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theoretical or practical understanding of a subject, (ii) what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information or (iii) awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. Philosophical debates in general start with Plato's formulation of knowledge as "justified true belief". There is however no single agreed definition of knowledge presently, nor any prospect of one, and there remain numerous competing theories. Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception, learning, communication, association and reasoning. The term knowledge is also used to mean the confident understanding of a subject with the ability to use it for a specific purpose if appropriate. See Knowledge Management for additional details on that discipline.
At independence, Pakistan had a poorly educated population and few schools or universities. Although the education system has expanded greatly since then, debate continues about the curriculum, and, except in a few elite institutions, quality remained a crucial concern of educators in the early 1990s. Adult literacy is low, but improving. In 1992 more than 36 percent of adults over fifteen were literate, compared with 21 percent in 1970. The rate of improvement is highlighted by the 50 percent literacy achieved among those aged fifteen to nineteen in 1990. School enrollment also increased, from 19 percent of those aged six to twenty-three in 1980 to 24 percent in 1990. However, by 1992 the population over twenty-five had a mean of only 1.9 years of schooling. This fact explains the minimal criteria for being considered literate: having the ability to both read and write (with understanding) a short, simple statement on everyday life. Relatively limited resources have been allocated to education, although there has been improvement in recent decades. In 1960 public expenditure on education was only 1.1 percent of the gross national product (GNP); by 1990 the figure had risen to 3.4 percent. This amount compared poorly with the 33.9 percent being spent on defense in 1993. In 1990 Pakistan was tied for fourth place in the world in its ratio of military expenditures to health and education expenditures. Although the government enlisted the assistance of various international donors in the education efforts outlined in its Seventh Five-Year Plan (1988-93), the results did not measure up to expectations.
Structure of the System:-Education is organized into five levels: primary (grades one through five); middle
(grades six through eight); high (grades nine and ten, culminating in matriculation); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to an F.A. diploma in arts or F.S. science; and university programs leading to undergraduate and advanced degrees. Preparatory classes (kachi, or nursery) were formally incorporated into the system in 1988 with the Seventh Five-Year Plan. Academic and technical education institutions are the responsibility of the federal Ministry of Education, which coordinates instruction through the intermediate level. Above that level, a designated university in each province is responsible for coordination of instruction and examinations. In certain cases, a different ministry may oversee specialized programs. Universities enjoy limited autonomy; their finances are overseen by a University Grants Commission, as in Britain. Teacher-training workshops are overseen by the respective provincial education ministries in order to improve teaching skills. However, incentives are severely lacking, and, perhaps because of the shortage of financial support to education, few teachers participate. Rates of absenteeism among teachers are high in general, inducing support for community-coordinated efforts promoted in the Eighth Five-Year Plan (199398). In 1991 there were 87,545 primary schools, 189,200 primary school teachers, and 7,768,000 students
just as Zia initiated his government's Islamization program--the dropout rate for boys was 25 percent while for girls it was only 16 percent. Just over one-third of all children of primary school age were enrolled in a school in 1989. the government therefore reiterated the need to mobilize a large share of national resources to finance education. grades nine and ten. only thirteen out of 100 were in school. In 1981 only 7 percent of women in rural areas were literate.978 secondary schools.995. reluctance to accept schooling for women turned to enthusiasm when parents in rural Punjab and rural Balochistan could be guaranteed their daughters' safety and. and universities autonomous.-between the ages of seventeen and twenty-one were enrolled at the degree level. The discrepancy between rural and urban areas is even more marked. Among men. although no schedule was specified for achieving this ambitious goal. The comparatively slow rate of improvement for women is reflected in the fact that between 1980 and 1989. at just over 50 percent for boys and 60 percent for girls. nationally coordinated effort to improve female primary education. and boys had a dropout rate of only 7 percent compared with the girls' rate of 15 percent. by 1979-. and among girls of the third level. There were 11. reversing the imposition of Urdu in the 1970s. with a student-to-teacher ratio of forty-one to one. Slightly higher estimates by the National Education Council for 1990 stated that 2. United Nations sources say that in 1990 for every 100 girls of primary school age there were only thirty in school. women averaged a mere 0. Pakistan has never had a systematic. 