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FishSAFE encourages the distribution of this material freely provided that acknowledgement is given as to the source

Although all due care and diligence has been used in compiling this publication, no warranty is given as to the application of this material in any specific case


General Prevention Strategies

There is no harsher natural environment than the sea: there are very few industries where people are required to work heavy machinery on a platform that is wet and continually moving. These factors make it one of the most physically demanding and dangerous occupations. Sadly, the accident statistics support this fact.
In this section you will find out about the emergency procedures and emergency equipment that should be on every vessel. The section covers what to do to prevent emergencies: If there is a fire on board When someone falls overboard When someone is injured on board If there is a flood on board If you have to abandon ship If you have to make a MAYDAY call if there is a refrigerant gas leak. Regular emergency drills will help all crew members to know what to do if something goes wrong. Preventing emergencies Many accidents and injuries can be avoided, or their effects reduced through the professionalism of the vessels management and crew. Everyone should do what they can to: Keep the vessel in good working condition. Do your housekeeping - this means - Keep things tidy on deck and below deck - Know where items should be stored and keep them there - Secure loose items - Stow things in the correct containers Make sure safety gear is easy to get at, and in excellent condition. Report any problems or gear defects to the skipper



FOR SKIPPERS Always discuss safety matters with crew. Formal safety committees are not compulsory, but good communication on safety matters is. Every crewmember must be encouraged to give feedback and to report defects. Do pre-sailing safety checks every time you sail. Follow the Safe Ship Management (SSM) programme on board. Encourage the crew to attend first aid, fire-fighting, survival and emergency training for crew. Conduct regular safety exercises and discussions while at sea. Practice is essential to be prepared.

Insist on safe working standards at all times

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS Maritime Rules Part 23 lists Operating Procedures and Training designed to cope with emergency situations or prevent such situations occurring. The HSE Act requires every employer shall take all practical steps to ensure the safety of employees while at work. The HSE Act also requires the participation of employees in processes relating to health and safety.




What happens in an emergency? - Muster Stations

Muster station simply refers to an assembly point that every crewmember knows to go to on hearing the vessels emergency alarm. It is at this point that people are given details of what type of emergency exists and then carry out the action required of them A muster list is an emergency duties list and is displayed in a prominent position on a vessel detailing what duties each crewmember has in the event of an emergency. These should be displayed where crew will see it often.

Everyone should: Know and follow the muster procedures

FOR SKIPPERS Things you must do Place copies of the muster list in prominent positions on the vessel. An example of a muster list for a factory vessel is shown on the following page. Other things you should do to keep your crew up to speed Have drills or practices when they are not expected. Change crew duties around between trips so they become familiar with all duties and crew get into the habit of checking the muster list. Put a copy of the muster list in the mess or on the back of the toilet door where the crew will tend to read it. Always initiate the drill with the actual alarm.


5 short and long blasts of the general alarm


The order to abandon the ship will be given verbally by the Master

Crew on watch Proceed directly to their muster station Crew off watch Wear warm clothes, footwear and the survival suits that are situated near to the muster station




Mike Dave Mary Richard Tania Karl Matt Wayne Shaun Emma Ian Rewi Steven Scott Chris Blake Wiremu Rachel Andre Sosaia Karen


Allan Jeremy Nathan Nadine Rhonda Sam Matt Eli Steve Sione Josh Turei Emma Graham Tommy Floyd Andre Tawira Mahi Ratu Taumarena








LEGAL REQUIREMENTS Maritime Rules 23.29 requires all vessels to have a muster list. Maritime Rules 23.18 requires that copies of the muster list are exhibited in conspicuous places throughout the ship, including: the navigating bridge; the engine room if there is space; and crew accommodation spaces. The HS&E Act Part 2 requires every employer shall take all practical steps to ensure the safety of employees while at work. The HS&E Act Part 2 also requires the participation of employees in processes relating to health and safety.


O.I.C. VHF EPIRB SART E.R. FLARES Officer In Command Radio located in bridge 406 EPIRB located on top of the bridge Radar transponder located on the bridge Emergency SSB radio located on the bridge Located in the bridge


If a situation arises where liferafts can only be launched from one side, liferafts 1&2, 3&4, 5&6 will combine. You will be told which side liferafts will be launched from

Crew in liferafts 2, 4 & 6 should muster at the port muster station Crew in liferafts 1, 3 & 5 should muster at the starboard muster station Crew must proceed to their muster stations in an orderly fashion. When boarding liferafts, experienced crew are to assist crew that are not so experienced.




Emergency Training

The crew are the only people who can deal with an emergency at sea. Emergencies will be rare if the vessel is well maintained and well operated. As these situations do not occur often it is difficult for the crew to react quickly when they do, unless they have practised (having conducted regular training exercises!). Emergency training is practising safety drills on board the vessel while it is at sea. Ideally, these are done at any time, but are easier when the vessel is not fishing but on the way to, between or from the fishing grounds. This exercising, or practising, develops familiarity. Familiarity saves time. In an emergency at sea you dont have time to think! Practise the drills and you will react quickly in a real emergency. FOR SKIPPERS Things you must do on board Develop and use a training exercise programme on board. Practice all drills regularly and often even the simple ones. Conduct basic muster stations and man overboard drills at the earliest opportunity after leaving port each trip, especially if new crewmembers are on board. You must keep a record of all training and exercises that you undertake. A simple matrix as shown on the next page can be constructed and used for this. All safe ship management manuals should have similar record forms in them. Other things you can do to increase your survival odds Never assume everyone remembers or already knows. Conduct exercises for different emergency circumstances in different areas of the vessel each time. Talk through the use of the emergency gear used during each exercise. Never let your crew talk you out of doing an exercise. Yes they have done them before, yes they can be boring, but they must be done! Use the exercises to check your equipment. Operate hydrant valves to confirm they are not seized. Check hoses arent perished. Check extinguishers are within the expiration date. Work through what if scenarios with the crew after an exercise.

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS Under the HSE Act Section 13 regulations, employers must ensure staff are trained adequately and receive adequate supervision. Maritime Rules Part 23 requires all fishing vessels that these guidelines were developed for, to have at least one fire exercise and one abandon ship drill per month. Maritime Rules Part 23 also requires the skipper of the vessel to ensure crew are familiar with their duties and the use of emergency equipment.



Name: Rank: Review Date Name of Training Starting Date Completion Date Signature of the Instructor Remarks

Vessel: Date: Drill Type:

Personnel Involved in the Drill:

Efficiency of Crew Response: Problems Identified and Any Suggested Improvements:

Condition and Efficiency of Equipment InspectedTested when used During the Drill:

Signature of Master:

Reviewed By MSM:

Review Date:

A training and drill record like that above should be in your SSM Manual. If you make the effort to do the exercises, it just takes a fraction more time to initial and date the record!




Fire on Board

Fire on board a vessel at sea (or alongside) is extremely serious. Fire can spread quickly and smoke becomes very intense very quickly. This makes fire-fighting harder. Fires can start anywhere on a vessel. They most often start in the galley or in the engine room. Check Section 2 for more detail about how to fight fires on board. You cannot share a vessel with a large fire!

