personal piety is based. Personal morality and social ethics must conform and strengthen each other. This being the basic approach, revival of Islamic thought and morality become the central passion of the Jama‘at. This makes it a movement for education and reeducation. Moral training and character building assume a critical position in its vision for change. Hence, the emphasis on personal discipline and two-tier membership. Sometimes emphasis on societal change is misconstrued as neglect of the personal and spiritual dimensions. Nothing is further from the truth. The unique contribution of the Jama‘at lies in restoring the link between the personal, spiritual, social and historical.

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The Jama‘at has tried to steer clear of the sectarian issues and biases and traditional religious controversies. It has emphasized that the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet (s) are the corner stones of Islamic faith and culture. Fiqh is important; perhaps the greatest contribution of the Muslims in history. But narrow and unthinking adherence to a particular school or set of customs and intolerance towards other schools can deprive the Ummah of the flexibility and dynamism that has been its hallmark in history. There must not be a break with our history and tradition, but we must differentiate between what is fundamental and what is peripheral, between the ideals, values and principles and the details and the minutia spelled out in different periods of our history. Authentic dissent and genuine difference of opinion and plurality of interpretations should be respected and looked upon as the area of flexibility within the Islamic framework. Instead of fighting each other for our differences, we should learn to live with our differences and to work for building upon the vast and inexhaustible area of our agreement.The Jama‘at has emerged as a third force, a movement of the middle, bridging the gap between the so-called modernists who almost uncritically adopted the modernization model of the West and the so-called conservatives who refused to accept any modification or departure from the Muslim status quo. The Jama‘at stands for change and reform, not in imitation of the West, but taking full cognizance of the fact that the world has changed materially under the influence of the Western civilization whose fundamental values are at variance with the ideals and values of Islam. But everything that has been developed in the West is not necessarily abhorrent to Islam. There can be vast areas of agreement and commonality of concerns. Muslims must learn from the experience of mankind without compromising on our principles and values. Direct inspiration from the Qur’an and Sunnah and an openness to benefit from all schools of Islamic thought wherever necessary ensure greater flexibility and adaptability in the Jama‘at approach to face the challenge of so-called modernity and civilized models developed in the West. It was a result of this approach that the Jama‘at has been able to build its cadre by drawing upon both the modern educated classes as well as the ulama and traditional groups. It provides a meeting point between the two. The Jama‘at has influenced people in all walks of life but its greatest contribution lies in saving millions of Muslim youth from the agonies of scepticism, unbelief and moral decadence. It has offered before them Islam as an alternative to the contemporary ideologies of secularism, liberalism, nationalism, capitalism, socialism and the like. It has given them a new confidence in Islam and a new pride in working for the supremacy of Islam. This in part, has been the impact of the new literature produced by the movement and its intellectuals. Several hundred original works have been produced during the last five decades and several dozen institutions are engaged, in the subcontinent alone, in producing new literature on Islam showing its relevance to the problems of today and tomorrow. Now a word about some of the problems that confront the Jama‘at and are yet to be properly and fully resolved. It has already been mentioned that the comprehensive

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nature of the Jama‘at’s work has created many problems, both of size and quality, with which the movement has been grappling. The opposition from certain elements from within the Muslim society as well as frontal attacks from the protagonists of the Western secularization and from agents of western powers and agencies is not an insignificant phenomenon. Clash and confrontation have not been an unmixed evil but were responsible for a heavy toll. The movement has significantly influenced the educated classes but its influence on the common mass of people deserves to be extended vastly. The movement began in urban areas and its early converts belonged to the educated elite. Dawah amongst the masses has only gradually increased. It has developed a new language of Islamic politics but it has not yet been successful in overcoming the traditional sources of power in the society, with the result that its moral and ideological weight is not being fully and properly translated into political might. It has been more effective as an ideological force, or even as a pressure group with immense street power, but not yet so effective as an electoral force. Of late, emphasis on mass contact and mobilization has increased. With street power it has played an important role in dislodging many dictators and usurpers of power. It is yet to establish its credentials as an alternative government. It is the Islamic movement that can bring about this change. Let us hope and pray and strive to rebuild a new world and see that darkness disappears and the entire horizon is illumined. In the last 50 years the membership of the Jamaat-e-Islami in India has risen from 240 to around 6000, an increase that cannot be termed substantial. However, it is not unnatural, considering that the Jamaat has very stringent criteria for granting membership. The number of its Karkuns (Workers/associates) and Muttafiqs (sympathisers) come to 29,000 and 308,000 respectively. The various wings of the Jamaat-e-Islami Hind are Women's Units, the Students' Islamic Organisation, the Girls' Islamic Organization and the Idara-e-Adab-e-Islami for promoting literary activities. The various Trusts and Societies which agree to Jamaat's policies and activities, run masajid, madrasas, schools, colleges, hospitals, orphanages, vocational training centres, interest-free loans, relief activities and housing projects. In the past it has been able to organise rehabilitation for victims of communal riots and natural calamities, to the tune of crores of rupees. The Jamaat-e-Islami Hind projects Islam as the practical doctrine and programme that can take the place of the failed man-made creeds of the twentieth century.

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CHAPTER 5: HAMAS The Islamic Resistance Movement, HAMAS based in Palestine, draws its guidelines from Islam; derives from it its thinking, interpretations and views about existence, life and humanity; refers back to it for its conduct; and is inspired by it in whatever step it takes. The Islamic Resistance Movement is one of the wings of the Muslim Brothers in Palestine. The Muslim Brotherhood Movement is a world organization, the largest Islamic Movement in the modern era. It is characterized by a profound understanding, by precise notions and by a complete comprehensiveness of all concepts of Islam in all domains of life: views and beliefs, politics and economics, education and society, jurisprudence and rule, indoctrination and teaching, the arts and publications, the hidden and the evident, and all the other domains of life. The basic structure of the Islamic Resistance Movement consists of Muslims who are devoted to Allah and worship Him verily [as it is written]: “I have created Man and Devil for the purpose of their worship” [of Allah]. Those Muslims are cognizant of their duty towards themselves, their families and country and they have been relying on Allah for all that. They have raised the banner of Jihad in the face of the oppressors in order to extricate the country and the people from the [oppressors’] desecration, filth and evil. As the Movement adopts Islam as its way of life, its time dimension extends back as far as the birth of the Islamic Message and of the Righteous Ancestor. Its ultimate goal is Islam, the Prophet its model, the Qur’an its Constitution. Its special dimension extends wherever on earth there are Muslims, who adopt Islam as their way of life; thus, it penetrates to the deepest reaches of the land and to the highest spheres of Heavens. The Slogan of the Hamas is, ”Allah is its goal, the Prophet its model, the Qur’an its Constitution, Jihad its path and death for the case of Allah its most sublime belief.” Hamas finds itself at a period of time when Islam has waned away from the reality of life. For this reason, the checks and balances have been upset, concepts have become confused, and values have been transformed; evil has prevailed, oppression and obscurity have reigned; cowards have turned tigers, homelands have been usurped, people have been uprooted and are wandering all over the globe. The state of truth has disappeared and was replaced by the state of evil. Nothing has remained in its right place, for when Islam is removed from the scene, everything changes. These are the motives. As to the objectives: discarding the evil, crushing it and defeating it, so that truth may prevail, homelands revert [to their owners], calls for prayer be heard from their mosques, announcing the reinstitution of the Muslim state. Thus, people and things will revert to their true place. The Islamic Resistance Movement believes that the land of Palestine has been an Islamic Waqf throughout the generations and until the Day of Resurrection, no one can renounce it or part of it, or abandon it or part of it. No Arab country nor the aggregate of all Arab countries, and no Arab King or President nor all of them in the aggregate, have that right, nor has that right any organization or the aggregate of all organizations, be they Palestinian or Arab, because Palestine is an Islamic Waqf throughout all generations and to the Day of Resurrection. Who can presume to speak for all Islamic Generations to the Day of Resurrection? This is the status [of the land] in Islamic Shari’a,

