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RAM MANOHAR LOHIYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY
Public International Law Haiti- Falling off the Map
Submitted to: Mr. A P Singh
Compiled by: Deekshi Chaudhary Roll no. 42 4thSemester
Haiti Relations International Presence Conclusion Bibliography .CONTENTS Acknowledgement Introduction History of Haiti Political condition Economic condition 2010 Earthquake Foreign Assistance US.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT I am most profoundly grateful to my teacher Mr. A P SINGH for providing me this wonderful opportunity to work upon this project and for his valuable guidance for the completion of this project. Last but not the least I would also like to thank my friends. I also thank the members of the library staff for their cooperation in making available the books and accessing the internet even during their free time. It was only because of their excellent help that I have been able to complete my project. .
was elected in two rounds held on February 7 and April 21. Following the constitutional line of succession. and Fanmi Lavalas had many representatives in both chambers. In a larger sense it can be observed that everything has fallen apart in Haiti.15%. which triggered demonstrations against alleged fraud. and democratic by national and international observers. fair. with a turnout estimated at over 60% of registered voters. History of Haiti Haiti is a country with a number of notable attributes. former President (1996-2001) and former ally to Aristide. UNION. Partial results first showed he fell short of an absolute majority. composed of a 30-seat Senate and a 99member Chamber of Deputies. The elections were considered generally free. I will be discussing the miserable condition of Haiti. the first being the United States of America. The interim government managed to organize three rounds of elections with the help of the OAS and UN. some good and some bad. Rene Preval. While Haiti's independence as a nation started with a slave rebellion the notion that this was a straight black versus white affair is wrong. The unsettled political situation. transparent.Introduction In this project. 2006. won the presidential election with 51. Supreme Court Chief Justice Boniface Alexandre assumed the presidency and Gerard Latortue was appointed prime minister of the Interim Government of Haiti (IGOH) with the mandate of organizing elections to choose a new government. OPL. Haiti's struggle for independence was a much more complex affair. Lespwa was the main political force in both chambers but fell short of the majority. Alyans. The first round of elections for President and Parliament took place peacefully on February 7. Preval chose his long-time political . The later decision of the Electoral Council not to count blank ballots gave the victory to Preval. Currently. The Parliament. what they really need is the contribution and co-operation of the helping nations to put them back and building the national infrastructure. Fusion. The already weak condition of Haiti has resulted in immense damage that made it difficult to get through to people. 2010 earthquake and sinking economic vitality has left Haiti in disarray. It is the first republic of people of African descent and the second oldest nation in the Americas. 2006.
UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon commissioned British economist Paul Collier to draft an economic development strategy for Haiti. In February. 2007. schools. Some of these local government positions had not been filled in over a decade. By March. On October 20. Despite the devastating hurricanes and food riots in 2008. Pierre-Louis initially received cooperation from Parliament in crafting a relief package. and in January 2009. “Haiti: From Natural Catastrophe to Economic Security” was adapted by the Government of Haiti as a template for its own economic growth strategy. The international community took notice of Haiti’s relative stability. but soon after Parliament summoned both her and her ministers to explain perceived delays in delivering relief assistance and to criticize her 2008-2009 budget. 2006 and April 29. In August and September. and forced postponement of a donor conference. Prime Minister Michele Pierre-Louis’s government took office and acted decisively within its means to provide relief and reconstruction. export zones. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton identified Haiti as a policy priority. A series of crises in 2008 threatened Haiti’s democratic consolidation. toppled the government of Prime Minister Alexis. four tropical storms and hurricanes killed 800. The April riots caused widespread disruption and suffering. Municipal elections were held December 3. 2009. exacerbated food shortages and pushed yet more Haitians into poverty. agriculture. The strategy called on donors to assist the Haitian Government by investing in the country’s roads. affected nearly one million. Nationwide civil disturbances broke out in April 2008. In May 2009. In early September 2008. the Preval administration made substantial gains in the overall physical security throughout Haiti. electricity.S. sparked by sharp increases in food and fuel prices. Prime Minister Pierre-Louis was dismissed by the Senate. . hospitals. presented at the Haiti Donor’s Conference hosted by the Inter-American Development Bank in April. shortly after taking office. Clinton as UN Special Envoy for Haiti and charged him with coordinating donors and attracting private investment to Haiti. and ports. the Secretary General named former U. President William J.associate and former Prime Minister Jacques-Edouard Alexis to serve again as his Prime Minister. Collier’s report.