Raise the alarm: shout FIRE or sound the alarm. Attempt to put out fire using a portable fire extinguisher only if it is safe to do so. Stop all ventilation. Turn off the fans.

If unsuccessful:
Get out, close up the compartment and wait for the fire party. Shut off all power and fuel supplies to the compartment on fire (if possible). Activate fixed fire extinguishing system. Close all openings, doors, vents to the compartment. Keep eye out for smoke coming out and block holes so the fire is starved of oxygen. Protect the lifeboats and liferafts from the fire. Dampen hot spots on external bulkheads and on the deck above the compartment on fire to stop the spread. Use water sparingly to avoid creating a stability problem due to free surface water. Prepare to abandon ship.

More specific fire-fighting information is in Section 2 of these guidelines.




Man Overboard

A crewmember can fall into the sea at any time while working on a fishing vessel - not only during rough weather. The waters your vessel works in are cold. A crewmember in the water can get hypothermia within minutes. If the person is unconscious when they fall in to the water, they might not be able to keep their head above the water. It will be even harder if they are not a wearing a personal floatation device. All lifesaving equipment must be stored in an area that is readily accessible. In all cases, it is important to:

Recover the person as fast as you can!

What to do if you hear or see someone fall overboard
Immediately throw a floatation device into the water. The best thing to use is a life ring, lifejacket or anything else within reach that will assist the person to stay afloat. At night, throw in a light or reflective item as well. Other items, such as cardboard, can be used to mark the spot if necessary. Raise the alarm: yell man overboard! The person on watch in the wheelhouse must mark the position of the boat and/or hit the Man Overboard switch on the GPS. Keep pointing at the person in the water. Keep an eye on the flotation device and the person in the water and guide the wheelhouse back to them without taking your eyes off them Carefully manoeuvre the vessel alongside (upwind) of the person. Recover the person being careful not to be pulled into the water yourself. Get person warm, and conduct CPR if required immediately. Radio for assistance if required.

What to do if someone is missing

Mark your position and start retracing your track. Raise a MAYDAY call immediately so other vessels in area can assist.

Good practices on board

Wear a floatation device when you are working on the weather deck. Do this all the time - not just in bad weather. Ensure life rings and other safety devices are easy to get to at all times. Never go out on deck without telling anyone Make sure you know your duty on the man overboard duty list. An example of such a list is below.

FOR SKIPPERS Conduct regular exercises by throwing something into the water to recover. Make sure at least two crew know how to manoeuvre the vessel. It may be the skipper in the water. Position life rings near the main work areas and near the wheelhouse.



When the alarm is raised, if you have not been assigned a specific duty you should proceed to the starboard trawl deck, dressed in clothes appropriate for the conditions, you will probably be needed to assist or substitute for a designated person. All crew must be aware of the procedures in a MOB situation All crew assigned tasks must go to their respective duty stations, whether on watch or not
DESIGNATED DUTIES 1300 - 1900 shift 0700 - 1300 shift

Bridge Boat Crew Bridge alert / general assist Lookout Davit operators Lookout to bridge for VHF and binoculars Runner for rescue equipment to boat Factory supervisors Engineer alert then report to bridge

Mike Hamish & Jeremy

Al Wayne & Matt

Ian & Richard Karl Floyd & Blake

Wiremu & Josh Steve Scott & Andre



Nathan & Shaun

Nathan & Shaun

Dont become a statistic!

Drowning is the most common cause of death to New Zealand fishermen. Always wear a lifejacket or personal flotation device. So get up with the play! Be safe!



A collision


Floods can occur through:

Structural failure. A broken service (cooling) pipe A damaged hull fitting or gland. Flooding can occur on a vessel because of an incident at sea. Flooding can also happen when a vessel is alongside. There are a number of steps you can take to reduce the risk of flooding. There are also things you can do to reduce the damage that a flood would cause. Flooding affects the stability of your vessel. You need to watch out for accumulation of water and understand the free surface effect of loose water.


When a compartment (eg: Fish hold) has water in it, that water is free to slop around. The surface of the water is called a free surface. When this water moves to one side, the weight of it moving will oppose the motion of the vessel and can cause it to heal over.

Good practice:
keep scuppers clear at all times keep your bilges pumped.

On discovering flooding:
Raise the alarm! Start the pumps. If you are the wheelhouse watchkeeper send a radio message to nearby vessels or ashore. After you have done that you can go to assist. Things may deteriorate quickly once you are assisting and you may not get another chance to get a message off. Turn vessel towards shallower water or port. Consider beaching the vessel. Attempt to stem the flow of water by shutting valves, or blocking the hole. If the pumps are out of action, get-out and close compartment. Do everything you can to reduce the free surface effect. Look for holes leaking into adjoining compartments. Consider stability effects of flooded compartment. You may need to transfer fuel or flood another compartment to counter the list of the vessel. Prepare to abandon ship. Remain on the vessel for as long as it is safe to do so!

Key points to remember:

Keep watertight opening clips and dogs well greased and in good working order at all times. Keep all bilge and portable pumps maintained. Check their operation before sailing each trip. Make sure bilges are clear of rags and debris that may block pumps. When leaving the vessel, shut off all sea cocks that are not required for cooling running equipment. Ensure your collision bulkhead or any other watertight bulkhead is not compromised by drilling holes to install cabling or pipe work. Make sure the appropriate through-bulkhead watertight gland or fitting is used.


Abandon Ship

An emergency situation may be so bad that it is necessary to abandon the vessel in order to save the life of the crew. It is often a difficult decision that should not be made too early or left too late. Someone who gets into the liferaft relatively dry, with warm clothing, food and water has a greater chance of survival. If you are dealing with an emergency (fire or flooding) and it seems likely that you will have to abandon ship, the skipper should despatch one crewmember to prepare to launch the raft and gather food, water, clothing and other things you need.

The order for Abandon ship must only be given by the skipper once it is clear that continued presence on the vessel will be a risk to human life. If there is time: Radio a MAYDAY call giving vessels position. Collect a portable radio. Collect warm clothing and blankets. If possible, activate EPIRB and tie to raft or to your person. Collect food and water. Gather extra flares. Launch the lifeboat and/or the liferaft. Use the liferaft painter line to activate inflation of the raft and pull it to the side of the vessel. DO NOT LEAVE IT TOO LATE!

Once everyone is in the raft get it clear of the vessel

Try to stay as dry as you can when you get into the raft. Being dry helps prevent the onset of hypothermia. Once the raft has been cleared as much as possible of water: close all liferaft openings to reduce the chill stream sea anchor to keep raft in vicinity of last known position of vessel if the vessel is still afloat keep clear in case it tips over or a mast falls erect radar reflector sheets if fitted take sea sickness tablets, even if you do not normally get sea sick if unable to get into the raft dry squeeze the water out of your clothing and bail out as much water as soon as you can.

a. To right a capsized liferaft, grab the righting strip and pull. When it starts to right, you have to spring backward to avoid having the liferaft land on top of you

When there is no time to launch a liferaft
You will have to spend some time in the water until you are rescued or until the liferaft is hydrostatically released. Swim clear of the vessel. Once clear of vessel conserve energy. Keep together and huddle together in water to maximise body warmth and make a bigger object for searchers to find. If you are alone, pull your body into your chest as shown. Keep talking to each other. Watch out for the liferaft or other floating objects emerging from the water.