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and it is similar to all lands conquered by Islam by force, and made thereby Waqf lands upon their conquest, for all generations of Muslims until the Day of Resurrection. This [norm] has prevailed since the commanders of the Muslim armies completed the conquest of Syria and Iraq, and they asked the Caliph of Muslims, ‘Umar Ibn al-Khattab, for his view of the conquered land, whether it should be partitioned between the troops or left in the possession of its population, or otherwise. Following discussions and consultations between the Caliph of Islam, ‘Umar Ibn al-Khattab, and the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, be peace and prayer upon him, they decided that the land should remain in the hands of its owners to benefit from it and from its wealth; but the control of the land and the land itself ought to be endowed as a Waqf [in perpetuity] for all generations of Muslims until the Day of Resurrection. The ownership of the land by its owners is only one of usufruct, and this Waqf will endure as long as Heaven and earth last. Any demarche in violation of this law of Islam, with regard to Palestine, is baseless and reflects on its perpetrators. [Peace] initiatives, the so-called peaceful solutions, and the international conferences to resolve the Palestinian problem, are all contrary to the beliefs of the Islamic Resistance Movement. For renouncing any part of Palestine means renouncing part of the religion; the nationalism of the Islamic Resistance Movement is part of its faith, the movement educates its members to adhere to its principles and to raise the banner of Allah over their homeland as they fight their Jihad: “Allah is the all-powerful, but most people are not aware”, they believe. From time to time a clamoring is voiced, to hold an International Conference in search for a solution to the problem. Some accept the idea, others reject it, for one reason or another, demanding the implementation of this or that condition, as a prerequisite for agreeing to convene the Conference or for participating in it. But the Islamic Resistance Movement, which is aware of the [prospective] parties to this conference, and of their past and present positions towards the problems of the Muslims, does not believe that those conferences are capable of responding to demands, or of restoring rights or doing justice to the oppressed. Those conferences are no more than a means to appoint the nonbelievers as arbitrators in the lands of Islam. Since when did the Unbelievers do justice to the Believers? “And the Jews will not be pleased with thee, nor will the Christians, till thou follow their creed. Say: Lo! the guidance of Allah [himself] is the Guidance. And if you should follow their desires after the knowledge which has come unto thee, then you would have from Allah no protecting friend nor helper.” Sura 2 (the Cow), verse 120. Hamas believes that the theere is no solution to the Palestinian problem except by Jihad. The initiatives, proposals and International Conferences are but a waste of time, an exercise in futility. Hamas believes that there is no escape from introducing fundamental changes in educational curricula in order to cleanse them from all vestiges of the ideological invasion which has been brought about by orientalists and missionaries. That invasion had begun overtaking this area following the defeat of the Crusader armies by Salah aDin el Ayyubi. The Crusaders had understood that they had no way to vanquish the Muslims unless they prepared the grounds for that with an ideological invasion which would confuse the thinking of Muslims, revile their heritage, discredit their ideals, to be

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followed by a military invasion. That was to be in preparation for the Imperialist invasion, as in fact [General] Allenby acknowledged it upon his entry to Jerusalem: “Now, the Crusades are over.” General Gouraud stood on the tomb of Salah a-Din and declared: “We have returned, O Salah-a-Din!” Imperialism has been instrumental in boosting the ideological invasion and deepening its roots, and it is still pursuing this goal. All this had paved the way to the loss of Palestine. Hamas wants to imprint on the minds of generations of Muslims that the Palestinian problem is a religious one, to be dealt with on this premise. It includes Islamic holy sites such as the Aqsa Mosque, which is inexorably linked to the Holy Mosque as long as the Heaven and earth will exist, to the journey of the Messenger of Allah, be Allah’s peace and blessing upon him, to it, and to his ascension from it. “Dwelling one day in the Path of Allah is better than the entire world and everything that exists in it. The place of the whip of one among you in Paradise is better than the entire world and everything that exists in it. [God’s] worshiper’s going and coming in the Path of Allah is better than the entire world and everything that exists in it.” (Told by Bukhari, Muslim Tirmidhi and Ibn Maja). Hamas is very strong at Women’s front. It believes that Muslim women have a no lesser role than that of men in the war of liberation; they manufacture men and play a great role in guiding and educating the [new] generation. Hamas thinks that the enemies have understood that role, therefore they realize that if they can guide and educate [the Muslim women] in a way that would distance them from Islam, they would have won that war. Therefore, you can see them making consistent efforts [in that direction] by way of publicity and movies, curricula of education and culture, using as their intermediaries their craftsmen who are part of the various Zionist Organizations which take on all sorts of names and shapes such as: the Freemasons, Rotary Clubs, gangs of spies and the like. All of them are nests of saboteurs and sabotage. Those Zionist organizations control vast material resources, which enable them to fulfill their mission amidst societies, with a view of implementing Zionist goals and sowing the concepts that can be of use to the enemy. Those organizations operate [in a situation] where Islam is absent from the arena and alienated from its people. Thus, the Muslims must fulfill their duty in confronting the schemes of those saboteurs. When Islam will retake possession of [the means to] guide the life [of the Muslims], it will wipe out those organizations which are the enemy of humanity and Islam. The Hamas views the other Islamic movements with respect and appreciation. Even when it differs from them in one aspect or another or on one concept or another, it agrees with them in other aspects and concepts. It reads those movements as included in the framework of striving [for the sake of Allah], as long as they hold sound intentions and abide by their devotion to Allah, and as along as their conduct remains within the perimeter of the Islamic circle. All the fighters of Jihad have their reward. The Hamas regards those movements as its stock holders and asks Allah for guidance and integrity of conduct for all. It shall not fail to continue to raise the banner of unity and to exert efforts in order to implement it, [based] upon the [Holy] Book and the [Prophet’s] Tradition. “And hold fast, all of you together, to the cable of Allah, do not separate. And remember Allah’s favor unto you how ye were enemies and He made friendship