having won a majority in the Senate and a plurality in the Chamber of Deputies. The country had a fully functioning legislature. Former President Preval’s party swept the legislative race. Rumors of widespread fraud by the ruling INITE party led to violent demonstrations on November 28 after 13 of the 18 presidential candidates called for the annulment of the elections before the polls closed. former Minister of Planning and External Cooperation.5% of the vote. and took into consideration a number of lessons learned from the November 28 first round. 2011 the CEP published firstround results in line with the recommendations put forth in the OAS report to promote Manigat and Michel Martelly to a second round. defeating Manigat by winning 67. cabinet. it demonstrated a marked readiness to act by promptly approving new Prime Minister Bellerive. an elected president who serves as head of state. Violence culminated on December 7 with the Provisional Electoral Council’s (CEP) announcement of preliminary election results that pointed to a second-round presidential runoff between Mirlande Manigat and the then-ruling party candidate. took office in November 2009. Martelly won the presidential race. Haiti prior to the January 2010 earthquake enjoyed relative internal stability. National presidential and legislative elections on November 28. and Supreme Court appointed by the president with the parliament's consent. On October 5 the Senate approved former UN official Gary Conille as Prime Minister. These results were at variance with election day observations by domestic and international observers. a first in Haiti’s history. Martelly took office on May 14. By most accounts. . and a prime minister. 2011. ministers. At President Preval’s request. and notable irregularities. Prime Minister Jean-Max Bellerive. The OAS determined that irregularities and fraud on election day significantly affected the outcome of the presidential race. the OAS sent a technical team to Haiti on December 31 to review the preliminary first-round results of the presidential elections. On February 3. Jude Celestin. 2011 proceeded fairly calmly. 2010 were characterized by moderate voter turnout.1 year after taking office. bicameral legislature. significant disorganization. and although it had risked instability by ousting Prime Minister Pierre-Louis. The second round of elections on March 20. Political conditions The 1987 constitution provides for an elected.
or the equivalent of more than 120% of Haiti’s 2009 GDP.breaking a 5-month political impasse. the magnitude 7.302 billion (55% of the total effects of the disaster). The January 2010 earthquake and the multiple hurricanes of late 2008 exacerbated Haiti’s position as the least-developed country in the Western Hemisphere and one of the poorest in the world. ports. Economic losses--loss of production. Economic conditions The Haitian economy had been growing slowly since 2005. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) expected growth to rebound strongly in FY 2011. For more on the international presence in Haiti. to about 9%. Following the 2010-2011 elections. Per capita GDP is under $2 per day. UN. buildings.S. and Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). According to a Post-Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA) undertaken by the World Bank. driven mostly by reconstruction and foreign investments. see the Foreign Relations section below. President Martelly issued a decree naming Anel Alexis Joseph as President of Haiti’s Supreme Court. Despite optimistic investment and revenue growth in the first quarter of FY 2010. roads and bridges. hospitals. The same day. promote the political process. schools. European Commission (EC).9%) barely outstripping population growth in FY 2009. In 2004.4 billion (or 30% of the total). reduction in turnover. the value of damage and losses caused by the January 2010 earthquake was estimated at U. and promote and protect human rights. and comparative social and economic indicators continue to decline.3% in FY 2010. and it contracted by 5. and its pre-earthquake ranking in the World Bank’s 2011 Doing Business report went up marginally. loss of . Haiti ranks 146th of 177 countries in the UN's Human Development Index.5 billion. Haiti’s new prime minister and his cabinet took office on October 18. while the public sector impact was $2. with GDP growth (2. and airports--was estimated at $4.863 billion. The value of destroyed physical assets--including housing units. or 70%). the UN Security Council established the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) to support stability efforts in the country.0 earthquake set the economy back. Most damage and losses were experienced by the private sector ($5. from 163rd in the world in 2010 to 162nd. $7. strengthen Haiti's governmental institutions and rule-of-law-structures. MINUSTAH's aims have been to restore a secure and stable environment.
