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(, ) . :
nike32@abv.bg, http://justmathbg.info/.
, (. , 2009, 2010)
(. , 2009)
(. , 2008)
(. , 2008)
(. , 2010)
: tan(), cot(), arctan().


.


1-1+, 2-1, 9-6
2-5, 2-5+, 3-6, 5-2, 5-2+, 6-3,
8-3, 10-6
9-5

1-2+, 2-1, 6-4, 9-9
4-1+, 5-5, 7-4, 8-4, 9-8
1-2+, 2-2
1-3+, 2-2, 3-1, 8-5, 9-3
9-4+
9-7+
1-1, 4-1, 9-1, 9-2

6-1+, 7-1
2-4, 3-4+, 5-1, 6-1, 7-1, 8-1, 10-8, 12-1
4-2+, 8-2+, 10-9, 12-2, 12-4
2-4+, 3-5, 5-3, 12-3, 12-5
6-2, 7-2
3-4+, 5-1, 5-1, 6-2, 7-2, 10-7

3-6, 5-2, 10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4, 12-6
, 2-5+, 8-3, 10-5, 10-6
2-5+, 4-3, 6-3, 7-3, 7-3, 8-3
, 3-6, 5-2, 6-3
5-2, 6-3, 7-3, 7-6


11-1
1-4, 2-3, 3-2, 7-5, 8-6, 11-3, 11-4
3-1, 3-3, 11-6
4-6, 11-2
, 3-1, 3-3+,
4-6+
1-5+, (8-6), 11-8
2-3+, 5-6+, (6-5), 11-7
11-5, 11-6
. .
1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, {4}, 4, 5, 6, 6
1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6, {6}
1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, {5}, 6, 6
1, 1, 2, 3, {4}, {4}, {5}, 6, 6
1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, {4}, 5, 6
1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 5, {6}
1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 5, 6
1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

1. ||.
=

(1 + )(2 + 3)
+ 6 + (2 )3
1

1. ,
: () = 4 + 43 22 12 + 9.
2.
.

1 3 4
= 2 2 3
3 5
2. .. =
, , .
3. .

31 22 + 53 + 44 = 2

61 32 + 43 + 34 = 3

91 42 + 33 + 24 = 4
3. (3).
4. : 1 : 1 +
1 + 1 = 0 2 : 2 + 2 + 2 = 0.
1 2 .
4. (1, 2), (1, 1) (2, 1) .

.
5. (4, 3, 10)

= 1 + 4
2
3
1
=
=
: = 1 + 8
, :

2
4
5

= 1 + 10
()
.
()
.
6. 2 = 6. ,
.

1 6

6. .

31 2 0

1 2 0

21 + 2 6

1 2
.
5 , 3: 7+3.
1. ||.
(1 + )(2 + 3)
+ 6 + (2 )3
1

. = + , || = 2 + 2 .
=

2 = 1, 3 = 2 = , 4 = 2 2 = 1, 5 = 4 = 1
6 = 1, 7 = , 8 = 1, 9 = 1, . . .
, ( ).
(1 + )(2 + 3)
+ 6 + (2 )3 =
1
(2 + 3 + 22 + 3) 1 +
=
+ (1) + (2 )(2 )2 =
1
1+
(1 + 5)(1 + )
1 + (2 )(4 4 + 2 ) =
=
12 2
1 + 5 + + 52
=
1 + (2 )(3 4) =
1+1
1
= (1 + 6 5) 1 + 6 8 3 + 42 =
2
1
= (4 + 6) + 5 11 4 =
2
= 2 + 3 + 1 11 =
= 1 8

|| = (1)2 + (8)2 = 1 + 64 = 65
=

: = 1 8, || =

65.

1. ,
: () = 4 + 43 22 12 + 9.
. .

1 7

20

15

10

0
-4

-3

-2

-1

. :
() = + 1 1 + . . . + 1 + 0
- . 1 , 2 , . . . , . 1 , 2 , . . . , (), ( 1 )( 2 ) ( )
.
= 1. , .
.
. . , , ( 2 + 1
12 + 0 + 1). ( ). 0 = 9, 1, 1, 3, 3.
1 4 2 12 9
3 ( ). , 1 (
). : 3.1 + 4 = 7.
1 4 2 12 9
= 3.7 + (2) = 19
3 1 7
1 4 2 12 9
= 3.19 + (12) = 45
3 1 7 19
1 4 2 12 9
= 3.45 + 9 = 144
3 1 7 19 45
1 4 2 12 9
3 1 7 19 45 144
144 = 0, 3 . ,
, .
1. ,
.
1 4 2 12 9
1 1 5 3 9 0

1 8

1.1 + 4 = 5, 1.5 2 = 3, 1.3 12 = 9, 1.(9) + 9 = 0


1 . (
-, ).
1 4 2 12 9
1 1 5 3 9 0
1 1 6 9
0
1.1 + 5 = 6, 1.6 + 3 = 9, 1.9 9 = 0
, 1 . , : 12 +6+9,
( + 3)2 , 3 . .
1
1 1
1 1
3 1

4 2 12 9
5 3 9 0
6 9
0
3 0

3.1 + 6 = 3, 3.3 + 9 = 0
1
1 1
1 1
3 1
3 1

4 2 12 9
5 3 9 0
6 9
0
3 0
0

3.1 + 3 = 0
:
( 1)
( 1)
( (3))
( (3))

14 + 43 22 12 + 9
13 + 52 + 3 9
12 + 6 + 9
1 + 3
1

,
( ).
: 1( 1)( 1)( + 3)( + 3). :
() = ( 1)2 ( + 3)2
.
() = ( 1)2 ( + 3)2 = (2 2 + 1)(2 + 6 + 9) =
= 4 + 63 + 92 23 122 18 + 2 + 6 + 9 =
= 4 + 43 32 12 + 9

2.
.

1 3 4
= 2 2 3
3 5

1 9

. ,
( ).
1 = 1 = 0

1 3
2 =
2 2

1 3

3 = 2 2
3 5

= 2 6 = 4 = 0

4
3 = 2 + 27 + 40 24 15 6 = 28 4

= 7 = 3 = 0 = () = 2
= 7 = 3 = 0 = () = 3

- . = 7,
, .
2. .. =
, , .
. , .
.
/.1 ..
1 ...
..
.

=
= 1 .
= 1 .
= 1 .

:
.1 = ,

. 1 = .

.
/. 1 .
1 ..
.

= 1 .
= 1 .1 .
= 1 .1 .
= 1 .1 .

. .
. ( ).
.
:
. =
, . :
. . =

1 10

.
. . =
.
. . =
,
:
= 1

( ,
):
1
=
:
1
=
.1
.

. .
3. .

31 22 + 53 + 44 = 2

61 32 + 43 + 34 = 3

91 42 + 33 + 24 = 4
. . . . (
). .
, (
, ). (
, 11 , 22 , . . . ) .
, .
.
.

3 2 5 4 2
6 3 4 3 3
9 4 3 2 4
6, 9 4 . ?
. 6-: 3.(2)+6 = 0.
2 ( , ,
) .
( ). 1.(-2) + 2

1 11

2.

3 2 5 4 2
6 3 4 3 3
9 4 3 2 4
3.(2) + 6 = 0
(2).(2) + (3) = 1
5.(2) + 4 = 6
4.(2) + 3 = 5
2.(2) + 3 = 1

3 2 5
4
2
0 1 6 5 1
9 4 3
2
4
9-, : 3.(3) + 9 = 0. 1.(-3) + 3
3.
3.(3) + 9 = 0, (2).(3) + (4) = 2
5.(3) + 3 = 12,

3
0
0

4.(3) + 2 = 10, 2.(3) + 4 = 2

2
2 5
4
1 6 5 1
2 12 10 2

( 2.2 = 3. , ,
. .) 2-
1- : 2.(-2) + 3 3.
1.(2) + 2 = 0, (6).(2) + (12) = 0
(5).(2) + (10) = 0, (1).(2) + (2) = 0

3 2 5
4
2
0 1 6 5 1
0 0
0
0
0
, . 2 (
).
)
(
3 2 5
4
2
0 1 6 5 1
.

31 22 + 53 + 44 = 2

2 63 54 = 1
2 4 . , .
() : 2 .
, . 3 4 .
3 = , 4 = .

31 22 + 5 + 4 = 2

2 6 5 = 1

1 12

: 2 = 6 + 5 1. 2 :
31 2(6 + 5 1) + 5 + 4
31 12 10 + 2 + 5 + 4
31
1

=2
=2
= 7 + 6
= (7/3) + 2

: 1 = (7/3) + 2, 2 = 6 + 5 1, 3 = , 4 = .
3. (3).
= 2. -.
. 2. () = ()
4. (1, 2), (1, 1) (2, 1) .

.
. , (0 , 0 ) (1 , 1 ).
:
0
0
=
1 0
1 0
. ,
(1, 2), (1, 1).
2
1
=
1 1
1 2
:
3( 1) = 2( 2)
: 3 2 + 1 = 0
, (1, 1), (2, 1).
(1)
(1)
=
2 (1)
1 (1)
2( + 1) = 3( + 1)
: 2 3 1 = 0
, (1, 2), (2, 1).
2
1
=
21
12
( 1) = 2
: + 3 = 0

1 13
3

A(1,2)
H(3/2,3/2)

C(2,1)

-1

-2

B(-1,-1)

-2

-1

. . = 0 ( ).
: (1, 1) ( ).
, (1, 1) .
.
(1, 1).
: 11+ = 0. .
, .
1.(1) 1.(1) + = 0 = = 0
= 0.
: : 3 2 + 1 = 0, : 2 3 1 = 0, : + 3 = 0, :
= 0.
5. (4, 3, 10)

= 1 + 4
1
2
3
: = 1 + 8
, :
=
=

2
4
5

= 1 + 10
()
.
()
.
. , .

` .
:
1
1
1
:
=
=
4
8
10
:
1
2
3
:
=
=
2
4
5
( ):
(4, 8, 10) = 2(2, 4, 5)

1 14

, , .
(1, 1, 1) ( ,
), (1, 2, 3) .
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

12
10
8
6
4
2
0

B(1,2,3)
A(1,1,1)

B(1,2,3)
A(1,1,1)

10
8
0

6
2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 10

4
4

2
60

.
, ,

.

:
(2, 4, 5). . (4, 3, 10).
(0 , 0 , 0 ) .

: (0 4, 0 3, 0 10).


= 0. , :
2(0 4) + 4(0 3) + 5(0 10) = 0
:
2
3
1
=
=
=
2
4
5
, :

= 2 + 1

: = 4 + 2
= 5 + 3
:

, ,
. :
2(2 + 1 4) + 4(4 + 2 3) + 5(5 + 3 10) = 0
4 6 + 16 4 + 25 35 = 0
45 45 = 0 = = 1
:
(2 + 1, 4 + 2, 5 + 3) = (3, 6, 8)
, .
: ,
.

12
10
8
6
4
2
0

1 15

Q(3,6,8)
P'(2,9,6)

Q(3,6,8)

P(4,3,10)

8
7.8
7.6
7.4
7.2
7

B(1,2,3)

10

A(1,1,1)

8
6
4
2
00

5
P'(2,9,6)
4
3

4
3.5

3
7

6.5

2.5

5.5

5 2

. (1 , 1 , 1 ). :
(
)
4 + 1
3 + 1
10 + 1

= 3,
= 6,
= 8 = 1 = 2, 1 = 9, 1 = 6
2
2
2
: (2, 9, 6).
6. 2 = 6. ,
.
. , .
:

= 6 , = 2
5

0
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6

-5

-10

-15

-15

-20

-25
-15

-10

-5

10

-10

-5

10

-10
-15
-20
-25
15

15

6. .

31 2 0

1 2 0

21 + 2 6

1 2

-5

1 16

.
. 1 2 , .
- .

3 0

2 + 6

2
, ( ).

6 2

2
, .
, , ?!?
6

6
y < 3x

5
y < 6-2x

y < 3x

5
y>x

y < 6-2x

y>x

C(6/5,18/5)

C(6/5,18/5)

B(2,2)

A(0,0)

0
x<2

-1
-2

B(2,2)

-2

-1

A(0,0)
x<2

-1

-2

-2

-1

, ( ).
. :
[0, 6/5], [, 3], : [6/5, 2], [, 6 2].
.
, ( ). . :
[0, 2], [/3, ], : [2, 18/5], [/3, (6 )/2].
.

1. () = 4 + 23 42 5 6.
() = 0 ,
.
1.
.

1
2
=
1
1

1
2
1
1
4
2

1
5
3
1 +1 1

2.
.

1 22 + 3 + 4 = 1

1 22 + 3 4 = 1

1 22 + 3 + 54 = 5
2. ... =
, , , .
3. (4, 5), (4, 1) (1, 7).
, ( ,
).
3. (7, 8, 5),
.
6

3
=
= , : 2 + + 2 = 0
:
2
2
1
,
. , .
4. .

1 + 2 3
lim
4
2
4. .
=

1 ln

5. .

, = sin()
cos3 ()
5. .
1
0

(1 + )2 (1 + 2 )

2 18

6. , 2
2 = 4. ,
.
6. .
. . .
5 .
1. () = 4 + 23 42 5 6.
() = 0 ,
.
. .
15

10

-5

-10

-15

-4

-3

-2

-1

.
1 2 4 5 6
2 1 4 4
3
0
3 1 1 1
0
1 = 2 2 = 3. , ,
.
2 + + 1 = 0, = 2 4 = 1 4 = 3

1 3
1 3
=
3,4 =
2
2
.
= + , || =

2 + 2 , cos() =
, sin() =
||
||

= ||(cos() + sin())
. 3 .

1
3
1 3
1 =
, |1 | =
+ =1
2
2
4 4

2 19

3
1
4
cos() = , sin() =
, =
2
2
3
( )
( )
4
4
+ sin
1 = cos
3
3

4 .

1
3
1 3
2 = +
, |1 | =
+ =1
2
2
4 4

1
3
2
cos() = , sin() =
, =
2
2
3
( )
( )
2
2
2 = cos
+ sin
3
3

1.
.

1
2
=
1
1

1
2
1
1
4
2

1
5
3
1 +1 1

. ( ).
1 = 1 = 0

1 1
2 =
2 1

1 1

3 = 2 1
1 1

= 1 + 2 = 1 = 0

2
4 = 5 4 4 + 2 + 4 + 8 = 1 = 0
5

(
) .
.
, .
.
: ,
, ,
. , , .
( ,
.)
, .
, .

1 1

2
1

2 1
4
2

det =
5
3
1 1
1 1 + 1 1

2 20

1 (2) + 2 2.

