Name:____________________________ Principles of Biology I, Fall 2005 Exam I Remember, several answers may at first seem to be correct (or appropriate

) so it is very important to read each/all of the possible answers first and then CHOOSE THE BEST ONE. 1. A group of organisms of a particular kind, living in the same place are called a: a. species. b. population. c. biological community. d. ecosystem. e. homeostatic group. 2. Using a series of relatively simple observations to determine general principles would best be described as an example of: a. simple logic. b. inductive reasoning. c. deductive reasoning. d. pyrimidal logic. e. hierarchical analysis. 3. Proteins which act to correctly fold other proteins are called: a. enzymes. b. catalysts. c. ribosomes. d. chaperones. e. hydrolases.

4. Which of the following statements about Darwin’s studies and thoughts about natural selection is False? a. The ship on which he served as naturalist was called the H.M.S. Discover. b. Many of his important observations were made while visiting islands. c. He published his first article on his theory of natural selection over 15 years after his return to the British Isles. d. Darwin did not challenge the existence of a Divine Creator, but argued that the Creator did not simply create things and leave them forever unchanged. e. His study included both living plants/animals as well as fossil species. 5. When comparing the wings various organisms utilize for the purpose of flight, the wings of a flying insect and the wings of a flying mammal such as a bat are considered to be: a. homologous structures.

b. homeostatic structures. c. histochemically unrelated. d. analogous structures. e. examples of homeodomains. 6. The “Cell Theory” of living organisms was first proposed by: a. Schleiden and Schwann. b. Robert Hooke. c. Anton van Leeuwenhoek. d. Alfred Russel Wallace e. Thomas Malthus 7. You are retracing Darwin’s trip around the world and make many observations similar to his. When you compare your notes about the plants, animals and fossils found on an island in the Atlantic Ocean to a distant island found at a similar latitude in the Pacific Ocean you discover (as did Darwin): a. that the plants are nearly identical on the two islands but the animals are quite different. b. that the fossils of the earliest plants and animals are nearly identical, although living species are quite different between the two islands. c. that birds/animals are quite similar but plants are quite unique to each island. d. that plants, animals and fossils on the two islands are quite different. e. that collecting, processing, and cataloging biological specimens is hard work in the tropical heat. 8. Which of the following is not one of the presently accepted properties of all living organisms? a. It will consist of one or more cells. b. It will respond to stimuli. c. It will utilize one or more energy sources to perform work. d. It will evolve (as a species) to be better adapted to its environment. e. All of the above are examples of the presently accepted properties of a living organism. 9. When a person’s body temperature begins to rise above about 99 degrees Fahrenheit they normally begin to sweat (lowering body temperature through evaporative cooling). When it falls below about 98 degrees Fahrenheit they will begin to shiver (generating heat from the muscle action). Sweating and shivering are thus two examples of how the human body attempts to maintain: a.order. b.sensitivity. c.development. d.homeostasis. e.osmotic balance.

10. A naturalist who was one of Darwin’s contemporaries and who simultaneously proposed a theory for evolution through natural selection (Darwin had the idea first but failed to publish it earlier) was: a. Alfred Russel Wallace b. Thomas Malthus c. Charles Lyell d. Francis Bacon e. Isaac Newton 11. The cation form of an element is compared to the uncharged form of the same element. Which of the following statements is TRUE? a. The cation has less protons. b. The cation has a different half-life. c. The cation has more neutrons. d. The cation has less electrons. e. The cation has more electrons. 12. Microorganisms that live at extreme temperatures (e.g. thermal springs at near 100 degrees centigrade) are likely to be examples of which kingdom of life? a. Archaebacteria b. Eubacteria c. Protista d. Fungi e. Thermophilia 13. Chloroplasts are believed to have evolved from: a. a budding off of the golgi apparatus. b. a budding off of the endoplasmic reticulum. c. invaginations of the plasma membrane d. endosymbiont cyanobacteria. e. archaebacteria. 14. The primary advantage of multicellularity over single celled organisms is that: a. it allows individual cells to have specialized functions. b. it allows cells to feed cooperatively. c. it allows cells to have sexual exchanges of genetic material. d. it allows cells to engage in mutual defense. e. it allows the loss of individual cells without killing the organism. 15. Which of the pH values given below would be considered neutral? a. 0.0

b. c. d. e.