the provision of private sector management contracts.561 billion (the equivalent of 45% of the total). environmental deterioration. the sale of which was finalized in April 2010). measures to control government expenditure and increase tax revenues. a shortage of good arable land. During the embargo. in decreasing order of magnitude in terms of the impact sustained. International sanctions culminated in the May 1994 UN embargo of all goods entering Haiti except humanitarian supplies.15) for textile workers. such as food and medicine. civil service downsizing. some privatization of state-owned companies (including the telecommunications company.S. particularly in the electricity sector. markets. and the lack of a functioning judicial system. Workers in Haiti are guaranteed the right of association. political instability. continued reliance on traditional technologies. The country’s current economic agenda remains essentially the same as with previous administrations. or 8% of the total). The assembly sector.000 workers in the mid-1980s. and the OAS instituted voluntary sanctions aimed at restoring constitutional government. etc. under-capitalization and lack of public investment in human resources.75) to 200 gourdes (about $5) for most workers and to 125 gourdes (about $3. Haiti's relative economic stagnation pre-earthquake was the result of earlier inappropriate economic policies. migration of large portions of the skilled population. Following the coup. a weak national savings rate. financial sector reform. are trade (damage and losses of $639 million.employment and salaries. In October 2009. . the legal minimum wage was raised from 70 gourdes a day (about $1.000. increased costs of production.--reached $3. The other sectors. consisting of trade/tariff liberalization. with damages estimated at about $2. Housing is the sector most affected by the earthquake. employed over 100. employment fell below 17. transport and government buildings ($595 million each). the United States adopted mandatory sanctions. and public-private investment. and education and health (with an average of 6% of the total). heavily dependent on U. Unionization is protected by the labor code.3 billion. The 1991 coup that toppled President Aristide and the irresponsible economic and financial policies of the de facto regime resulted in a sharp economic decline from 1991-94.
0-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti. coordinated support of Haiti’s long-term recovery. agriculture. The U. 15 days after the earthquake.5 billion (173% of GDP) in damages and reconstruction costs. and other partners have pledged resources.S. The earthquake was the worst in Haiti in the previous 200 years.2010 earthquake In January 12. which donors unanimously endorsed. Government humanitarian relief efforts in Haiti total over $1 billion. NGOs. and trained dogs to detect any sign of human life. well-funded. Government continues to work with the Haitian Government.000 people who migrated from the affected areas to other locations in Haiti. . The outpouring of international support has been tremendous. U. and surrounding communities.000 deaths. and security. cameras. Leogane. The Government of Haiti presented its action plan outlining its vision for the future. and committed to a sustained. health. At the "International Donors’ Conference Toward a New Future for Haiti. and 598. long-term effort to support Haiti. Search and rescue teams were on the ground in Port-au-Prince immediately following the earthquake and worked 24 hours a day using listening devices. the United States.9 billion toward reconstruction. The United States pledged $1." co-hosted by the United States and the United Nations on March 31. as has the resolve of the Haitian people. other nations. The United States and other donor countries. international organizations. 2010 in New York. and partner nations to provide humanitarian assistance in Haiti. UN member states and international organizations pledged $9. The earthquake's enormous devastation threatened political and socio-economic stability and posed huge recovery and reconstruction challenges.15 billion toward reconstruction efforts in the areas of energy. and generated an estimated $11. 2010. the UN. about one million displaced people within the Portau-Prince metropolitan area. The government estimated 230.S. governance. international organizations. Rescue efforts eventually transitioned into recovery efforts on January 27. Assisting Haiti in recovery and rebuilding is a massive undertaking and requires a well-coordinated. The quake caused severe damage in Port-au-Prince. Jacmel. Government of Haiti-led effort by the Haitian people. with its epicentre near Port-au-Prince. the Haitian Diaspora. a 7. the United Nations. and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