1 1
2
1

0
1
0
0
det =
5
3
1 1
1 1 + 1 1

1 (1) + 3 3.

1 1
2
1

0
1
0
0
det =
0
0
3
2

1 1 + 1 1

1 4 4.

1 1

2
1

0 1
0
0

det =
3
2
0 0
0 0 +3
)
(
+3
+ 4 4.
3
3

1 1 2 1

0 1 0 0
= 3 6 = 6
det =
2
3
0 0 3 6

0 0 0
3
.
, (
). 4, = 6.
= 6, .
, 3.
2.
.

1 22 + 3 + 4 = 1

1 22 + 3 4 = 1

1 22 + 3 + 54 = 5
. . 1,

1 2
1 2
1 2

3. .

1
1 1
1 1 1
1 5
5

1.(-1) + 2 2.

1 2 1 1
1
0 0 0 2 2
1 2 1 5
5

2 21

1.(-1) + 3 3.

1 2 1 1
1
0 0 0 2 2
4
0 0 0 4
(2.(+2) + 3 = 0 ) 2.(+2) + 3
3.

1 2 1 1
1
0 0 0 2 2
0 0 0 0
0
2. 4 , 2 .
2 3 , 4 , - .
2 = , 3 = . .

1 22 + 3 + 4 = 1

24 = 2
, 4 = 1. : 1 2 + + 1 = 1.
1 = 2 .
: 1 = 2 , 2 = , 3 = , 4 = 1.
2. ... =
, , , .
. 1 1 , 1 .
...
/. ...
1 ....
..
..
... 1
.
.
.. 1

=
=
= 1 .
= 1 .
= 1 . /. 1
= 1 .. 1
= 1 .. 1
= 1 .. 1 /. 1
= 1 .. 1 . 1
= 1 .. 1 . 1

,
.
. . . =
, . .
1
1
= 1
. . .

.
3a. (4, 5), (4, 1) (1, 7).
, ( ,
).

2 22

. , (0 , 0 ) (1 , 1 ).
:
0
0
=
1 0
1 0
, (4, 5), (4, 1).
(4)
(5)
=
4 (4)
1 (5)
6( + 4) = 8( + 5)
6 8 16 = 0
: 3 4 8 = 0
. ,
( ):
(
)
4 + 4 5 + 1

,
= (0, 2)
2
2
, (1, 7), (0, 2).
7
(1)
=
0 (1)
2 7
9( + 1) = 7
: 9 + + 2 = 0
10
C(-1,7)
5

B(4,1)
H(92/25,19/25)

0
M(0,-2)
-5

A(-4,-5)

-10
-10

-5

10

: (). : . = 0. ,
(3, 4). , : (4, 3) (
). .
: 4 + 3 + = 0. .
(1, 7) , .
4(1) + 3.7 + = 0 = = 17
: 4 + 3 17 = 0.
: : 3 4 8 = 0, : 9 + + 2 = 0, : 4 + 3 17 = 0.

2 23

3. (7, 8, 5),
.
3
6

:
=
= , : 2 + + 2 = 0
2
2
1
,
. , .
. ,
. (7, 8, 5). (2, 2, 1),
. (3, 6, 0) ,
( , ).

, :

= = (7, 8, 5) (3, 6, 0) = (4, 2, 5)


.

3 6 0

2
2
1

4
2
5

3 6 0

2
=
2
1

4
2
5

1
1
2 2
3 2
= ( 3)(1)
+
(

6)(1)

2 5
4 5

4
+ (1) 2 2

4 2

= 12( 3) 6( 6) 12 = 2 + + 2 12
2 + + 2 12 = 0.
? ,
. 2 + + 2 = 0. .

2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7

10
A(3,6,0)

D(7,8,-5)

0
A(3,6,0)

-5
-10
8

10
D(7,8,-5)
5
0

7.5
1

1.5

7
2

2.5

-10

6.5
36

4. .

1 + 2 3
lim
4
2

-5

-5
-10
10

2 24

[ ]
1 + 2 3
0
lim
=
4
0
2
, . . .
.
1
1
((1 + 2)1/2 3) = (1 + 2)1/2 2 =
2
1 + 2
1
1
(1/2 2) = 1/2 =
2
2
.

2 4
4
2
=
=
lim
4
3
1 + 2
1+8
4. .

=
1 ln
. > 0 = . .
.
10

10

-5

-5

-10

-10

-15

-15

-20

10

15

20

25

30

-20

10

15

20

25

.
=

1(1 ln()) (0 1/)


2 ln()
=
2
(1 ln())
(1 ln())2

2 ln() = 0 = ln() = 2 = = 2 7.389


.
2 ln(1.5 )
2 1.5
0.5
1
=
=
=
=2
1.5
2
2
2
(1 ln( ))
(1 1.5)
(0.5)
0.5
2 ln(2.5 )
2 2.5
0.5
0.5
: (2.5 ) =
=
=
=
= 0.2(2)
2.5
2
2
2
(1 ln( ))
(1 2.5)
(1.5)
2.25

= 1.5 : (1.5 ) =
= 2.5

30

2 25

= 2 ( ),
( ), = 2 .
.
10

10

-5

-5

-10

10

15

20

25

30

-10

10

15

20

25

30

.
(0 1/)(1 ln())2 (2 ln())2(1 ln())(1/)
=
(1 ln())4
(1 ln())[1 ln() 2(2 ln())]
(ln() 3)
3 ln()
=
=
=
4
3
(1 ln())
(1 ln())
(1 ln())3

3 ln() = 0 = ln() = 3 = = 3 20.085


= 3 .
3 ln(2.5 )
3 2.5
0.5
= 2.5 : (2.5 ) = 2.5
=
=
<0
(1 ln(2.5 ))3
2.5 (1 2.5)3
2.5 (1.5)3
3 ln(3.5 )
3 3.5
0.5
3.5
3.5
= : ( ) = 3.5
= 3.5
= 3.5
>0
3.5
3
3
(1 ln( ))
(1 3.5)
(2.5)3
= 3 , , = 3 .
: = 2 , = 3 .
5. .

, = sin()
cos3 ()
. :
= arcsin(), cos() =

1 2 , =

1 2

1
(1 2 + 2 )

=
=
=
(1 2 )2
(1 2 )2
1 2 ( 1 2 )3

(1 2 )
2

2
=
+
=
+
(1 2 )2
(1 2 )2
1 2
(1 2 )2

2 26

. 1 2 . (1 )(1 + ),
1, 1.
1

+
=
1 2
1 1+
1 = (1 + ) + (1 )
= 1.
1 = (1 + 1) = =

1
2

= 1.
1 = (1 (1)) = =

1
2

(
)

1/2
(1 )
(1 + )

1/2
1
+
=

+
=
=
1 2
1
1+
2
1
1+

1
1 1 +
= ( ln |1 | + ln |1 + |) = ln
2
2
1

. ,
, . , (1 ) = 2

1
(2 )
1
1
2
2 2
2
=
=
(1 ) (1 ) =
(1 2 )1 =
2
2
2
2
(1 )
2
(1 )
2
2
(
)
(
)

1
1

2 1
2 1
=

(1 ) (1 ) =
2
2 1 2
1 2
, .

)
(

1 1 +
1 1 + 1
+
ln
= ln
+ =
2
1 2 1 2 2 1

1 1 +

1 1 +
= ln
+
ln
+ =
2
1 2(1 2 ) 4 1

1 1 +

= ln
+
+

4
1
2(1 2 )

5. .
1
0

(1 + )2 (1 + 2 )

. (1 + )2 (1 + 2 ). (1 + )2
1, 1, (1 + 2 ) , . (1 + )(1 + )( + )( ).
. ,
, .
. ( ).
:
1

=
+
+
+
2
2
2
(1 + ) (1 + )
1 + (1 + )
+

2 27

.
1 = (1 + )( )( + ) + ( )( + ) + (1 + )2 ( + ) + (1 + )2 ( )
. = 1.
1 = (1 )(1 + ) = 1 = (1 + 2 )
1 = (1 + 1) = =

1
2

= .
1 = (1 + )2 ( + ) = 1 = (1 + 2 + 2 )2
1 = (1 + 2 1)2 = 1 = 42
1 = (4) = =

1
4

= .
1 = (1 )2 ( ) = 1 = 2(1 2 + 2 )
1 = 2(1 2 1) = 1 = 42
1 = 4 = =

1
4

. = 0.
1 = ()(+) + ()(+) + (+) + ()
1 = 2 2 + = 1 = + + ( )
(
)
1
1 1
1
1=+ + +
= =
2
4 4
2
:

1
(1 +

)2 (1

=
(1 + )2 (1 + 2 )

1/2
1/2
1/4 1/4
+
+
+
2
1 + (1 + )

+
1
1
1
1/2
1/2
1/4
1/4
+
+
+
2
1+

+
0 (1 + )
0
0

2 )

1
1 1 (1 + )
1
1
ln(2)
1/2
=
= ln(1 + )|10 = (ln(2) ln(1)) =
2 0 1+
2
2
2
0 1+
(
)
1

1/2
1 1
1
1 1
1
2
1 1
=
(1 + ) = (1 + ) |0 =
1 =
2
2 0
2
2 2
4
0 (1 + )

1
1
1/4
1
1
1
1 1
( )
1
=
= ln | ||0 = (ln |1 | ln | |) = ln

4 0
4
4
4

0

1 1 ( + )
1
1
1 1 +
1/4
1
=
= ln | + ||0 = (ln |1 + | ln ||) = ln
+
4 0 +
4
4
4

0

2 28

)
(
1
1 +
1 1 1 1 +
1

=
ln
ln
=
ln
+ ln
4
4
4

(
1 + 1
1
1 1 2
1 2
ln(2)

= ln
= ln
= ln =

2
4

4
1
4
:

ln(2) 1 ln(2)
ln(2) + 1
=
+
=
2
2
(1 + ) (1 + )
2
4
4
4

: , , :
- .
( ) ,
.
, , , , ..
. (1 + )2 , 1 + , .
6. , 2
2 = 4. ,
.
. , . ,
.
2 2

=1
4
4
1/ cos(), tan() cosh(), sinh() (
, ).
( : sin2 () + cos2 () = 1):
= 2/ cos(), = 2 tan()
10

5
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6

10
-5

5
-10

-10
-10

-5

10

-5

0
0

-5
-10
10

1. R.

+ = 0

( + 2) + 3 = 0

+ 2 3 = 0
1. , (1, 2, 1), (0, 1, 5), (1, 2, 1) (2, 1, 3)

. .
2. : (3, 1), : 6 + 10 59 = 0
: 4 + 10 = 0 (
). .
3.
{
2 + 2 10 = 0
:
22 = 0

, :

+7
5
9
=
=
3
1
4

() , .
() .
4.
lim (1 + 2 )cot()

4.
= ln() , =?
5. =

ln2 ()

5.
= ()
6.

ln

6.

/2

5 .

1
1+

2 sin() + cos() + 3

3 30

1. R

+ = 0

( + 2) + 3 = 0

+ 2 3 = 0
. . 1, 3. .

1
2
3 0
1 2
1 ( + 2) 3 0

1 3
1
1
0

1
2
3 0
2 (+4)3
0 + 4 6 0

0
1
3 0

0
1
2
3
0 +4
6
0
0
0
6 ( + 4)( 3) 0
.
6 ( + 4)( 3) = 0 /.(1)
6 + ( + 4)( 3) = 0
6 + 2 3 + 4 12 = 0
2 + 6 = 0
1 = 3, 2 = 2
I : = 3

(
)
1 2 3 0
0 1 6 0 = 1 2 3 0
0 1 6 0
0 0 0 0

, 3 2 = 1 . = .

+ 2 3 = 0
+ 2 3 = 0
= 9

=
=
6 = 0
6 = 0
= 6
I :

= 9
9
= 6 , 1 = 6
=
1
II : = 2

(
)
1 2 3 0
0 6 6 0 = 1 2 3 0
0 6 6 0
0 0 0 0
, 3 2 = 1 , = .

+ 2 3 = 0
+ 2 3 = 0
=

=
=
6 6 = 0
6 6 = 0
=

3 31

II :

=
1

= , 2 =
1
=
1
III : = 3, = 2
, .

0
1
2
3
0 +4
6
0
2
0
0
+6 0
(2 +6) = 0. , = 3, = 2,
, = 0.
, ( ).
)
(
0
1
2
0 +4 0
, ,
.
( + 4) = 0
1 -: = 4
(

1 2 0
0 0 0

)
= (1 2 | 0)

, 2 1 = 1 , = .
+ 2 = 0 = + 2 = 0 = = 2
1 -:

= 2
2
=
, 3 = 1
=0
0
2 -: = 4
(

0
1
2
0 +4 0

( + 4) = 0 = 0. + 2 =
0 = + 0 = 0. 2 -:

=0
0

= 0 , 4 =
0
=0
0
, .

3 32

= 9
9

6
= 3 : = 6 , 1 =
=
1

=
1

1
= 2 : = , 2 =
=
1

= 2
2

1
= 4 : =
, 3 =
=0
0

1. , (1, 2, 1), (0, 1, 5), (1, 2, 1) (2, 1, 3)

. .
. , .
, , .

= = (0 1, 1 2, 5 (1)) = (1, 1, 6)

= = (1 1, 2 2, 1 (1)) = (2, 0, 2)

= = (2 1, 1 2, 3 (1)) = (1, 1, 4)

=
.
. .

1 1 6

2 0 2 = 0 2 + 12 0 2 8 = 0

1 1 4
.
, .
. .
: (1, 2, 1)

(2, 0, 2):
2
+1
1
=
=
:
2
0
2
:

(2, 0, 2) :
: 2 + 0 + 2 + = 0
(0, 1, 5), :
2(0) + 0(1) + 2(5) + = 0 = = 10

3 33

:
: 2 + 0 + 2 10 = 0 = : + 0 + 5 = 0
: + 5 = 0.
:
:

1
2
+1
=
=
=
2
0
2

= 2 + 1

: = 0 + 2
= 2 1
(
):
2 + 1 + 0(0 + 2) (2 1) + 5 = 0
7
4
:

= 2(7/4) + 1 = 5/2

: = 0(7/4) + 2 = 2
= 2(7/4) 1 = 7/2 1 = 5/2
2 + 1 2 + 1 + 5 = 0 = 4 + 7 = 0 = =

(5/2, 2, 5/2).
B(0,1,5)

3 D(2,1,3)
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

B(0,1,5)

5
4
3

D(2,1,3)

M(-5/2,2,5/2)

2
1

C(-1,2,1)

0
A(1,2,-1)
0.5

1.5

-4 -5
-2 -3
-1
0
2.52 1

M(-5/2,2,5/2)

C(-1,2,1)

A(1,2,-1)
1
0 -1

-2

-3

-4

-5 11.5
3
22.5

: .