1.0 7.0 10.0 14.0

16. Bicarbonate is critical to maintaining the pH of the blood stream at “physiological pH”. A substance like bicarbonate, which acts to maintain the pH of a solution at its present value, counteracting the effects of adding acid or base, is called a/an: a. anion. b. cation. c. buffer. d. salt. e. hydrophile. 17. Two different types of atoms have reacted to form a molecule. A close inspection of the atoms reveals that one atom has 11 protons and 10 electrons, while the other has 17 protons and 18 electrons. This molecule is most likely held together by: a. a single covalent bond. b. a double covalent bond. c. an ionic bond. d. a hydrogen bond. e. None of the above is a correct answer. 18. Two compounds share the same chemical formula but are obviously not the same compound. A comparison of the two structures reveals that the two are mirror images of each other. Most likely these two compounds are: a. structural isomers. b. stereoisomers. c. isotopes. d. carbohydrates. e. ions. 19. Water is a liquid at room temperature (and not a gas) because: a. it can form ionic bonds between ionized molecules. b. it can form hydrogen bonds between individual molecules. c. it can dissociate to form hydrogen and hydroxide ions. d. it has a relatively high molecular weight. e. it forms a strong hydration shell. 20. A “9 + 2” arrangement is associated with: a. bacterial flagella. b. mitochondria. c. ribosomes. d. eukaryotic flagella. e. chloroplasts.

21. Which of the above properties of water was/is not important to the development of living systems? a. Cohesion—water molecules “stick together” b. High specific heat--water requires much energy to raise its temperature c. High heat of vaporization--much energy absorbed when water evaporates d. Low density of ice—it floats e. All of the above are properties of water that are important to the development and survival of living systems. 22. The basic monomeric repeat unit of a protein molecule is called a/an: a. amino acid b. sugar c. lipid d. nucleotide e. phosphate 23. In a eukaryotic cell, a protein destined for secretion would be synthesized: a. in the nucleus. b. in the cytoplasm. c. by a ribosome attached to the smooth ER (endoplasmic reticulum). d. by a ribosome attached to the rough ER. e. by a ribosome attached to the plasma membrane. 24. An example of a structural polymer made entirely of unmodified glucose repeat units: a. glycogen. b. starch. c. cellulose. d. chitin. e. lignin. 25. Secretory vesicles bud from the: a. nucleolus. b. cis face of the Golgi apparatus. c. trans face of the Golgi apparatus d. rough ER. e. plasma membrane. 26. Two atoms are classified as isotopes of the same element. This means that the two will have: a. a different number of protons. b. a different number of neutrons. c. different charges.

d. the same number of neutrons plus protons. e. the same number of protons as electrons. 27. The actual sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide/protein is called its: a. primary structure. b. secondary structure. c. tertiary structure. d. quaternary structure. e. None of the above are correct answers. 28. An example of a type of chemical bond which involves a full separation of charge (transfer of electrons) is a/an: a. hydrogen bond. b. ionic bond. c. covalent bond. d. hydrophobic bond. e. electron bond. 29. A storage fat molecule is made up of: a. two fatty acids, glycerol, phosphate and another alcohol type unit. b. three fatty acids and glycerol. c. two fatty acids and glycerol. d. two fatty acids, glycerol and a phosphate group. e. three fatty acids, glycerol, phosphate and an alcohol type unit. 30. The oldest fossil microorganism is now believed to have been formed from cells living: a. 500 million years ago. b. 1 billion years ago. c. 2.5 billion years ago. d. 3.5 billion years ago. e. 14 billion years ago.