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between your hearts so that ye became as brothers by His grace; and (how) ye were upon the brink of an abyss of fire, and He did save you from it. Thus Allah makes clear His revelations unto you, that happily ye may be guided.” Sura III (Al-’Imran), verse 102. World Zionism and Imperialist forces have been attempting, with smart moves and considered planning, to push the Arab countries, one after another, out of the circle of conflict with Zionism, in order, ultimately, to isolate the Palestinian People. Egypt has already been cast out of the conflict, to a very great extent through the treacherous Camp David Accords, and she has been trying to drag other countries into similar agreements in order to push them out of the circle of conflict. Hamas is calling upon the Arab and Islamic peoples to act seriously and tirelessly in order to frustrate that dreadful scheme and to make the masses aware of the danger of coping out of the circle of struggle with Zionism. Today it is Palestine and tomorrow it may be another country or other countries. For Zionist scheming has no end, and after Palestine they will covet expansion from the Nile to the Euphrates. Only when they have completed digesting the area on which they will have laid their hand, they will look forward to more expansion, etc. Their scheme has been laid out in the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and their present [conduct] is the best proof of what is said there. Leaving the circle of conflict with Israel is a major act of treason and it will bring curse on its perpetrators, Hamas says. Within the circle of the conflict with world Zionism, the Hamas regards itself the spearhead and the avant-garde. It joins its efforts to all those who are active on the Palestinian scene, but more steps need to be taken by the Arab and Islamic peoples and Islamic associations throughout the Arab and Islamic world in order to make possible the next round with the Jews, the merchants of war. “We have cast among them enmity and hatred till the day of Resurrection. As often as they light a fire for war, Allah extinguishes it. Their effort is for corruption in the land, and Allah loves not corrupters.” Sura V (Al-Ma’idah—the Table spread), verse 64.

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CHAPTER 6: Sannusi Movement Sanusi Movement - a Islamic movement in Libya and Sudan founded in Mecca in 1837 by Muhammad bin Ali al-Sanusi (1791-1859), known as the Grand Sanusi. Sanusi was concerned with both the perceived decline of Islamic thought and the weakening of the Islamic world. His call for political activism was influenced by the Wahhabi movement in Arabia, to which he eclectically added some Sufi teachings from several different Sufi orders. The Sanusi unsuccessfully fought (1902-13) French expansion in the Sahara, and in 1911 the Italian invasion of Libya forced them to concentrate there. During World War I they attacked British-occupied Egypt. A grandson of the Grand Sanusi became King Idris I of Libya in 1951. In 1969, the king was overthrown by a coup led by Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi. A third of the population in Libya, and fewer in Sudan, are still affiliated with the Sanusi organization. The founder of the Sanusi religious order, Muhammad bin Ali as Sanusi (17871859), possessed both the popular appeal of a marabout (spiritual guide) and the prestige of a religious scholar. Early in his spiritual formation, he had come under the influence of the Sufi, a school of mystics who had inspired an Islamic revival in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and incorporated their asceticism into his own religious practices. In 1830 he was honored as the Grand Sanusi (as Sanusi al Kabir) by the tribes and towns of Tripolitania and Fezzan while passing through on his way to Mecca. 19th century was a difficult period for the entire muslim world. Mughals had almost collapsed and Ottoman Caliphate was also disintegrating. in 1878 all the European powers meet in Berlin to decide who will take which province of the breaking Ottoman empire. In this meeting it was decided that Italy will be given Libya. In those days there was no country called Libya. Its territory came under the Ottoman Empire and it was governed by the Ottoman Caliphate and they were supported by a very powerful Political and Religious Islamic movement which also had strong influence in many parts of North Africa, called “Sannussi Movement”. Sannussi was a religious and spiritual order but they were also involved in politics and they used to work in many different areas and regions. The leaders of all those regions were the biggest supporters of the ottoman Caliphate and they wanted unity in among the Muslims. In 1878 after Berlin Conference, Italy had its eyes set on the Ottoman province of today’s Libya. But they did not have the courage. For many years their press and politicians massively canvassed their people to sanction support to attack Libya. .Now it was the start of 20th century and by this time Ottoman Empire had become very weak and after world war 1 i.e 1924 Caliphate was abolished. Now Italians thought that it was a time to invade Libya. Moreover they had intelligence reports that Turkish garrisons in Benghazi and tarabulus only had 4000 Turkish soldiers and rest were Arab and Berber Bedouins. In 1911 Italians came with a large naval army and attacked the region thus started the Turkish-Italian war Firstly Italians kidnapped 100,000 (1lakh) Muslim men, women, children etc and took them to Italy in their ships and after that nobody knows what happened to them. Some say they were liquidated whereas others say they were put into slave trade. Even nowadays the day in Libya is remembered as Black Day. Italians had thought that the moment they would attack

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Libya, local population would rise against Turks but then what followed was the complete opposite of what they had planned. This war will be called the Battle of Tarabulus or Tripoli. In this battle Arabs and Turks united and Italian’s plan of dividing Muslims failed. This united Islamic army killed around 20,000 Italian imperialistic forces. This was the time that Italians realized that their assessment and intelligence was wrong and they too realised that it was very difficult to divide these saints. Sannussis declared Jihad and supported ottoman Caliphate and they fought alongside Turkish army in such a manner that Italy being the super powerfully equipped was unable to capture this small land. But this too had a negative effect in a way that ottoman empires other part became weaker and now it was about to fall. At this moment Europeans were closer to Turkish land and it was the latest threat and owing to this African campaign was handover to sannussi movement. At this moment the leadership of whole Sannussi movement came in the hands of Spiritual, religious and a brave Muslim hero known as Syedi Umar Mukhtar(ar). People used to call him Sidi Umar out of love and respect. He was a 70 year old school teacher desirous of sacrificing every drop of his blood for the Islamic revival and curtaining the effect of oppressive forces it turned to be a mass movement. This movement lasted for around 20 years but it had a deep impact on the geopolitical of that area. It gave a hope to Muslims and also gave them a leader to revive their Islamic beliefs. This became 20th centuries one of the greatest Islamic armed gurrella movement which encompassed Islamic spiritual as well as considering Islam as a complete way. Umar Mukhtar fought the Italians bravely and with dignity. Even his enemy saluted his honesty, bravery and willpower. Umar Mukhtar was many times offered political positions, wealth and what not but the answer he gave to the mediators was always, “Freedom”. In 1928 Sannussi movement had become so strong that almost entire Libya was liberated. Italians had only Tripoli and Benghazi. After Italy came under leadership of fascist dictator Mussulini who called for mass level massacre of Libyans and ordered all type of barbaric atrocities to be done on Libyans. Italians regrouped and attacked Libya with modern warfare. Thay also established concentration camps, where 5000,000 muslims were sent (it is said that only few thousands came back) cut supply lines and alienated Sannussis from Egypt. Landmines were laid and first time in history planes dropped bombs over any population. Once while trying to negotiate with Umar Mukhtar Italians tried to demoralize by saying that they run the government, they have got the Libya, Umar replied,” yes you own it in the day but by Allah we take it back in the night”. Umar Mukhtar in an encounter was captured and tortured in the jail. At this point of time Umar Mukhtar showed the real spirit of islam, remained patient and always bowed himself before the Lord of Universe. Umar wished to be hanged before his people. Sannussis witnessed the martyrdom of this great Muslim Hero. Allah had ordained such an honour and elevation of status to this Leader , to this movement that even today Muslims boast of this great legend. This showed a path to all Muslims living a life of dignity.