:
)
(
)
(

5
7
7
5
1, 2 2, (1) = , 0,
2
2
2
2
:

| | =

72 72
+
=
4
4

72
7
=
2
2

3 34

7/ 2.
. , . ( .)
.

= |||| cos(), cos() =


||||

(1, 1, 6), (2, 0, 2).


], cos().


(1, 1, 6)(2, 0, 2)
2 + 0 + 12
14
7

cos() =
=
= = =
||||
1 + 1 + 36 4 + 0 + 4
38 8
4 19
2 19
, :
cos() =

| |
= | | = || cos()
||

, , , .

7
7
7
1 + 1 + 36 = 38 =
2 19
2 19
2

7/ 2.
| | =

2. : (3, 1), : 6 + 10 59 = 0
: 4 + 10 = 0 (
). .
. . (3, 1), (1 , 1 ) (2 , 2 ). .
. (
) .)
( ,
3 + 1 1 + 1

,
,
2
2
. ,
, .

1 + 1
3 + 1
6
+ 10
59 = 0

2
2
1 41 + 10 = 0

9 + 31 + 51 5 59 = 0 31 + 51 55 = 0

1 = 41 10
1 = 41 10
3(41 10) + 51 55 = 0
121 30 + 51 55 = 0
171 85 = 0
1 = 5
1 = 10
(10, 5).

3 35
15

10
C(-7/2,8)
A1(1,7)
5

B(10,5)
L(2,3)
M(13/2,2)

0
A(3,-1)

-5

-5

10

15

1 . : 1 ,

]. ] = 90 , 1 = 0 (
).
, (1, 4) (
4 + 10 = 0).
1 . - ,
(4, 1). (1, 4)(4, 1) = 0. (4, 1)
1 .
1 : 4 + + = 0. . 1 ,
.
4.3 + 1.(1) + = 0 = 12 1 + = 0 = = 11
1 4 + 11 = 0.
, 1 . , .

4 + 11 = 0/.(4)

4 + 10 = 0
16 + 44 + 10 = 0
17 34 = 0
=2
=3
(2, 3). 1 ,
1 (* , * ) :
1 + *
3 + *
= 2,
= 3, * = 1, * = 7, 1 (1, 7).
2
2
1

3 36

, 1 (1, 7), (10, 5):


7
1
=
10 1
57
1
7
1 :
=
9
2
1 : 2 + 2 = 9 63
1 : 2 + 9 65 = 0
1 :

- .
1 ().

2 + 9 65 = 0/.(3)

6 + 10 59 = 0
27 + 10 + 3.65 59 = 0
17 = 136
=8
7
=
2
(7/2, 8). .
(3, 1), (10, 5), (7/2, 8).
3
(1)
=
10 3
5 (1)
+1
3
=
:
7
6
: 6 18 = 7 + 7
: 6 7 25 = 0
10
5
:
=
7/2 10
85
10
5
:
=
27/2
3
27
27
: 3 30 = + 5
2
2
: 6 60 = 27 + 135
: 6 + 27 195 = 0
: 2 + 9 65 = 0

: : 6 7 25 = 0, : 2 + 9 65 = 0.
3.
{
2 + 2 10 = 0
:
22 = 0
() , .
() .

, :

+7
5
9
=
=
3
1
4

3 37

. ,
.
. .

2 + 2 10 = 0

22 = 0
, , , ,
. . ,
.

2 1

1 1 = 2 (1) = 1 = 0
;
, .

2 = 10 2

, =
= 22 +

2 = 10 2

= 22 +
.
2 + 22 + = 10 2 = = 3 12 = =

+ 12
3

( ).
3 12 = 22 + = = 4 34 = =

+ 34
4

0
1
.
= = =

+ 12
0
+ 34
=
=
3
1
4

.
:

5
9
+7
=
=
3
1
4

, ( )
.
(3, 1, 4) = 1(3, 1, 4)
,
.
. (12, 0, 34)
, (7, 5, 9) ( ).

3 38

, ( ), . ( )
:
: 3 + 4 + = 0
, :
3(7) 5 + 4(9) + = 0 = 21 5 + 36 + = 0 = = 10
:
: 3 + 4 10 = 0
, . :
:

+ 12

+ 34
= =
=
3
1
4

= 3 12

: =
= 4 34
:
3(3 12) + 4(4 34) 10 = 0
9 36 16 136 10 = 0
26 182 = 0 = = 7

:

= 3(7) 12 = 9

: = 7
= 4(7) 34 = 6
(9, 7, 6).
10

10

B(-7,5,9)

-5

M(9,-7,-6)

-10

B(-7,5,9)

-5

M(9,-7,-6)

-10

30 20 N(-28,12,-19)
10 0
-10 -20
-30
-30 -20 -10

A(-12,0,-34)

10 20 30

302010 -10
0 N(-28,12,-19)
-20
-30-30 -20 -10

A(-12,0,-34)

10

20

30

3 39

: .

(9 (7), 7 5, 6 9) = (16, 12, 15)


:
| | =

162 + 122 + 152 =

625 = 25

.
, (
). ,

( 25).
, :
:

+ 12

+ 34
= =
, (12, 0, 34), : 3 + 4 + 172 = 0, (9, 7, 6)
3
1
4

, :
:

5
9
+7
=
=
, (7, 5, 9), : 3 + 4 10 = 0, (28, 12, 19)
3
1
4

( ).
30
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60

B(-7,5,9)
M(9,-7,-6)

N(-28,12,-19)
A(-12,0,-34)

1210

5
8 6
0
-5
4 2
-10
0 -2
-15
-20
-4 -6
-25
-8-30

10

20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40

B(-7,5,9)
M(9,-7,-6)
N(-28,12,-19)
A(-12,0,-34)

1210

5
8 6
0
-5
4 2
-10
0 -2
-15
-20
-4 -6
-25
-8-30

10

. , . ( .)
,

. :

(7 (12), 5 0, 9 (34)) = (5, 5, 43)


(3, 1, 4) (

).

:


= |||| cos()
:
cos() =

(5, 5, 43)(3, 1, 4)
15 5 + 172
182

=
=

25 + 25 + 432 9 + 1 + 16
1899 26
3 211 26

3 40

, || = 3 211. ,
:
cos() =

| |
= | | = || cos()
||

| |:

182
182
| | = 3 211 =
3 211 26
26

, :
| |2 + | |2 = ||2
1822
| | +
= 9.211 = | |2 = 9.211 49.26
26
| |2 = 625 = | | = 25
2

25.
4.
lim (1 + 2 )cot()

. . , .
[ ] [ ]

0
,
0

. .
] [ ]
[
0
0
[0.] =
=
1/
0
[
] [ ]

[0.] =
=
1/0

[0.].
[00 ] = [0.()] , [1 ] = [.0] , [0 ] = [0.]
:
( ). ,
. , ,
.
.
lim (1 + 2 )cot() = [1 ] = lim ln(1+

2 )cot()

= lim0 ln(1+

2 )cot()

3 41

1 , . -
, .
cos() ln(1 + 2 )
=
0
sin()

lim ln(1 + 2 )cot() = lim cot() ln(1 + 2 ) = lim

1
[ ]
2
2
ln(1 + )
2 cos2 ()
0
0 cos(0)
= lim
= lim
=
= lim 1 +
=0
=
2
1
0
0
0
tan()
0
1+
1+0
cos2 ()
2

, . , ,
,
= 0.
-,
= 0 = 1. .
4.
= ln() , =?
.
( ). -, .
)
(
) (
(
) ( 2 )
(
)
2
ln()
= ln() = ln()
= ln() ln() = ln () = ln () ln2 ()
2

ln () , ln () = ln() .
-.
ln2 ().
( 2 )
2 ln()
1
ln () = 2 ln() 1 =


(
)
(
)
2 ln()
2
= ln() = ln () ln2 () = ln()

.
5. =

ln2 ()

. : = 0. .

3 42

2
0

6
-2
4

-4
-6

-8
0
-10
-2

-12
-2

-2

10

12

.
( 2 )
2 ln() 1 ln2 ()1

ln ()
2 ln() ln2 ()

=
=
=
=

2
2
= 0.
. = 0, .
2 ln() ln2 () = 0 = ln()(2 ln()) = 0
ln() = 0, 2 ln() = 0.
ln() = 0 = 1 = 0 = 1
ln() = 2 = 2 = 2
, ,
, .
= 0.5 : (0.5) =

ln(0.5)(2 ln(0.5))
, ln(0.5) < 0 = (0.5) < 0
0.025

ln(1.5)(2 ln(1.5))
, ln(1.5) > 0 = (1.5) > 0
2.25
1 = 1 .
= 1, = 0.
ln(2 ) > 0 = 2 , 2 = 2
( ).
: = 1.
= 1.5 : (1.5) =

6.

ln

1
1+

. .
1
> 0 = (1, 1)
1+

3 43

: .
(
)
)
(

1
1
1
ln
=
(2 ) =
ln
1+
2
1+
(
(
)
(
))
1
1
1
2
2
ln
ln
=
=
2
1+
1+
(
) 2
(
)

2
1
1
=
ln

ln
2
1+
2
1+
, .
.
(
)
2
2

1 1(1 + ) (1 )1
1

ln
=
=
2
1+
2 1
(1 + )2
1+
2
2
1 + 1 1 +

2
=
=

2 1
(1 + )2
2 (1 )(1 + )

2
2
+11

1
=

=
+
=
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2

1 2

=
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
. 1 2 (1 )(1 + ), 1, 1.

1
=
+
2
1
1 1+
1 = (1 + ) + (1 )
= 1.
1 = (1 + 1) = =

1
2

= 1.
1 = (1 (1)) = =

1
2

(
)

1/2
1/2
1
(1 )
(1 + )
=
+
=

+
=
1 2
1
1+
2
1
1+

(
)
1+
1
1 1 + 1
= ( ln |1 | + ln |1 + |) = ln
= ln
2
2
1 2
1

(1, 1). .
(
)
(
)
(
)

1
2
1
1
1+
=
ln
+ ln
+ =
ln
1+
2
1+
2
1
(
)1
(
)
2
1+
1
1+
=
ln
+ ln
+ =
2
1
2
1
(
)
(
)
2
1
1+
1+
= ln
+ ln
+ =
2
1
2
1
(
)
1 2
1+
=
ln
+
2
1
, ( ).

3 44

6.

/2

2 sin + cos + 3

. , -
tan(/2).
tan

( )
2

= , = 2 arctan(), =

2
1 + 2

2
1 2
,
cos()
=
1 + 2 ( )
1 + 2

= tan(0) = 0
= 0 = = tan
2 )
(
( )

= tan
=1
= = = tan
2
2
4
sin() =

, . 1 + 2 , 1 + 2 .

/2

1
2

1+2
=
=
2
12
2 sin + cos + 3
0 2 1+2 + 1+2 + 3
1
1
1
2

2
=
=
=
=
2
2
2
2
0 2 + 4 + 4
0 + 2 + 2
0 4 + 1 + 3 + 3
1
1

( + 1)
=
=
=
2
2
0 1 + ( + 2 + 1)
0 1 + ( + 1)
= arctan( + 1)|10 = arctan(2) arctan(1) = 1.107 0.785 = 0.322

= (+1),
.
0.322 . : arctan(2) arctan(1) = 63.43 45 =
18.43 .
: 0.322, 18.43 .

1.

1
3
=
.
2
2

1 1 1
1 3 6
1 6 3

1. .

1 2 0
2 1 3
1 1 1 = 1 1 1
3 0 0
6
3 3
2. .
() =

ln()
ln() 1

3. .

arctan()
(1 + 2 )3/2

4.
.
4. , .
5. , () [, ]
(, ],

() =
()

.
6. .
6.

+ 25

26
=
=
9
1
7
,
(3, 11, 4) (5, 13, 2).
:

5 .

4 46

1.

3
1
=
.
2
2

1 1 1
1 3 6
1 6 3

. .

1
1
3
= (1 + 3)
=
2
2
2
3 .
)3
(

1
1
3
= (1 + 3) = (1 + 3)3
2
8
3
2

(1 + 3) = (1 + 3) (1 + 3) =

= (1 + 2 3 + 32 )(1 + 3) = (2 3 2)( 3 + 1) =

= 2( 3 1)( 3 + 1) = 2(32 12 ) = 2(3 1) = 8


1
3 = (8) = 1
8
6 = ( 3 )2 = 12 = 1

1 1 1

= 1 1 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 1 1 1 = 0
1 1 1
.
.

1 1 1

= 1 3 6 = 6 + 6 + 6 3 3 12 = 12 + 3 6 2 3
1 6 3
.

1
3
1 3
=
, || =
+ =1
2
2
4 4
.
= + , cos() =

, sin() =
, = ||(cos() + sin())
||
||

1
3
4
cos() = , sin() =
, =
= 240
2
2
3
.
( )
( )
4
4
= cos
+ sin
3
3

4 47

:
= || (cos() + sin()).
(
)
(
)
4
4
3
= cos 3
+ sin 3
= cos(4) + sin(4) = 1
3
3
(
)
(
)
4
4
6
= cos 6
+ sin 6
= cos(8) + sin(8) = 1
3
3
(
)
(
)
4
4
12
= cos 12
+ sin 12
= cos(16) + sin(16) = 1
3
3
, cos() = (1) , sin() = 0.
= 12 + 3 6 2 3 = 1 + 3 2 = 0
.
1. .

1 2 0
2 1 3
1 1 1 = 1 1 1
3 0 0
6
3 3
. . = , , :
/.(1 ) . = = 1 .. = 1 . = = 1 .
.

1 2 0

det = 1 1 1 = 0 + 0 + 6 0 0 0 = 6 = 0
3 0 0
,
. 1
.
.