and Virgin Island National Guards--to conduct engineering activities and medical readiness training exercises in the vicinity of Gonaives. By March 15. over 50 countries and organizations pledged more than $9. the U.S. Brazil. Major bilateral donors include the United States. Canada. and Venezuela. Montana. Norway. Puerto Rican. all Canadian troops had left Haiti. The exercise brought in about 500 soldiers--mainly from the Louisiana National Guard along with soldiers from the Arizona.9 billion in support to Haiti. France.S. World Bank. contributed more than 20. Cuba provides highly visible.2 billion in multilateral debt relief from the IDB and World Bank and 100% debt cancellation from bilateral donors in the .S. federal agency. military forces were focused on mitigating the negative weather effects on displacement camps in Port-au-Prince. 2010. At the height of the task force's initial response. 2010 post-earthquake donor conference in New York. The United States committed $1.15 billion over 2010-2011. and the UN and its agencies. Agency for International Development (USAID). The short-term assistance totaled $5. with the remainder for Haiti’s long-term reconstruction needs over the next decade. Foreign assistance Haiti is one of the original members of the United Nations and several of its specialized and related agencies.S. Haiti received approximately $1. Spain. and the Government of Haiti during the already-scheduled theater security cooperation exercise called New Horizons. low-cost medical and technical experts. troops. Southern Command established Joint Task Force Haiti to support the relief effort following the earthquake. Joint Task Force Haiti completed its mission on June 1. the U. U.S.000 U. International Monetary Fund (IMF). north of Portau-Prince. Japan.U. and 130 aircraft. Multilateral aid is provided by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).S. not including $1 billion already spent as of May 2010. It maintains diplomatic relations with several dozen countries. and positioning the task force for a seamless transition. At the March 31. Nevada. the EU. as well as a member of the Organization of American States (OAS). 20 ships.3 billion for the next 18 months. supporting efforts to relocate displacement camps to transitional resettlement sites. A small military liaison office of eight people remained in Port-au-Prince to coordinate further humanitarian missions with the lead U.
000-member international force touched down in Haiti to oversee the end of military rule and the restoration of the constitutional government. households made some form of private contribution to Haitian relief. 2010 with an authorized force of 6. and assist in the reconstruction of the country after the January 2010 earthquake. reconstruction. help alleviate poverty. The U. US.Haiti relations U. the UNSC voted unanimously to extend MINUSTAH's mandate through October 15. 2010. multilateral organizations agreed to provide additional debt relief. and strengthen democracy. counter illegal migration and drug trafficking. 1994. Government.940 troops and 2. also supports and facilitates bilateral trade and investment along with legal migration and travel.S. policy toward Haiti is designed to foster economic growth. executed what became the largest international humanitarian response to a natural disaster in U. and stability efforts in the country. In a corresponding outpouring of support. working with the Government of Haiti and the United Nations system. Congress passed a supplemental appropriation to support the long-term recovery and . the first contingents of what became a 21. the Security Council adopted on January 19 Resolution 1908 increasing the force levels of MINUSTAH by 2. On July 31. the U. Since that time. The U. 2009.241 civilian police. In response to the earthquake on January 12. enhance government capacity.S. Following the 2010 earthquake.000 troops and 1. the Security Council consistently and unanimously approved the renewal of MINUSTAH's mandate. Following the January 2010 earthquake. history. On October 13. illiteracy.S. which authorized member states to use all necessary means to facilitate the departure of Haiti's military leadership and to restore Haiti's constitutionally elected government to power. On September 19. 1994.S.Paris Club following completion of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) process in June 2009. which created the UN Stability Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). In April 2004. The United States took the lead in forming a multinational force (MNF) to carry out the UN's mandate by means of a military intervention. the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1542.S. promote respect for human rights.500 civilian police to support the immediate recovery. one out of every two U.S. the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 940. and malnutrition.