Things you have to do during normal operations

Maritime Rules Part 23 requires that vessels conduct an abandon ship drill once a month. Maritime Rules Part 23 requires the skipper to ensure all crew know where life saving equipment is kept and are trained how to use it, regardless of how large the vessel is.

Maintenance points to remember:

Make sure liferafts are stowed properly. Rafts should float free once the hydrostatic release mechanism releases them. The painter line must be secured to the vessel (via a weak link) so the raft stays close until survivors board it and cut the line. Manual release mechanisms must be maintained to a high standard and readily accessible. Keep all hydrostatic release mechanisms serviced or in date. Make sure EPIRBs are stowed properly so they are free to float once the hydrostatic release mechanism releases them. Get posters showing deployment of liferaft and put around vessel in prominent positions. The supplier of the vessels raft should be willing to provide these to you. Keep your liferafts in good condition. Ensure the crew knows how to upright a liferaft. Display posters around vessel.

Encourage crew to do a survival course



Emergency Contacts


1 2 3 4 5

VHF Ch 16 or SSB 2182, 4125, 6215, 8291 MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY THIS IS MAYDAY



Vessel s position in degrees and minutes of latitude and longitude or bearings and distance relative to a well known geographical feature. Nature of distress and kind of assistance required. Any other information which may assist rescuers number of persons on board, description of vessel, liferaft, EPIRB. Allow a short period for shore station to reply. Activate your EPIRB and repeat the distress call working through all the distress frequencies. If contact is made with shore station, inform station that you have activated your EPIRB.

6 7 8


to do so by rescue authority.

You will find this notice near the vessel VHF radio. A MAYDAY message with this information initiates a response from the Rescue Coordination Centre New Zealand (RCCNZ). They can then contact a range of organisations to get you the help you need. You should also know the local frequencies of the NZ Coastguard. These are available from your local Coastguard or on their website:



RCCNZ 24hr Accident and Emergency Phone Number:

0508 472 269




Operating with Helicopters

Operating over fishing vessels presents a number of problems for the helicopter pilot. Rescue operations are often conducted in poor weather are extremely dangerous. Due to the dangers in heli-lifting persons directly off the vessel, if it is possible to transfer the person to shore first then conduct the lift from shore, this should be the first option. Precautions to be aware of when requiring a transfer to helicopter are: Evacuate to shore wherever possible. The crew on deck should be dressed as brightly as possible. They should wear safety goggles. The crew should stay out of the way until the helicopter is in position. Select the position where the transfer is to take place i.e. the position from where an injured person is to be winched up from. This may not necessarily be the largest deck area but will be the best location regarding the proximity of high obstructions (i.e. masts, gantries, derricks etc). Clear the evacuation area of any lose bit of debris or equipment that may be sucked up into the helicopters engine. On the sighting of the helicopter set of a smoke flare to highlight your location and indicate the wind direction to the pilot.




Maintain radio communication with the helicopter. Never attach anything to the helicopter before the pilot gives approval to do so. Remember the pilot may not be able to see the load and may need some guidance. If the rescue is to be done at night the pilot will be accustomed to the darkness. Avoid turning on very bright lighting. Know the signals to communicate with the helicopter from the deck.




Fire Prevention & Fire Safety

Fire is very dangerous for vessels at sea. Fishing vessels use and carry lots of things that can cause fires. Once a fire starts on board a fishing vessel at sea it can be very hard to put out. You need to do everything you can to keep your vessel afloat and seaworthy. In this section you will find out:
What can cause fires How to prevent fires from starting How to fight fires safely and effectively. Every vessel should have regular fire drills. Practising what you have to do is the best way to remember it.

Important points for all crew

Know and look out for fire risks. Know what fire equipment is held on board. Know where all fire-fighting equipment is held onboard. Know how and when to use all the fighting equipment. Know how to contain a fire on board. Know the effects of fire-fighting water on stability. Know your role in fighting a fire on board.

A flammable hazard is something that could ignite a fire, or something that burns easy Flammable hazards - on board every vessel at sea there are a large number of flammable hazards. These include:
Things that can ignite or start the fire Heat and sparks from electrical switches, motors, tools and leads Cooker flames Sparks from grinding and welding Generators Cigarettes and matches or lighters Things that can give the fire fuel to burn Diesel fuel Gas Cleaning chemicals Rags with oil or chemicals on them Hydraulic oil Do not smoke inside! When smoking outside, only use designated smoking areas.




General Fire Prevention

There are two main things you can do on board a vessel to prevent fires:
Keep the vessel tidy - good housekeeping is important Everyone on board must think ahead and try to identify fire risks during normal day to day operation of the vessel. Here are some specific flammable hazards to look out for. On every vessel, there will be other fire risks that are not on this list. Think carefully about your vessel and any other things you can do to prevent fires.

Diesel & petrol fuel and lubricating oils

ensure no one smokes on board the vessel when taking on fuel make sure all leaks in pipe-lines, fittings and on engines are repaired immediately store flammable products separately and tidily.

Hydraulic oil
make sure all leaks in pipe-lines and fittings are repaired at the earliest opportunity after they are discovered regularly check hoses for deterioration.

LP Gas Some vessels have LPG bottles for sonic bird cannons to scare birds. Ensure bottles are stowed in an area that they are least likely to be damaged. Gas bottles must be installed on the exposed weatherdeck. Salt air and water will corrode the bottles, so it is best to keep them protected. Ensure there is good ventilation to stop fumes building up. Regularly check hoses and fittings for deterioration.

Cooking fryers, elements and oils

Fires often start on board vessels in the galley. They can start when crewmembers leave equipment turned on but leave the galley area. To reduce the risk of a galley fire: Install timed switches on galley equipment so it will turn off if left unattended. Ensure a smoke detector is fitted. Do not leave the cooker unattended. With gas bottles: lock shut when leaving the vessel store properly fix leaks protect the bottles.



Electrical switchboards and connections
On any vessel there are a range of control boxes, switches and sockets in areas exposed to physical damage. Ensure the flameproof and waterproof enclosures are kept in excellent physical condition. Check regularly that contacts and connections inside are still tight. Remember a vessel is continually vibrating so connections do come loose, which can create a hot spot.

Electric motors and generators

These machines are often in areas where they are exposed to fumes and dust. The fumes and dust can get into the vents of the machine. Sparks from the electrics can ignite the fumes or dust. Get a qualified person to regularly check the vents and remove grills to make sure internals of the machine are clean. Check at same time that connections inside are still tight.

Portable Electric Tools

Ensure tools (including leads and extension leads) are kept in excellent condition. Turn power off after use. Do not run leads across the deck.

