You are on page 1of 84

II

23 2013 .

24

33

42

50

60

68

73

84

(, ) . :
nike32@abv.bg, http://justmathbg.info/.
(2009)
(. , 2009)
, (2009)
, (. , 2008, 2010)
() (2008, 2009)
: tan(), cot(), arctan().

. .
1-1+, 2-1, 3-5, 4-3
1-2+ [0, 6], 3-3 [, ]
( ) 4-2 [, ], 6-1 [1, 1]
( ) 5-2 [, ]
1-3+, 2-2, 3-1, 4-1, 5-4, 6-2
2-3+, 2-4+, 8-2+
1-4+, 3-4, 4-4, 5-5, 6-3
3-2+, 4-5, 6-4
1-5+, 5-6, 6-5, 8-1+
I 2-6+
II 1-6+, 3-6, 5-7
. .
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
{1}, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, {6}
1, 2

1.

(1)

=1

4
4 3

() .
() = 1, = 3/2, = 1/2 ( ,
).
2. : R R = 6, ,
() = /3 1 (0, 6]. () .
3. (1, 1, 1)
(, ) = 2 + 2 2 + 2 7,
(, , ) = (, ) + 2

2 +3 2 +4 2

:
() .
()

4. .
+ 4 =

6
+ (2 3)2
cos(2)

5. , .
: = 6 2 2 , 2 = 2 + 2 ( 0)
6. ,

2 2
+
= 1,
16
9
.
10 .

II

1 5

1.

(1)

=1

4
4 3

() .
() = 1, = 3/2, = 1/2 ( ,
).
. .

:

= 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + . . .

=1

< 1 =

lim = > 1 =

= 1 =
:

lim

+1

< 1 =
= > 1 =

= 1 =

. ().
() ( ,
, 1/2 ), :

=
().

(), .
(), .

:

=1

(1)+1 = 1 2 + 3 4 + 5 6 + . . .

=1

.
|+1 | | |

=1

lim | | = 0,

II

1 6

| | = |1 | + |2 | + |3 | + |4 | + |5 | + |6 | + . . .

=1

| | ,
=1

=1

=1

| | ,

=1

=1

=1

, :

= 0 + 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 + . . . + + . . .

=0

= lim 1 .

= lim
| |
+1

,
() (, ). , = = .
. :

(1) 4
4
=
.
(1)
4

3
4

3
=1
=1

(1)
.
=
4 3
:

(1) /(4 3

=
= lim
=
lim
+1
(1)+1 /(4( + 1) 3)

(1) 4( + 1) 3
4 + 4 3

=
= lim
= lim
4 3
(1)+1 4 3

4 + 1
(4 + 1/) 4 + 0
= lim
=
= lim
= 1.
4 3
(4 3/)
40
(1) .
. = 1.

II

1 7

= 1 ( ,
).
= 1 :

(1)
1
(1)
=
.
4 3 =1 4 3
=1
. +1 :

(1)+1
(1)
1
1

=
+1 =
, =
<
(+1 < ).

4( + 1) 3
4 3
4 + 1
4 3
4 + 1 > 4 3, .
, . :

(1)
1
1
= lim
lim = lim
= lim
= 0.

4 3
4 3
(4 3/)
,
.
, | |:

(1)
1
=

.
4 3
4 3
=1
=1

1
, .

=1
. ,
:

+1
1
4 3
4 3
(4 3/)
= lim
= lim
= lim
= 1.

4( + 1) 3
4 + 1
(4 + 1/)
1
lim

(
):

1 (4)
= lim
= lim
=
1
4 3 4 1 4 3
1 4 3
1
1
= lim ln |4 3||
(ln |4 3| ln 1) = .
1 = lim
4
4
, :

(1)
=
= ,
4 3
=1
=1

| | =

=1

=1

1
= .
4 3

= 1 ( ). = 1 :

=1

4
(1)

(1)

4 3

(1)24
=1

4 3

(1)2 (1)4
=1

4 3

=1

1
.
4 3

II

1 8

, .

=1

= 1 (1, 1].
= 1/2:

4
(1/2)

(1)

=1

4 3

=1

(1)
(1)
=
16
.
24 (4 3)
2 (4 3)
=1

. +1 :

+1

(1)
(1)
1
1
, =
=
+1 = +1
<
.

2 (4( + 1) 3)
2 (4 3)
2+1 (4 + 1)
2 (4 3)
2+1 (4 + 1) > 2 (4 3), +1 < . :

[ ]
(1)
1
1

lim = lim
=
= 0.
= lim

2 (4 3)
2 (4 3)

=1

/ :

(1)
1

= 16
.
16
2 (4 3)
(4 3)
2
=1
=1
. :
+1
1/(2+1 (4( + 1) 3))
2 (4 3)
= lim
=
lim
=

2+1 (4( + 1) 3)
1/(2 (4 3))
(
)
4 3
1
(4 3/)
1 40
1
= lim
= lim
=
= < 1.
2(4 + 1)
2 (4 + 1/)
2 4+0
2
lim

| | . ,

=1

=1

= 3/2:

(3/2)4 (1) (1)4 34

16
3
(1)
=
=
.
4 (4 3)
(4 3)
4

3
2
81
2
=1
=1
=1

. :
3+1
2 (4 3)
3(4 3)
+1
= lim
= lim +1
=

2(4 + 1)

2
(4( + 1) 3)
3
(
)
3
(4 3/)
3 40
3
= lim
=
= > 1.
2 (4 + 1/)
2 4+0
2
lim

= 3/2. ,
(1, 1].
: = 1, (1, 1],
= 1 , = 1/2 = 3/2
.

II

1 9

2. : R R = 6, ,
() = /3 1 (0, 6]. () .
. .
[, ]. ()
[, ]. :

1
1
=
() cos(), =
() sin(), = 0, 1, 2, . . .

:

() =

0
+
( cos() + sin()).
2
=1

, : ( + 2) = () (
). :

1
1
1
0 =
() cos(0) =
(), 0 =
() sin(0) = 0.

( ). () [0, ].
() [, ] : () = ().
, () = () [, ]:

2
1
() cos() =
() cos(), = 0,
=

0
: () cos()
( ), : ()
sin() ( ). :

0
2
1
() =
+
cos(), 0 =
() =
().
2

0
=1
: ( + 2) = ().
( ). () [0, ].
() [, ] : () =
(). , () = () [, ]:

1
2
= 0, =
() sin() =
() sin(),

0
: () cos()
( ), : ()
sin() ( ). :
() =

sin().

=1

: ( + 2) = ().

II

1 10

. ()
[, ]. : = ( )/2. :
1
=

() cos

( )

1
, =

() sin

( )

( )
( ))
0 (
() =
+
cos
+ sin
.
2

=1
: ( + 2) = (). :
1
0 =

(), 0 = 0.

( ). ()
[0, ]. () [, ]
: () = (). , () = () [, ]:

( )
( )
1
2
() cos
=
() cos
, = 0,
=

- . :

( )
0
1
cos
() =
+
, 0 =
2

=1

2
() =

().
0

: ( + 2) = ().
( ). ()
[0, ]. () [, ] : () = (). , () = ()
[, ]:

( )
( )
1
2
() sin
() sin
= 0, =
=
,

- . :
() =

sin

( )

=1

: ( + 2) = ().
: [, ] [, ];
[, ].
. .

II

1 11

10

3
2

1
0

-1
-5

-2
-3
-4

-10
-1

-5

10

15

20

: = (6 0)/2 = 3. : ( + 6) = ().
0 :
(
)
)
(

6
)
1 6 (
1 2
1 62
6
0 =
1 =
0 (6 0) = 0.
|0 =
3 0 3
3 6 0
3 6
:
( 6

6
)
( )
( )
( ) )
1
1 6 (

1 cos
=
cos

cos
.
=
3 0 3
3
3
3
3
0 3
0
: :
6
6
6
( )
( ) ( )
( )

1
1
1 =
cos
=
cos

=
sin
=
3
0
3
3
0
3
0 3
(
( ) )
( )6 6
1

=
sin
=
sin

3
3
0
0
(
6
( ) ( ))
1
3
=
6 sin(2) 0 sin(0)
sin

0
3
3
(
( ))
( )6
1
3
3

0+
cos
= 2 2 cos
=
=

3
0
3
3
= 2 2 (cos(2) cos(0)) = 2 2 (1 1) = 0,

sin(2) = 0, cos(2) = (1)2 = 1. :

cos() = (1) , sin() = 0.
:
6
( )
( )6
3
3

2 =
cos
=
sin
(sin(2) sin(0)) = 0.
=
3

0
0

II

1 12

, ( 2 ),
( 1 , ). = 0. :
( 6
6

( ) )
)
( )
( )

1 6 (
1
sin
=
1 sin
=
sin

.
3 0 3
3
3
3
3
0 3
0
, ( 1 ).
. :
6
6
( )
( )

1
1 =
sin
=
=
cos
3
0
3
0 3
(
( )6 6
( ) )
1

=
cos
cos
=

3
3
0
0
1
1
6
= (6 cos(2) 0 cos(0) 0) = (6 0) = .