2 1 1
3 1 1
11 = (1)
=
0

=
(1)
12
3 0 = (1)(3) = 3
0 0

1
1
2
0
3
= 3

13 = (1)4

=
(1)
21
0 0 =0
3 0

4 1 0
5 1 2
22 = (1)
=
0

=
(1)
23
3 0 = (1)(6) = 6
3 0

0
4 2 0
5 1
31 = (1)
=2
32 = (1)
= (1)1 = 1
1 1
1 1

2
6 1
33 = (1)
=3
1 1

4 48

0 3 3
0

0 0
6
3
=
= = =
2 1 3
3
: 1 =

0 2
0 1
6 3

1
.
det

0 0 2
1
= 3 0 1
6
3 6 3

0 0 2
2 1 3
1
= 1 . = 3 0 1 1 1 1
6
3 6 3
6
3 3
: , ,
.
11
12
13
21
22
23
31
32
33

= [1 1] = 0.2 + 0.(1) + 2.6 = 12


= [1 2] = 0.(1) + 0.(1) + 2.3 = 6
= [1 3] = 0.3 + 0.1 + 2.3 = 6
= [2 1] = 3.2 + 0.(1) + (1).6 = 6 6 = 0
= [2 2] = 3.(1) + 0.(1) + (1).3 = 3 3 = 6
= [2 3] = 3.3 + 0.1 + (1).3 = 9 3 = 6
= [3 1] = (3).2 + 6.(1) + 3.6 = 6 6 + 18 = 6
= [3 2] = (3).(1) + 6.(1) + 3.3 = 3 6 + 9 = 6
= [3 3] = (3).3 + 6.1 + 3.3 = 9 + 6 + 9 = 6

12 6 6
2 1 1
1
= 0 6 6 = = 0 1 1
6
6 6 6
1 1 1

2. .
() =

ln()
ln() 1

. .

4 49

10

10

-5

-5

-10

-2

10

12

-10

-2

10

12

: ln() 1 = 0 ln() = 1 = . , = 1
, ln() = 0. .
(
)
1
(ln() 1) ln() 1
ln()

() =
=
=
ln() 1
(ln() 1)2
=

ln()

1 ln()
1

=
2
(ln() 1)
(ln() 1)2

= 0, , . ,
.
.
10

10

-5

-5

-10

-2

10

12

-10

-2

.
(
)
0 ((ln() 1)2 + 2(ln() 1) 1 )
1

() =
=

=
(ln() 1)2
2 (ln() 1)4
(ln() 1)2 + 2(ln() 1)
ln() 1 + 2
ln() + 1
=
=
=
2 (ln() 1)4
2 (ln() 1)3
2 (ln() 1)3

10

12

4 50

, ln() + 1 = 0.
ln() = 1 = = 1
= 1 ,
. = 1 , , ,
, .
, . = 0 = .
1
1
ln()
=
= =
0 ln() 1
11
0
lim

ln()
1
1
=
= =
ln() 1
11
0
lim

= 0 = .
, lim [ () ( + )] = 0.

[ ]
ln() 1
ln()
()
= lim
= lim
=
= lim
ln() 1
ln()

.
lim

ln() +

= lim

ln() + 1 1

1 1
1
1
= lim
=
=0
ln()
ln()

= lim

:
(
= lim ( () ) = lim

ln()
0
ln() 1

[ ]
ln()
=
ln() 1

= lim

.
1

lim

1
=1

= lim

: = 0 + 1, = 1.
= 0, = = 1.
3. .

arctan()
(1 + 2 )3/2

. :
1 arctan()
1

arctan()
=
.
=
2 1/2 (1 + 2 )
(1 + 2 )3/2
0 (1 + )
0
(arctan()) =
:

=
0

1
, arctan()
1 + 2

arctan() (arctan())
.
(1 + 2 )1/2

4 51

(arctan() ) = arctan() (arctan()) = arctan()


arctan() :
1
=
0

1
,
1 + 2

(arctan() ).
(1 + 2 )1/2

:
1 1
(
)

arctan()
arctan()
=

(1 + 2 )1/2 0
(1 + 2 )1/2
0
, :
1
arctan()
1arctan(1)
0arctan(0)
/4
=

= .
(1 + 2 )1/2 0 (1 + 12 )1/2 (1 + 02 )1/2
2
:
(
)
1(1 + 2 )1/2 12 (1 + 2 )1/2 2

=
=
(1 + 2 )1/2
((1 + 2 )1/2 )2
)
(

(1 + 2 )1/2 2 (1 + 2 )1/2
2
2
=
=
1+
=
2
2
1+
1 + 1 + 2
1 + 2 2

=
=
.
2
(1 + 2 )3/2
1 + 2 1 +
:
1
1 arctan()
/4

/4

arctan()

=
.
=

(1 + 2 )3/2
1 + 2 (1 + 2 )1/2
2
2
0
0
arctan() :
1
/4
(arctan() )

.
2 1/2
2
0 (1 + )
:
(
1 1
(
))
arctan()
/4
1
arctan()
.
=

(1 + 2 )1/2 0
(1 + 2 )1/2
2
0
, :
1
arctan()
arctan(0)
/4 0
/4
arctan(1)

1.

=
=

=
(1 + 2 )1/2 0 (1 + 12 )1/2 (1 + 02 )1/2
1
2
2
:
(
)
(
)
1
1

= (1 + 2 )1/2 = (1 + 2 )3/2 2 =
.
2
1/2
(1 + )
2
(1 + 2 )3/2

4 52

:
/4
=
2

/4
1
2

1
arctan()

(1 + 2 )3/2

)
.

=1
0

arctan()
.
(1 + 2 )3/2

, :
1
= 1 = 2 = 1 = = .
2
= 1/2.
6. .
. , (0 , 0 ) (1 , 1 ), :
0
0
=
1 0
1 0

, ( , )
(, ):
0

0
0
=

,
:
+ + = 0
: (1, 2), (3, 4). . , , :
2
1
=
,
3 1
42

1
2
=
,
4
2

2 + 4 10 = 0.

6.

+ 25

26
=
=
9
1
7
,
(3, 11, 4) (5, 13, 2).
:

. .
.

: :

(5 3, 13 11, 2 4) = (8, 24, 6)


:
:

3
11
4
=
=
8
24
6

4 53

:
(
)
3 5 11 13 4 2

,
,
= (1, 1, 1)
2
2
2

:

(8, 24, 6)

.
.
, .


:
: 8 24 6 + = 0
.
, .
:
8(1) 24(1) 6 + = 0 = 8 + 24 6 + = 0 = = 26
:
: 8 24 6 26 = 0
2:
: 4 + 12 + 3 + 13 = 0
A(3,11,4)
A(3,11,4)

2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2

2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2

M(-1,-1,1)

M(-1,-1,1)

B(-5,-13,-2)
4

-2

-4

-4

-2

4 2 0 -2
-4

-2

-4

: .
,
.
:
:

+ 25

26
=
=
=
9
1
7

4 54

, ,

:
= 9 25
=
= 7 + 26

:
4(9 25) + 12() + 3(7 + 26) + 13 = 0
36 100 12 21 + 78 + 13 = 0
3 9 = 0 = = 3
:

= 27 25 = 2

: = 3
= 21 + 26 = 5
: (2, 3, 5).

A(3,11,4)

A(3,11,4)
P(2,-3,5)

C(-25,0,26)
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2

M(-1,-1,1)

M(-1,-1,1)
P(2,-3,5)

-2
0

-2

-4

-2

0
4

-4

2
B(-5,-13,-2)

-4

B(-5,-13,-2)

0
-2

2
4

-4

: .
.
20
15
10
5
0
-5
-10

C(-25,0,26)
A(3,11,4)

A(3,11,4)
P(2,-3,5)
M(-1,-1,1)
D(20,-5,-9)
B(-5,-13,-2)

20 15

15
10 5
5 10
0 -5
0
-10-15
-10 -5
-20
-20-15

20

20
15
105
0
-5
-10

D(20,-5,-9)

P(2,-3,5)
M(-1,-1,1)

20
15
B(-5,-13,-2) 10
C(-25,0,26)
5
20
0
15
10
-5
5
0
-10
-5
-15
-10
-15
-20 -20

, , , ,

1.

(
lim

1.

(
= tan

1
2 1

1
1

sin()

+ arctan(

1.

2+3)

, =?

= (1 + ) cos() , =?
2.

2.

2.

/2

/3

51 cos(2 3)

sin() cos() + 1

3. , , .
1

= 2
4. : () () [, ],
(, ) () = 0, (, ). (, ),
() ()
()
=
.

()
() ()
5. .

5
3
1
1 1 0
3 0
1 3 2 = 2
5 2
1
1 0 1
6. ,
.
{
2 + 3 5 = 0
1
+3

:
, :
=
=
2
1
2
+ 2 + 2 = 0
: 1: 4+4+3, 2: 6+7+6, 3: 7, 4: 6, 5: 9, 6: 8.

5 56

1.

)
1
1
lim

0
sin()
.
.
(
)
[ ]
1
1
sin()
0
1 cos()
lim

= lim
=
= lim
=
0
0 sin()
0 sin() + cos()
sin()
0
[ ]
0
sin()
0
=
= lim
=
=0
0 cos() + cos() sin()
0
1+10

1.

(
= tan

1
2 1

+ arctan(

2+3)

, =?

.
=

cos2

1
(

1
21

2
2
arctan( 2+3)
=
+

2
(2 1)
1 + (2 + 3)

2
arctan( 2+3)
( 1 ) +
=
+2
(2 1)2 cos2 21
1.

= (1 + ) cos() , =?
.
( ). -, .
(
)
(
)
1 )
ln(1+)
ln(1+) (
ln(1
+
)

ln(1+) cos()
= cos()
=
=
= cos()
cos()
(
)
1
1
1
cos() ln(1 + )( sin())
ln(1 + )
cos()
= (1 + )
= (1 + ) cos() 1+
=
cos()
cos2 ()
1

= (1 + ) cos()

cos()
1+

+ sin() ln(1 + )
cos2 ()

2.

1 2

. . .


2
1 2
,
= , = 0, = 1

2
2
= 2 = 2 = 2 = =

1 2
(
)
2
4
=
= (2(1 2 )1 ) = 2(1)(1 2 )2 (2) =
2
1
(1 2 )2

5 57

1
4
=
2
(1 2 )2
12
(

=2
+
1 2
(

=2

1 2

42 (1 2 )
22
1 1 + 2
=
=
2
=
2(1 2 )2
1 2
1 2
)
(
)

1 + 2
1 2

= 2

=
1 2
1 2
1 2
)
(
)

= 2

1 2

. 1 2 (1 )(1 + ), 1, 1.

+
=
2
1
1 1+
1 = (1 + ) + (1 )
= 1.
1 = (1 + 1) = =

1
2

= 1.
1 = (1 (1)) = =

1
2

(
)

1/2
1/2
1
(1 )
(1 + )

=
+
=

+
=
1 2
1
1+
2
1
1+

1 1 +
1
= ( ln |1 | + ln |1 + |) = ln
2
2
1

.
(
=2

)
1 +
1 1 +

2 +
+ = ln
ln
2 1
1

2.

51 cos(2 3)

. .
,
,
. , ,

5 58

)
(
1
51
=
cos(2 3) =
cos(2 3) 51 =
5
(
)

1 51
51

cos(2 3)
(cos(2 3)) =
=
5
(
)

1
51
=
1
( sin(2 3))(3) =
5
(
)

( 51 )
1
3
=
1
=
sin(2 3)
5
5
(
(
))

3 51
1
51
1

sin(2 3)
(sin(2 3))
=
=
5
5
(
)

3
3
1
51
=
1 2 +

cos(2 3)(3) =
5
5
5
(
)

1
3
9
51
=
1 2

cos(2 3)
5
5
5
, :
)
(
9
3
1
1 2
=
5
5
5
1
3
9
9
1
3
= 1 2 = + = 1 2
5
25
25
25
5
25
34
5
3
1
= 1 2 = =
(51 32 )
25
25
25
34
)
1 ( 51
=
5
cos(2 3) 351 sin(2 3)
34

2.

/2

/3

sin() cos() + 1

. . .
/2

( )

2
1 2
, tan
= , sin() =
,
cos()
=
2
1 + 2
1 + 2
/3 sin() cos() + 1
2
= 2 arctan(), = (2 arctan()) =
1 + 2

(
)
( )

= : tan
= = =
; = : tan
= = = 1
6
3
2
2
1 3
1
1
2
2
=
=

2
2
2
2
12
3/3 1+2 1+2 + 1 1 +
3/3 2 1 + + 1 +
1
1
2

=
=

2
2
3/3 2 + 2
3/3 +

5 59

+ 2 . 0 1.
(1 + ). . .
1

= +
(1 + )

1+
, , - ,
, 1 + ,
. ( 2 + 1, + .)

+ 2 .
(1 + )

1
=
+
(1 + )
(1 + )
(1 + )
1 = (1 + ) +
= 0 : 1 = (1 + 0) + 0 = = 1
= 1 : 1 = 0 + (1) = = 1
, :
1
1
1
=
(1 + )
1+
. .
1
1
1

=

= ln()|13/3 ln(1 + )|13/3 =

2
3/3 +
3/3
3/3 1 +
( )
(
(
(
)
)
)
3
3
3
3
= ln(1) ln
ln(2) + ln 1 +
= 0 ln 2 +
+ ln 1 +
=
3
3
3
3
(
(
( )
(
)
)
)
3+ 3
3+ 3
6+ 3
3
+
3
3

= ln
ln
= ln
= ln
6+ 3
3
3
6+ 3
3

3. , , .
1

= 2 , = 0
. .

5 60

-4

-8
-4

-2

-4

-2

, . ,
.
= 0. = 0.
( )
( 2 1/ )
1
1

1/
2 1/
=
= 2 +
= 21/ + 2 1/ 2 = 21/ 1/

.
1/ (2 1) = 0 = 1/ = 0 = 2 1 = 0 = =

1
2

= 1/2,
.
= 0.3 : (0.3) = 3.33 (2(0.3) 1) = 11.21
= 0.8 : (0.8) = 1.25 (2(0.8) 1) = 2.09
= 1/2 . (1/2, +)
(, 0) (0, 1/2) ( ).
.
( )
( )
1
1

1/
1/
1/
1/
1/
= (2 ) = 2 + 2

=
2

2
2
1
1/
= 21/ 1/ + 2 1/ = 2 (22 2 + 1)

: 1 . .
.
: = 1/2. (1/2, +) (, 0) (0, 1/2).
5. .

5
3
1
1 1 0
3 0
1 3 2 = 2
5 2
1
1 0 1

5 61

. . = ,
. = /.(1 ) = ..1 = .1 = = .1
,
.

5
3
1

det = 1 3 2 = 15 + 30 + 2 15 + 20 3 = 19 = 0
5 2
1
.