Welding, grinding and gas cutting

Welding and cutting maintenance work is regularly required on board, and can be a significant fire hazard. Check the company and vessel procedures for permits. Fires that result from this work rarely start from where the work is done. Fires from welding usually start on the other side of the bulkhead when paint or insulation ignites or where sparks and loose metal fall. Fires from cutting work happen when sparks fly over an area. If these sparks fall into a nearby pile of rubbish, on an oily rag, or on a piece of paper a fire could start. In these examples the fire can develop a long time after the work was done. Always assign a crewmember, or make sure the contractor has a worker, to check the opposite side to where welding work is being conducted. This should be done while the work is happening and for sometime after the welding has finished. The person doing it should use the back of their hand and have simply a wet rag and a bucket of water to dab onto any paint or panel that ignites.



Insulation on the other side of the face being welded must be removed. Keep electrical gear clean. Look on the other side before welding. Before allowing grinding or cutting work to proceed, physically check the surrounding areas. Make sure the workers have a fire extinguisher close by. Make contractors report before they start and after they have finished. Check the area again one or two hours after work is completed.

Rags are regularly used to wipe up oil or fuel spills and then tossed into nearby container. Dispose of oily rags in metal bin with a lid or sealed air tight bag.

Read the data sheets supplied with chemicals. Chemicals can be extremely volatile if mixed with other substances. Get these supplied in robust and non-corrosive containers. Stow in a separate dry stowage according to company procedures.




Fire Drills

Fire drills help people to remember what they have to do when there is a fire. Talking about what to do is important that is the theory part. A practical fire drill gives everyone a chance to practise the skills thats the practical bit.

Fire drills help you to know exactly what to do! Good fire drills
Start with the alarm you normally use to get the crew to the muster stations. This allows an immediate check to confirm everyone is accounted for and doing their duty. An example of a muster station list for a fire drill and emergency procedure is on the following page. Happen in different locations where a fire could start. Have a sense of urgency. Use the correct fire-fighting equipment at the scene.

FOR SKIPPERS Time crew during the fire drill to see how long it takes them to do certain tasks. Check your deck and/or fire hoses are long enough and in good condition. Always open at water supply and/or fire hydrant valves to keep them moving. Make sure crew know how to use all the different types of extinguisher, hose spray/jet nozzles and pumps on the vessel. Always debrief after a fire drill. This can be an informal discussion afterwards where what if scenarios as well as deficiencies in the days exercise can be discussed. Always question crew on their knowledge but also listen to their comments and suggestions. Always log your exercise in the vessel log and/or your training record.

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS Maritime Rules Part 23 requires you to have one fire drill per month.

You cant share a small vessel with a big fire! Put them out early!



fire drill and emergency procedure
if you discover a fire
Raise the alarm before taking any fire-fighting action. Individual action should not be taken unless: The risk of the fire spreading is very low. You have raised the alarm by: alerting the bridge, telling someone else to raise the alarm, or pushing one of the alarm buttons (and heard it go off).

Continuous intermittent ringing of the ships alarm.

Upon hearing this alarm all crew are to report to their designated muster stations or if assigned tasks as below do those tasks then report to their muster station.

Captain 1st Mate Coordinator Runner to the bridge Allan Mike Nadine

engine room
Chief Engineer (in charge) 2nd Engineer Baadar Technician (Start emergency fire pump and assist in engine room) Eli Tommy Chris

ba party (muster and standby outside ba locker)

2nd Mate (in charge with VHF on channel 09) All BA party personnel Wayne BA Hamish, BA Shaun, BA Davem BA Nathan, ASS Matt (control board) ASS Jeremy

Hose party (muster on trawl deck and await furtHer instructions)

In charge PoRT hoSE PARTy Andre Blake Floyd Steve STARboARd hoSE PARTy Andre Scott Ian

vent party (muster on trawl deck aft. you will be sHown wHicH vents to close by tHe person in cHarge)
In charge Party Karl Emma, Mary, Rachel, Josh, Sosaia, Richard

All crew not assigned duties must shut all doors behind them and proceed to muster stations on liferaft deck behind the bridge. Halon is not to be activated until the order is given by the Master. It is only to be activated by the Master, Chief Engineer, 1st Mate or 2nd Mate Check crew off muster deck Taumarena, Tania


medic party
In the event of any serious accident or illness on board the F/V Dash, the personnel listed will be required to help to their level of training SoK and Chris




Fire Fighting

Extinguishing a fire principles

Fire needs three components to keep burning: heat, fuel, and oxygen.

A fire goes out when one of these components is removed. Land-based fire brigades fight house fires by trying to remove the heat. They cool the fire with lots of water. Flooding a vessel at sea is not a good idea, because the vessel will become unstable with free surface water and flooding. We can still use hoses for cooling at sea, but have to use them very carefully. We can also try to put the fire out by removing oxygen and fuel. Fuel can often be isolated (say to a main engine), however, it takes time to take affect and there are normally lots other flammable things also burning that keep the fire going. At sea, the primary method that has to be relied on to put fires out is suffocation, or removal of the oxygen. This of course is done as well as isolation of fuel supplies and cooling.

Fire Fatalities
Most people who die in a fire suffocate from inhaling smoke or fire gases. Approximately twice as many people die in this manner that those who are burnt. Vessels have a vast range of materials that become toxic when burnt. These include paint, cables, mattresses and even the contents from a used fire extinguisher. The fumes from such materials as well as the smoke are quickly concentrated within the confines of any vessel. Dense smoke and toxic gases mean there is not much time to actually fight a fire on a vessel. You must act fast. If there is too much smoke, try to seal the compartment and get out!



Putting a fire out
Fires must be fought quickly but sensibly. You can fight most fires on vessels if you follow these steps. PUTTING A FIRE OUT

Attempt to put out Fire Raise alarm at same time

If unsuccessful - Stop oxygen supply by closing all openings to the compartment

Stop fuel supply to fire if possible

Wait for compartment to cool before re-entry

Prevent spread by Boundary Cooling

Use the fixed fire fighting system!

Keep a close eye out for the fire Re-flashing

Attempt to put out the fire

Use a hose, extinguisher, fire blanket or smother the fire. See the section on fire-fighting equipment to find out how to use hoses, extinguishers and fire blankets correctly. Crouch down low in case fireball develops and to minimise smoke inhalation. If you cant extinguish the fire, GET OUT

Stop oxygen supply to fire Close down compartment

If you cannot extinguish the fire, you must act quickly to close the compartment. Your goal is stop all air getting to the fire so the oxygen supply will run out. The following steps are needed: turn off all ventilation fans to the compartment close all doors and hatches to the compartment close all ventilation trunk flaps to prevent air getting through look for smoke escaping through any gaps or holes in bulkheads. Use fire blankets or inflammable material to stuff the holes into them.

If you stop the smoke getting out and the air getting in the fire will suffocate relatively quickly.



Stop supply to Fire
Fuel supplies for the engines are usually outside engine compartments. If there is a fire in the engine room, you might need to isolate the fuel supply. The skipper must make this decision. When you shut fuel supplies to the main engine or auxiliary it takes some time to work. It will have an impact on vessel manoeuvrability, speed, power and fire-fighting and pumping capabilities. The skipper has to decide if shutting off the fuel will cause more problems for your vessel.