22 percent of women were literate. The Seventh Five-Year Plan envisioned that every child five years and above would have access to either a primary school or a comparable. colleges.9 years for men. respectively. To give parents a greater voice in running schools. It was once assumed that the reasons behind low female school enrollments were cultural. Indeed. In drafting the Eighth Five-Year Plan in 1992. By 1993 this trend had dramatically reversed. among people older than fifteen years of age. but research conducted by the Ministry for Women's Development and a number of international donor agencies in the 1980s revealed that danger to a woman's honor was parents' most crucial concern.802 secondary school teachers. this goal was not achieved. among women aged fifteen to twenty-four. Female Education:-Comparison of data for men and women reveals significant disparity in educational attainment.5 out of 100 were in school. Reform Efforts:-Three initiatives characterized reform efforts in education in the late 1980s and early 1990s: privatization of schools that had been nationalized in the 1970s. 25 percent were literate.7 year of schooling compared with an average of 2. However. these rates were 27 and 57 percent. 154. it planned to transfer control of primary and secondary schools to NGOs. compared with 35 percent in urban areas. but less comprehensive. because of financial constraints. a return to English as the medium of instruction in the more elite of these privatized schools. Pakistan's low female literacy rates are particularly confounding because these rates are analogous to those of some of the poorest countries in the world. The government also intended to gradually make all high schools.000 students enrolled at the secondary level. The middle school dropout rates for boys and girls rose from 22 percent in 1976 to about 33 percent in 1983. . hence.5 percent of students--3 percent of men and 2 percent of women. By 1992. mosque school. a noticeable shift occurred in the beginning of the 1980s regarding the postprimary dropout rate: whereas boys and girls had relatively equal rates (14 percent) in 1975.teacher ratio of nineteen to one. despite its poor standing. and 2. Primary school dropout rates remained fairly consistent in the 1970s and 1980s. especially at the primary level. To improve access to schools. the government sought to decentralize and democratize the design and implemention of its education strategy. with a studentto. However. among girls of secondary school age. only 1.enrolled at the primary level. compared with 49 percent of men. Among all people over twenty-five in 1992. their honor.
a disproportionate amount of educational spending went to the middle and higher levels. The federal government mostly assists in curriculum development. Post-secondary:-Students can then proceed to a College or University for Bachelor of Arts (BA) or Science (BSc) or Commerce/Business Administration (BCom/BBA) degree courses. Biochemistry). and contemporary education--reforms and commissions on reform notwithstanding--has retained the same quality. In the past. accreditation and some financing of research. Education in the colonial era had been geared to staffing the civil service and producing an educated elite that shared the values of and was loyal to the British. This fact is evident in the glaring gap in educational attainment between the country's public schools and the private schools. a compelling need to expand vocational training further persisted in early 1994.B. the army and the civil service were drawing a greater proportion of educated members from poor backgrounds than ever before. however. the army ruled.middle (grades six through eight). teachers and school principals alike bemoaned the decline in the quality of education. Over the last few years. Education:-Education in Pakistan is divided into five levels:primary(grades one through five). Until the late 1970s. Students may also after earning their HSSC may study for professional Bachelor degree courses such as engineering (B Engg). many new kindergarten (sometimes called montessori) schools have also sprung up in Pakistan. and providing a daughter with a onceinconceivable dowry at the time of marriage.and university programs leading to graduate and advanced degrees. medicine (MBBS). Whereas students from lower-class backgrounds did gain increased access to these private schools in the 1980s and 1990s. and vocational training centers. Although the numbers of such institutions did increase. Meanwhile.high(grades nine and ten. and the bureaucrats governed. Pakistan was a country that the landlords owned. Economics. It is important to note that Pass Bachelors is now slowly being phased out for Honours throughout the country. taking summer vacations. Statistics) in addition to almost equal number of compulsory subjects (such as English. Pre-school:-A child may begin his/her schooling at a pre-school at the age of 3. Those schools that were designated for females included hostels nearby to provide secure housing for female students. The extension of literacy to greater numbers of people has spurred the working class to aspire to middleclass goals such as owning an automobile. leading to the Secondary School Certificate). it appears that a greater proportion of children of the elites are traveling abroad not only for university education but also for their high school diplomas. nursing (B Nurs) etc. leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate). which were nationalized in the late 1970s in a move intended to facilitate equal access.Further after passing the diploma of associate engineer(3-Year study after SSC)can take in admission in B. The Seventh Five-Year Plan