, 2 -. :
(
)
1
6
2
=

0 = .
3

() :
)
(

( )
( )

2
2 1
() =

=
sin
.
sin

3
=1
=1
, ,
.
3. (1, 1, 1)
(, ) = 2 + 2 2 + 2 7,
(, , ) = (, ) + 2

2 +3 2 +4 2

:
() .
()

. = ()
:
= 2 =

(, ),
, :
=

= 2 + 0 2 + 0 0 = 2 2

II

1 13

.
( ):

= 0 + 2 0 + 2 0 = 2 + 2

(, ):
=

+
= (2 2) + (2 + 2)

.
= 2 2 = 0, = 2 + 2 = 0 = (1, 1)
.

= 2,
= 2,
= 0,
= 0,
=

, ( (1, 1),
[ ]):

1 =
=2>0

2 0

2 =
=

0 2

=4>0

2 > 0, ( - ( )). 1 > 0 , 1 < 0

.
: (1, 1)

250
200
150
100
50
0
-50

M(1,-1)
10
5

-10

-5

0
0

-5
-10
10

(, , ) :
(
)

+
+
=
,
,

II

1 14

:
2 +3 2 +4 2

(, , ) = 2 + 2 2 + 2 7 + 2

.
(1, 1, 1).

2
2
2
= 2 2 + 2 +3 +4 (4), () = 2 2 + 49 = 49

2
2
2
=
= 2 + 2 + 2 +3 +4 (6), () = 2 + 2 69 = 69

2
2
2
=
= 0 + 2 +3 +4 (8), () = 89

(, , ) (1, 1, 1) :

= grad = 49 69 + 89 = (49 , 69 , 89 ) = 9 (4, 6, 8)

. (, , ),

(1 , 2 , 3 ). ()
0
( ):
(
)

1 2 3

0
=
=
,
,
,
|

|
=
21 + 22 + 23

|
|
|
| |
| |
|

(, , )
:

=

=
0 .

.
.
< , >= |||| cos(](, )) = |||| cos(0) = ||2

0 :

0=

||
:

=
0 .
=

< , >
|
|2

=
=
= |
|

|
|
|
|
|
|

, ,
.

|
| = (49 )2 + (69 )2 + (89 )2 = 9 42 + 62 + 82 = 9 116 = 29 29

: (, , ) (1, 1),
= grad = 9 (4, 6, 8),

= 29 29.

II

1 15

4. .
+ 4 =

6
+ (2 3)2
cos(2)

. (
): ( ),
, . :
, .
, = () - :
0 () + 1 (1) + . . . + 1 + = 0
. ,
:
0 + 1 1 + . . . + 1 + = 0
1 , 2 , . . . , .
:
1 = 1 , 2 = 2 , . . . =
:
() = 1 1 + 2 2 + . . . +
.
-
1 = 1 , 2 = 2 , . . . =
() = 1 1 + 2 2 + . . . +
e

1 = , 2 = , 3 = 2
() = 1 + 2 + 3 2
(
, )
1,2 = : 1 = cos(), 2 = sin()
3,4 = : 3 = cos(), 4 = sin()
() = (1 cos() + 2 sin()) + (3 cos() + 4 sin())

II

1 16

e (
)
1,2 = : 1 = cos(), 2 = sin()
3,4 = : 3 = cos(), 4 = sin()
5,6 = : 5 = 2 cos(), 6 = 2 sin()
() = (1 cos() + 2 sin()) + (3 cos() + 4 sin())+
+ 2 (5 cos() + 6 sin())
. ( .)
+ 4 = 0
:
2 + 4 = 0
1,2 = 2, : 1,2 = 0 2.
:
1 = 0 cos(2), 2 = 0 sin(2)
:
() = 1 cos(2) + 2 sin(2)
.
, . : ( ).
? .
: sin /cos
sin /cos
. : cos(2) cos(2), 3
3 ( ).
: . ( ,
.
.)
.
+ 4 =

6
cos(2)

:
() = 1 cos(2) + 2 sin(2)

II

1 17

, . ( ()).
.
1 () = 1 () cos(2) + 2 () sin(2)
. .
,
. .

() cos(2) + () sin(2) = 0
2
1

6

1 ()(cos(2)) + 2 ()(sin(2)) =

cos(2)
1 (), 2 () ( )
( ).
. : ,
( : ..).
, , - ,
.
,
.

() cos(2) + () sin(2) = 0
2
1

21 () sin(2) + 22 () cos(2) =

cos(2)
.
1 () =

2 () sin(2)
cos(2)

.
2

2 () sin(2)
6
sin(2) + 22 () cos(2) =
cos(2)
cos(2)
sin2 (2)

2 ()

cos(2)
.
2 ()

+ 2 () cos(2) =

3
cos(2)

sin2 (2)
cos2 (2)
3
+ 2 ()
=
cos(2)
cos(2)
cos(2)
2 ()(sin2 (2) + cos2 (2)) = 3
2 () = 3

,
.
3 sin(2)
2 () = 3 : 1 () =
cos(2)

II

1 18

: 1 () = 3 tan(2), 2 () = 3. .

sin(2)
3
(cos(2))
3
1 () = 3
=
= ln | cos(2)|
cos(2)
2
cos(2)
2

2 () = 3 = 3
1 () :
1 () =

3
cos(2) ln | cos(2)| + 3 sin(2)
2

.
+ 4 = (2 3)2
:
() = 1 cos(2) + 2 sin(2)
, .
, .
. :
( () cos() + () sin())
= , . , = 0 = :
()
, :
( () cos(0) + () sin(0)) = ( ().1 + 0) = ()
.
= , : = 0 = 0 = 1. =
, = 1 = 1 = . : = 2 = 2 .
.
() .
23 : = 1. 2 () = +,
. 3 + 1: 3 () = 3 + 2 + + . (
.) ().

2 3, 3 + 1,
- : .
3 () = 3 + 2 + + , 3 () = 3 + 2 + +

!

II

1 19

.
+ 4 = (2 3)2 , 1,2 = 0 2
(2 3)2 : = + = 2 + 0 = 2 ,
2 3 ().
(
). = ,
= 0. 2 3 = 1.
2 () = 0 2 ( + )
: , , .
2 () = 2 + 2
2 () = 22 + 2 + 22
2 () = 42 + 22 + 22 + 42
2 .
2 () = 2 ( + )
2 () = 2 (2 + + 2)
2 () = 2 (4 + 2 + 2 + 4)
.
2 (4 + 4 + 4) + 42 ( + ) = 2 (2 3)
4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 2 3
.
8 + 4 + 8 = 2 3

8 = 2

4 + 8 = 3
= 1/4, = 1/2.
2 () =

1
1

4
2

2 ()
( 1 ()). (
, .)
:
(
)
3
1
1
2
() = 1 cos(2) + 2 sin(2) + cos(2) ln | cos(2)| + 3 sin(2) +

2
4
2
.

II

1 20

5. , .
: = 6 2 2 , 2 = 2 + 2 ( 0)
. : = 6 2 2 ( ), 2 = 2 + 2 ( ). 0 ,
. .
.

10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

1
-5 -4
0
-3 -2
-1
-1 0
-2
-3
1 2
3 4 -5-4
5

5
-3

-2

-1

3-3

-2

-1

-.
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
2
1.5
1
0.5
-2 -1.5
0
-1 -0.5
-0.5
0 0.5
-1
-1.5
1 1.5
2-2

(, )
(, ).
, , . (
, .
.)
-,
, . : = 6 2 2 . : = 2 + 2 ,
, 0,
. ( ,
).
:

2 + 2 6 2 2
. . . : 2 = 2 2 .

II

1 21

:
= 6 ( 2 2 ) 2
2 + 6 = 0, 1 = 3, 2 = 2
, : 2 + 2 =
(3)2 2 + 2 = 22 . = 2, .
:

= cos()

*
: = sin()
[0, 2], [0, 2]
2 + 2 = 22 , ,
[0, 2]. : [0, 2].
= . :

* = cos()
: = sin()

* :
[0, 2], [0, 2]

2 + 2 6 2 2
:

=

:
( 62 2 )
(

)

2
2
2
2
6 +
=
=

2 + 2

:
(
)

6 2 2 2 + 2 =

(
)

=
6 ( cos())2 ( sin())2 ( cos())2 + ( sin())2 =
*
(

)
(
)
2
2
=
6 =
6 2
*

sin2 () + cos2 () = 1.
, ( ).
)

2 ( 2
2
3
2
3
(6 ) =
(6 ) =
*
0
0
(

)
2
2
3 2
4 2

(6 2 3 ) = |2
32 |20 =
0
3 0 4 0
0
0
(
)
8 16
32
=
= 2 12
3
4
3
32/3. .