2 3 2
3 1
11 = (1)
=
3
+
4
=
1,

=
(1)
12
5
2
1

3
4 1
3 3
13 = (1)
= 2 15 = 13, 21 = (1)

5 2
2

5 1

= 5 + 5 = 10, 23 = (1)5 5 3
22 = (1)4

5 2
5 1

1
4 3
5 5
31 = (1)
=
6
+
3
=
3,

=
(1)
32
1
3 2

5 3
= 15 3 = 18
33 = (1)6
1 3

2
= (1 10) = 9
1

1
= (3 2) = 1
1

= (10 + 15) = 25

1
= (10 1) = 11
2

1 9 13
1
1 3
10
11
= 1 10 25 = = = 9
3 11 18
13 25 18
: 1 =

1
.
det

1
1 3
1
9
10
11
=
19
13 25 18

= .1

1 1 0
1
1 3
1
2
3 0 9
10
11
=
19
1 0 1
13 25 18

: , ,

5 62

.
11
12
13
21
22
23
31
32
33

= [1 1] = 1.1 + (1).9 + 0.(13) = 8


= [1 2] = 1.(1) + (1).10 + 0.25 = 11
= [1 3] = 1.(3) + (1).11 + 0.(18) = 14
= [2 1] = 2.1 + 3.9 + 0.(13) = 29
= [2 2] = 2.(1) + 3.10 + 0.(25) = 28
= [2 3] = 2.(3) + 3.11 + 0.(18) = 27
= [3 1] = (1).1 + 0.9 + 1.(13) = 14
= [3 2] = (1).(1) + 0.10 + 1.(25) = 24
= [3 3] = (1).(3) + 0.11 + 1.(18) = 15

8 11 14
1
29
28
27
=
19
14 24 15

6. ,
.
{
2 + 3 5 = 0
+3

1
=
=
:
, :
2
1
2
+ 2 + 2 = 0
. ,
.
. .

2 + 3 5 = 0

+ 2 + 2 = 0
, , , ,
. . ,
.

2 1

1 2 = 4 + 1 = 5 = 0
;
, .

2 = 5 3

+ 2 = 2 , =

2 = 5 3

+ 2 = 2
.
2( 2 2) = 5 3 = 5 = 5 + 9 = =

9
+ 9/5
= =
5
1

5 63

( ).
+ 2

18
8
8/5
= 2 = = + = =
5
5
1

0
1
.
= = =

8/5
+ 9/5
0
=
=
1
1
1

( ). (8/5, 9/5, 0) ( ),
(1, 1, 1) ( ). .
:

+3

1
=
=
2
1
2

. ,
(2, 1, 2). ,
.
.

8/5 + 9/5 0

1
2
1
+
1
1 = ( 8/5)(1)

1 2

2
1
2

1
1
3 1
4 1
+ ( + 9/5)(1)
+ (1)
=
2 2
2 1
= ( 8/5).(1) + ( + 9/5).0 + .(1) = + 8/5
: + 0 + 8/5 = 0.
0.510
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2

B(1,-3,0)

0.5
A(8/5,-9/5,0)

1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2

A(8/5,-9/5,0)
B(1,-3,0)

1.5
2
2.5

-3.8 -3.6
-4.2 -4
3
-4.4
-4.6

-3
-3.4 -3.2

-4.6
-4.4
-4.2-4
-3.8
-3.6
-3.4
-3.2-3 0.5

1.5

2.5

, ,
. (8/5, 9/5, 0) , (1, 3, 0) .
: + 8/5 = 0.

1.
(
lim

1.

(
lim

1
+3

)+2

1
1

1

2.

= (1 + ) sin() , =?
2. ?
= (2 + 1)
3.

1/2

arcsin()
0

3.

3.

( + 1) + 1 + + 1

31 cos(2 + 1)

4. .

3 1 3 2 5
5 3 2 3 4
=
1 3 5 0 7
7 5 1 4 3

5. .
{
2 + 3 5 = 0
:
+ 2 + 2 = 0
() 0 .
()
.
1
+3

:
=
=
2
1
2
6. , () [, ],

() =
(), (, ],

[, ].
: 1: 4+4+3, 2: 3+7+5, 4: 8, 5: 5+3, 6: 5.

6 65

1.
(
lim

1
+3

)+2

. , .
)
(
(
+
)
= lim
= exp() =
lim 1 +

(
)1
(
)1
1+2
2
lim
= lim 1 +
= exp(2) = 2

1
1
, .
(
)+2
(
)+31
(
)+3 (
)1
1
1
1
1
lim
= lim
= lim

+3
+3
+3
+3
. .
(
)+3
(
)+3
(
)+3
1
+34
4
lim
= lim
= lim 1 +
= exp(4) = 4

+3
+3
+3
- , 0,
- .
)1
(
(1 + 3/)
1+0
+3
1
= lim
=
=1
= lim
lim
(1 1/)
1

+3
10
, 3/ = 0 ( ).
.
(
)+2
1
1
lim
= 14 = 4 = 4

+3

1.

(
lim

1
1

1

.
.
(
)
[ ]
1
1
1
1
0
lim

= lim
= lim
=
=

0
0 ( 1)
0
1
0
[ ]
1
0

1
1
= lim
=
=
lim
=
=

0 + 1
0 + +
0
1+1+0
2

6 66

2.
= (1 +

1
sin()
)
,

=?

.
( ). -, .
) (
)
(
)
(
1
1
1
1

ln(1+) sin()
ln(1+) sin()
sin()
sin()
ln(1 + )
= (1 + )
=
=
=
( sin()
)
(
)
1
1

cos()
ln(1
+
)
ln(1
+
)
1+
= (1 + ) sin()
= (1 + ) sin()
sin()
sin2 ()

2. ?
= (2 + 1)
. ,
.
8

0
-6

-4

-2

, > 0 (, +).
= 0.
1
<1
42
1
= 1 : = (1 + 1)1 =
<1
2
= 0 : = (0 + 1)0 = 1
= 1 : = (1 + 1)1 = 2 > 1
= 2 : = (4 + 1)2 = 52 > 1
= 2 : = (4 + 1)2 =

, (0, 1) (, 0) (1, +) (0, +).


(, +).

6 67

3.

1/2

arcsin()
0

. , ,
.
1/2
1/2
1/2
(arcsin()) =
arcsin() = arcsin()|0
0
0
( ) 1/2

1
1 1 1/2 (2 )

= arcsin

=
2
2
2 6 2 0 (1 2 )1/2
1 2
0

1 1/2

1 1/2
2 1/2
2
=
+
(1 )
( ) =
+
(1 2 )1/2 (1 2 ) =
12 2 0
12 2 0
]
[(
)1/2

1
1
1/2
=
+ (1 2 )1/2 |0 =
+
1
(1 0)1/2 =
12 2
12 2
4

3 1
1 3 1

=
+
=
+

12 2 2
2
12
4
2

3.

( + 1) + 1 + + 1

, + 1 = , = 2 1, = 2
0 ( + 1) + 1 + + 1

= 0 : = 1 + 0 = 1, = 1 : = 1 + 1 = 2
2
2
2
2
2

=
=2
2
2
3
2
2
( 1 + 1) + 1 + 1
+
+
1
1
1

+ 2 . 0 1.
(1 + ). . .
1

= +
(1 + )

1+
, , - ,
, 1 + ,
. ( 2 + 1, + .)

+ 2 .
1
(1 + )

=
+
(1 + )
(1 + )
(1 + )
1 = (1 + ) +
= 0 : 1 = (1 + 0) + 0 = = 1
= 1 : 1 = 0 + (1) = = 1

6 68

, :
1
1
1
=
(1 + )
1+
.
(
)
)
2
2
1
1

= 2

=
2
1+

+1
1
1
1
1
(
(
)

= 2 ln()|1 2 ln( + 1)|1 2 = 2 ln( 2) ln(1) ln( 2 + 1) + ln(2) =


(
)
)
(

1
1/2
ln(2) + ln(2) ln( 2 + 1) =
= 2 ln(2 ) + ln(2) ln( 2 + 1) = 2
2
(
)
( 3/2 )
(
)

3
2
3/2
=2
ln(2) ln( 2 + 1) = 2 ln(2 ) ln( 2 + 1) = 2 ln
=
2
2+1
( )2
2 2
8
= ln
= ln
2+1
( 2 + 1)2

=2
2
+

3.

31 cos(2 + 1)

. . ,
,
.

(
)
1
31
cos(2 + 1) 31 =
=
cos(2 + 1) =
3
(
)

1 31
31
=

cos(2 + 1)
(cos(2 + 1)) =
3
(
)

1
31
1
( sin(2 + 1))2 =
=
3
(
)

( 31 )
1
2
1 +
sin(2 + 1)
=
=
3
3
(
(
))

1
2 31
31
=
1 +

sin(2 + 1)
(sin(2 + 1))
=
3
3
(
)

1
2
2
31
=
1 + 2

cos(2 + 1)2 =
3
3
3
(
)

1
2
4
31
=
1 + 2

cos(2 + 1)
3
3
3

6 69

, :
(
)
1
2
4
=
1 + 2
3
3
3
1
2
4
4
1
2
= 1 + 2 = + = 1 + 2
3
9
9
9
3
9
13
3
2
1
= 1 + 2 = =
(31 + 22 )
9
9
9
13
)
1 ( 31
3
cos(2 + 1) + 231 sin(2 + 1)
=
13

4. .

3 1 3 2 5
5 3 2 3 4
=
1 3 5 0 7
7 5 1 4 3

. ( ).
1 = 3 = 0

3 1
2 =
5 3

3 1

3 = 5 3
1 3

= 9 (5) = 4 = 0

3
2 = 45 2 45 + 9 + 18 25 = 27 27 = 0
5

. , , ,
() = 2.
, - .
- , .
5. .
{
2 + 3 5 = 0
:
+ 2 + 2 = 0
() 0 .
()
.
1
+3

:
=
=
2
1
2
. 5, 6 ( ).

1.
(
lim

1.

(
lim

2.

2 2
2 + 1

)4+2

1
1

sin()

, > 0, =?

2. ?
= ( 2)1/
3.

(2 2 + tan())

1/2

3.

sin(ln())
1

3.

41 sin(3 1)

4. .

5
3
1
8 3 0
1 3 2 = 5 9 0
5 2
1
2 15 0
5.
(5, 7) : 6 + 4 9 = 0.
. .
6.

= sin ()
: 1: 4+4+3, 2: 3+7, 3: 9+6+8, 4: 9, 5: 5, 6: 5.

7 71

1.
(
lim

2 2
2 + 1

)4+2

. , .
)
(
(
+
)
= lim
= exp() =
lim 1 +

(
)1
(
)1
1+2
2
lim
= lim 1 +
= exp(2) = 2

1
1
, .
((
)4+2
(
)2(2+1)
)2+1 )2
2 2
2 2
2 2
= lim
= lim
lim
=

2 + 1
2 + 1
2 + 1
(
(
)2+1 )2 (
)2+1 )2
(
2 + 1 3
3
= lim
= lim 1 +
=

2 + 1
2 + 1
( )2
= (exp(3))2 = 3 = 6
(

1.

(
lim

1
1

sin()

.
.
(
)
[ ]
1
1
sin()
0
1 cos()
lim

= lim
=
= lim
=
0
0
0
sin()
sin()
0
1 sin() + cos()
[ ]
sin()
0
0
= lim
=
=0
=
0 cos() + cos() sin()
0
1+10

2.

, > 0, =?

.
( ). -, .
( ) (
)
( ( ))

( ( ))

= = ln( ) = ln( ) ln
= ln
=
(
)
(
)
(

)
1
1 1
ln()
1

ln() +
+
=
ln() =
=
=
2

(
)

ln() + 2

=
2

7 72

2. ?
= ( 2)1/
. ,
.
10

-5

-10
-10

-5

10

= 0. ()
= 0. , = 2 ,
= 2.
= 1 : = (1 2)1 = < 0
= 3 : = (3 2)1/3 = 1/3 > 0
, = 2 , < 0 (, 0)
(0, 2) > 0 (2, +). (, 0) (0, +),
.
3.

(2 2 + tan())

1/2

1
2 2

(
1/2

+ tan()) =

2 2

1/2

tan()
1/2

. (, ,
), .

2 2

1/2

1
=
2

7 73

1
2

(
1/2

1
)=
2

2 2 |11/2

( )

)
=

1/2

)
(
1

1 1
1 1
1
1
2
2
+
2 =
1
2 = 2 +
+
4
2 1/2
2
8
1/2
)
(
1
1
4 1
4 1
2
2 1
2
=
|1/2

( ) =

82
2 1/2
82
2
1/2
)
(

4 1
1 1 2
1 1
2
+
1
=

82
2
2
2 1/2
( ) 1
4 4 + 2 1 2 1
4
1
1
1
1
(2 ) =
+

2+
|1/2 =
2
8
2
4 2
2
82
4
1/2
(
)
3 8 1 2
3 8
5 10
1
1
1 =
=

2+
= 0.06
2
2
8
4
8
4
4
82

1
=
2
=
=
=
=

tan().
1
1
1
(cos())
sin()
=
= ln | cos()|11/2 =
tan() =
cos()
cos()
1/2
1/2
1/2
= (ln | cos(1)| ln | cos 1/2|) = ln |0.540| + ln |0.877| = 0.616 0.130 = 0.486
: 0.06 + 0.486 = 0.546.
3.

sin(ln())

=
1

. .

sin(ln()) = sin(ln())|1
(sin(ln())) =
=
1
1


1
= sin(1) 1 sin(0)
cos(ln()) = sin(1)
cos(ln()) =

1
1

= sin(1) cos(ln())|1 +
(cos(ln())) =
1

1
= sin(1) cos(1) + 1 cos(0) +
( sin(ln())) =

1

= (sin(1) cos(1)) + 1
sin(ln()) =
1

= (sin(1) cos(1)) + 1
, :
= (sin(1) cos(1)) + 1 = 2 = (sin(1) cos(1)) + 1

1
= (sin(1) cos(1)) + = 0.909
2
2

7 74

3.

41 sin(3 1)

. . ,
,
.

)
(
1
41
=
sin(3 1) =
sin(3 1) 41 =
4
(
)

1 41
41
=

sin(3 1)
(sin(3 1)) =
4
(
)

1
41
=
1
cos(3 1)3 =
4
(
)

( 41 )
1
3
1
cos(3 1)
=
=
4
4
(
(
))

3 41
1
41
1

cos(3 1)
(cos(3 1))
=
=
4
4
(
)

3
1
3
41
=
1 2 +

( sin(3 1))3 =
4
4
4
(
)
(
)

1
3
9
1
3
9
41
=
1 2

sin(3 1) =
1 2
4
4
4
4
4
4
, :
1
3
9
9
1
3
= 1 2 = + = 1 2
4
16
16
16
4
16
25
4
3
1
= 1 2 = =
(41 32 )
16
16
16
25
)
1 ( 41
4
sin(3 1) 341 cos(3 1)
=
25

4. .

5
3
1
8 3 0
1 3 2 = 5 9 0
5 2
1
2 15 0
. . = .
( / ), :
33 .33 = 33
:
. = /.(1 ) = ..1 = .1 = = .1
,
.