Activate fixed fire-fighting systems

Most vessels will have a fixed fire-fighting system fitted in the engine room. The majority of these systems are CO2 (carbon dioxide). Some of the older vessels have systems called Vaporising Liquid (BCF, Halon) fitted. They work by stopping the oxygen supply to the fire.e. If there is a fire in a compartment with one of these systems fitted, USE IT.

Before you operate the system:

make sure all ventilation is stopped and openings closed. This will keep the extinguishing agent in the compartment ensure everyone is out of the compartment shut down as much machinery as possible you only have one shot at it so get it right first time.

Prevent spread of fire

Remember that both steel and aluminium conduct heat and the paints and linings on the other side can start to ignite. You must monitor heat in surrounding compartments and, if they are hot, start boundary cooling: Monitor temperature of surrounding bulkheads with the back of the hand. Use water sparingly. Wet to cool hot spots. Cover all sides. Monitor flooding from boundary cooling water and activate pumps accordingly. Do not stop until walls are continually cool and you are satisfied the fire is out.



Re-entry into compartment
Do not re-enter the compartment too soon. Allow it to cool down and keep monitoring the temperature of the surrounding bulkheads and the deck above. Wait twice as long as you think is necessary! When you decide to enter through the door or hatch of the compartment stay clear of the opening in case the rush of air re-ignites the fire. Allow some ventilation before you enter as there may be toxic gases within the compartment. Move in to the compartment and dampen down hot spots. Break down burnt rubble and ensure it is completely cool.

Re-flash watch
Fires often re-ignite. Check every hour after a fire has been extinguished, until you are sure it will not re-ignite.




Fire Fighting Equipment

Most extinguishers identify what type of fire they are used for: Class A, Class B, Class C, Class E and Class F. Make sure you use the correct extinguisher for the job. These are explained below: CLASS A Wood Paper Plastics CLASS B Flammable & Combustible liquids CLASS C Flammable Gases CLASS E D Electrically energised equipment CLASS F Cooking oils & fats

Foam Extinguishers Class A and Class B Fires

Foam extinguishers are good for fuel and oil fires. They can also be used on wood, paper and fish bins (plastic). Try to direct the foam onto a vertical surface behind the fire. The foam then runs down and smothers the fire from behind. Another way is to spray the foam from a distance so that it drops on to the liquid on fire. Foam is more effective on liquid fires when the liquid (fuel or oil) is contained. It cannot be used on electrical fires.

Dry Powder Extinguishers Class B, C, E and F Fires

Dry powder extinguishers are particularly good for fuel and oil fires such as a bilge fire in a vessels engine room. The dry powder extinguishes the flames over fire and is quicker acting than foam. Dry powder extinguishers deal more effectively with large areas of flame. Dry powder is non-conductive so can be used where there is a risk of electric shock. Direct the dry powder in a sweeping motion to the front edge of the flames. Then work it back to the far edge of the flames in a sweep motion. Beware of using dry powder extinguishers in a confined space as their contents react with the fire to produce toxic gases. Beware the dry powder smothers the fire but has no cooling action. Once the initial fire has been extinguished it may have to be cooled with water.action. Once the initial fire has been extinguished it may have to be cooled with water. You must use the correct extinguisher!



You must use the correct extinguisher!
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Extinguishers Class B, C, E and F Fires
CO2 extinguishers are also good for fuel and oil fires. Carbon dioxide is quicker acting than foam. These extinguishers are better for fires that may spread to larger areas. CO2 extinguishers do not leave a residue or deposit and they will not damage other equipment in the vicinity of the fire. CO2 can be used on electrical fires. When used the CO2 should be directed, in a sweeping motion to the front edge of the flames working it back in a sweep motion over the flames towards the far edge. CO2 has no cooling action. Once the initial fire has been extinguished it may have to be cooled with water.

Vaporising Liquid (BCF, BTM, CBM) Extinguishers Class B and Class C Fires
Note: These are no longer suitable for use as they cannot be serviced due to the requirements of the Ozone Layer Act 1987. These should be replaced with an alternative extinguisher suitable for the most likely use.

Mount the right type of extinguishers near the entrances to the compartments. Then they are easily seen and readily accessible!

Stowage of extinguishers
Make sure all extinguishers are clearly labelled. Make sure extinguishers are readily accessible. Think about where you place them in your vessel (i.e. an extinguisher located down in an engine space may be inaccessible in the event of a fire. One placed by the hatch may be a better option).

Fire Blankets
There should be a fire blanket on board which you can use on small fires like a cooking oil fire. Fire blankets are made of fire proof material and are normally found in the galley. Carefully throw the blanket over the fire to smother it. Fire blankets are good to wrap around people on fire.

Hydrants, Hoses and Nozzles

Most fires onboard a vessel involve liquid fuel of some description. If you spray water on a fuel fire, it can spread. Some solid fuel (Class A) fires do need to be extinguished with water. For example, a mattress has porous but thick construction. When a mattress is on fire an extinguisher will put out the flames, but the mattress needs to be soaked with water to put out the internal burning material.

If you must use a hose make sure that the spray/jet nozzle is attached. Always hit the fire with a spray rather than a jet of water. This will tend to smother the flames rather than spread the liquid fuel (and fire) everywhere. It will also give the user more protection from the heat or fireball if one has developed. Large vessels have a dedicated fire hose or dedicated fire hydrant. This equipment is vitally important for the cooling operations during a fire on board. In particular a spray-jet nozzle will minimise the water being used as well as ensure it opens as a spray which prevents a jet of water being inadvertently sprayed into the seat of a fire. So take care of your hoses, make sure you have one fitted with a spray-jet nozzle at all times. You should regularly check to make sure that the nozzle works. Remember fire-fighting water from the hose affects vessel stability so it must be drained/pumped out once the fire is out! Fire stifled & stopped by hose on spray

Fixed Fire Fighting Systems

Your vessel will have a fixed fire-fighting (dedicated extinguishing) system fitted in its engine room. The system will have an extinguisher bottle, and nozzles around the compartment to spray the extinguishant around. These systems can be automatically triggered by a detecting sensor or manually operated. An alarm sounds before the vapour or gas is released to allow people to evacuate the compartment. To look after these systems: leave the spray nozzles the way they were installed seal the compartment before you operate the system make sure these systems are checked by service agents certified to perform the task.

Fire Pump
Your vessel will have a powered pump driven from the main engine, which will effectively get water to the site of the fire. Remember, the water is mostly used to cool the area rather than to fight the flames.

Signs must be used to highlight the location of equipment and to show how the equipment operates. Signs are usually provided by equipment suppliers. Dont throw these away on the belief that everyone knows how to use it! Make sure the ventilation flaps and fan switches that need to be turned off in a fire are also well marked.

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS The requirements for fire appliances to be held on board are contained in Maritime Rules Part 40D and Part 42B. The capacity, type and number required all vary depending on vessel size so it pays to check on these rules!




Fire Detection Equipment

The earlier you get warning of a fire the better.