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CHAPTER 7: Tableegi Jamaat Tablighi Jamaat is one of the a well known Islamic revivalist group in modern times with its effects being felt everywhere in the world. Its founder was a scholar of Islam, Maulana Muhammed Ilyas. Dr Mumtaz Ahmed writes: “Maulana Muhammad Ilyas, the founder of the Tablighi Jamaat of South Asian subcontinent, is arguably one of the most influential, yet least well-known, figures of twentieth century Islam. Despite his enormous contribution towards the development of a powerful grass root Islamic Da’wah movement, Maulana Ilyas has not received much attention in literature regarding modern Islamic movements. Most of the Western, and even Muslim, scholarships have remained occupied with the more dramatic manifestations of Islamic revivalist upsurge. The available literature on Maulana Ilyas and his Tablighi movement is mostly in Urdu and that too consists mainly of inspirational works by its leaders and devotional writings by its followers and supporters.” Great Muslims of the Twentieth Century”. Maulana Ilyas was born in 1885 in a small town in the United Province of British India in a family of religious scholars. He received his early religious education at home and later went to the famous centre of Islamic education in Deoband where he studied the Qur’an, Prophetic traditions, jurisprudence and other Islamic sciences under the early Deoband luminaries. After completing his education at Deoband, Maulana Ilyas took up a teaching position at another famous school Known as Mazaharul Uloom in Saharanpur (U.P., India). It was at this point in his life that Maulana Ilyas became aware of the ‘miserable Islamic situation’ in the Mewat region near Delhi where the majority of Muslims were living a life that had very little to do with Islamic teachings and practices. Maulana Ilyas fully aware of the difficult task ahead was determined to bring the Meo Muslims back to the fold of true Islam. In the early 1920s, he prepared a team of young Madrasa (Religious school) graduates from Deoband and Saharanpur and sent them to Mewat to establish a network of Mosques and Islamic schools throughout the region. The new movement was met with dramatic success in relatively short period of time, due to Maulana Ilyas’s utmost devotion, determined efforts and sincerity of purpose. As a result many Muslims joined Maulana Ilyas’s movement to preach the message of Islam in every town and village of Mewat. The rapid success of his efforts can be seen from the fact that the first Tablighi conference held in November 1941 in Mewat was attended by 25,000 people many of them had walked on foot for ten to fifteen miles to attend the conference. His eagerness and strong determination to reach every Muslim and remind him of his obligations as a believer took priority over every thing else. His passionate concern for the spiritual welfare of his fellow Muslims caused him great grief. A friend once came to visit him while he was on his deathbed. Maulana Ilyas greeted his friend by telling him. “People out there are burning in the fire of ignorance and you are wasting your time here inquiring after my health!”

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The aim of the movement is to present the world with such a beautiful living image of Islam that all people being attracted to it’s peaceful and balanced message eventually practice Islam. This is achievable, the movement believes, only when Muslims are made to see this life as temporary, gifted by God only for a fixed time span in order to prepare for a perpetually fully satisfying reward, or for a never ending unbearable punishment in an everlasting afterlife .

The program based on six points: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Believing in the oneness of Allah To offer the five prayers daily Gaining knowledge and the remembrance of Allah To respect every Muslim Sincerity of intention To spare time for this work

The elders of this movement have recommended that every Muslim should give time for this work. Recommended Schedule: 3 days a month 2 ‘gash’ (visiting the Muslims in the locality twice a week) 40 days a year 4 months in a lifetime. Talbeeg Jamaat focuses on the above mentioned points and calls people to join for the propagation of Deen. Fazayal Aamaal by Maulana Mohamad Zakariya and Muntakhib Ahaadith by Maulana Yusuf sb are the most read books in the circles of Jamaat. The adherents are strongly held in its network through continuous programs and this network in its broader sense spreads throughout the world. Beyond this good, Tableeg Jamaat suffers much criticism from different circles of the Muslim circles. It is oftenly criticized for confining the religion to the Masjids as it hardly participates in any worldly affair of Muslims throughout the world thus creating a perception that religion is something a separate entity from worldly affairs and to be religious person needs isolation. It is difficult to find any opinion of Tableegi Jamaat about the political and social problems of the Muslims. It also appears strange to many that Tableeg Jamaat continues with the same formula used by their founder to islamise the people of Mewat who knew nothing about Islam at that time. With the change in the circumstances, places, personalities and challenges of the age Tableeg Jamaat appears static in its concepts. Intellectual understanding of contemporary issues and their potential answers in the language of the age is often lacked in their circle resulting in a unnecessary gap between. To be a movement for a complete change, the above criticism needs to be given a serious consideration.

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Chapter 8: Islamic Movement in Turkey In Turkey, the Islamist movement emerged soon after the founding of the secular republic in 1923. It was led by tarikat (religious order) sheikhs and professional men of religion, who were over thrown when secular regime abolished religious institutions. In general, though, pro Islam groups were made to stay underground during the era of one-party secular rule, between 1923 and 1946. With the transition to a multi-party system in 1946, Islamist groups formed alliances with the ruling center-right Democratic Party (1950-1960). After the Democratic Party won the 1959 elections, it softened secularist policies. With the provision of civil liberties by the 1961 constitution, pro Islam groups began to operate legally (though their activities were still technically banned). Until Necmettin Erbakan established the National Order Party (NOP), the predecessor of the three succeeding Islamist parties,. With the NOP, the pro Islam groups for the first time had an autonomous party organization through which they could campaign for their agenda. Since the NOP's founding, the same Islamist party has endured, albeit under different names: NOP (1970-1971), NSP (1972-1981), Welfare (1983-1998), Virtue (1997). The NOP largely represented Anatolian cities controlled by religiously conservative Sunnis, and the small traders and artisans. These people formed silent but powerful pressure groups with a large network. The NOP was shut down by the Constitutional Court on May 20, 1971-after military pressure. As a result, the National Salvation Party (NSP) was founded in October 1972 to succeed the NOP. With support from provincial merchants, some informally-organized religious groups, the NSP achieved a surprising electoral success in the 1973 general elections, obtaining 11.8 percent of the total vote, mainly in central and eastern Anatolia. After its solid showing in the 1973 general elections, the NSP became a coalition partner in successive governments. First, it formed a government with the staunchly secularist People's Republican Party (CHP), led by Bulent Ecevit. Soon after, it managed to place its members in the bureaucracy, particularly the ministries that it controlled. Moreover, it succeeded in passing a bill that made theological high schools (imam-hatip) equal to secondary schools and enabled these school's often pro-Islamist students to attend universities. A large number of girls also enrolled in these schools. Many graduates have gone on to political power as Islamists in the 1980s and 1990s (e.g., the mayor of Istanbul, Recep Tayip Erdogan), and have formed a powerful pressure group. Ecevit's coalition government collapsed following Turkey's July 1974 military operation The NSP then became a coalition partner in a new "National Front" government on March 31, 1975, formed under the premiership of the center-right Justice Party (JP), led by Suleyman Demirel. In the late 1970s, the armed forces, led by General Kenan Evren, seized power in a coup and restructured the political system with a new military-drafted constitution in

