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Experiment: Study of Distribution Systems Aim: To determine the voltage distribution in a: 1. Uniformly loaded distributor 2.

Uniformly loaded radial distributor 3. Uniformly loaded ring main distributor Apparatus: 5 Models of uniformly loaded distributors 2 Variacs 1 Digital Voltmeter

1. Uniformly Loaded Distributor Actual Readings Section Open circuit at other end/V 90V at other end/V 1 90.0 2 88.7 3 87.8 4 87.2 5 86.7 6 86.5 7 86.4 8 86.2

90.0

89.4

89.1

88.8

89.0

89.1

89.7

90.0

System Values Section Length/m Open circuit at other end/V 90V at other end/V 1 0 225.00 2 57.14 221.75 3 114.28 218.75 4 171.42 218.00 5 228.56 216.75 6 285.7 216.25 7 342.84 216.00 8 400 215.50

225.00

223.50

222.75

222.00

222.50

222.75

224.25

225.00

Theoretical System Values Section Length/m Open circuit at other end/V 1 0 225 2 57.14 222.77 3 114.28 220.89 4 171.42 219.34 5 228.56 218.14 6 285.7 217.19 7 342.84 216.77 8 400 216.6

90V at other end/V

225

223.97

223.29

222.94

222.94

223.29

223.97

225

226

224

222

220

218

216

214 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Open circuit at other end/V Open circuit at other end/V (Theoretical) 90V at other end/V 90V at other end/V (Theoretical)

2. Uniformly Loaded Radial Distributor Section Length/m Model 1 (Measured Value)/V System Value/V Section Length/m Model 4 (Measured Value)/V System Value/V Section Length/m Model 5 (Measured Value)/V System Value/V (a) 0 86.0 (b) 57.14 86.1 (c) 114.28 86.5 (d) 171.42 87.0 (e) 228.56 87.8 (f) 285.7 88.4 (g) 342.84 89.4 (h) 400 90.0

215.00

215.25

216.25

217.50

219.50

221.0

223.50

225.00

(h) 0 90.0

(i) 56.67 89.0

(j) 113.33 88.0

(k) 170.00 87.0

(l) 226.67 86.4

(m) 283.33 86.1

(n) 340.00 86.0

225.00

222.50

220.00

217.50

216.00

215.25

215.00

(h) 0 90.0

(o) 56.67 89.1

(p) 113.33 88.2

(q) 170.00 87.5

(r) 226.67 87.1

(s) 283.33 87.1

(t) 340.00 87.0

225.00

222.75

220.50

218.75

217.75

217.75

217.50

226

224

222

220

218

216

214 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Voltage Distribution of Model 1 /V Voltage Distribution of Model 5 /V Voltage Distribution of Model 4 /V

3. Uniformly loaded ring main distributor Section Length/m Model 1 (Measured Value)/V System Value/V Section Length/m Model 2 (Measured Value)/V System Value/V Section Length/m Model 3 (Measured Value)/V System Value/V Section Length/m Model 4 (Measured Value)/V System Value/V Section Length/m Model 5 (Measured Value)/V System Value/V (a) 57.14 87.7 (b) 114.28 86.7 (c) 171.42 85.0 (d) 228.56 83.4 (e) 285.7 82.0 (f) 342.84 81.0 (g) 400.00 79.5

219.25

216.75

212.50

208.50

205.00

202.50

198.75

(h) 125.00 77.1

(i) 250.00 75.4

(j) 375.00 74.1

(k) 500.00 72.8

192.75

188.50

185.25

182.00

(l) 125.00 72.0

(m) 250.00 71.5

(n) 375.00 71.4

(o) 500.00 71.6

(p) 625.00 72.0

(q) 750.00 73.0

180.00

178.75

178.50

179.00

180.00

182.50

(r) 68.00 73.7

(s) 136.00 74.5

(t) 204.00 75.6

(u) 272.00 76.4

(v) 340.00 77.7

184.25

186.25

189.00

191.00

194.25

(w) 56.67 79.1

(x) 113.33 80.7

(y) 170.00 82.4

(z) 226.67 84.1

(aa) 283.33 86.4

(ab) 340.00 88.7

197.75

201.75

206.00

210.25

216.00

221.75

225

220

215

210

205

200

195

190

185

180

175 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

Voltage Distribution of Model 1/V Voltage Distribution of Model 3/V Voltage Distribution of Model 5/V

Voltage Distribution of Model 2/V Voltage Distribution of Model 4/V

a. Maximum Voltage drop without tie line = 71.4 V Percentage drop = (90.0-71.4)/90.0 x 100 = 20.67 %

b. Maximum Voltage drop with tie line = 79.1 V Percentage drop = (90.0-79.1)/90.0 x 100 = 12.11 %

Discussion 1. Advantages and Disadvantages of radial and ring distribution systems a. Radial system Advantages

Initial capital cost is law compared to others. Low maintenance cost Simple to lay, implement analyse etc Can be used to distribute low voltages as well

Disadvantages

When the load on the distributor changes, consumers at the distant end of the distributor face serious voltage fluctuations. If the feeder fails or the line fault occur all the consumers on that line lose power. If we want to repair the system the whole area served by the system will lose power.

b. Ring system

Advantages

Better Voltages provided to Customer Can be used to supply many customers

If a fault occurs in one line, other cables will supply voltage to usable customers instead of whole line losing power Unfair voltage drops to customers may be avoided using a tie line

Disadvantages

High initial capital is needed. High maintenance cost is needed. Not simple to implement, service, develop etc. When the load on the distributor changes, consumers at the distant end of the distributor face serious voltage fluctuations. This system is not suitable if the sub-stations are situated at the center of the load.

2. Methods to improve voltage profile in a distribution system.

Use ring connection as far as possible. Because it enhance the voltage profile. Use series type back-to-back converter to control voltage profile of the resulting loop distribution system. Connect the feeding point of the distribution system to the junction adjacent to the minimum voltage point using a tie line. If we use a radial system we can feed the both end of the system. Place transformers within the distributor to increase the voltage, as the distributor goes away from the sub-station.

3. Distribution voltage and frequency Distribution voltage =230 V. (Variation of 6 % is allowed.) Maximum voltage allowed = 230 + 230 x 6% Minimum voltage allowed = 230 - 230 x 6% = 243.8 V = 216.2 V

Maximum frequency allowed = 50 + 0.5 Minimum frequency allowed = 50 - 0.5

= 50.5 Hz = 49.5 Hz

4. Comparison between overhead and underground cables.

Quality Safety

Underground System Much safer than O/H system

Overhead System Not safer as U/G system. Exposed to damage in the bad weather

Life time Appearance

Much higher life time No wiring is visible so its a good looking system

Less life time Wiring is visible so not a good looking system Low initial capital needed Maintains cost is law and much easy to repair Can occur at some times

Cost Maintenance

Cost is high Maintenance cost is high and much harder to repair

Frequency accidents Voltage drop

Rarely happens

Very low due to the less spacing between the conductors

Higher than U/G system

Debugging

Finding fault location is hard

Debugging is not hard and easy to repair

Distance

Cannot be used to higher distance due to shunt capacitance

Can use to higher distance due to law shunt capacitance Much interference with the communication system New conductors can

Interference

Low interference with communication system

Flexibility

New conductors cannot be laid easily

voltage

Cannot operate above 66kV because of insulation problems

Can be design for higher voltages up to 400kV