II

1 22

6. ,

2 2
+
= 1,
16
9
.

. .
( ):

(, , ) = (, , ) + (, , ) + (, , )
:

(, , ) + (, , ) + (, , )

= ()

: = (), [, ]
= ()
:

(, , ) + (, , ) + (, , ) =

}
{

=
[(), (), ()] + [(), (), ()] + [(), (), ()]

- , .
: ,
.
:
)

(, ) + (, ) =

,
. .
:

= () + , (, ) = , (, ) =

:
)
(

=
(1 (1)) = 2

II

1 23

, :
2 2
+
=1
16
9
:

= 4 cos()

= 3 sin()
[0, 1]. ,
: [0, 2].

= 4 cos()

* : = 3 sin()
[0, 1], [0, 2]
4

-2

-4
-4

-2

= 4.3. = 12 ( = ).

2
1
2
= 2
12 = 24

*
0
0

2 1
1
2
= 24|0
= 24.2. = 24

2 0
2
: ...2 = .4.3.1 = 12.
, . 24.

1.

+2
+2
=0

=? = = .
2.
= (, ) = 3 + 3 12 + 3
3.

sin() = ( + 1) arctan(),

( )
2

4.
= 4 + 2 sin(4)
5.

= 4 2

= 2 2

6.

(2 32 3 2 )

()

= 3 cos(2)

() : = 3 sin(2), [, 2]
= 4
10 .

=1

II

2 25

1.

+2
+2
=0

=? = = .
. :
=

1
.
+2

1/( + 2)
= lim
=
= lim
+1
1/(( + 1) + 2)

( + 1) + 2
= lim + 3 = lim (1 + 3/) = 1 + 0 = 1.
= lim

+ 2 + 2 (1 + 2/)
1+0
= 1. = 1:

1
1+2
=
.

+
2

+
2
=0
=0

, . ( ):

1
( + 2)
= lim
= lim ln | + 2||
0 =
0

+2
+2
= lim (ln | + 2| ln |0 + 2|) = .

( ), .
= 1:

(1)+2
.
+2
=0
. +1 :

(1)+3
(1)+2
, =
= 1 < 1 (+1 < ).
+1 =
+2
+3
+3
+2
:

[ ]
(1)+2
1
1

lim = lim
= lim
=
= 0.

+ 2
+2

. ,
/ .
: = 1, = 1 , = 1
. () : [1, 1).

II

2 26

2.
= (, ) = 3 + 3 12 + 3
. . :
= 32 + 0 12 + 0 = 32 12
= 0 + 3 2 12 + 0 = 3 2 12
:
2
3 12 = 0
2
3 12 = 0
:
3 2
= 3
=
12

3 2
12

)2
12 = 0.

:
(
)
27 4
27 3
12 = 0 =
12 = 0 = = 0, 3 = 64.
144
144
: = 0 = 4.
0 (0, 0) 1 (4, 4).
:

= 6,
= 6,
= 12,
= 12.

. 0 (0, 0):
1 = 6 = 6.0 = 0

6 12 0 12
=
= 0 122 = 144 < 0
2 =
12 6 12 0
0 (0, 0) .

2000
1500
1000
500
0
-500
-1000
-1500
-2000
-2500
-3000
-3500

M0(0,0) M1(4,4)

10
5
-10

-5

0
0

-5
-10
10

II

2 27

1 (4, 4):
1 = 6.4 = 24 > 0

6.4 12

= 242 122 = 3.122 = 432 > 0

2 =
12 6.4
2 (
1 > 0). , ( ).
: 1 (4, 4), 0 (0, 0).
3.
sin() = ( 2 + 1) arctan(),

( )
2

=1

. .
=

, .

sin() = ( 2 + 1) arctan()

sin(), = .
( 2 + 1) arctan()

sin()
( 2 + 1) arctan(), = /2.
( 2

1
=
+ 1) arctan()
sin()

.
( 2

=
+ 1) arctan()
sin()

, (
, ).

=
+
2
( + 1) arctan()
sin()
arctan() 1/(1 + 2 ).

(arctan())
=
+
arctan()
sin()
, ?
:
( )
2
tan
= , sin() =
2
1 + 2

II

2 28

.
= 2 arctan(), =

2
1 + 2

( )
1 + 2 2

=
=
ln
||
=
ln
tan
=

sin()
2 1 + 2

2
:

( )

ln | arctan()| = ln tan
+
2
(/2) = 1, 1 /2:

( )

ln | arctan(1)| = ln tan
+
4
( )
( )
( )
= ln 1 + = ln
= 0 + = = ln
ln
4
4
4
:

( )
( )
( )

ln | arctan()| = ln tan
= ln | arctan()| = ln tan
+ ln

2
4
4
2
( )
(
( ))

arctan() = tan
= = tan
tan
4
2
4
2
:
(
( ))
= tan
tan
4
2
4.
= 4 + 2 sin(4)
.
+ () = (),
= (), () () .
:
(
)

()
()
() =
+
()
(, ):
(
) (
(
)
)

() = exp ()
+ exp
() ()
, , , , ..
, .
- : = ().
: = ( ) = (()) = . :
= 4 + 2 sin(4)

II

2 29

, () = 1, () = 4 + 2 sin(4). :
(
)

(1)
(1)
+
() =
(4 + 2 sin(4))
(
)

() = + (4 + 2 sin(4))
(
)

() = + 4 + 2 sin(4)
. .
(
)

1 = = ( ) = =
(
)

= + ( ) = ( + ) = ( + 1)

( , ):

2 = sin(4) = sin(4)( ) =
(
)

= sin(4) (sin(4)) =
(
)

= sin(4) 4 cos(4) =
(
)

= sin(4) + 4 cos(4)( ) =
(
(
))

=
(
)

= sin(4) + 4 cos(4) + 16 sin(4)

, :
2 = sin(4) 4 cos(4) 162
172 = sin(4) 4 cos(4)

2 =
(sin(4) + 4 cos(4))
17
().
() = ( + 41 + 22 )
(
(
))

(sin(4) + 4 cos(4))
() = + 4( ( + 1)) + 2
17
(
)
2

() = 4 ( + 1)
(sin(4) + 4 cos(4))
17
2
8
() = 4 4
sin(4)
cos(4)
17
17

II

2 30

= (). , .
. .
( )
2

= 2 =
=
=

2
8
= 4 4
sin(4)
cos(4)

17
17
( ). .
)
(
8
2

sin(4)
cos(4)
= 4 4
17
17
, .
)

(
2
8

4 4
=
sin(4)
cos(4) + 1
17
17
(
).

2
8

= 4 4
sin(4)
cos(4) + 1
17
17
2 1
8 1
2

cos(4)
sin(4) + 1
= 4 4 +
2
17 4
17 4
1
2
= 22 4 +
cos(4)
sin(4) + 1
34
17
. :
1

=
=
1

.
=

1
2
= 22 4 +
cos(4)
sin(4) + 1

34
17

(
)
1
2

2
= 2 4 +
cos(4)
sin(4) + 1
34
17
, .
)

(
1
2

2
=
2 4 +
cos(4)
sin(4) + 1 + 2
34
17

1
2

2
= 2 4 +
cos(4)
sin(4) + 1 + 2
34
17
2
1 1
2 1
3
= 2 4 +
sin(4) +
cos(4) + 1 + 2
3
2
34 4
17 4
2
1
1
= 3 22 +
sin(4) +
cos(4) + 1 + 2
3
136
34
.

II

2 31

6.

(2 32 3 2 )

()

= 3 cos(2)

() : = 3 sin(2), [, 2]
= 4
. : [5, 5] [, 2].

20
15
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20

26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12

-3

-2

-1

3-3

-2

-1

3
-3

-2

-1

3-3

-2

-1

. (, , )
. , :

= ()

: = (), [, ]
= ()
:
( )
( )2 ( )2

(, , ) =
[(), (), ()]
+
+

, .
, .
:

= (3 cos(2)) = 6 sin(2),
= (3 sin(2)) = 6 cos(2),
= (4) = 4

(2 32 3 2 ) =

=
(2.4 3(3 cos(2))2 3(3 sin(2))2 ) (6 sin(2))2 + (6 cos(2))2 + 42 =
2

2
2
=
(8 27 cos (2) 27 sin (2)) 36 sin2 (2) + 36 cos2 (2) + 16 =
2
2

2
=
(8 27) 36 + 16 = 52
(8 27) = 2 13(42 |2
27| ) =

2
2
= 2 13(4(4 ) 27(2 )) = 2 13(12 2 27) = 6 13(4 9).
.

II

2 32

5.