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1982. The leading parties, including the JP, NAP, and NSP, were banned from political activity. On July 19, 1983 the Welfare Party (RP) was formed under the leadership of Ali Turkmen, in place of the banned Erbakan, replacing the NSP. However, Erbekan was eventually reinstated into Turkish politics and became the Welfare Party's leader. In the first general elections entered under Erbakan's leadership, in November 1987, RP received 7.2 percent of the total vote. In the 1989 local elections it polled 9.8 percent, showing signs of increased support in Istanbul and capturing municipalities in several districts. In the October 1991 general elections, RP formed an electoral alliance with the ultra-nationalist party of Turkes and together obtained 16.7 percent of the total vote. During this time the Islamist movement drew the support of larger segments of the population, the majority of which were moving from rural to urban centers. One important strategy used by the pro Islam groups was to develop an educated counter-elite as a base of support, especially by strengthening the Islamic stream in the educational system. As Islamist supporters moved from provincial towns and villages to urban centers, they were more likely to gain access to formal education and opportunities for upward social mobility. Islamist groups responded to the needs and aspirations of the newly urban who might be university students, professionals, shopkeepers, merchants, or workers. The groups offered food to the needy, scholarships and hostels to university students, a network to young graduates looking for jobs, and credit to shopkeepers, industrialists and merchants. Self-help projects conducted by women were particularly important to this endeavour. Financial assistance came from newly formed pro-Islam business elite. In the late 1980s, a new urban middle class and business elite emerged whose members often originated from provincial towns. Their parents were often selfemployed small traders, small shopkeepers, merchants and agrarian capitalists. Some of them came from state employed families. Many provincial youngsters from this background moved to big cities where they had access to higher education. Since their graduation, many joined the urban middle class through employment in the modern economic sector, which expanded in the 1980s as a result of economic reforms that replaced the statist economic model with a liberal approach. The liberal and export-oriented economic development model adopted by then Prime Minister Turgut Ozal gave birth to new business elite, also originating from a provincial background. This new model provided opportunities not only to the established business elite, but also to the small and medium businessmen in Anatolian towns. Some of them have developed their business there. Others moved to Istanbul, seeking opportunities for expansion in this new commercial center.

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MUSIAD, the Association of the Independent Industrialists and Businessmen, was founded on May 5, 1990 in Istanbul by a number of young pro-Islamic businessmen: Erol Yarar who was the president until May 1999, Ali Bayramolu who replaced Yarar in May 1999, Natik Akyol, and Abdurrahman Esmerer. The first letter of its acronym, "M" is commonly perceived as standing for "Muslim" rather than for mustakil ("independent"). The founders of MUSIAD aimed to create an "Islamic economic system" as an alternative to the existing "capitalist system" in Turkey. The group's membership reached 400 in 1991, 1700 by 1993, and 3000 in 1998. (13) Its members' companies' annual revenue is US $ 2.79 billion. Members are active in most sectors of the economy, particularly in manufacturing, textiles, chemical and metallurgical products, automotive parts, building materials, iron and steel, and food products. The socio-economic background, political aims, and interests of those supporting the pro Islam groups are diverse. They include the large university student population, especially upwardly mobile youths who must compete with the established urban middle and upper-middle classes; members of the unskilled young urban subproletariat whose number has increased with the migrations and a higher level of unemployment and others. As a result of these different developments the Welfare Party achieved success in the March 1994 local elections. The RP won 28 mayorships; 6 major metropolitan centers, and leadership of 327 local governments. Nationwide, the RP received 19 percent of the vote. In the 1995 general elections, it obtained 21.4 percent of the vote, gaining seats in parliament. Military rose in tension and Consequently, Erbakan was banned from politics and the Welfare Party was outlawed in January 1998 by the Constitutional Court on the grounds that it violated the principles of secularism and the law of the political parties. Moreover, on June 28, 1998, Erbakan was charged with defaming the Constitutional Court by saying that the Court's ruling had no historic value and would eventually rebound against those who had made it. By dissolving the party, the ruling left more than 100 seats vacant in parliament and orphaned local administrations. A new party, the Virtue Party (FP), was founded by 33 former RP deputies under the leadership of Recai Kutan on December 17, 1997. At that time it had 144 seats in the parliament which it had obtained as a result of the switchover of the RP deputies. The party's conservative wing controlled by Erbakan elected the parliamentary group leaders before the reformist wing, led by then-Istanbul Mayor Recep Tayip Erdogan, could pull itself together. However, this did not end the power struggle in the Virtue Party between the party's young reformists and those loyal to Necmettin Erbakan. Prior to the 1999 local and general elections, the Virtue Party set up an organization in all districts of the country, then began recruiting new members. It renewed its membership profile. According to the law, a newly founded party that replaced a banned political party shall omit 50 percent of the total membership of the

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now defunct party. The Virtue Party went even farther and it renewed 60 percent of members who were recruited by the now defunct Welfare Party. The Virtue Party recruited a number of highly educated, upper middle class modern women, for example, Nazli Ilicak and Prof. Dr. Oya Akgonenc. Women from lower social classes carried the party to power, and were able to participate in public life as result of the party. The return of the Turks to the Islamic camp is the biggest event of the twenty first century. And Najmuddin Erbakan had played a vital role in this historic turnaround. Still it needs us to wait for a definite and complete change towards islamisation of Turkey. As of now Turkish Islmaic revivalist modal is keenly looked on by scholars of Islam and next few years will make it clear what and all it is and how far it is applicable at other places.