7 75

5
3
1

det = 1 3 2 = 15 + 30 + 2 15 3 + 20 = 19 = 0
5 2
1
:

2 3 2
3 1
11 = (1)
= 3 + 4 = 1, 12 = (1)

2
1
5

3
4 1
3 3
13 = (1)
= 2 15 = 13, 21 = (1)

2
5 2

5 1

= 5 + 5 = 10, 23 = (1)5 5 3
22 = (1)4
5 2
5 1

3
1
= 6 + 3 = 3, 32 = (1)5 5
31 = (1)4
1
3 2

5 3
= 15 3 = 18
33 = (1)6
1 3

1 9 13
= 1 10 25 = = =
3 11 18
: 1 =

2
= (1 10) = 9
1

1
= (3 2) = 1
1

= (10 + 15) = 25

1
= (10 1) = 11
2

1
1 3
9
10
11
13 25 18

1
.
det

1

:

8
1
5
= .1 =
19
2

1
1 3
1
9
10
11
=
19
13 25 18

1
1 3
3 0
19 38 57
1
10
11 =
9 0 9
76 95 114
19
15 0
13 25 18
133 152 171

19:

19 38 57
1 2 3
1
76 95 114 = 4 5 6
=
19
133 152 171
7 8 9

7 76

5.
(5, 7) : 6 + 4 9 = 0.
. .
. , .

,
(6, 4),

. (4, 6), (6, 4)(4, 6) = 0.


4 6 + = 0. (5, 7) , .
4(5) 6(7) + = 0 = 20 42 + = 0 = = 22
4 6 + 22 = 0, : 2 3 + 11 = 0.
10
8

B3(-4,33/4)
A(5,7)

6
4
C(-17/26,42/13)
2
0

B2(3/2,0)

-2
B1(4,-15/4)

-4
-4

-2

10

,
: 6 + 4 9 = 0.
( ).
.
.

6 + 4 9 = 0

2 3 + 11 = 0/.(3)
17
42
, =
13
26

(17/26, 42/13). .
(
)
(
)

17
42
147 49
5,
7 =
,
26
13
26
13
4 + 9 9 33 = 0 = 13 = 42 = =

1472 492
9.492 4.492
13.492
49 13
|| =
+ 2 =
+
=
=
262
13
262
262
26
26

: : 2 3 + 11 = 0, || = (49 13)/26.

7 77

6.

= sin ()
. sin() , ,
.

1
= sin () = sin () sin() = sin1 ()(cos()) =
(
)

1
1
= cos() sin () cos()(sin ()) =

1
= cos() sin () + cos()( 1) sin2 () cos() =

1
= cos() sin () + ( 1) sin2 () cos2 () =

1
= cos() sin () + ( 1) sin2 ()(1 sin2 ()) =
(
)

1
2

= cos() sin () + ( 1)
sin () sin () =
= cos() sin1 () + ( 1) (2 )
, :
= cos() sin1 () + ( 1)2 ( 1)
= cos() sin1 () + ( 1)2
)
1 (
=
cos() sin1 () + ( 1)2

1. .
lim

ln()
1 + 2 ln()

2. .
() =

ln() 2

3. .


2
,
1

sin()
1 + sin2 ()

4. = .
(
)
(
)
3 5
1 2
=
, =
2 4
2 4
5. .

+ =0

3 + 3 = 0

+ 2 2 = 0
6. (2, 1), : 710+1 = 0
: 3 2 + 5 = 0,
. .
6. , :
{
2 + 2 10 = 0
5
9
+7
=
=
:
, :
3
1
4
22 = 0
: 1: 5, 2: 15, 3: 5+10, 4: 10, 5: 10, 6: 5+5.

8 79

1. .
lim

ln()
1 + 2 ln()

. .
[ ]
ln()
1/
1
1
lim
=
= lim
= lim
=
0 1 + 2 ln()
0 2(1/)
0 2

2. .
() =

ln() 2

. : = 0, : = 2 = 7, 389.
.
4

-2

-2

-4

-4
-5

10

15

20

25

-5

10

15

20

25

.
=

(1/) (ln() 2)1


1 ln() + 2
3 ln()
=
=
2
2

:
3 ln() = 0 = 3 = ln() = = 3 = 20, 085
3 2.5
>0
6,25
3 3.5
= 3,5 : 12,25 < 0

3
= , , :
.
.
= 2,5 :

8 80
0.01

4
0.008
0.006

0.004
0

0.002
0

-2

-0.002
-4

-0.004
-5

10

15

20

10

25

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

( ).
0.05

0.05

0.04
0.045
0.03
0.04
0.02
0.035
0.01

0.03
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

.
=

6 + 2 ln()
2 ln() 7
(1/)2 (3 ln())2
=
=
4
4

:
2 ln() 7 = 0 = 2 ln() = 7 = = 7/2 = 3,5 = 33, 115
57
<0
15,625
97
= 9/2 = 4,5 : 91,125 > 0

= 3,5 , , = 3,5
.
.
= 5/2 = 2,5 :

8 81

0.0001
4

5e-005

-2

-5e-005

-4
-0.0001
-5

10

15

20

25

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

( ).
0.05

0.05
0.048

0.04
0.046
0.044

0.03

0.042
0.02

0.04
0.038

0.01
0.036
0

0.034
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

: .
lim

ln() 2

=
=

= 0.
: lim ( () ( + )) = 0.

()
ln() 2 1
ln() 2 [ ]
= lim
= lim
=
= lim

.
lim

1 1
1
1
= lim
=
=0
2
2
2

= lim

:
(
= lim ( () ) = lim

ln() 2
0

ln() 2 [ ]
= lim
=

8 82

.
lim

1
1
=
=0

= lim

: = 0 + 0, = 0.
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.02
0.03
0
0.02
-0.02
0.01
-0.04
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

20

40

60

80

100

= 0 = 0 ( ).
3. .

. .



2
2

2
=
= |1
(2 ) =
1
1
1

= 2 12 1 2
=
1

+2
= 2
=
(1
)

+2

= 2 |1
=
1
+2

= 2( 1 |1 ) =
= +2 2(+1 ( 1 )) =
= +2 2(+1 + ) =
= +2 2+1 2 =
= +2 2+1 2

3. .

sin()
1 + sin2 ()

120

sin()
=
1 + sin2 ()

8 83

(cos())
=
1 + 1 cos2 ()

cos()
=
2 cos2 ()

2 2

cos() = ( ,
cos() cos() ).
:

, sin() = 1 2
= cos(), = arccos(), =
1 2

(
)

1 2

=
=
2
2
2
2
1+1
2 2
1+( 1 )
1
, :

sin()
=
2
2 2
1 + sin ()

(2 2 ) = ( 2 )( 2 + ).
:

1
=
+
2
2
2
2+

1 = ( 2 + ) + ( 2 )

1
= 2 : 1 = (2 2) + (0) = =
2 2

1
= 2 : 1 = (0) + (2 2) = =
2 2
:
(
)

(
)

(1/2 2)

(1/2 2)
1

=
+
=
+
2 2
2
2+
2 2
2
2+

,
2 :
(
)

( 2 )
( 2 + )
1

2 2
2
2+
, , :

1
1

(ln | 2 | ln | 2 + |) = ln

2 2
2 2 2 +
cos() = :

1
2 cos()
ln

2 2 2 + cos()

8 84

4. = .
(
)
(
)
3 5
1 2
=
, =
2 4
2 4
. = 1 . .
.

3 5
= 12 10 = 2 = 0
det =
2 4
.
11 = (1)2 4 = 4, 12 = (1)3 2 = 2
21 = (1)3 5 = 5, 22 = (1)4 3 = 3
.
(
)
(
)
4 2
4 5
=
= =
5 3
2 3
1
.
det
(
)
1
4 5
=
2 2 3

: 1 =
1
:
1
=
2

4 5
2 3

) (

1 2
2 4

1
=
2

6 12
4
8

5. .

+ =0

3 + 3 = 0

+ 2 2 = 0
. .

1 1 1
1 3 3
1 2 2
1 (1) + 2.

1
0
0

1 (1) + 3.

1 1
4 4
1 1

3 4 + 2.

1 1 1
0 4 4
0 0
0

(
=

3 6
2
4

8 85

, , . = .
:

+ =0
+=0

=
4 + 4 = 0
4 + 4 = 0
: = . :
+ = 0 = = 0
: = 0, = , = .
6. (2, 1), : 710+1 = 0
: 3 2 + 5 = 0,
. .
. . .
, :

3 + 5
7 + 1
=
= = 3
10
2

.
: 21 10 + 1 = 0 = = 2
(3, 2). .
:

2
(1)
=
= 5 7 = 0
3 2
2 (1)

, . ( ) .
(7, 10)(10, 7) = 0. :
10 + 7 + = 0
(2, 1) :
: 20 7 + = 0 = = 13 = 10 + 7 13 = 0
10

C(-132/25,47/5)

8
6
4
A1(-4,3)
2
L(-1,1)
0
A(2,-1)
-2
-4

B(-3,-2)

-6

-4

-2

8 86

1 , ().
1 , , . 1 .
1 : (3, 2)(2, 3) = 0.
1 :
2 + 3 + = 0
(2, 1) 1 :
1 : 4 3 + = 0 = = 1 = 2 + 3 1 = 0
1 :
1 , :

1 2
3 + 5
=
= = 1
3
2

1 : 2 + 3 1 = 0 = = 1
(1, 1). , 1 (* , * ).
)
(
1 + *
2 + *
= 1,
= 1 = * = 4, * = 3

2
2
1 (4, 3). 1 :
1 :

(4)
3
=
= 5 + + 17 = 0
3 (4)
2 3

1 :
1 , : 17 5 =

132
13 10
= =
= 5.28
7
25

, :
1 , :

17
13 7
47
=
= =
= 9.4
5
10
5

(132/25, 47/5). :
:

(3)
(2)
=
= 5 + + 17 = 0
(132/25) (3)
(47/5) (2)

6. , :
{
2 + 2 10 = 0
+7
5
9
:
, :
=
=
3
1
4
22 = 0
. 3, 3 ( ).

1. .
(

2 + 2

)11

)11
2 + 2
2 + 2
=
, =
3
3


3 + :

2 + 2
(2 + 2)( 3 + )

=
=
=
3
( 3 )( 3 + )

2 3 + 2 + 2 3 2
2 3 + 2 + 2 3 + 22
=
=
=
2
3

3
+
1

2( 3 1) + 2( 3 + 1)
31
3+1
=
=
+
4
2
2
(

11

31
3+1
= + =
+
, || = 2 + 2
2
2

2
2
( 3 1)
( 3 + 1)
32 3+1+3+2 3+1
8
|| =
+
=
=
= 2
4
4
4
4

31

3+1
5
cos() =
= , sin() =
= , =
= 75
||
||
12
2 2
2 2
:
( ( )
( ))

5
5
= ||(cos() + sin()) = 2 cos
+ sin
12
12
1.5
55/12 = 825
(z11)

5/12 = 75
(z)

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

9 88

:
= || (cos() + sin())
:
( (
)
(
))
( (
)
(
))
11
11
5
5
55
55
11
= 2
cos 11
+ sin 11
= 2
cos
+ sin
=
12
12
12
12
(
)

11
31
3+1
= 2
+
2 2
2 2
825 : 11 = 45.254833(0.258819 + 0.965925).
2. .
3 3 = 0
.
3 = 3, = 3, 3 = = =
.
= + = 0 + 3, || =

2 + 2 = 02 + 32 = 3

= = 0, sin() =
= = 1, = = 90
||
3
||
3
2
( ( )
( ))
= ||(cos() + sin()) = 3 cos
+ sin
2
2
- : .
( (
)
(
))

+ 2
+ 2

= || cos
+ sin
, = 0, . . . , 1

( (
)
(
))

/2 + 2
/2 + 2
3
3
= = 3 cos
+ sin
3
3
,
. = 0, 1, 2, =
0, 1, 2, 3.
( (
)
(
))

/2 + 0
/2 + 0
3
= 0 : 1 = 3 cos
+ sin
=
3
3
(
)
3
( ( )
( ))

1
3
3
3
3
= 3 cos
+ sin
= 3
+
=
( 3 + )
6
6
2
2
2
cos() =

( (
)
(
))
/2 + 2
/2 + 2
= 1 : 2 = 3 cos
+ sin
=
3
3
(
)

( ( )
( ))
3

5
5
3
1
3
3
3
+ sin
= 3
+
=
( 3 + )
= 3 cos
6
6
2
2
2
( (
)
(
))

/2 + 4
/2 + 4
3
= 2 : 3 = 3 cos
+ sin
=
3
3
( ( )
( ))

9
9
3
3
3
= 3 cos
+ sin
= 3(0 ) = 3
6
6
= 3: 4 = 1 . .

9 89
1.5

0.5

/6 = 30
(x1)

5/6 = 150
(x2)

-0.5

-1

9/6 = 270 (x3)

-1.5
-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

3. .

1 + 22 + 33 4 = 10
1 2 + 3 + 24 = 10
2 + 3 + 4 = 9
1 + 3 4 = 0

. . .

1 + 22 + 33 4 = 10

2 + 3 + 4 = 9

1 2 + 3 + 24 = 10

1 + 3 4 = 0
.

1 2 3 1 10
0 1 1 1 9

1 1 1 2 10
1 0 1 1 0

, . 3 + (1)
1. 4 + (1) 1.

1 2
3 1 10
0 1
1
1
9

0 3 2 3
0
0 2 2 0 10
, . 3 + 3 2.
4 + 2 2.

1 2 3 1 10
0 1 1 1 9

0 0 1 6 27
0 0 0 2 8

9 90

. .

1 + 22 + 33 4 = 10

2 + 3 + 4 = 9

3 + 64 = 27

24 = 8
: 4 = 4, 3 = 3, 2 = 2, 1 = 1.
4. .