Fire detection is required on all fishing vessels to which these guidelines are intended for. Fire detectors come in many forms but either operate by detecting excessive heat or detecting smoke. Smoke detectors are normally more sensitive than heat detectors but are no use if there are lots of fumes around.

If alarms keep going off - find out why and fix it!



Housekeeping A clean and tidy vessel is an efficient and safe vessel! Clutter and rubbish create hazards!

2. Mop up spills as soon as possible. 1. Clean up slippery decks.

4. Secure loose gear up off the deck. No ropes or lines should be left strewn on deck. 5. Keep decks as clear as possible at all times.

3. Fish slime, etc should be flushed from the deck frequently.

6. Keep equipment, ropes, fish bins or ladders tied or stowed up off the deck.


10. Hatch covers should be neatly piled out of passageways when the hatches are open.

7. Heavy objects (blocks) used aloft should not be left loose or swinging.

11. Hatches should not be left partially opened or concealed with a tarpaulin. 8. Rope off any breaks in the deck. Make the rope visible by tying rags to it and tie it at a height so people see it and it doesnt turn into a trip wire.

9. Water hoses should be coiled and hung on brackets.


12. Supplies and fish boxes carried on deck should be covered, if necessary, and securely lashed.



13. Make sure scuppers are not blocked by equipment, tools, or debris. Blocked scuppers can pose a serious hazard, especially in rough seas.

14. Stow items at main deck level or below. Do not stow heavy items high on vessel as it will affect the Centre of Gravity making the vessel unstable.

15. Dont store gear in passageways. Keep walkways, passages and waists clear.

16. Store sharp objects in galley or on deck (knives, gaffs, etc) safely.

17. Clean rags should be kept in a box or locker. Dirty rags should be disposed of in metal containers with lids.

18. Keep quarters neat and orderly.




19. Fire extinguishers should be properly located and never used as coat racks.

21. Degrease filters and stove ventilation trunking regularly.

20. Dont hang unattended towels or wash cloths above the stove to dry.

22. Clearly labelled products and equipment simply reduce the risk of mistakes such as mixing incorrect chemicals, putting the wrong oil in, turning the wrong switch off.




Personal Protective Equipment & Appropriate Clothing

Appropriate Clothing
Think sensibly about the clothes you and your crew wear to sea, and remember your personal protective equipment (safety gear). General points to consider: Wear close-fitting clothing, which is less likely to get caught in nets, lines or machinery. Wear cotton or wool in case you catch on fire or fall overboard. Dirty or oily clothing can cause skin problems. You should wash your working clothes frequently and keep them as clean as possible. Keep long hair tucked under a hat and tied back. Avoid wearing rings and other jewellery. Wear good footwear. Make sure the soles of your safety boots are still in good condition. Your favourite boots may be comfortable after years of wear, but if the soles are smooth you could slip and fall.



Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
All crew members should have the following personal protective equipment to wear: 1. Safety Boots / Gumboots / Shoes Safety boots, gumboots or shoes should be worn at all times on deck and in machinery spaces. 2. Safety Helmets Safety Helmets must be worn when loads are being slung. This includes when nets are being hauled or product is being loaded/unloaded. 3. Hearing Protection Ear Muffs must be worn in engine room spaces as well as in any other compartment where a noisy machine is running. 4. Eye Protection Wear good quality protective eye wear when there is a risk that you could get something in your eyes. Wear safety glasses or goggles on deck during shooting and hauling operations whenever you can. Always wear them when grinding or cutting. 5. Lifejackets Wear a floatation vest at all times when working on deck! 6. Gloves Gloves should be appropriate for the hazards the wearer may encounter, e.g. reinforced gloves that protect against cuts should be used during fish gutting or trimming operations. Gloves should fit snugly at the wrists but permit free movement of the fingers. It is dangerous to wear loose clothing and gloves around machinery.




Machine Guards

No one intentionally puts their hand into a chain sprocket, or moving blade! Guards are there to protect you if your attention slips or the vessel rolls awkwardly.

1. Never remove covers while machine is in operation. This includes to clear blockages! Never operate the machine with the covers or guards off! If you must remover covers for cleaning or maintenance make sure the machine is isolated and tagged.

2. Never by-pass or short circuit safety cut-out switches.




Isolation & Lockout Procedures

When someone is going to work on hydraulic, fuel, water and electrical systems: The system must be isolated before work begins, and cannot be restarted until work has finished. Isolating the system makes it safer to work on. If the system is isolated there is a much lower chance that: A person is electrocuted. Oil or fuel spills into the sea. A fire starts. Equipment could be damaged. It is the skippers responsibility to make sure that systems are isolated. Legally, this responsibility cannot be delegated to contractors. It is always the skipper who is responsible for the safety of all workers on board the vessel. However, the skipper may delegate aspects of this work to those responsible for areas, such as the chief engineer. If there is an environmental incident (e.g. a fuel spill), particularly one that could have been avoided by isolation, the owner and skippers as well as the contractor can all be found responsible.

Your company will have a procedure for isolation and lockout. You must fillow this.
Turn the supply off to the equipment that is going to be maintained. You can:

Work about to start on system

Place tape or tag on isolating point. Write name

Work complete

Remove tape or Tag.

You must use a designed tag-out and lockout card. Before removing any tag to start equipment, check with the person whose name is on the tag or tape that work has been completed and that it is safe to operate. Always check yourself that the system looks safe to operate after it has been worked on. If a contractor will come on board to do maintenance work when the crew are not there, isolate the system before you leave.



Lockout procedures
Often when we have to do maintenance or clear a jam, it is necessary to put our hands or body into areas that, if the machine were started, would cause serious harm. Simply turning such equipment OFF at the switch is not enough! What does lockout involve? Lockout involves turning the equipment off or isolating the electrical, air, hydraulic or steam systems. Operators then go a step further and lock the switch or valve in the closed position. This means, that if someone comes along and doesnt know you are working in the unsafe position, they cant go and turn the machine on. What types of lockout systems are there? Most safety specialists have their own range of mechanisms that enable different types of switches and different types of valves to be locked in the OFF position. There are also ways of locking portable/flexible cables or lines. Dont let your screams be the first indication that you are working in that machine! Lockout before hands go in! Lead lockout Valve lockout Switch lockout How do I go about locking out equipment before I start work on it? Your workshop will have its own lockout items and its own procedure so you must become familiar with that!

General lockout system

Before work is started Make sure you identify what has to be isolated to make the machine safe. Turn off ALL the appropriate switches or secure the lockout device that stops the valve or switch being turned back on and lock it with a padlock that only you have the key to. Test that the machine will not start! Once all these steps have been competed it is safe to start work.

On completion of work
Remove your padlock from the locking device once you have completed all your work. If there are still padlocks on the locking device, check that the equipment still cannot be started. Once all padlocks have been removed, the equipment can be restarted.



What if more than one person is working on the machine?
Each individual must have his/her own lock secure and they must all be locked onto the locking device. This means the machine cannot be re-started until every person is clear.

Not everyone knows that the switch is OFF for a reason!