= 4 2

= 2 2

. , = 4 2 , = 2 2 .
4

-2

-4
-4

-2

, .
2 2 = 4 2
22 2 4 = 0
2 2 = 0
2 1. = 2 = 0, = 1 = 3.
: = 2, = 0; = 1, = 3.

1. = 3 + 3 15.
2. ,

)
(
2
1 2 ,

2 + 2 2 .
3. :
{
< < 0,
() =
0
0 < < .
4. .
+ 2 = cos() 3 sin()
5. .

=1

2 + 1

6.

+ 2,

, ,

+ = 1, = 1.
3 2
3 2
10 .

II

3 34

5. .

=1

2 + 1

. :
=

1
.
2 + 1

1/(2 + 1)
=
= lim
= lim
+1
1/(( + 1)2 + 1)

2
( + 1)2 + 1
= lim + 2 + 2 =
= lim

2 + 1 2 + 1
2 (1 + 2/ + 2/2 )
1+0+0
= lim
=
= 1.
2
2

(1 + 1/ )
1+0
= 1. = 1:

=1

1
1
=
.
2 + 1 =1 2 + 1

.
( ):

= lim
2
+ 1

= lim arctan()|
1 =
+ 1
1

= lim (arctan( ) arctan(1)) = = .

2
4
4
2

( ), .
= 1:

(1)
.
2+1

=1
. +1 :

(1)+1
(1)
1
1
, =
=
+1 =
<
(+1 < ).

( + 1)2 + 1
2 + 1
2 + 2 + 2
2 + 1
:

[ ]
(1)
1
1
= lim
lim = lim 2
=
= 0.

+ 1
2 + 1

.
: : [1, 1].

II

3 35

3. :
{
< < 0,
() =
0
0 < < .
. .
4

10

3
2

1
0

-1
-5

-2
-3
-4

-4

-3

-2

-1

-10
-10

-5

10

: ( + 2) = ().
, . 0 :
0
(
)

1 2
1
1 0
=
=
0 =
0
= .

2
2
:
0
1
cos() =
sin() =

(
)
0
1
0
=
sin()|
sin() =

(
)

1 0
1
sin()() =
0 sin(0) () sin()
=

(
)
1
1
1
0
=
0 0 + cos()| = 2 (cos(0) cos()) =

(1) 1
1
,
= 2 (1 (1) ) =

2
sin() = sin() = 0, cos() = cos() = (1) . :

0
1 0
1
=
sin() =
cos() =

)
(
0
1
0
=
cos()|
cos() =

(
)
1
1
0
=
0 cos(0) () cos() sin()| =

(
)
1
1
(1)

=
0 + (1) (sin(0) sin()) =
,

1
=

15

II

3 36

. :
)
(
(1) 1
(1)
() = +
cos() +
sin() .
4 =1
2

1. = 3 + 3 15.
. 2, 2. . .
= 32 + 0 15 = 32 15
= 0 + 3 2 15 = 3 2 15
: 0 (0, 0)
1 (5, 5).
.

= 6,
= 6,
= 15,
= 15

. 0 (0, 0).
1 = 6 = 6.0 = 0

6 15 0 15
=
= 0 152 = 225 < 0
2 =
15 6 15 0
0 (0, 0) .
1 (5, 5).
1 = 6.5 = 30 > 0

6.5 15

2 =
15 6.5
2 (
1 > 0). ( , .)

2000
1000
0
-1000
-2000
-3000
-4000

M0(0,0)

M1(5,5)

10
5
-10

-5

0
0

-5
-10
10

: 1 (5, 5), 0 (0, 0).

II

3 37

4. .
+ 2 = cos() 3 sin()
. :
+ 2 = 0
:
2 + 2 = 0
1 = 1 2 = 2.
:
() = 1 + 2 2
:
+ 2 = 0 (1 cos() + (3) sin())
,
sin /cos .
=
= 0 1 = , :
= , : = 0. : 1 3,
: .
( . 18):
( () cos() + () sin())
:
() = 0 0 ( cos(1) + sin(1)) = cos() + sin()
.
() = sin() + cos()
() = cos() sin()
:
cos() sin() sin() + cos() 2[ cos() + sin()] = cos() 3 sin()
:
( 3) cos() + ( 3) sin() = 1 cos() + (3) sin()

3 = 1

3 = 3
= 0, = 1.
() = sin()
:
() = 1 + 2 2 + sin()

II

3 38

2. ,

)
(
2
1 2 ,

2 + 2 2 .
. . 2 + 2 = 2 .
:

= cos()

= sin()
,
. ,
[0, 2] ( ). , . (:
( 1)2 + ( 1)2 = 1 , [0, /2].)
.
( cos())2 + ( sin())2 = 2 , 2 = 2 , =
, [0, ].
, * .

* [0, ]
:
[0, 2]
, .
.

cos()
sin()

=
= cos2 () + sin2 () =
=
sin() cos()
( , .) , , .
, = .
:
)
)
(
(
2 sin2 ()
2
1 2

1 2 =

cos2 ()
*

:
1

2 sin2 ()
1 cos2 ()
1
1
=
1

=1
+1=2
2
2
2
2
cos ()
cos ()
cos ()
cos2 ()

:
)
)
(
(
1

2
=
2

cos2 ()
cos2 ()
*
*
- : . .

II

3 39

. ,
. .
)
) )
(
2 ( (

2
2
=

cos2 ()
cos2 ()
0
0
*
.
.
)
2

2 (
2
2
3
2 =

2 = |2
0 |0 = 2 = 2
0

e . (
, ).
) )

2
2 ( (

2
=

=
cos ()
cos2 ()
0
0
0
0

2
2
= tan()|2
=

(tan(2) tan(0)) = 0
0
2 0
2
2 3 . .
6.

+ 2,

, ,

+ = 1, = 1.
3 2
3 2
. .
5
4
3
B(0,2)

2
1
0

C(-3,0)

A(3,0)

-1
D(0,-2)

-2
-3
-4
-5

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

II

3 40

.
( ), .
,
: = () : = ().
,
( ).
,
.
( ):

+ =1:
3 2

= 1 :
3 2

+ = 1 :
3 2

=1:
3 2

2
3
= 2 = 3
3
2
2
3
= 2 + = 3 +
3
2
2
3
= 2 = 3
3
2
2
3
= 2 + = 3 +
3
2

( ). , = () .
.
2
2
: [3, 0], = 2 , =
3
3
2
2
: [0, 3], = 2 + , =
3
3
2
2
: [3, 0], = 2 , =
3
3
2
2
: [0, 3], = 2 + , =
3
3
( , ):

+
+
+ 2 =
+

:
)
( )
)

0 (
0 (
2
2
6
+ 2 =
2 + 2
=
2 =
3
3
3

3
3
0
=
(2 2) = 2|03 2 |03 = 2(0 3) (0 9) = 6 + 9 = 3
3

(
)
( )
)
3 (
2
2
6
2 + + 2
=
2 + =
3
3
3
0

+ 2 =
0
3
2 3
=
(2 + 2) = 2|3
0 |0 = 2(3 0) (9 0) = 6 + 9 = 3
0

II

3 41

(
)
( )
)
0 (
2
2
6
+ 2 =
2 + 2
=
2 =
3
3
3

3
3
0
(2 2) = 2|03 2 |03 = 2(0 + 3) (0 9) = 6 + 9 = 3
=

(
)
( )
)
3 (
2
6
2
2 + + 2
2 + =
=
3
3
3
0

+ 2 =
0
3
(2 + 2) = 2|30 + 2 |30 = 2(3 0) + (9 0) = 6 + 9 = 3
=
0

12.
( ).
, = () .
.
3
3
: = 3 + , [0, 2], =
2
2
3
3
: = 3 , [2, 0], =
2
2
3
3
: = 3 + , [0, 2], =
2
2
3
3
: = 3 , [2, 0], =
2
2
( ,
):

+ 2 =
+ 2 =

:
(
)
)
2 ( )

2 (
3
3
9

+ 2 =
+ 2 3 + =
6 + =
2
2
2

0
0
9 2 2
9
= 6|2
|0 = 6(2 0) + (4 0) = 12 + 9 = 3
0 +
2 2
4
(
)
)

0 ( )
0 (
3
3
9
+ 2 =

+ 2 3 =
6 =
2
2
2

2
2
2
9 0
9
= 6|02
|2 = 6(0 + 2) (0 4) = 12 + 9 = 3
2 2
4
( .) :

+ 2 = 12

, , ,
, :

+ 2 =
+ 2 = (12) = 12

: 12.

1. = 2 3 (6 )
(1, 2).
2. () = 2 2 [, ].
3. = = .

(1)+1 2

=1
4. .
+ 4 + 4 = 2
5.

(2 + 2 ),
=

, = , = + 3, = 3, = 9.
6.

2 + 2 ,

2 = (0, 0) (1, 1)
10 .

II

4 43

3. = = .