aimed to increase the share of students going to technical and vocational institutions to over 33 percent by increasing the number of polytechnics. Increasing the number of technical schools was a response to the high rate of underemployment that had been evident since the early 1970s.Tech(Hon's) degree consists of four years.intermediate(grades eleven and twelve. and it drew most of its elite from these three groups. All academic education institutions are the responsibility of the provincial governments. architecture (B Arch). In the 1990s. agriculture (B Agri). Mathematics. There are two types of Bachelor courses in Pakistan namely Pass or Honours. It was unabashedly elitist. . commercial colleges. vetrinary medicine(DVM) law (LLB).Tech engineering. which are of four or five years duration depending on the degree. Pass constitutes two years of study and students normally read three optional subjects (such as Chemistry. Pakistan Studies and Islamic Studies) whereas Honours are three or four years and students normally specialize in a chosen field of study such as Biochemistry (BSc Hons.and continuing emphasis on Pakistan studies and Islamic studies in the curriculum. One of the education reforms of the 1980s was an increase in the number of technical schools throughout the country.
5 years. distance classes. The plan encouraged private entrepreneurs to participate in those activities in which a great deal of profit could be made. In practice. some of the plan's goals were attained. Increased defense expenditures and a flood of refugees to Pakistan after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979. video-tape instruction and similar programs led to the reestablishment of off-campus classes in various cities around Washington. partly because of inadequate staffing. the level of foreign assistance declined. and even one in an out-of-state location. produced only modest growth. partially depended on generous infusions of foreign aid. however. After the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War over Kashmir. ch. mainly technical. as well as the sharp increase in international oil prices in 1979-80. designed along the lines of its immediate predecessor. mainly because political instability led to a neglect of economic policy. These "branches" were informally known as "Little WSCs. These classes all involved spe cial subjects.Pakistan's economic development planning began in 1948. Pakistan's success. As a result. particularly from the United States. It survived in limited form following fiscal cutbacks in 1951 that basically cancelled the larger effort. PhD in Pakistan consists of minimum 3-5 years. When the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto came to power in 1971. In the years 1977-80. The Fourth Five-Year Plan (1970-75) was abandoned as East Pakistan became independent Bangladesh. with a program of night classes that lasted until 1968. Then there are PhD Education as well in selected areas. In the years following 1970. this plan was not implemented. Many of the controls on industry were liberalized or abolished. and often were presented at the request of employers. . the Third Five-Year Plan (1965-70). these programs became involved in complex state wide educational planning effort and in so-called "turf wars" that arose as schools with low enrollment sought to deploy their excess faculty members in extended campus programs. The Fifth Five-Year Plan (1978-83) was an attempt to stabilize the economy and improve the standard of living of the poorest segment of the population. The Second Five-Year Plan (1960-65) surpassed its major goals when all sectors showed substantial growth. and they were largely ignored. 5). however. only annual plans were prepared. but in 1958 the government renewed its commitment to planning by establishing the Planning Commission.Some Masters Degrees also consist of 1. One has to choose specific field and the suitable university doing research work in that field." The program at Spokane was the most extensive. The scheme would be overseen by the Higher Education Commission. planning was virtually bypassed. The Zia government accorded more importance to planning. But the initial effort was unsystematic. This mix of private enterprise and social responsibility was hailed as a model that other developing countries could follow. Nevertheless. drew resources away from planned investments (see Pakistan Becomes a Frontline State . More resources than had been intended also were diverted to defense. The government has announced a $1 billion spending plan over the next decade to build 6 state-of-the-art science and engineering universities.2 million skilled graduates annually. More formal planning--incorporating overall targets. the balance of payments deficit was kept under control. Pakistani universities churn out almost 1. the State College initiated various efforts at offcampus classes. ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY:-In the late 1940s. and assigning priorities--started in 1953 with the drafting of the First Five-Year Plan (1955-60). taught chiefly at night. Under Bhutto. Five-year plans of Pakistan:. and Pakistan became self-sufficient in all basic foodstuffs with the exception of edible oils. By 1950 a sixyear plan had been drafted to guide government investment in developing the infrastructure. Yet the plan failed to stimulate substantial private industrial investment and to raise significantly the expenditure on rural infrastructure development. while the government acted in those sectors of the economy where private business was reluctant to operate. assessing resource availability.