FOR SKIPPERS Make sure that there is an organised lockout system in place. Insist on all people (managers and workers) using the lockout system at all times.


Guidelines for Guarding Principles and General Safety for Machinery and Guidance Notes for Electrical Interlocking for Safety in Industrial Processes which are both available to download on the website




Hazardous Substances

Hazardous substances have dangerous properties. A substance is hazardous if it has one or more of these properties: Explosive Flammable Oxidising Corrosive Toxic to people Ecotoxic (toxic to the environment or to animals and plants) There are a number of hazardous substances that workers may be exposed to in the fishing industry. These include: In vessel operations and maintenance: LPG petrol diesel lubrication and hydraulic oils greases degreasers aerosol cans oxy-acetylene and other gases used for welding and cutting In production: CO2 O2 ammonia freon In cleaning: acids alkalis



The suppliers of these products must provide you with material safety data sheets detailing: the type of hazard it is what type of harm it can cause when it is likely to happen how to prevent it happening how to, or how not to dispose of the product what other chemicals not to store with. When a supplier sells a hazardous substance, it has to be labelled. If you use hazardous substances: follow company and vessel procedures keep products in a proper container read the label wear protective clothing when using chemicals. Gloves, respirators and safety glasses are a minimum requirement before using any gas or chemical familiarise yourself with the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) make sure labels dont get damaged keep data sheets on file on board clean up spills quickly stow containers so they dont get damaged dispose of containers and contents safely. Dont pour into sea or drains and dont burn containers store in a secure, dry, but ventilated stowage location. Take great care with these products and only take the bare minimum to sea!

Assistance is available on: 0800 POISON or 0800 764 766





A variety of chemicals and hazardous substances, both liquid and granular, may be used by to clean the ship or its factory. These may be acid or alkaline based. It is important to know what chemical is being used for cleaning at the time. As the vessel may be many days away from onshore medical assistance it is important to be very careful when working with chemicals.

DO store chemicals in a suitably contained safe area that is well marked. Class 8 (corrosive) and class 5 (oxidisers) for example should be in well segregated areas. DO store chemicals in containers kept at single level so ingredients cannot mix DO keep chemicals below eye level to avoid accidental spillage over your face DO keep the lids on chemical containers on tight and secure so the contents cannot mix or spill if you are moving the product. DO make sure the chemical is well labelled and can be easily identified. DO NOT mix chemicals. This can result in serious harm including death. DO NOT mix drum pumps between chemicals as a bad reaction may occur. DO NOT put chemicals into unmarked containers. DO NOT use old food or drink bottles as accidental ingestion can occur and will cause serious internal injuries or death.

Directions for use

DO wear the correct PPE (personal protection equipment) as recommended on the material safety data sheet (MSDS) and the label. This may include goggles, gloves, respirator, suits and boots. DO read the label on the container as this gives usage and mixing directions. The container may have POISON or a Dangerous Goods Diamond with Class designation as to what type of hazard it presents e.g. corrosive, flammable, oxidiser on it. DO make yourself familiar with the MSDS. One of these accompanies every container and provides information about that product such as description of the chemical, specifications, safety and emergency instructions. DO mix or dilute the chemical to the suppliers specifications only. Mixing an acid based chemical (descalers and rust removers) with a chlorinated chemical (e.g. hypochlorite, XY12) will result in a deadly chlorine gas being emitted. DO make sure cleaning is completed before leaving the area to prevent accidental skin contact with the chemical.

First Aid
As most commercial chemical cleaners are far more concentrated than the ordinary household cleaners it is important to: know where your first aid station is located read and be familiar with first aid instructions about the specific chemical being used which can be found on the label and MSDS sheet health can be affected through contact with skin, eyes, inhalation or ingestion be familiar with the location of eye wash facilities around the vessel. In the event of a splash in the eyes you need to be able to automatically find the closest water source, the pain will cause panic and as you cannot see you may not be able to quickly get to water and the degree of injury will become more serious a spill to the eyes should be washed under cool running water for 15 minutes contact with the skin can take time for the effect to be felt even though it will be burning from the beginning of the spill



a spill to the skin should be washed under cool running water for 15 minutes in all cases, medical attention should be sought

Some chemical suppliers provide safety posters. These should be displayed in prominent positions around the vessel. Emergency
In case of an emergency: know where emergency equipment, such as fire extinguishers, hoses and eyebaths, are located know what the vessels emergency procedures are and how to fulfil that task.




Lifting Gear

Lifting gear on board a vessel includes derricks, booms, cranes, rigging gear and fish lifting equipment and rigging. It includes both fixed and portable components (i.e. eyes, shackles and blocks). This gear is subject to the extreme elements and has large forces exerted on it. Lifting gear (such as trawl blocks, hauling blocks and davits) is vital to the performance of the vessel as well as safety of its crew. Inspect lifting gear regularly and fix it if something is wrong.

Inspections that you should do:

Make sure the gear fitted is of the correct size and capacity to do the job safely. Carry out inspections to check that: the eyes have not elongated shackles and hammerlocks are not worn too thin there are safety chains attached to blocks the block sheaves are not too worn the wire is not showing signs of wear (i.e. spragged, crimped or rusting) the pins and bushes in blocks are running smoothly and there is not too much movement between them.

Upkeep points
Maintain equipment regularly by: keeping moving parts well lubricated with salt water resistant grease keep paint on exterior of blocks and hanging eyes in good condition lubricate wire regularly keep a record of all maintenance undertaken on lifting gear.

Make sure that all personnel involved in lifting and slinging operations both at sea and alongside know the correct signals. Make sure all movements are smooth and gradual. Avoid sudden shocks or strains and beware of side pulls. Avoid dangerous positions - stepping on a taut line or standing in a bight or standing in the line of pull of a taut rope or cable that might give way. Never walk or stand under a load. Keep your load within the Safe Working Load (SWL) limit. Remember the SWL is that of the weakest component of the lifting system!

Remember the load may be low but the FORCE acts where the load is slung from. THIS AFFECTS STABILITY. Stay out from under booms and cranes while lifting operations are in progress. Avoid swinging a load. Attach steady lines to heavy or unwieldy loads. Do not stand between the load and fixed objects. Wear PPE and follow the procedures specified by the company. Make sure designated loading and unloading areas with access lanes are provided.




Portable Electric Tools

Portable electrical equipment, tools and leads can easily be damaged. The marine environment is very hard on portable electrical equipment because it is damp.

Using portable electric tools

Always use tools with residual current device (RCD) protection. Inspect the tool before you use it. Check for either damage to the cord or insulation on the body of the tool. Always look for a test tag on equipment (normally on the lead near to the plug) that has the date when the equipment is next due for a test. If there is no tag or it is out of date, the tool or lead should not be used. If there is any damage - do not use the tool and get an electrician to repair it at the earliest opportunity!

Using electric leads

Do not run leads across decks or doors. If possible, hook them above head height. Do not rest hatches or close doors on leads. Run leads around the edge of compartments. Protect leads by running them between two bits of wood. Do not pull leads out by the cable! If the plug or sockets are damaged, do not use them.