(1)+1 2

=1
. :
=

(1)+1
.
2

(1)+1 /2
= lim
=
= lim
+1
(1)+2 /( + 1)2

2
(1)+1 ( + 1)2
= lim + 2 + 2 =
= lim

2 (1)+2
2
1+0+0
2 (1 + 2/ + 2/2 )
=
= 1.
= lim
2

1
1
= 1. = 1:

1 (1)+1
(1)+1 2 =
.
2

=1
=1

. +1 :

(1)+2
(1)+1
1
1

=
+1 =
, =
< 2 (+1 < ).

2
2
2
( + 1)

+ 2 + 1

[ ]
(1)+1
1
1

= lim 2 =
lim = lim
= 0.

.
= 1:

=1

(1)+1

(1) (1)2+1 (1)(1)2

1
=
=
=

.
2
2
2
2

=1
=1
=1

( ,
`
). (
):

2
1
= lim ( )|1 = lim =
= lim
2
1

1
1
)
(
1
= lim
1 = (0 1) = 1.

( ), .
: : [1, 1].

II

4 44

2. () = 2 2 [, ].
. .
10

10

0
-6

-4

-2

-10

-5

10

15

: ( + 2) = ().
, : () = ():
() = 2 ()2 = 2 2 = ().

( ). = 0. 0 .
0 (
):

2
1
() cos() =
() cos().
=

0
0 :
)
(

2 2
2
3
2
2
0 =
( ) =
|0 =
0

3
(
( 3
))
( 0 3 )
2

4
=
2 0
0
=
3
= 2.

3
3
:
(
)

2
2 2
2
2
2
=
( ) cos() =
cos()
cos() .
0

0
0
:

2
2
1 =
2 cos() =
sin()|0 = [sin() sin(0)] = 0,

II

4 45

sin() = 0. :

1 2
2
2 =
cos() =
sin() =
0
0
)
(

1
2
2

sin()( ) =
=
sin()|0

0
(
)

1
2
=
sin() 0 sin(0)
2 sin() =

0
(
)

1
2
=
00+
cos() =

0
)
(

2

cos() =
= 2 cos()|0

0
)
(
2
1

(
)
2
1
2(1)

= 2 (1) (sin() sin(0)) =

,

2
, cos() = (1) . :
(
)
2
2(1)
4(1)+1
4(1) (1)
=
0
=
.
=

2
2
2
:

2
(1)+1
() = 2 + 4
cos().
2
3

=1

1. = 2 3 (6 )
(1, 2).
. : =

+
.

= (, ) = 62 3 3 3 2 4

=
= 12 3 32 3 2 4

=
= 182 2 33 2 42 3

.
( ) = 12.8 3.8 2.16 = 8(12 3 4) = 8.5 = 40
( ) = 18.4 3.4 4.8 = 4(18 3 8) = 4.7 = 28
= 40 + 28

II

4 46

4. .
+ 4 + 4 = 2
. :
+ 4 + 4 = 0
:
2 + 4 + 4 = 0 = ( + 2)2 = 0
1,2 = 2. :
() = 1 2 + 2 2
:
+ 4 + 4 = 2

. ( ,
-; . 16.
: 2 2 ( + )).
. :
() = 1 ()2 + 2 ()2
.

1 ()2 + 2 ()2 = 0

1 ()(22 ) + 2 ()(22 + 2 ) = 2

1 () = 2 ()

21 () 22 () + 2 () =
1 () .
2(2 ()) 22 () + 2 () =
2 () =
: 1 () = 2 , 2 () = .
.

3
2
2
1 () = = , 2 () = =
3
2
():
(
)
3 2 2 2
23 33 2 3 2
+
=
+

=
() =
3
2
6
6
6
:
() = 1 2 + 2 2 +

3 2

II

4 47

5.

=
(2 + 2 ),

, = , = + 3, = 3, = 9.
. .
9

y=9

8
7
6

y=x+3

y=x

5
4
3

y=3

2
1
0
0

( ),
:

[3, 9]

[ 3, ]
( ),
:

[0, 3]
[3, 6]
[6, 9]

,
,
[3, + 3] [, + 3] [, 9]
.

* [3, 9]
:
[ 3, ]
. ,
. ,
. :
)
9 (
2
2
( + )
3

:
)
)
9 (
9 ( 3

2
2
2
+ |3
( + ) =
3 3
3
3
3
, :
)
9 (
1 3
3
2
( ( 3) ) + ( ( 3))
3
3

II

4 48

, .
)
9 (
9
1 3
1 3
3
2
( ( 3) ) + ( ( 3)) =
( ( 3)3 ) + 3 2 =
3
3
3 3
9
1 3
=
( ( 3 3 2 3 + 332 33 )) + 3 2 =
3
9
3 9
2
2
3 9 + 9 + 3 =
(6 2 9 + 9) =
=
3
3

2 9
9
9
= 2 3 |93
+ 9|93 = 2(93 33 ) (92 32 ) + 9(9 3) =

2 3
2
9
9
= 2(33 33 33 ) (32 32 32 ) + 9.6 = 2.26.33 8.32 + 54 =
2
2
= 2.26.27 9.4.9 + 54 = 1404 324 + 54 = 1134
1134. - .

[0, 3]
[3, 6]
[6, 9]

1 :
, 2 :
, 3 :
[3, + 3]
[, + 3]
[, 9]
, . , .
)
)
3 (
3 ( +3
3 +3

2 |+3
=
(2 + 2 ) =
+
1 =
3
3 3
0
0
3
)
3 (
1
2
3
3
=
( + 3 3) + (( + 3) 3 ) =
3
0
)
3 (
1 3
2
3
=
+ ( + 9 + 27 + 27 27) =
3
0
)
)
3 (
3 ( 3
3
4
3
2
2
=
+
+ 3 + 9 =
+ 3 + 9 =
3
3
0
0
3
3
4
92
34
9.32
34
189
3 3
3
3
=
+

|
+
=
+
3
+
=
2.3
+
=
0

3 0
2 0
3
2
2
2
)
)
6 ( +3
6 (
3 +3

2 =
(2 + 2 ) =
2 |+3
+
=

3
3

3
)
6 (
1
2
3
3
=
( + 3 ) + (( + 3) ) =
3
3
)
6 (
1 3
2
2
3
=
3 + ( + 9 + 27 + 27 ) =
3
3
6
6
( 2
)
( 2
)
2
=
3 + 3 + 9 + 9 =
6 + 9 + 9 =
3
3

2 6
9
9
= 23 |63 +
+ 9|63 = 2(63 33 ) + (62 32 ) + 9(6 3) =

2 3
2
9
9
= 2(23 33 33 ) + (22 32 32 ) + 9.3 = 2.7.33 + 3.32 + 27 =
2
2
9
1053
= 15.27 + 27 =
2
2

II

4 49
(

)
3 9

(2 + 2 ) =
2 |9 + =
3 =
3
6

6
)
)
9 (
9 (
3
1 3
2
3
5
3
2
9 + 3
=
(9 ) + (9 ) =
=
3
3
6
6
9
)
9 (
43
4
2
5
3 9
9
=
+ 3 = 3 |6 + 35 |96 =
3
3 6
6
1
1
= 3(93 63 ) (94 64 ) + 35 .3 = 3(33 33 23 33 ) (34 34 24 34 ) + 36 =
3
3
1
= 3.19.33 65.34 + 36 = 33 (3.19 65 + 33 ) = 33 .19 = 513
3

: 189/2 + 1053/2 + 513 = 1134. : 1134.

6.

2 + 2 ,

2 = (0, 0) (1, 1)
. 2 = .
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

10

15

20

.
. : = , = 2 . :
(0, 0) (1, 1), [0, 1]. :
= 2 , = 2,
:

2
2 + =

1
2

= , =

2 2 + =

1
4

4 + =
0

54 = 5 |10 = 1

1. .
2. :

, 0 < ,
2
() = 4
,
< < .
4 2
3. , (, ) ,
(, ) = cos() + cos().
(, ) (0, 0) .
4. (, ) = 3 + 3 15
.
5. + = 2 + 1.
6.

,
: {4 2 2 + 2 , 0, 0, 0 1}.
7.

( + ) ( ),

2 + 2 2 = 0.
: 1,2,6: 10, 3,7: 5, 4: 8, 5: 12.

II

5 51

2.

,
() = 4
,
4
. .

0< ,
2

< < .
2

-1

-1

-2

-2

-3

-3

-4

-4

-3

-2

-1

-4

-4

-3

-2

-1

,
. .