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Chapter 9: Islamic Tendency Movement of Tunisia In 1987, Rachid Ghannoushi defiantly faced the State Security Court in Tunisia, knowing full well that President Habib Bourguiba sought to strike a mortal blow against the Islamic movement in Tunisia by having him sentenced to death. Two years later, in April 1989, Tunisians participated in the first democratic elections after the fall of Habib Bourguiba's government in mid-November 1987. To the astonishment of many, Islamic activists did extraordinarily well, capturing 13 percent of the popular vote nationally and between 30 and 40 percent in many major urban areas, in a country long regarded as among the most Westernized secular governments in the Muslim world. The Islamic Tendency Movement (MTI; Mouvement de la Tendance Islamique) and its leader, Rachid al-Ghannoushi, who had been imprisoned and sentenced to life in prison in September 1987 and after the coup granted amnesty in 1988, emerged triumphant, earning their place as the strongest opposition group in Tunisia. More than any other Muslim ruler, except perhaps Turkey's Ataturk, who established a totally secular state, Bourguiba set Tunisia on a path of modernization that was heavily pro-Western and secular and in the process became a valued friend and ally of France and the United States. Tunisia's Arab-Islamic heritage was overshadowed by an official Francophile culture. French rather than Arabic was the official government language, the language of higher education, and the language and culture of elite society. Bourguiba carefully circumscribed the presence and influence of Islam. Shortly after independence, Tunisia passed the Personal Status Law (1957), which went farther than any other Muslim country except secular Turkey in banning polygamy. Even more symbolic of Bourguiba's approach to religion and modernization and his wholehearted acceptance of Western values were the abolition of Shariah courts, the ban on the wearing of the hijab (headscarf) by women, and his attempt to get workers to ignore the fast of Ramadan. Drinking a glass of orange juice on national television during the fast of Ramadan and thus publicly violating Islamic law, Bourguiba criticized the deleterious effects of fasting during daylight hours and urged Muslims not to observe the fast, which he claimed affected productivity and economic development. The Zaytouna, a famed center of Islamic learning in North Africa and the Muslim world, was closed. The ulama were debilitated, rather than, as occurred in many Muslim countries, coopted by the government. For Bourguiba, Islam represented the past, and the West Tunisia's only hope for a modern future. That attitude was rigorously challenged to its logical conclusion in the 1980 when Islamic revivalism did emerge as a force to be reckoned with. While much attention was given during the 1980 to Islamic movements worldwide, comparatively little was known about Tunisia's Islamic Tendency Movement and its leaders. Government attempts to portray MTI as an Iranian-inspired radical revolutionary organization only confused its image at home and abroad. The charge of an Iranian connection was acceptable to many people who believed that revivalism could not be indigenous to Tunisia. The emergence of MTI and the life of its principal ideologue, Rachid alGhannoushi, encompass many of the political and religious currents of the times: Tunisian nationalism, Nasserism, and finally the reassertion of Islam in Muslim public

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life. Ghannoushi, who has guided MTI (subsequently renamed the Renaissance Party, EnEnnahda, or Hizb al-Ennahda) throughout its history and ideological development, has emerged as one of the most adroit and flexible of Islamic activist leaders. While drawing on the richness of the Islamic tradition as well as Western thought, he has proven to be a creative reformer and interpreter of Islam. Though MTI/Ennahda is a reform movement that targets the individual and society; it seeks to rebuild, to re-vitalize, to re-Islamize Muslim societies. At the same time, it is a movement of liberation from cultural alienation/Westernization, economic exploitation, and moral corruption, based on Islamic principles of equality, equity, and social justice. Ghannoushi believes that the identity, unity, and development of Muslim nations have been undermined. The Western secular orientation of modern Muslim states has ignored the traditional Islamic culture of the masses, alienated the nation, and attempted to cut off its people from their indigenous identity and values. Tunisia is a prime example of this process, a deviation that requires the restoration or redefinition of Tunisia's Arab/Islamic identity. He says that they need to define our identity. Ghannoushi maintains that Muslims must develop their own models, based on their faith and experience. Unlike some Islamic activists, Ghannoushi is able to simultaneously emphasize the self-sufficiency of Islam while acknowledging the accomplishments of the West. Ghannoushi tends to speak from a position of relative personal security and independence, a position that enables him to avoid the reverse cultural arrogance of those Islamic activists who simply contrast the decadence of the West with the perfection of Islam. The ideological principles of Ghannoushi's Islamic alternative or world-view are: (i) the perfection and comprehensiveness of Islam as witnessed in the Quran and the example of the Prophet Muhammad; (2) the totality of Islam, its guidance for personal and public life, faith and politics, and economic and social life; (3) the egalitarian nature of the Islamic community, which is a populist social movement of the masses not of classes and elites; (4) the self-sufficiency of Islam, which, though not dependent on the West, can be open to the West; (5) the unity and cohesiveness of the Muslim community, which can only be achieved through the reestablishment of the Islamic state, a goal to be pursued; (6) the acceptance of nationalism as a component of Islamic universalism rather than, as some Islamic lead-ers have maintained, its antithesis; and (7) recognition of freedom and democracy as necessary prerequisites of the new Islamic order. Among the pioneers of this practical school of political and social change are Iran's Ayatollah Khomeini, Sudan's Hasan al-Turabi, and Algeria's Abbasi Madani, who have identified the Islamic movement with broader sociopolitical issues of society such as economic exploitation and neo-imperialism. It is, according to Ghannoushi, this mission to provide Islamic solutions to the problems of the masses that is the mandate and agenda for contemporary Islamic movements.

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Ghannoushi acknowledges that Islamic states may indeed benefit from Western liberal traditions in redefining and institutionalizing forms of consultation (shura) such as those of elected parliaments or councils, plebiscites, and Western values of freedom and the rule of law. Though a Muslim democracy is based on equality and freedom, its Islamic character does set limits and influence its institutions. Tunisians see Islam as a defining feature of their personal and political identities." Rashid Ghannouchi, was one of the few "voices of resistance to the regime in the last 20 years from which Tunisians gained freedom during the last year revolutions. Ghannouchi Islamist movement proved to be the the biggest and best organised party in Tunisia, so far outdistancing its more secular competitors. In the 24 October 2011 Tunisian Constituent Assembly election, the first elections since the Tunisian Revolution, the party won 40% of the vote. This way it came out to be a massive transition in power from secular and pro western leaders to the ones with Islamic background. May Allah guide the leaders and people of Tunisia to offer a pure Islamic model so that the rest of the world follows the light.

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CHAPTER 10: Role of the youth in Islamic movements From the Fatawa of Allamah Ibn Baz (rahmahullah) - vol. 2 , the role of youth in Islamic movements is evident. Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) has made the Shari`ah (Islamic law) of Muhammad (peace be upon him) the Last of divine laws, chosen Islam as a religion for the best Ummah (nation based on one creed) ever raised up for mankind, and sent messengers with the religion which He approved to the exclusion of all other false religions. The perfection which Allah (Exalted be He) granted the Islamic Shari`ah of Muhammad (peace be upon him) is clear in its commands, prohibitions, and other rulings, which meet both the needs of souls and the demands of societies, despite the new variables and inventions that have come to light. Those who observe world religions that contradict Islam would find that their doctrines do not suit the requirements and aspects of this life and do not satisfy souls, so the adherents of these religions feel a desire to keep religion separate from politics. They say things like "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s; and unto God the things that are God’s."At the present time, people are coexisting and there is a multitude of conferences and inventions, as well as differences of cultures that mix with the developing mass media, and there is also a rapid transference of knowledge as the countries of the world draw closer and share their concerns. The Muslim youth whose insight was heightened by Allah (Exalted be He) find peace of mind in returning to the Islamic teachings and adopting its commands as a treatment for whatever is new in their societies. They set the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) as their model and instructor who guides them by his sayings and deeds in all situations. He (peace be upon him) would resort to Salah (prayer) whenever a misfortune befell him and used to say to Bilal(may Allah be pleased with him):He (peace be upon him) said:This complies with Allah's Saying: in Surah Al-Baqarah verse 45 "And seek help in patience and As-Salât (the prayer)." The Islamic movements that are arising among youth in every Muslim country are a new return to Islam whose commands and Shari`ah relieve souls and meet the requirements of the society in every time and place. Youth, in any nation, are the backbone which constitutes the element of dynamics and vitality, since they have productive energy and renewed capabilities. Nations usually rise up at the shoulders of its aware and enthusiastic youth. However, the dynamism of youth should be accompanied by the wisdom of the elders with their experiences and thoughts. Both parties are indispensable for each other. In the course of the blessed Da`wah (calling to Islam), the youth played a prominent role, as well as the leading role of the elders who provided guidance and support to the Ummah of Islam, the Ummah of the everlasting message which occupies the first place among other Ummahs when Allah (Exalted be He) honored it with this religion and the leader of messengers - Muhammad (peace be upon him).