31 + 3 = 3

2 + 4 = 4

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 6

3 + 4 = 1
. . ( , ). . ,
.
.
( ):

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 6

2 + 4 = 4

3 + 4 = 1

31 + 3 = 3

:

1 1 1 1

1 1 1

0 0 1
0 1 0 1

= 1(1)2+1 0 1 1 + 1(1)2+2 0 1 1 = 2
=

0 0 1 1
3 1 0
3 1 0
3 0 1 0
, :

6 1 1 1

4 0 1
6 1 1
4 1 0 1

= 1(1)2+1 1 1 1 + 1(1)2+2 1 1 1 = 5
1 =

1 0 1 1
3 1 0
3 1 0
3 0 1 0

1 6 1

0 4 0
2 =
0 1 1
3 3 1

1
4 0 1
6 1

1
1+1
4+1
= 1(1) 1 1 1 + 3(1) 4 0

1
3 1 0
1 1
0

1 1 6

0 1 4
3 =
0 0 1
3 0 3

, :

1
0 4 1
1 6 1

1
2+1
+ 1(1)2+2 0 1 1 = 9
0
1
1
=
1(1)

1
3 3 0
3 3 0
0

1
1
1

= 15

9 91

1 1 1 6

0 0 4
1
0 1 0 4

= 1(1)2+1 0 1 1 + 1(1)2+2 0
4 =

0 0 1 1
3 1 3
3
3 0 1 3

:
1 6
1 1
1 3

= 7

:
1 =

1
5
2
15
3
9
4
7
=
, 2 =
= , 3 =
= , 4 =
=

5. .
() = 24 3 + 3 1,

() = 72 + 1

. . () ,
- . (2/7)2 .
2
2
2
2
() = () 2 () = 24 3 + 3 1 74 2 = 3 2 + 3 1
7
7
7
7
() (1/7), - .
(
)
1
2
1
1
2
1
() () = 3 2 + 3 1 + 73 + = 2 + 3 + 1
7
7
7
7
7
7
() (2/49), .
(
)
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
()
= 3 + 1 +
() = 2 + 3 + 1 + 72 +
49
7
7
49
49
7
49
( - ()):
1
47
() = () = 3 +
7
49
:
2
1
2
() = () = 2
7
7
49
: () = ()() + ()
(
)
2 2 1
2
1
47
4
3
2 + 3 1 =

(72 + 1) + 3 +
7
7
49
7
49

6. .
() = 125 + 564 + 793 + 272 8 4

9 92

.
:
12
1/3 12
2 12
2 12
1/2 12
1/2 12

. 56 79 27 8 4
60 99 60 12 0
36 27 6 0
12 3 0
6 0
0

2 1/2.
:
() = 12( 1/3)( (2))2 ( (1/2))2 = 12( 1/3)( + 2)2 ( + 1/2)2 .
2

-2

-4

-6
-3

-2

-1

7. , - , .

7 12 6
= 10 19 10
12 24 13
. , .

7
12
6
10
= 10 19
12
24
13
(
) .
.
, .
.
: ,
, ,

9 93

. , , .
( ,
.)
, .
, .

12
6

10
det = 10 19
12
24
13
. .

12

24
13

10
det = 10 19
7

12
6
1 (5) + 2 6. , 6.

12

24
13

1
6(1 ) 5(1 )
det = 0
6

7
12
6
1 ((7 )) + 3 12. , 12.

12

24
13

0 6(1 )
5(1 )
det =

6.12
0 24(1 ) 19 + 20 2
2 (4) + 3. ,
.

12
24
13

1
det = 0 6(1 ) 5(1 )
72
0
0
1 2
.
det =

1
12.6(1 )(1 2 ) = (1 )(1 2 ) = 3 + 2 + 1
72

:
det = (1 )(1 2 ) = (1 )(1 )(1 + ) = (1 )2 (1 + )
.
det = 0 = (1 )2 (1 + ) = 0
: 1, 1 1. - 1. ,
= 1.

8 12 6
4 6 3
= 10 18 10 = 2 5 9 5
12 24 14
6 12 7

9 94

(
, , ).

4 6 3
5 9 5
6 12 7
1 (5) + 2 4. 1 (6) + 3 4.

4 6 3
0 6 5
0 12 10
2 (2) + 3. (

4 6
0 6
0 0

2 .)

3
5
0

2, , : 3 = .
:

41 62 + 33 = 0

62 + 53 = 0
2 :
5
62 + 5 = 0 = 2 =
6
1 :
5
1
41 6 + 3 = 41 5 + 3 = 0 = 1 =
6
2
:

2
5

1/2
= 5/6
=

8. = :

1 1 2
1 1
= 1 2 5 , = 1 1
1 3 3
1
2
. . = 1 .
33 32 = 32
32 = 1
33 32

9 95

1 1

det = 1 2
1 3

2
5 = 6 + 6 5 + 4 3 15 = 7 = 0
3

2 2 5
3 1 5
11 = (1)
=
6
+
15
=
9,

=
(1)
12
1 3 = 1(3 5) = 8
3 3

1
2
1
2
= 3 + 2 = 5, 21 = (1)3

13 = (1)4
3 3 = 1(3 + 6) = 3
1 3

4 1 2
5 1 1
22 = (1)
=
3

2
=
5,

=
(1)
23
1 3 = 1(3 + 1) = 4
1 3

4 1 2
5 1 2
31 = (1)
= 5 + 4 = 1, 32 = (1)
= 1(5 + 2) = 3

2 5
1 5

6 1 1
33 = (1)
=21=1
1 2
:

9
8
5
9 3 1
= 3 5 4 = = = 8 5 3
1 3
1
5 4 1
1
.
det

9 3
1
8 5
=
7
5 4

: 1 =
1

1
3
1

9 3 1
11 14
1 1
1
1
8 5 3 1 1 =
16 7
=
7
7
5 4 1
10 7
1
2
: 9.1 +
(3)(1) + (1)1 = 11, 9(1) + (3)1 + (1)2 = 14. .
9. :

1
2 0
1
3 2
=
3 1 2
2 3 1

4
1

2
5

. ( ).
1 = 1 = 0

1 2
=32=1
2 =
1 3

1 2 0

3 = 1 3 2 = 6 + 12 + 0 9 4 + 2 = 7
3 1 2

9 96

(
) .
.
, .
.
: ,
, ,
. , , .
( ,
.)
, .
, .

1
2 0 4

1
3 2 1
4 = det =

3 1 2 2
2 3 1 5
: 1 (1) + 2, 1 (3) + 3,
1 2 + 4.

1 2 0 4

0 1 2 3

det =

0
7
2
10

0 7 1 13
: 2 7 + 3, 3 + 4.

1 2 0

0 1 2 3

det =

0
0
16
31

0 0 3
3
)
(
3
+ 4.
: 3
16

1 2 0

0 1 2 3

= 16 141 = 141 = 0
det =

16
0 0 16 31

141
0 0 0

16

.
( ).

10

1.

+2

1
1
2
(2 )

=
=
=
2+2
2+2
2
2
2 + 2

1
=
(2 + 2)1/2 (2 + 2) =
2

= (2 + 2)1/2 + = 2 + 2 +

, :

1
( ) = (1/2 ) = 1/2
2
, :

( 2 + 2) = ((2 + 2)1/2 ) = (2 + 2)1/2 2 = (2 + 2)1/2 =


2
2
+2

, : = 2 ( ).
2.

cos(2)/2

. , . .

/2
/2
cos(2) = 2 cos(2) (/2) = 2 cos(2)(/2 ) =
(
)
(
)

/2
/2
/2
/2
= 2 cos(2) (cos(2)) = 2 cos(2) + 2 sin(2) =
(
)

/2
/2
= 2 cos(2) + 4 sin(2) (/2) =
(
)

/2
/2
/2
= 2 cos(2) + 8 sin(2) sin(2) =

/2
/2
= 2 cos(2) + 8 sin(2) 16 cos(2)/2
, :
= 2 cos(2)/2 + 8 sin(2)/2 16
17 = /2 (2 cos(2) + 8 sin(2))
=

/2
(2 cos(2) + 8 sin(2))
17

10 98

3.

arctan()

arctan()
= arctan()2
2
.
:
(1 ) = 2

arctan() = arctan()(1 ) =
(
)

1
1
= arctan() arctan() =

1
arctan()
+ 1
=
=

1 + 2

1
arctan()
+
=
=

(1 + 2 )

2 .
arctan()
=

arctan()
=

arctan()
=

arctan()
=

arctan()
=

1 + 2 2
=
(1 + 2 )

1 + 2
2
+

=
(1 + 2 )
(1 + 2 )

1 + 2

1
(2 )
+ ln ||
=
2
1 + 2
ln |1 + 2 |
+ ln ||
+
2

: = 0, = .
4.

2 2

(2 + 2)

2
2 2
+24
=
=
2
( + 2)
(2 + 2)

2 + 2

4
=

(2 + 2)
(2 + 2)
(2 + 2)

2 + 2

1 =
=
= ln ||
2
( + 2)

10 99

2 =
=
=
2
2

+2
2( 2 + 1)
( )

)
(

2
1

2
=
=
= arctan
( )2
( )2
2
2
2
2

+1
+1
2
2

=
2
( + 2)

2 + 2 2
4

=
2
=
3 =
(2 + 2)
(2 + 2)
(
)

2 + 2
2
= 2

=
(2 + 2)
(2 + 2)

= 2
+2
=
2

+2

(2 )
= 2 ln || +
=
2 + 2
= 2 ln || + ln |2 + 2|

:
1
= ln || arctan
2

: = 0, = 2.
5.

2 ln || + ln |2 + 2| +

1 2 4 1 2

1
=
1/2
(1 2) (1 2)1/4

:
=

(1

2)2/4

(1 2)1/4

4
1 2 = (1 2)1/4

1 4
, = 23
2
:

3
2
1
3
(2

=
2

)
=
2
2
( 1)
1
:
2
2

1+1
1
1
2
= 2
2
=
1
1
1

( 1)( + 1)
= 2
2 ln | 1| = 2 ( + 1) 2 ln | 1| =
1

= 2 2 2 ln | 1| = 2 2 2 ln | 1| +
=

:
= (1 2)2/4 2(1 2)1/4 2 ln |(1 2)1/4 1| +
: = 1, = 0.

10 100

6.

2 sin() cos() + 1

. :
= tan

( )
2

, = 2 arctan(), =

sin() =

2
1 + 2

2
1 2
,
cos()
=
1 + 2
1 + 2

1
2
1 + 2
2
2

=
=
=
2
2
2
2
2
2
12
4 (1 ) + 1 + 1 +
4 + 2
(2 + )
2 1+2 1+2 + 1 1 +
. 0 2.
:

1
= +
(2 + )

2+
1 = (2 + ) +
1
2
1
= 2 : 1 = 0 2 = =
2

1
1
1/2
1/2

=

= (ln || ln |2 + |) = ln
+
(2 + )

2+
2
2
+ 2
= 0 : 1 = (2 + 0) + 0 = =

1 tan(/2)
= ln
+
2
tan(/2) + 2
: = 2, = 2 arctan(2).
7. .
= ln(cos())

1
cos2 ()
3

.
)
1
1
1
2
= ln(cos()) cos () =
( sin()) 2 cos()( sin()) =
3
cos()
3
2
1
= tan() + sin() cos() = tan() + sin(2)
3
3

8. .
(
lim

4
9
9
4
1 1

10 101

. , . .
(
)
[ ]
4
9
49 4 94 + 9
49 94 + 5
0
lim
9
= lim
= lim 13
=
4
4
9
9
4
1
1 ( 1)( 1)
1 + 1
1 1
0
: .
[ ]
5 1
0
368 363
363 (5 1)
= 36 lim
=
= lim 3
lim
12
8
3
9
5
9
5
1 13 9 4
1 13 9 4
1 (13 9 4)
0
, .
54
36
5
5
5
5
54
=
lim
=
4
=
4
=
=
36
lim
1 13.98 9.54
1 94 (134 5)
9 1 134 5
13 5
8
2

36 lim

9.
`.
=

1 3
2

. : = 0, : = 1.
.
10

10

-5

-5

-10
-10

-5

10

-10
-10

-5

.
=

(0 32 )2 (1 3 )2
34 2 + 24
4 2
3 2
=
=
=
4
4
4
3

3
3 2 = 0 = 3 = 2 = = 2
:

2.5 2
3
= 2.5 :
<0
2.5

10

10 102

1.5 2
3
= 1.5 :
>0
2.5

= 3 2 , , .
.
=

(32 0)3 (3 2)32


35 + 35 + 62
6
=
= 4
6
6

.
.
10

10

-5

-5

-10
-10

-5

10

-10
-10

-5

10

: .
10
1 3
=
=
2
0

0
lim

. .
, lim [ () ( + )] = 0.

()
1 3 [ ]
32
= lim
= lim
=
=
lim
= 1

32
3

. :
(
)
1 3
1 3 + 3
1
= lim ( () ) = lim
+

=
lim
=
lim
=0

2
2
2
: = 1 + 0, = . = 0 = .

11

1. 2 + 4 2 = 20, 2 2 13 = 0.
. . :
+ + = 0
, . .
2 . , (2, 1),
= 2.
: = 2, = 1.
2 + = 0 = = 2 +
. : = 2 .
2 = 2 + = 2 2 = 0
,
, .
= 4 + 4 = 0 = 4(1 + ) = 0 = = 1
:
= 2 1
5
4
3

y = x2

2
1
0
-1

y = 2x

y = 2x - 1

-2
-3

-4

-3

-2

-1

. ,
, . :

= 2 5 cos()
2 2
2
2
2
2

+ 4 = 20 =
+
= 1 =
+
= 1 =
= 5 sin()
20
5
(2 5)2 ( 5)2
, :

20 2
20 2
=
= =
4
2

11 104

: 2 2 13 = 0, (2, 2) (
). :
+ + = 0 = 2 2 + = 0 = =

2 +
2

20 2
2 +
=
= 20 2 = 2 +
2
2
20 2 = (2 + )2 = 20 2 = 42 + 4 + 2
52 + 4 + 2 20 = 0
, :
= 162 20(2 20) = 0 = 162 202 + 400 = 0 = 400 42 = 0 = = 10
10

y = (2x+10)/2

-5

-10
-10

y = (2x-10)/2

-5

y = (2x-13)/2

10

,
= 10.
2 10
2 2 10 = 0 = =
2
,
. .
2. .
2 4 2 = 4
= 2 + 4 2
. , .
2
2 4 2 = 4 = 2 2 =
2
2
2
: 4 = 0 ( , ;
). : 2 = 4 ,

11 105

: = 2, = 42 . : 4 2 = 4 , : = ,
= 2 . (), :

= 2

= 42 2
gnuplot: splot 2u, v, 4*u**2 - v**2.