of the following types of bonds is/are key to the maintenance of a protein’s secondary structure? a. Hydrogen bonds b. Ionic bonds c. Disulfide bonds d. Peptide bonds. e. All of the above are correct answers. example of a storage carbohydrate common in animals is: a. cellulose. b. glycogen. c. starch. d. chitin.


e. choline. 33. You have isolated a molecule that seems to be composed of a sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. This molecule is most likely an example of a/an: a. amino acid. b. carbohydrate. c. fatty acid. d. nucleotide. e. phosphoglycolipid. 34. An experiment which demonstrated that heat, lightning and other conditions theorized to have existed at the time of the “early earth” could produce simple organic compounds such as fatty acids and amino acids was done by: a. Darwin. b. Wallace. c. Malthus. d. Miller and Urey. e. Isaac Newton

Atoms which draw electrons (such as those shared in a chemical bond) “more towards themselves” are said to be: a. cohesive. b. electropositive. c. electronegative. d. isotopic. e. greedy and should only be allowed to engage in ionic bonding.

36. The site of ribosome synthesis in the cell is the: a. nucleus. b. rough endoplasmic reticulum. c. smooth endoplasmic reticulum. d. cytoplasm e. nucleolus.

_______________________________________________________________________ Match the following names to the proper functional group a. b. c. 37. An amino group 38. A carbonyl group 39. A carboxyl group 40. A sulfhydryl group _______________________________________________________________________ 41. At this time scientists believe that life on earth most likely first evolved: a. bubbles in the atmosphere. b. in puddles on the oceans edge. c. under frozen lakes. d. around undersea “black smokers”. e. underground near volcanic activity. 42. Lactose is an example of a/an: a. monosaccharide. b. disaccharide. c. pentose sugar. d. polysaccharide. e. glycoprotein. 43. A fatty acid has 3 double bonds connecting carbons in its chain. It would be best described as being: a. saturated. b. a transfat. c. monounsaturated. d. polyunsaturated. e. a triglyceride. 44. An organelle likely to contain many hydrolytic enzymes is the: a. coated pit. b. mitochondrion. -COOH -SH -PO4 d. e. -C=O -NH2

c. lysosome. d. rough endoplasmic reticulum. e. Golgi apparatus. 45. The monomer repeat units of a nucleic acid strand are connected to each other by what type of bonds? a. peptide bonds b. phosphodiester bonds c. ester bonds d. hydrogen bonds e. ionic bonds. 46. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the site of: a. synthesis of proteins destined for the cytoplasm. b. synthesis of proteins destined for secretion. c. synthesis of ribosomes. d. synthesis of lipids. e. synthesis of carbohydrate polymers. 47. The cell wall of a eubacterial prokaryote is made of: a. phospholipid. b. cellulose. c. peptidoglycan. d. tubulin. e. a rigid plasma membrane. 48. Which of the following is a nucleotide? a. ATP b. a fat c. a sugar d. a phospholipid e. cholesterol 49. Which of the following is considered to be a domain in terms of the domains (a category above a kingdom) of life? a. Eukarya b. Plantae c. Protista. d. Animalia. e. All of the above are considered domains 50. The first person to propose the presently accepted model for the structure of an atom was: a. Isaac Newton. b. Charles Darwin. c. Neils Bohr. d. Malthus. e. Erastosthenes.

51. A molecule or an atom undergoes a chemical reaction and as a result has lost an electron. It is best described as having been: a. ionized. b. reduced. c. oxidized. d. hydrolyzed. e. changed with regard to its atomic number. 52. Which of the following organelles do/does NOT contain DNA? a. nucleus b. ribosome c. chloroplast d. mitochondrion e. All of the above organelles contain DNA. 53. The type of reaction commonly used to disconnect the monomeric units of macromolecules is best classified as a/an: a. exergonic reaction. b. hydrolysis reaction. c. disulfide reaction. d. hydrogen bonding. e. dehydration reaction.