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All, under the leadership of Muhammad ibn `Abdullah (peace be upon him), continued to establish the early Islamic state which expanded to new horizons. The banner of Islam fluttered high over most parts of the earth during the different ages of Islam, when leading youth would defend Islam and Muslim homes by their powers and tongues, and through their knowledge and deeds. At the same time, they would lead the ranks for Jihad (fighting/striving in the Cause of Allah) to make the Word of Allah most supreme, they would also gather in crowds in Halaqahs (learning circles) at the hands of great shaykhs, seeking their wisdom and getting enlightened with their knowledge, taking advice, and guidance from them and availing themselves of the fruit of their efforts and experience accompanied by the practice of the Shari`ah of Islam.Some of the youth were the leaders of the Jihad carrying the flag of Jihad and spreading the religion of Allah.They led Islamic armies and achieved victory with the Help of Allah (Exalted be He). Our Islamic history is rich with striving youth and experienced shaykhs (may Allah be merciful with them).The Muslim youth continued their renewed efforts in the Crusades in Al-Sham (The Levant) and Andalusia, and other battles where Al-Haqq (the Truth) clashed with falsehood until our present day. This enthusiasm infuriated the enemies of Islam, who sought to put obstacles in their way or to change their orientation, either by detaching them from their religion, creating a huge gap between them and knowledgeable scholars, attributing disgusting and incorrect titles to them, tarnishing their reputation or provoking some governments against them. The youth played a very significant role in such movements and took effective actions that called for enlightenment and support; however, some of them, particularly in some Islamic countries, are subjected to suppression, harassment, and persecution. Some continue to play the role for which the Islamic teachings call, for the sake of Da`wah and enlightening Muslims about new occurrences that do not match the Manhaj (methodology) of Islam. This kind of movement still has a good influence in reforming the youth and guiding many societies to Al-Haqq inside and outside the Muslim world, through Islamic books, lectures and camps where Muslims meet from different parts of the world to study religious sciences and social problems and to understand the surrounding reality, acting upon Allah's Saying (Exalted be He): in Surah At-Tawbah verse 122:"Of every troop of them, a party only should go forth, that they (who are left behind) may get instructions in (Islâmic) religion, and that they may warn their people when they return to them, so that they may beware (of evil)." They keenly organize their leisure time in doing fruitful activities. Leisure time has been exploited by Westerners and Easterners in different activities that do not fulfill the hopeful result of absorbing the energies of the youth and guiding them. The Muslim youth who act according to the Islamic teachings have a great role to play in refining souls, and guiding and keeping the society safe and secure; they are opposed by the enemies of Islam who realize the supreme status of Islam which does not force anybody

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to embrace it and which guarantees justice, noble morals, uprightness, environmental equilibrium and social security and stability. Taking care of the early youth by guiding them to Islam, taking interest in the educational curriculum, keeping away harmful influences, and working on helping them to adhere to their religion, the Book of Allah, and the Sunnah (whatever is reported from the Prophet). Muslim scholars and thinkers should be interested in raising them, taking into consideration their opinions and inquiries, guiding them to the way of AlHaqq with wisdom, fair preaching, and arguing with them in the best manner, for in this way they would be willing to accept advice out of following the right view with determination and enthusiasm for Islam. Keenness on providing a good example at school, at home, in the club, and on the street with regard to the way of treatment and avoiding anti-Islamic aspects, which may throw them into doubt, make them hesitant to accept what they are advised to do, or withdraw from society, claiming that it is a society that does not practice Islam, whose sons say what they do not do. All this may lead to detachment, haste, and uncontrolled behavior, whose results badly affect both the individual and society, as well as the Islamic work. It produces no useful benefit for the youth. Holding periodic meetings with the youth where guardians, scholars and responsible people in Islamic countries gather with them, let them express their opinions and thoughts, study problems attentively and solve critical issues and questions, so that there will be no room for misconceptions or diversion from the Islamic work which the youth are enthusiastic to do from the way that has been outlined by Islamic teachings. Such meetings should be held in an intimate atmosphere so as to express views with fraternity, love, and mutual confidence far from fanaticism, depreciation, or ignoring others. Youth are like plants; when they are looked after, they will grow and be fruitful, but if they are neglected, their growth will be stunted and will lose their fruits in the future. The youth are full of vitality that should be exploited and developed. The best approach in life to attach youth to the religion, scholars, the Ummah and the homeland is that of Islam. The more the youth keep away from the approach of their clear religion and follow the path of excessiveness and estrangement or intolerance and retirement, the more grave the consequences will be. There is neither might nor power except with Allah! The responsibility of people in charge including leaders, scholars, and thinkers is great; they should take care of the youth and guide and clarify the approach of Islam in order to encourage them to adopt it as a way of life and to follow its teachings practically.This is the most important obligation and treatment; it comes from giving advice for the sake of Allah (Exalted be He), His Book, His Messenger, and the leaders of the Muslims and common Muslims, by which Iman becomes perfect, as the trustful Messenger (peace be upon him) told us.Moreover, subjecting the youth to destructive ideas and misconceptions and failing to comprehend their thoughts, answering their questions, and clarifying the sound view to them, may lead to grave consequences.It is obligatory to help the youth to avoid all harm and to reap all benefits, as did the Salaf (righteous predecessors) (may Allah be pleased with them) in the different ages of

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history when no harmful responses took place against the individual and the community.Muslims in charge, both old and young, scholars and students, and thinkers and officials should cooperate with the youth in their homes, schools, societies and universities. Everyone should cooperate to guide the youth and create the correct atmosphere for creativity under the shadow of the Islamic creed.We ask Allah to guide the Islamic Ummah - young and old, leaders and peoples - to do what pleases Allah (Exalted be He), to heal hearts and reform deeds and to direct everyone to the Straight Path. Allah is the One Who is Capable of doing so and the One Who guides to the right path. May Allah's Peace and Blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions!