, ; ,
. () = ().
( ):

,
< < ,
2
() = 4
, < 0.
4
2
:

() = = (),
4
(
)

() = () = + =
= ().
4
4
4
. . -:
[ ]
[
]

() : ,
,
, 0 ,
4
[ ] 2 4
[ 2 ]

() : 0,
,
, .
2
4
2
4
()
:

/4,
[, /2]

/4 , [/2, 0]
() =
.
/4 ,
[0, /2]

/4,
[/2, ]

II

5 52

: ( + 2) = ().
4

-2

-4
-10

-5

10

15

, 0 = 0 = 0.
. (
0 ):

1
2
2
=
() sin() =
() sin() =
() sin(),

0
0
() [0, ], () [, 0].
, (), (). , , ()
. ,
.
:
(
)
(
)
/2 (

)
2

=
sin() +
sin() =

4
4
0
/2
(
)
/2

2 /2
=
sin()
sin()
sin() =
4 0
4 /2
0
(
)

/2
2 /2
1
sin()
sin()
sin().
=
2
0
/2
0
, :
/2

1 /2
1 =
sin() =
sin()() =
0
0
) 1 (
( ))
1
1 ( ( )
/2
= cos()|0 =
cos
cos(0) =
1 cos
.

2
:

1
2 =
sin() =
sin()() =
/2
/2
)
( )) 1 ( ( )
1
1 (
= cos()|/2 =
cos() cos
=
cos
(1) .

II

5 53

, 1 2 :
( )) 1 ( ( )
) 1 (
( ))
1 (
1 2 =
1 cos

cos
(1) =
1 + (1) 2 cos
.

2
:
( )) 2 /2
1 (

1 + (1) 2 cos

sin().
=
2
2
0
:
/2

1 /2
1 /2
sin() =
3 =
sin()() =
cos() =
0
0
0
)
(
/2
1
/2
cos() =
cos()|0
=

0
(
)
/2
(
)
1

1
=
cos
0 cos(0)
cos()() =
2
2
0
(
)
( ) 1
1
/2
=
=
cos
sin()|0
2
2

(
( ) 1 ( ( )
)) 1 ( 1
( )
( ))
1
=
cos

sin
sin(0)
sin
cos
=
.
2
2

2

2
2
2
, 1/2 2/ ( ):
(
( ))
( )
( ))
2 1
1 (

1 + (1) 2 cos

sin
cos
=
=
2
2

2
2
2
(
( )) 2 ( 1
( )
( )))
1 1 (

1 + (1) 2 cos

sin
cos
=
=
2
2

2
2
2
(
( )
( )
( ))
1 1 (1)
2
=
+
cos

sin
+ cos
=
2
2
2

2
2
(
( ))
2
1 1 (1)
=
+

sin
.
2
2

2
:
(

( ))

1 1 (1)
2
() =
+

sin
sin().
2
2

2
=1
, . : = 2.
: (1)2 = 1, sin(2/2) = sin() = 0. :
(
)

1 1 1
2
1
sin(2)
() =
+
0 sin(2) =
(1 0) sin(2) =
.
2
2
2

2
2
=1
=1
=1
: = 2 + 1. : (1)2+1 = 1, sin((2 + 1)/2) =
(1) . :
(
)

1
1 1
2

() =

(1) sin((2 + 1)) =
2
+
1
2
2
(2
+
1)
=1
=

2(1) (1)
=1

2 (1)+1
sin((2 + 1)) =
sin((2 + 1)).
(2 + 1)2
=1 (2 + 1)2

II

5 54

: sin() = 0, cos() = (1) ,

cos() : = 2 = cos(2) = (1)2 = 1,
cos() : = 2 + 1 = cos((2 + 1)) = (1)2+1 = 1.
(
)
( )
2
cos
: = 2 = cos
= cos() = (1) ,
2
2
(
)
( )
(2 + 1)
cos
: = 2 + 1 = cos
= 0,
2
2
(
)
( )
2
sin
: = 2 = sin
= sin() = 0,
2
2
(
)
( )
(2 + 1)
sin
: = 2 + 1 = sin
= (1) .
2
2
4. (, ) = 3 + 3 15
.
. , 3, 1.
5. + = 2 + 1.
. :
+ = 0
:
2 + 1 = 0
1,2 = 0 .
:
() = 0 (1 cos(1) + 2 sin(1)) = 1 cos() + 2 sin()
:
+ = 2 + 1
sin / cos, .
. :
+ = 0 (2 + 1)
= = 0 0, = 0 , = , : = 0.
: = 2, : 2 + + .
( . 18):
()
:
() = 0 0 (2 + + ) = 2 + +

II

5 55

:
() = 2 +
() = 2
:
2 + 2 + + = 2 + 1
2 + + 2 + = 2 + 1
:

=1

=0

2 + = 1
= 1, = 1.
() = 2 1
:
() = 1 cos() + 2 sin() + 2 1

6.

,
: {4 2 2 + 2 , 0, 0, 0 1}.
. : 4 2 = 2 + 2 , = 0, = 0, = 0
= 1 . ,
= 1, . .

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6

-10 -8

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

0
-6 -4
-2
-2 0
-4
-6
2 4
6 8 -10-8
10

-.

10
8
0.5
-2 -1.5
0
-1 -0.5
-0.5
-1
0 0.5
-1.5
1 1.5
-2
2

1.5

II

5 56

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
2
1.5
0

0.5

1
1

1.5

0.5
20

( )
( ).
= 1.
( -, ).
( ) = 1.
:

2 + 2
=
4
= 0, . :

2 + 2
1
2
.
. :

* = cos()
:
= sin()
= 1,
: 4 = 2 + 2 . : [0, 2].
. ,
. ( ),
. : [0, /2].
= . :

= cos()

* : = sin()

* : [0, 2], [0, /2]

2 + 2

2
:

2 + 2
2

1
1
(2 ) = (2 1/2 ) = 2 1/21 = 1/2 =
2

II

5 57

:
(

1
2 2 +2 =
)

2
2
+
2 1
=
2

))

(
4
2 + 2

2 1
=
2

:
(
))

(
4
2 cos2 () + 2 sin2 ()

2 cos() sin() 1

2
*
sin2 () + cos2 () = 1 :
))
(

(
4 2

2 cos() sin() 1
2
*
( ), :

/2

2 cos() sin()

1
2

sin(2) = 2 sin() cos():

: 4/9.

/2

)
3
sin(2)
=

2
0
)
2 (

7/2
1 /2
3
sin(2)(2)

=
=
2 0
2
0
(
)
/2 4 2

1
1
2
9/2 2 =
= cos(2)0
0
2
4 0
29
(
)
16
2
1
9/2
0 (2 0) =
= (cos() cos(0))
2
4
9 2
(
)

1
2 9/2
2
=
= (1 1) 4
2
9
(
)
1
210/2
25
36 32
4
=4
= (2) 4
=

=
2
9
9
9
9
9

II

5 58

7.

( + ) ( ),

2 + 2 2 = 0.
. 2 + 2 = 2.
3

-1

-2

-1

(0, 1) 1.
2 + 2 2 + 1 1 = 0 = 2 + ( 1)2 = 1
( ):

= cos()

= sin()
, : [0, ].
:
2 cos2 () + 2 sin2 () = 2 sin()
2 = 2 sin()
= 2 sin()

*
:

= . :
= cos()
= sin()
[0, 2 sin()], [0, ]

,
:
)

( + ) + ( ) =
( )
( + ) =

=
(1 1) = 2

II

5 59

, 2:

= 2

2 sin()
2 |0

2 =
0

4 sin2 ().

2 sin()

=
*

cos(2) = 1 2 sin2 (), :

sin2 () =

1 cos(2)
.
2

:

1 cos(2)
2
4
4 sin () =

(1 cos(2)) =
= 2
2
0
0
0

cos(2)(2) =
+
(2 + 2 cos(2)) = 2
=
0

= 2|0 + sin(2)|0 = 2( 0) + (sin(2) sin(0)) = 2.

. = .1 = . 2
: 2.
3. , (, ) ,
(, ) = cos() + cos().
(, ) (0, 0) .
. (0, 0):
= cos() sin(), (0, 0) = 0 0 = 1,
= sin() + cos(), (0, 0) = 0 + 0 = 1.
:

grad = + = 1 + 1 .
:

|grad | = 1 + 1 = 2.

1. :
() = ||, [1, 1].
2. ?
= (4 )
3.

+ 2 + = 3 + 1 +

4. ?
: { = 2 + 4, = 4, = 0}
5.

2 + 2 , : {2 + 2 = 2, = 0, = 2 + 2 }

6.

(, ), = {(, ) : , }.

() =

, (, ) C(), () C[, ].
10 .

II

6 61

1. :
() = ||, [1, 1].
. .
2

1.5

1.5

0.5

0.5

-0.5

-0.5

-1
-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

-1

-3

-2

-1

: = (1 (1))/2 = 1. : ( + 2) = ().
: () = | | = || = ().
(
). = 0. 0 .
0 (
):

2
1
() cos() =
() cos().
=

0
() = ||:

1
( )
1 1
=
|| cos
= 2
cos(),
1 1
1
0
[0, 1] || = ( > 0). 0 :

1
1 1
0 =
|| = 2
= 2 |10 = 1 0 = 1.
1 1
0
:
1
2
= 2
cos() =
sin() =
0
0
(
)
1
2
1
sin() =
sin()|0
=

0
(
)
2
1
1
=
1 sin() 0 sin(0) +
cos()|0 =

2
(1) 1
= 2 2 (cos() cos(0)) = 2
,

2 2

II

6 62

sin() = 0, cos() = (1) .