Other religious groups represented in the K-12 private education sector include Protestants. It was also intended that public-sector corporations finance most of their own investment programs through profits and borrowing. Religious private schools often simply add religious instruction to the courses provided by local public schools. and the endowment. or national government. Annual tuitions at K-12 schools range from nothing at tuition-free schools to more than $40. small class sizes and services such as libraries. and 11 percent for other sectors. the willingness of parents to pay. Special assistance schools aim to improve the lives of their students by providing services tailored to very specific needs of individual students. Tuition at private secondary schools varies from school to school and depends on many factors. and the private-to. The secondary level includes schools offering grades 7 through 12 and grade 13. Private schools range from pre-school to tertiary level institutions. 7 percent for education. the government established a working group on private investment for the Eighth Five-Year Plan (1993-98). Of this total. Some such schools teach religious lessons together with the usual academic subjects to impress their particular faith's beliefs and traditions in the students who attend. However. the eighth plan had not yet been announced. peer tuitions. This category includes preparatory schools or "prep schools". and computers. Such schools include tutoring schools and schools to assist the learning of handicapped children. including the location of the school. 18 percent for transportation and communications. Private education in North America covers the whole gamut of educational activity. . although in the name of educational quality. are also privately financed. mainly because the successive changes of government in 1993 forced ministers to focus on short-term issues. is used to pay higher salaries for the best teachers. boarding schools and day schools. submitted its report in late 1992.public ratio of investment was expected to rise from 42:58 in FY 1988 to 48:52 in FY 1993. 5 percent for industry and minerals. and also used to provide enriched learning environments including a low student to teacher ratio. presidents of chambers of commerce. such as independent schools. heavy reliance on imported energy. and low spending on health and education. and the Orthodox Catholics. while still maintaining a fine distinction between academics and religion. In the United Kingdom and some other Commonwealth countries the use of the term is generally restricted to primary and secondary educational levels: it is almost never used of universities or other tertiary institutions. In August 1991. Muslims. which retain the right to select their student body and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition rather than with public (state) funds. or independent schools. It was designed to tackle some of the major problems of the economy: low investment and savings ratios. This group. Instead. a term which is often used to denote Catholic Christian schools. 8 percent for physical infrastructure and housing. Georgia teaches conservative Judaism to its students. which included leading industrialists. 4 percent for health. Private school:-Private schools.5 percent during the plan period and would have exceeded the target if it had not been for severe droughts in 1986 and 1987. 9 percent for water.000 at several boarding schools. science laboratories. state. Religiously affiliated or denominational schools form a subcategory of private schools. and senior civil servants. The economy grew at the targeted average of 6. Others use the denomination as more of a general label to describe on what the founders based their belief. most comply with regulations relating to the educational content of classes. Many educational alternatives. are schools not administered by local. The Epstein School in Atlanta. low agricultural productivity. Private schools often avoid some state regulations. Total planned private investment was Rs292 billion. in early 1994. Some military schools are privately owned or operated as well. They include parochial schools. Jews. 38 percent was designated for energy. The Seventh Five-Year Plan (1988-93) provided for total public-sector spending of Rs350 billion. economic policy for FY 1994 was being guided by an annual plan. High tuition.The Sixth Five-Year Plan (1983-88) represented a significant shift toward the private sector. Some private schools are boarding schools. schools claim. For example. The plan gave much greater emphasis than before to private investment in all sectors of the economy.
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