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CHAPTER 12: Positive Criticism To some people it looks strange why Islamic leadership is not in power in many parts of the Muslim world even after working for several decades to bring about the required social change. The reasons are many and every Muslim country has its own idiosyncrasy and peculiarity. It is generally true that leadership of the Islamic movements has not been able to properly use their vast manpower, the workers of dawah, call and guidance. There is also no doubt that Muslim leaders have failed to take a realistic and pragmatic assessment of the existing scenario and draw a well thoughtout action plan to solve the critical ills of the life of the ummah. Islamic movements have not done enough work to train their manpower to meet the challenge of the age and are busy with what the Indonesian Vice president of the World Bank Ismail Serageldin has described: “As the world explores the marvels of genes, breaks down the secrets of the atom, reaches to the stars, and calculates the age of the oldest rocks, we Muslims… debate whether a woman’s nail polish prevents her from making full ablutions”. Ismail Serageldin expressed his dismay over the discussion on such minor issues as to “whether it is Islamic to have golden teeth or to give the Quran to a non-believer, or whether it is permitted to study Western law” in the Islamic columns of prominent Saudi Arabian newspapers like Arab News, Saudi Gazette and Riyadh Daily. It is also largely true that Islamic leadership took a very negative attitude towards public good and social welfare of the common masses and has failed to earn the trust and confidence of the people. Sheikh Rashid Ghannoushi while commenting on the objective of the Islamic movements remarked: “Islamic movements should not make their primary goal to assume power in the government. Taking over the government does not necessarily mean the biggest achievement of the struggle. The bigger success would be when the society loves Islam and respect its leaders… As Islamic movement, we must be critical in assessing our strategies. Our activities and efforts must be reviewed in order to be relevant with the current changes… Islamic activists must prepare themselves with the correct knowledge and relevant skill so that they will be able to apply wisdom in carrying out effective and efficient dawah activities”. Malaysian Islamic Party leader Abdul-Hadi Awang rightly pointed out: “Politics of Islam is the politics of dawah, of winning hearts and minds of the people more than getting votes. It is based on fundamental truths, not ephemeral interests. That’s how Islam has been winning people all through history”. The leadership of the Islamic movement is bent on shifting the failures to others. Dr. Farish A Noor, Malaysian academician and human rights activists has rightly pointed out: “One cannot continue to blame ‘foreign agents’ and ‘international power brokers’ for the loss of one’s credibility at home. The real problem that beset the economy and political system stem from cronyism, corruption, abuse of power and lack of accountability and transparency in the government”. The most important reason that the workers of the Islamic movement or the workers of dawah are poorly equipped and not well trained is that they are not up-todate of the latest developments in the field of knowledge. They are not aware about the

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most recent ijtihad, whatever little research is being done by the eminent Muslim scholars in various fields throughout the world. The leadership of the Islamic movement is mostly happy with the past heritage. Self-glorification for the past achievement and success has blinded Muslim leadership to the need to examine their history in a critical and analytical manner with a view to exploring the points of weakness. In actual fact the Muslim legacy is not adequate enough to provide solutions of our contemporary crisis. Islamic movements still measure themselves by the past models and ignore time and distinctive features, and yet expect identical results. The right perspective and perception needs to be invoked. In this way, a fair interaction with the past can be made instead of vainly trying to revive it. The study materials for the workers of the Islamic movements do not empower them with sufficient knowledge and ideas for meeting the changing needs of the age. The dawah workers, the cadres of the Islamic movement, are forced to read substandard books as rightly pointed out by Dr. Pervez Hoodbhoy, Professor of Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. He said: “In fact many individuals make huge profits by producing substandard and badly written books filled with conceptual, pedagogical, and printing mistakes”. Shoddy books are included in the compulsory study materials of the dawah workers of the Islamic movement for the financial benefit in terms of royalty of the so-called elite writers of the Islamic movement. Consequently Islamic workers have lost sight of the comprehensive totality of the Quran and thus losing the opportunity to relate to reality and control the inevitable changes in time and circumstances as the Quran behooves Islamic workers to do. The Muslim leadership rather is now behaving in a way that circumstance dictates their thinking. Muslim leadership is not the master of the circumstance rather circumstances dictate them. The most regrettable affair of the today’s Islamic movement is that its elite leaders have developed weakness for wealth and money. To put in the language of Malaysian academician Dr.Chandra Muzaffar: “The love of money has given birth to the religion of moneytheism … The worship of wealth, and the worship of power and prestige it generates, have become so pervasive that we can perhaps talk of moneytheism as a formidable challenge to monotheism. Moneytheism, the ideology which legitimizes the relentless pursuit of riches is an end in itself.” The concept of an exclusive or one-dimensional organization, political, social, cultural or intellectual, has wreaked great damage to the unity of the Islamic movement. It has led such organization to believe that it is the embodiment of the will and consciousness of the Islamic movement, which surely is a misleading concept; one does not truly realize the implications of such a perception. Never can an individual organization be a substitute for the Islamic movement as a collective endeavour and will of the people. Rather such single organization or party will become mere splinter group on a long list of adversarial groups. The Quran and sunnah do not sanction the claim of sole representation of the entire Islamic movement by any particular Islamic organization. An organization persisting in its claim that it alone possesses the knowledge and legitimacy ends up not only alienating every other member of the Islamic movement but also accusing them of apostasy and ignorance. It starts with the

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wrong premise of introducing Islam to the world anew, ignoring all history and precedence. There exists no justification for any faction or individual to claim sole representation of the Islamic movement or monopoly of the Truth. Some people think that joining a particular Islamic organization in a particular country is obligatory ‘otherwise you remain out of the Islamic community’, which is indeed a wrong perception. In this connection the comment of eminent Egyptian Islamic scholar Sheikh Adil Salahi who is the English translator of monumental Tafsir Fi Zilal al Quran (In The Shade of Quran) by Sayyid Qutub Shaheed is most relevant and noteworthy. He wrote: “If we interpret this requirement as an obligation to join a Muslim organization in the country where we live, then certainly we are way off the mark. There may be an Islamic organization in our area, which sincerely works for the re-establishment of Islam in our country. Its efforts certainly deserve support. But there can be no question of joining its being a religious obligation. We may have a different approach from that chosen by this particular organization. An individual may be of such temperament that membership of an organization does not suit him. He cannot be forced to join it. However, he should render support in any situation where he feels the organization is right and its attitude serves the Islamic cause. “Indeed, no broad-minded founder or leader of an Islamic organization ever suggested that his organization represents the Muslim community, or that its membership is obligatory to all Muslims. It is true that some groups advance such a view, but these were rigid in outlook, mistaken in approach. Imam Hassan Al Banna, the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, used to say to all Islamically minded people: ‘Let us help one another in all matters on which we agree, and let us excuse one another where we differ’. This is the proper attitude. He never suggested that those who did not belong to his movement were in error, or deviated from the right path. His attitude was echoed by most leaders of the enlightened Islamic movements throughout the Muslim world. Narrow-mindedness is alien to the nature of Islam. Hence, to suggest that the line adopted by a particular movement is the only one acceptable to God is totally wrong. Since approaches may differ, choosing a particular approach is acceptable”. We all can work together for a greater change and that is what the need of the hour is. Islamic movements have done a great job and shall continue to do so. We need to support them by all the means we can. May All of us be blessed. Aameen. -------------------------------------------------------------------

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