:

1
2 (1) 1
() = + 2
cos().
2 =1
2

2. ?
= (4 )
. .
= (, ) = 4 2 2
= 4 2 2 , = 4 2 2
.
(4 2 ) = 0 = = 0, = 4 2
(4 2) = 0 = = 0, = 4 2
(
)
4 4
0 (0, 0) 1
,
. .
3 3

= 2,
= 2,
= 4 2 2,
= 4 2 2

.
1 = 2 = 0

2
4 2 2
2 =
4 2 2
2

0 4
=
4 0

= 0 16 < 0

2 , 0 (0, 0) .
8
4
1 = 2 = < 0
3
3

2
4 2 2
2 =
4 2 2
2

8/3 4/3 64 16

=
4/3 8/3 = 9 9 > 0
(
)
4 4
2 , 1
,
(1 < 0).
3 3
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
-500
-1000
-1500
-2000

M0M1

10
5
-10

-5

0
0

-5
-10
10

II

6 63
(

: 1
3.

)
4 4
,
, 0 (0, 0).
3 3

+ 2 + = 3 + 1 +

. :
+ 2 + = 0
:
2 + 2 + 1 = 0 = ( + 1)2 = 0
1,2 = 1. :
() = 1 + 2
:

+ 2 + = (3 + 1 + )
,
( . 17). ( ,

,
: + 1.)
() = 1 () + 2 ()
.

1 () + 2 () = 0

()( ) + ()( + ) = (3 + 1 + )
1
2

1 () = 2 ()

() () + () = 3 + 1 +
1
2
2
1 () .

(2 ()) 2 () + 2 () = 3 + 1 +

2 () = 3 + 1 +

: 2 () = 3 + 1 + , 1 () = 3 + 1 2 .
.

1/2
2 () = (3 + 1 + ) = 3 ( + 1) + =
2
2
2
= 3 ( + 1)3/2 +
= 2( + 1)3/2 +
3
2
2

II

6 64

+ 1 .

1/2
1 () = 3 ( + 1) 2 =

2
3
3/2
= 3
=
( + 1)
3
3
(
)

3
3/2
3/2
= 2 ( + 1) ( + 1)
=
3
)
(
3
2
3/2
5/2

= 2 ( + 1) ( + 1)
=
5
3
4
3
= 2( + 1)3/2 + ( + 1)5/2
5
3

1 ()

():
)
(
)
(
3
2
4
5/2
3/2
3/2
+ 2( + 1) +
=
() = 2( + 1) + ( + 1)
5
3
2
(
)
(
)
4
3 3
3
4
5/2
5/2
=
( + 1)
+
( + 1) +
=

5
3
2
5
6
:
)
(
3
4
5/2

( + 1) +

() = 1 + 2 +
5
6

4. ?
: { = 2 + 4, = 4, = 0}
. .
10

6
y = x2 + 4
4

x=0

y = 4x

0
-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

[0, 2]
:
[4, 2 + 4]
*

2.5

II

6 65

:

=

2 ( 2 +4 )
=
=
*

2
|4+4

(2 + 4 4) =

2
3
8
8
=
+ 4|20 22 |20 = + 8 8 =

3 0
3
3
8/3.
5.

2 + 2 , : {2 + 2 = 2, = 0, = 2 + 2 }

. : = 2 + 2 , 2 + 2 = 2
. :
2 + 2 = 2 1 + 1 = 2 2 + 1 + 2 = 1 = ( 1)2 + 2 = 1.
(1, 0) . ,
. .

25
20
15
10
5
0
-5

5
4
3
2
1
0

-6

-4

-2

6-6

-4

-2

6
0.5
-2 -1.5
0
-1 -0.5
-0.5
-1
0 0.5
-1.5
1 1.5
2-2

4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1
0.5
0

0.5

0
1

1.5

-0.5
2-1

1.5

II

6 66

:
( ), = 0 ( )
( ).
( ).
= 0 :
0 2 + 2 .
:

* = cos()
:
= sin()
2 + 2 = 2 ( ( 1)2 + 2 = 1):
2 cos2 () + 2 sin2 () = 2 cos()
2 = 2 cos()
= 2 cos()
: [0, 2 cos()].
2 + 2 = 2 (1, 0)
. : [/2, /2].
1.5

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

= . :

* = cos()

: = sin()
* :
[0, 2 cos()], [/2, /2]

0 2 + 2
:

(
2 + 2 =

2 + 2

2 + 2

2 + 2

=
2 + 2 |0
=
2 + 2 (2 + 2 0) =

=
2 + 2 (2 + 2 ) =
(2 + 2 )3/2 .

II

6 67

:

2
2 3/2
( + ) =
(2 cos2 () + 2 sin2 ())3/2 =
*

2 3/2
=
( ) =
4 =
*
*
)

/2 ( 2 cos()
/2 5 2 cos()

4
=
=
=

/2 5 0
/2
0

1 /2 5
32 /2
5
=
(2 cos () 0) =
cos5 ().
5 /2
5 /2
. :
1
1 + cos(2)
, cos3 () = (3 cos() + cos(3))
2
4
1
cos(1 ) cos(2 ) = (cos(1 2 ) + cos(1 + 2 )).
2

cos2 () =

cos5 () :
(cos3 ())2 =
=
=
=
=

1
(3 cos() + cos(3))2 =
42
1
(9 cos2 () + 6 cos() cos(3) + cos2 (3)) =
16 (
)
1
1 + cos(2)
1
1 + cos(6)
9
+ 6 (cos(2) + cos(4)) +
=
16
2
2
2
1
(9 + 9 cos(2) + 6 cos(2) + 6 cos(4) + 1 + cos(6)) =
32
1
(10 + 15 cos(2) + 6 cos(4) + cos(6)).
32

, cos( 3) = cos(2) = cos(2). :

32
5

/2

1
(10 + 15 cos(2) + 6 cos(4) + cos(6)) =
/2 32
(
)
1
15
6
1
/2
/2
/2
/2
=
10|/2 +
sin(2)|/2 + sin(4)|/2 + sin(6)|/2 =
5
2
4
6
(
(
(
))
)
1

2
=
10

+0+0+0 =2
= 2.
5
2
2
2

, ( ). 2.

1. , =
2

2
+ .
3

+ 2 = 0

2. .

2
=0

3. .
= 3 + 3 3
4. .
= tan() + sin2 ()
5. .
+ 2 + 2 = 62 +
6. , = 2 2 , = .
7. (0, ).
() =

2
2

: 4 7 5 , 10.

II

7 69

1. .
.

3
2 1
=1

2. (0, ).
() =

4
2

2
3.

, =
.

ln()
3. = 2 + + 2 3 6.
4. + = cos() + 2 .
5. , 2 = 2 + 2 + 2 = 3,
.
6. .
= cos() sin(2)
: 3 6 5 , 10.

II

7 70

1. .

+4
6 + 11
=1

2. : R R = 8,
() = 1/2 [0, 4]. () .
3. .
(, ) = 2 2 + 2 4 + 6
4. .
+ 9 =

4
+ (3 4)2
sin(3)

5.

2 2 ,

= 0 ( 0) 2 + 2 = 16.
6.

(22 + 2 2 )

, = 3 cos(2), = 3 sin(2), [0, ].

10 .

II

7 71

1. .

5 2
=1

2. .
=

(4 + 2 )

3. .
{
0, [1, 0]
() =
, (0, 1)

4.
( ) sin() = ln(),
= 1.
2

5. .
= 2 + 4 cos(2)
6. , .
= 4 2 , = 2 2
10 .

II

7 72

1. .
(, ) = 23 + 2 216
2. .
= 4 +

1
+2

3. .
( ) + ( + ) = 0
4.

,

, =
= 2.

2 + 2

5. .

=1

6.

(1)

1
ln()

3 + 22 ,

, = = 2 2,
.
10 .

1. , :
2 + 2 + 2 = 9,

2 + 2 + 2 = 6.

. : 2 + 2 + 2 = 9 , 2 + 2 + 2 =
6 (0, 0, 3), :
2 + 2 + 2 = 6 9 + 9,
2 + 2 + 2 6 + 9 = 9,
2 + 2 + ( 3)2 = 9.
3. :

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3

-3

-2

-1

3-3

-2

-1

-, :

3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

-3

-2

-1

3-3

-2

-1

3
-2

-1

-2

-1

( ),
( ).
: , .
. :

= sin() cos()

= sin() sin() .