5% increase over FY 2009. Haiti is eligible for duty-free entry of textiles irrespective of the source of inputs pursuant to the Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA). a 1.S. Textiles account for over 80% of Haiti’s total exports to the United States. and exceeded month-onmonth totals in many cases. the Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement Act (HOPE). averaging over $10 million annually. Government’s reconstruction and long-term development plan seeks to support new and diverse economic opportunities outside of Port-au-Prince using focused and catalytic investments in housing. the first contingents of what became a 21. the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 940. International presence On July 31. which authorized member states to use all necessary means to facilitate the departure of Haiti's military leadership and to restore Haiti's constitutionally elected government to power. the U. with bilateral trade totaling more than $1. Haitian exports to the U.S.6 billion toward relief. The United States is Haiti’s largest trading partner.S. Government’s development strategy focuses on stimulating economic activity and enhancing the delivery of basic services in designated development corridors.6 billion in 2010. while engaging the private sector in the reconstruction process.1 million in FY 2010. health. energy. 2020. recovery and reconstruction after the earthquake.S. The United States took the lead in forming a multinational force (MNF) to carry out the UN's mandate by means of a military intervention. On September 19. and mangoes represent the country’s most important agricultural export. and national and local governance. Government will provide $2.relief efforts in Haiti. Consistent with the Haitian Government's action plan. or areas of the country. The U. totaled $536. the U. Haiti’s recovery is a strategic imperative for the United States. but recovered throughout the rest of 2010. Despite . 1994. In total. Haitian exports to the United States fell precipitously immediately following the January 2010 earthquake. and the May 2010 Haitian Economic Lift Program (HELP) Act. which increased the apparel quotas (from 70 million to 200 million square meter equivalents) and extended the CBTPA and the HOPE Act through September 30. agriculture. 1994. security.000-member international force touched down in Haiti to oversee the end of military rule and the restoration of the constitutional government.
Government. with more than 25. electricity is produced but 10 hours a day.the earthquake.000 workers in the garment industry as of July2010.S. HOPE/HELP-related employment had increased steadily every month since 2009. lack of access to credit. The Interim Commission for the Reconstruction of Haiti facilitated and approved this effort. the creation of a new industrial park near Cap Haitien. The park creation also fulfills priorities in the Government of Haiti’s national action plan to create centers of economic development outside of Port-au-Prince and to bring much-needed jobs to Haiti’s underserved regions. is projected to create 20. In addition. however. S. Conclusion Haiti is a broken country in which nearly everything needs help. The present political situation and economic problems. . and transportation is difficult.000 direct jobs. exacerbated by the U. and has the potential for up to 65. embargo since autumn 1991. and the InterAmerican Development Bank. Economic growth postearthquake. a combined effort between the Haitian Government. In Port-au-Prince and other built-up areas. marking the first major public-private partnership to bring permanent jobs to Haiti since the earthquake.000 permanent jobs through investment by anchor tenant Sae-A alone. has left Haiti hopeless. and legal and physical infrastructure constraints. the U. continues to be slowed by investor concerns over security. and water (non potable) is available about one hour a day. Garbage is collected intermittently.
htm Haiti: Current Conditions and Congressional Concerns.http://www.html References Haiti.html http://www.nbcnewyork.htm .edu/faculty/watkins/haiti.http://www.com/Haiti/history.pdf Political and Economic history of Haitihttp://www.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/1982.org/article/141/haiti Background note.globalissues.sjsu.Bibliography http://www.com/ipa/A0107612.org/sgp/crs/row/R40507.state.fas.htm http://www.http://www.Haiti.com/news/local/The-Sad-History-of-Haiti81353577.by Anup Shah.by Maureen TaftMorales.infoplease.language-works.
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