100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40

-10

10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10

-5

10-6

-4

-2

100
90
80
70
60
-5 -4
50
-3 -2
40
-1 0
30
20
1 2
3 4 010
5

:
= 2 + 4 2
: 2 +4 2 = 0 ( , ;
). :

= cos()

= 2 sin()
: = 4 2 , : = , = 4 2 . :
= 2 , : = , = 2 . ,
:

= cos()

= 4 2

= 2 sin()
gnuplot: splot cos(u)*v, 4*v**2, 2*sin(u)*v.
3. : (1, 6), (9, 10), (5, 4). .
. :
:

1
(6)
=
= 8 + 5 + 22 = 0
9 1
10 (6)

(9)
10
=
= + 1 = 0
5 (9)
4 10

1
(6)
=
= 2 13 = 0
51
4 (6)

11 106

, .
.
, :
(
)
1 9 6 + 10
: 1
,
= 1 (4, 2)
2
2
)
(
9 + 5 10 4
,
= 2 (2, 3)
: 2
2
2
(
)
1 + 5 6 4
: 3
,
= 3 (3, 5)
2
2
, , , (
). : (8, 5), (5, 8).
1 :
1 : 5 8 + = 0
1 (4, 2) 1 :
1 : 20 16 + = 0 = = 36 = 5 8 + 36 = 0
.
2 : + = 0
2 : 2 3 + = 0 = = 5 = + 5 = 0
3 : 2 + + = 0
3 : 6 5 + = 0 = = 1 = 2 + 1 = 0
:
2 , 3 : + 5 = 1 2 = =

4
3

2 ( ):
4
11
2 : + 5 = 0 = + 5 = 0 = =
3
3
(4/3, 11/3). -,

, ( ).

.
(
)
(
)

4
11
7 29
1,
(6) = ,
3
3
3 3
,
:
( )

( )2
2

7
29
49 + 841
890
|| =

+
=
=
= 9.944
3
3
9
3

11 107
15

B(-9,10)

10

B(-9,10)

10
5
R(-4/3,11/3)
M2(-2,3)
M1(-4,2)

5
R(-4/3,11/3)
M2(-2,3)
M1(-4,2)

0
0
C(5,-4)
M3(3,-5)
A(1,-6)

-5

-10

-10

-5

C(5,-4)
M3(3,-5)
A(1,-6)

-5

10

-10
-15

-10

-5

10

,
:

=
4
: :

(9 1, 10 + 6) = (10, 16)
:

= || = 102 + 162 = 2 89
:

(5 + 9, 4 10) = (14, 14), = || = 142 + 142 = 14 2

(5 1, 4 + 6) = (4, 2), = || = 42 + 22 = 2 5
:



2 89 14 2 2 5
42 89 2 5

=
=
= 42
4 890/3
890

/2. :

)
(
)
(
42 84

42 5
2 5 42 5
3 34
,
,
,
, || =
, =
= 42
5
5
5
5
5
2
5

4. : :
2 + 7 = 0 : 2 + 4 = 0, :
(1, 0). .

11 108

. :
, : 7 2 =

+4
= = 2
2

: 2 + 7 = 0 = 4 + 7 = 0 = = 3
(2, 3). , (* , * ):
)
( *
* + 3
+2
= 1,
= 0 = (0, 3)

2
2
, :
: 2 + + = 0
:
: 0 3 + = 0 = = 3 = 2 + + 3 = 0
, :
: 2 + = 0
:
: 0 + 6 + = 0 = = 6 = 2 6 = 0
, .
4
A(2,3)
2
D(-2,1)
0

M(1,0)
B(4,-1)

-2
C(0,-3)
-4
-4

-2

5. (2, 0, 0), (0, 3, 0), (0, 0, 6) (2, 3, 8).


,
.
. .

11 109
D(2,3,8)
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

C(0,0,6)
B(0,3,0)

A(2,0,0)

3
2.5
2
1.5
-1 -0.5
1
0 0.5
0.5
1 1.5
0
-0.5
2 2.5
-1
3

= 1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 =

= 1 2 3
1 2 3

1 3
1 2
= 2 3

2 3 1 3 + 1 2 =

,
, :

1 2 3


= (
)
= 1 2 3 =
1 2 3
:
1
=
3
:
1
= | |
6
:
1
= | |
2
:

, :
(2, 0, 0), (0, 3, 0), (0, 0, 6), (2, 3, 8):

(2, 3, 0), (2, 0, 6), (0, 3, 8)


=

, :

2 3 0

1
1
= 2 0 6 = |0 + 0 + 0 0 + 36 + 48| = 288
6
6
0 3 8

11 110

(0, 3, 6), (2, 0, 8)


( ):


3 6
0 6
0 3

= 0 3 6 =
2 8 + 2 0 =
0 8
2

2 0 8

= (24 0) (0 12) + (0 + 6) = 24 + 12 + 6
:


| | = 242 + 122 + 62 = 6 42 + 22 + 1 = 6 21
, ,
( ,
):

1
1
= | | = 6 21 = 3 21
2
2
:
=

3.288
288
3
= =

3 21
21

6.

(3, 2, 2) (18, 22, 5),
14 .

.

, :

= 0,
=0


(1 , 2 , 3 ). :

= 31 + 22 + 23

= 181 222 53
:

31 + 22 + 23 = 0

181 222 53 = 0


.
:

|
| = 9 + 4 + 4 = 17

| | = 182 + 222 + 25 = 833 = 7 17

11 111

= 3.18 2.22 5.2 = 54 44 10 = 0


. (
).


2

3 2
3

2
2


+
=
2
2 =
= 3

22 5
18 5
18 22
18 22 5

= (10 + 44) (15 36) + (66 36) = 34 + 51 102


:

|
| = 342 + 512 + 1022 = 14161 = 119
:

|
| = |
|| | sin()
, . = 90, . :

|
| = 17.7 17.1 = 7.17 = 119

(
) = |
||
| cos()
:

(
) = 341 + 512 1023

: |
| = 14, |
| = 119.
: ,



(
).
= 0, cos() = cos(0) = 1.
:
341 + 512 1023 = 14.119.1
.

:
31 + 22 + 23 = 0
181 222 53 = 0
341 + 512 1023 = 1666

11 :
(33 + 18)1 + (22 5)3 = 0 = 541 + 173 = 0 = 31 = 3

11 112

3 = 31 :
31 + 22 61 = 0 = 31 = 22
3 = 31 2 = (3/2)1 :
3
341 + 51 1 102(31 ) = 1666
2
2.341 + 3.511 + 2.3.1021 = 2.1666
681 + 1531 + 6121 = 3332
8331 = 3332
1 = 4
: 2 = 6, 3 = 12. :

(4, 6, 12)
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10
-12

b
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
-5
18-25 -20 -15 -10

10

,
,
( , ).
7. ,
+1
2
+2
:
=
=
2
3
2
: 3 + 2 5 = 0
. .
: (1, 2, 2)

(2, 3, 2) . .
.

(3, 2, 1), ,
.

,
:

+1 2 +2

3 2
2 2
2
3
2
+ ( 2)(1)

3
2 = ( + 1)(1)

3 1 +
2 1
3

2
1

4 2 3
+( + 2)(1)
= ( + 1)(3 4) ( 2)(2 6) + ( + 2)(4 + 9) =
3 2
= 1 + 8 16 + 13 + 26 = + 8 + 13 + 9
: + 8 + 13 + 9 = 0.

11 113

A(-1,2,-2)
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1

2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10

-1

-0.5

0.5

-0.5
1-1

0.5

1.5

A(-1,2,-2)

0.5

0.5

-0.5

1.5
2-1

: .
8. , (4, 1, 6),
{
: + 4 + 12 = 0
:
: 2 2 + 3 = 0
. . :

1 1

2 1 = 1 + 2 = 3 = 0
= . :

+ = 4 12

2 = 2 3

:
3 = 6 15 = = 2 5 = =

5
2

:
2 5 + = 4 12 = = 2 7 = =
: =

+7
2

0
. :
1
5
+7
0
:
=
=
2
2
1

2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1

10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
A(5,-7,0)

P(4,1,6)
Q(-1/3,-5/3,8/3)
P'(-14/3,-13/3,-2/3)

A(5,-7,0)

-5
-5.5

3.5

-6
4

4.5

-6.5
5-7

-4

-2

-6

-4

-2

11 114

(1 , 1 , 1 ) . (0 , 0 , 0 )
. ,
. : (2, 2, 1). (
): (0 4, 0 1, 0 6). :
(2, 2, 1)(0 4, 0 1, 0 6) = 0
2(0 4) + 2(0 1) + 0 6 = 0
:
:

5
+7
0
=
=
=
2
2
1

= 2 + 5

: = 2 7
=
- 0 , 0 , 0 (
):
2(2 + 5 4) + 2(2 7 1) + 6 = 0
4 2 + 4 16 + 6 = 0
24
8
9 24 = 0 = =
= =
9
3
:
(
)
(
)
8
8
8
1 5 8
2 + 5, 2 7,
= , ,
3
3
3
3 3 3
, :
(
)
4 + 1
1 1 + 1
5 6 + 1
8
13
2
14

= ,
= ,
=
= 1 = , 1 = , 1 =
2
3
2
3
2
3
3
3
3
:
)
(
14 13 2
, ,
3
3
3

12

1.
lim (1 + 4)ln()

0+

.
lim (1 + 4)ln() = [0 ]

0+

, . :
[ ] [ 0 ]
,

0

.
:
ln()

lim+ ln(1+4)

ln()

= lim0+ ln(1+4)

, ,
. :
lim ln(1 + 4)ln() = lim+ ln() ln(1 + 4) = [ 0]

0+

0+ : ln(0+ ) ( ).
:
[ ]
0
ln(1 + 4)
lim+ ln() ln(1 + 4) = lim+
=
0
0
1/ ln()
0
lim+ ln() ln(1 + 4) = lim+

[ ]
ln()
=
1/ ln(1 + 4)

.
ln(1 + 4)
lim+
= lim+
0
0
1/ ln()

1
(
)
4
4
ln2 ()
4 ln2 ()
1 + 4
= lim+

= lim+
1 1
0
0
1 + 4
1
1 + 4
2
1
ln ()

[0 ]. :
lim+
0

[ ]
4 ln2 ()
ln2 ()
= 4 lim+
=
0 (1 + 4)
1 + 4

:
1
ln() 2

4 lim+
= 8 lim+

= 8 lim+ ln() = [0 ]
0 4 (1 + 4)
0
0

1
2

2 ln()

12 116

. :
1
ln() [ ]
1
8 lim+
=
= 8 lim+ = 8 lim+ 2 = 8 lim+ = 8 0 = 0
1
0
0
0
0
1/

, (), :
lim0+ ln(1+4)

2. ?
=

ln()

= 0 = 1

2
2 1

. .
10

10

-10

-5

10

-10

-5

10

(
, ). 2 1,
= 1. 1 1. :
lim

1
2
= =
2
0
1

1.
. ( ). (
, .)
. : = + (
, .. ). = 0 .
:
()
, = lim ( () )

= lim

12 117

:
= lim

2
1

= lim
= lim
2 1 2 1

1
1 2

1
1
=1
= lim
=

10
1 1/2
- ,
-. .
, 1:
2
1

1
1

= lim
= lim
=
= 1
2 1
2 1
1 1/2
10

= lim

)
2
= lim
1

2 1
:

( 2 1) + 2 1
2 2 1

= lim

=
= lim

2 1
2 1
+ 2 1

(2 (2 1))
(2 ( 2 1)2 )

= lim
= lim
=

2 1( + 2 1) 2 1 + ( 2 1)2
1
(2 2 + 1)
(
) =
= lim
= lim

2 1 + 2 1
1
1
2
1 2 +1 2

1
1
1

=
=
=0
(
2
( 1 0 + 1 0)
1 1/2 + 1 1/2 )

= lim

: = 1 + 0. = = .
3. , , .
= arccot(1/)
. :
4

-1
-10

-5

10

12 118

:
(
)
1
1
1
1
1

=
2 = 2
2 = 2
1
+1

+1
1+ 2
2

, .
,
:
1
2
= 2
2 = 2
2
( + 1)
( + 1)2
. :
= 1 : (1) =
= 1 : (1) =

2
2(1)
= >0
2
2
((1) + 1)
4
21
2
= <0
2
+ 1)
4

(12

, .
4. .
=+

4
2

. .
25

25

20

20

15

15

10

10

-5

-5

-10

-10

-15
-10

-5

10

-15
-10

-5

. :

3
= 4 = 1, 58
.
=1+4

2
8
8
= 1 3 = 1 3 = 0 = = 2
3

10

12 119

= 2:
= 3 : (3) = 1

8
8
=1+
>0
27
27

8
8
=1
>0
27
27
, . ( (, )).
:
3
24
= 0 8 4 = 4

, .
, .
(, ), .
: , .
= 3 : (3) = 1

4
+ 2
3
3
()
= lim + 4 1 = lim + 4 =
= lim
= lim


2
3
( )
4
3 1 + 3
1 + 4/3
1+0

=
lim
=
=1
= lim
3

1
1
1
:
(
)
4
3 + 4 3
4
= lim + 2 1 = lim
= lim 2 = 0
2

: = .
5. .
= (, ) = 3 3 48 + 27 1
. :
= 32 48 = 32 48 = 0 = = 4
= 3 2 + 27 = 3 2 + 27 = 0 = = 3
(4, 3).
:

= 6,
= 6

=
=0

(4, 3):



2 =

1 =
= 6 = 6 4 = 24 > 0


6 0 24 0


=
= 24 18 < 0
=

0 6 0 18

2 ,
( ). 1 :
, .
.

12 120

1500
1000
500
0
-500
-1000
-1500

M(4,3)

10

6.

-5

-1010

-5

-10

12 cos()
6 sin2 () + 3 cos2 ()

12 cos()
=
6 sin2 () + 3 cos2 ()

12 cos()
5 + 1 sin2 () + 3 cos2 ()

:
sin2 () + cos2 () = 1 = cos2 () = 1 sin2 ()
:

12 cos()
=
5 + cos2 () + 3 cos2 ()

12 cos()
5 + 4 cos2 ()

, 7:
sin() = , = arcsin(), cos() =

1 2 , =
1 2

12 1 2

12

=
= 12
2
2
2
2
5 + 4(1 )
9 42
5 + 4( 1 ) 1

: 9 42 = (3 2)(3 + 2), = 3/2.


:
1

=
+
2
9 4
3 2 3 + 2
1 = (3 + 2) + (3 2)
:
=

3
1
: 1 = (3 + 3) + 0 = =
2
6

3
1
= : 1 = 0 + (3 + 3) = =
2
6

12 121

:
)
(
)
(

1/6

1/6
12
12
+
=
+
3 2 3 + 2
6
3 2
3 + 2
12/6 :

(2)
(3 2)
(3 + 2)
(2)
+
=
+
=
3 2
3 + 2
3 2
3 + 2

3 + 2

= ln |3 2| + ln |3 + 2| = ln
3 2
:

3 + 2 sin()

= ln
3 2 sin()


: . (,)
: . (), . ()
: . (), . ()
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