= cos()

II

8 74

:

sin() cos()
sin() sin()
cos()
= cos() cos() cos() sin() sin()
sin() sin() sin() cos()
0

= cos()(1)4 [2 cos() sin() cos2 () + 2 cos() sin() sin2 ()]

sin()(1)5 [ sin2 () cos2 () + sin2 () sin2 ()] =
= 2 cos2 () sin() + 2 sin3 () = 2 sin().
= || = 2 sin().
. ( .)
. :
2
+ 2 + 2 = 9
: 2
.
+ 2 + 2 = 6
, . :
2 sin2 () cos2 () + 2 sin2 () sin2 () + 2 cos2 () = 9,
2 sin2 () + 2 cos2 () = 9,
2 = 9 = = 3 = = 3.
. :
2 sin2 () cos2 () + 2 sin2 () sin2 () + 2 cos2 () = 6 cos(),
2 sin2 () + 2 cos2 () = 6 cos(),
2 = 6 cos() = = 6 cos().
, :
3 = 6 cos() = 1 = 2 cos() = cos() =

1
= = .
2
3

, 0 /2.
= /3 . :
6

-2

-4
-6

-4

-2

II

8 75

: ( ), = /3 = 60 .
.
, 0 2 ( ).
( -),
. :
= cos() cos(), = cos() sin(), = sin(), = 2 cos().
, (
). sin() = 1/2, =
/6 = 30 .
6

-2

-4
-6

-4

-2

( )
. , ,
.
.
, .
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_31-11#Coordinate_systems,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spherical_coordinate_system#Cartesian_coordinates.
. :

[0, 3]
[0, 6 cos()]

1 : [0, /3] , 2 : [/3, /2] .

[0, 2]
[0, 2]
0 3 0 6 cos(). ,
, 0 2.
: = 1 + 2 . :
= sin() cos(), = sin() sin(), = cos(), = 2 sin().

II

:

1 =

8 76

sin() =

/3

sin() =
0

3
3
27
/3
( cos())|0 = 2 (cos(/3) cos(0)) = 18(1/2 1) = 9.

3 0
3

= |2
0

:

2 =
=
2 sin() =
2
2
(
)

/2

6 cos()

=
0

sin() =
/3

/2

= 2
/3

/2

6 cos()
3
sin() =
3 0

/2

4 cos3 () sin() =

/3

/2

/3

/3

63 cos3 ()
sin() = 36
3

= 36

|2
0

/2

= 36(cos4 (/2) cos4 (/3)) = 36(0 1/16) =

9
.
4

:
45
9
=
.
4
4
. ( ) (
, )
( , ),
.
:

= cos()

= sin() .

=
= 1 + 2 = 9 +

() :
2 cos2 () + 2 sin2 () + 2 = 9,
2 + 2 = 9.
:
2 cos2 () + 2 sin2 () + 2 = 6,
2 + 2 = 6.
:
3
9 = 6 = = .
2

II

8 77

= 3/2 :
2 +

9
= 9,
4

2 +

9
3
=6 .
4
2

( ), :

9
27
3
3
3
3
2 + = 9 = 2 =
= =
= =
.
4
4
2
2
.

= 3 3/2 (0, 0, 1.5),

:

3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

-2

-1

-2

-1

2
-2

-1

-2

-1

(
):
( )2
3 3
: 2 + 2 =
.
2
:

0 3 3/2
:
.
0 2
*

( ):
6

4
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

-2

-1

-2

-1

-2

-4
-6

-4

-2

II

8 78

. () :
2 + 2 + 2 = 9,
2 = 9 2 2 ,

= 9 2 2 .

= 9 2 2
(
), = 9 2 2
.
1 ()
, (
):
6

4
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

-2

-1

-2

-1

-2

-4
-6

-4

-2

:
2 + 2 + 2 = 6,
2 6 + 9 = 9 2 2 ,
( 3)2 = 9 2 2 ,

= 3 9 2 2 .

= 3 + 9 2 2 ,
= 3 9 2 2 ,
.
2
, ( ):

II

8 79

4
1.5
2

1
0.5

-2

-1

-2

-1

-2

-4
-6

-4

-2

3 9 2 2 9 2 2 .
:

* 0 3 3/2
:

:
.
0 2

3 9 2 2 9 2 2
:
= cos(), = sin(), = , = .
:

)

( 92 2
92 2

=
=
=

=

3 92 2

3 92 2

=
9 2 2
(3 9 2 2 ) = 1 2 .

1 :

2
2
9 2 cos() 2 sin() =
1 =
9 =
*

9 2 =

=
*

3 3/2

3 3/2

9 2 =

3/2
2 1
= |0
9 2 (2 ) =
2 0

33/2
2 3/2 3 3/2
(9

=
(9 2 )1/2 (9 2 ) =
=

3/2
0
0
((
)
)3/2

2
2
27
3
3/2
=
(9 2 )3/2 0
=
9
(9 0)3/2 =
3
3
4
(( )
)
(
)
(
)
3/2
2
9
2 27
2
189
63
=
27 =
27 =

=
.
3
4
3
8
3
8
4

1 3
2
2 9 = 2
2 0

II

8 80

: 0 3:
( )2
3 3
81
27
= 2 =
.
3= 3=
2
4
4
1 0 () 1.5 (
):
( )2
81
3 3
27 3
2
=
,
= =
1.5 =
2
4 2
8
,
= 1.5:
(
)
( )2 (
)
(
)
1
3
13
9
1
9 5
45
2
3
=
3
=
=
.
= =
3
2
32
4
2
4 2
8
:
1 = + =

81 45
126
63
+
=
=
.
8
8
8
4

.
2 :

(3 9 2 2 ) =
(3 9 2 cos() 2 sin()) =
2 =
*

(3
*
(

9 2 ) =

3 3/2

= |2
0

3 3/2

(3

9 2 ) =

9 2

3 3/2

3 2

= 2

3 3/2

3 3/2

9 2 .

:
33/2
63
9 2 =
.
2 = 2
4
0
:
33/2

1 = 2
3 = 3
0

3 3/2

2 :

3 3/2

2 = 32 |0

= 3

27
81
=
.
4
4

81 63
18

=
.
4
4
4
: 1 (
-), 2 1 , : ,
1.5 3 .
2 = 1 2 =

II

8 81

, .
:
63 18
45
= 1 2 =

=
.
4
4
4
. , = 1.5:
(
)
( )2 (
)
(
)
1
3
13
9
1
9 5
45
2
= =
3
=
3
=
=
.
3
2
32
4
2
4 2
8
:
=2

45
45
=
.
8
4

2. :
2( )2 = ( 1) ,

(1) = 2, (1) = 1.

. : = (). ,
: = () = [()].
:
=

= .

:
=

2
= .
2

: = [()] = .
:

=
=
= .

= :

= .

, = :
= = = .
:
= ,

= .

:
22 = ( 1) ,
2 = ( 1) ,
2 = ( 1)

II

8 82

, 1, = 1:
2
= .
1
2, = 0:

= .
1
2
, ( ):

=
+ ,
1
2

( 1)
1

=
+ ,
1
2

1
ln | 1| = ln || + .
2
. :
(1) = 2 = 1, = 2,
(1) = 1 = 1, = 1.
, . , = . :
ln | 1| =
ln 1 =

1
1
ln | | + = ln |2 1| = ln | 1| + ,
2
2
1
ln 1 + = 0 = 0 + = = 0.
2

:
1
ln || = ln | 1| = ln ||1/2 .
2
():
ln | 1| =

ln |1| = ln ||

1/2

= | 1| = ||1/2 .

| 1|2 = ( ||)2 .
, .
, :
( 1)2 = ||.
-:
( 1)2 = | |,

= 2, = 1.

: , :

>0
,
|| = , < 0 .

0,
=0

II

8 83

: |5| = 5, | 3| = (3) = 3, |0| = 0.

: = 1, | | = . :
( 1)2 = .
:
(2 1)2 = (1) = 1 = 1.
| | = , ( 1)2 = ,
:
(2 1)2 = 1 = 1 = 1.
.
:
( 1)2 = ,

( 1)2 = .

2
, ( 1) , = 1:

=
.
( 1)2
:

=
+ 1 ,
( 1)2

( 1)
+ 1 .
=
( 1)2
1 :
( )
1
1
= (1 ) = 12 = 2 .

, = 1:
=

1
+ 2 .
1

:
(1) = 2 = 1, = 2,

(1) = 1 = 1, = 1.
:
1=

1
+ 2 = 1 = 1 + 2 = 2 = 0.
21

1
.
1
, = 0, = 1:
1
1= ,

1
= + 1.

: . (), . ()
: . (), . ()
II: . (), . ()
: LaTeX Wikibooks, gnuplot tips, Wikipedia, Wolfram MathWorld
: TeX Live, gnuplot, Notepad++, Sumatra PDF, Windows XP