FOR SKIPPERS Make sure all portable equipment is safe to use. Put in place routine testing system to check the equipment regularly. Use the SSM system to organise this: Get an electrician to test all your portable tools. These tests must be repeated at regular intervals (discuss with the electrician). Keep logs of all testing. The log can be kept in a simple notebook, or some electrical contractors will keep the records for you. Make sure all the crew are aware of the hazards and how to identify equipment that should not be used. Ensure contractors on sites that you are responsible for only use equipment that has been tested and that the contractors are aware of the requirements.




Surface of Working Deck

Maintaining the anti-skid properties of the deck coating and keeping it free of hazards is important!

1. Maintain the deck coating so it is anti-skid Crew need to be sure of their footing while working on deck. Make sure a good dose of sand or grit is thrown on top of the last coat of paint, or some other grip tread is applied to the deck. 2. Replace deck gratings If maintenance work has required the deck plates or gratings to be removed replace them as soon as possible. Fasten them properly so the edges and corners dont rise up above the deck level.



3.10 Ventilation
The air in small confined spaces can become very stagnant over a short period of time. This can be a health risk to crew working and living in these spaces.

Helpful tips
1. Regularly clean ventilation fans, grills and filters if fitted. These all trap dirt. The dirt can become a fire risk and also reduce the quality and amount of air being supplied. Dirt can also shorten the life of fan motors. 2. Regularly check ventilation gaps and grills. If there are small ventilation gaps or grills at the bottom of the door, check them regularly to make they are clear. 3. Regularly maintain shutters and flaps. Remember in the case of a fire the compartment must be able to be closed down. Regularly grease these and move them through their arc-of-travel.





Lighting should be fit for purpose. Change light bulbs, lamps and tubes as soon as they extinguish! Keep diffusers and reflectors on light fittings clean. Replace switches, diffusers and reflectors if they get damaged. Regularly test emergency lighting. Regularly check the battery supplying the emergency lighting. Get the local battery shop to check them regularly. Lighting should allow people to move around the vessel with ease and do their work safely. In the accommodation, lighting should allow people to read.

Night lighting at sea

At night, night vision is of great importance to crew who are moving around on deck or on watch in the bridge. If you are surrounded by white light your night vision is seriously impaired! Follow these rules to improve night vision: Keep white lighting at sea down to the minimum. You will have no chance of spotting an object ahead of you on a dark night if you are surrounded by bright white light. In the bridge of any vessel night lighting (blue or red) should be used to work with logs and charts. Do not use white deck lighting forward of the bridge.



3.12 Ropes and Mooring LInes

Ropes securing a load need to be safe. Use the appropriate strength rope for the load. If the load is dangerous, heavy or expensive double up! Stow ropes and lines up off the deck (if practical). Stow ropes and lines in such a way that if they are wet, they will dry. Regularly check ropes for fraying or cuts and discard if found to be significant. Dont bend large ropes too tightly. Never stand where a spring mooring line may recoil back at you.




Boarding and Disembarking

Everyone boarding and disembarking the vessel must use the gangway.

Secure gangways to the vessel. Put the safety net up underneath the gangway. Set the gangway up away from hazardous areas where work will be conducted. Keep the gangway clean and clear at all times.



3.14 Keeping the Vessel Water Tight

Flooding can occur on a vessel as a result of an incident at sea. Flooding can also happen when a vessel is alongside. There are a number of steps you can take to reduce the risk of a flood. There are also things you can do to reduce the damage that a flood would cause.

Keep watertight opening clips and dogs well greased and in good working order at all times. Keep all bilge pumps maintained. Check operation before sailing each trip. Make sure bilges are clear of rags and debris that may block pumps. When leaving the vessel ensure all sea cocks not required for cooling running equipment, are shut off. Ensure your collision bulkhead or any other watertight bulkhead is not compromised by drilling holes to install cabling or pipe-work. Make sure the appropriate through-bulkhead watertight gland or fitting is used.



3.15 Escape Routes

Things happen extremely quickly at sea and often a compartment will have to be evacuated quickly. The crews evacuation is already difficult because the vessel is moving. Flooding, fire and smoke make it even harder to get out. It is very important that further obstacles are not put in the way of the person escaping, whether it is a physical obstruction, or the persons lack of knowledge about their vessel. On some vessels, larger compartments have to have two exits. Often the alternative escape route is not used that much, and ends up with things obstructing it. Crew could be overcome by smoke or drowned because they cant escape through these blocked exits.

Every ladder and door on the vessel should be treated as an escape route. Keep all openings clear and unobstructed at all times. This includes the passage leading to them. Regularly open and close alternative escape route hatches and doors to ensure all clips and hinges are working freely from both sides. Exits should be marked with iridescent signs both at eye level and at ground level. Keep ladders leading up to escape hatches clear. (i.e. dont use them as a rope or tool stowage). Show crewmembers where alternative escape routes are from all compartments when they arrive on board.



3.16 Machinery Stops

There will be a number of machinery stops around any vessel on winches, cranes, windlasses and conveyors and other pieces of machinery. Some machines are fitted with remote emergency stops so they can be shut down from another area. Many stops are installed for safety purposes so that machinery automatically stops should hazardous parts become exposed by the removal of a safety cover or guard for example. Stops may be in many forms including valves, levers, switches, micro-switches, electronic sensors or buttons.

Points to remember
DO NOT by-pass any machines STOP button, even just for a short time. Make sure all STOP switches, levers and buttons are clearly labelled in red. Labels or signs should be large, clean and bright. Crew must be shown where emergency stop buttons are positioned including equipment they may not be responsible for operating. Keep all STOP buttons, levers and buttons free from obstruction. Check operation of STOP arrangements regularly. If there is a remote emergency stop button, use it to shut the machinery down occasionally to prove it is working. Record that you checked. Never by-pass or short circuit safety cut-out switches.



3.17 Fuelling Safety

Fuelling a vessel is a potentially dangerous situation. People on the vessel or in the area are at risk. The environment could be damaged by a fuel spill. Take care when refuelling. Make sure everyone on board knows you are fuelling. Make sure everyone knows that there can be NO SMOKING during the fuelling operation. Make sure that crew and contractors are not doing any welding, gas cutting or other hot work on or near the vessel. Hoist flag Bravo so vessels passing know you are fuelling. Note: this may be displayed on the fuelling station itself. Keep constant communication with the tanker attendant. Make sure you attach bags or containers under all vents so spills are not likely! Keep a watch on deck throughout the operation. Keep the fuelling stations oil spill kit near you during the operation. Familiarise yourself with the Oil Spill Response Plan and make sure you have it is near you when you fuel as it has contact information should you have a spill. Block scuppers.



3.18 General Training

People in key positions on the vessel must have the appropriate qualifications. Training is an ongoing requirement, because all vessels and their equipment are different and people forget things. Do not fall into the trap of believing training is too expensive or you havent got time. Down-time and medical costs are expensive too! The level of training will vary with each crewmembers experience and capability. Experienced crew will only require induction training relating to the operation and location of equipment on a new vessel. Inexperienced new crewmembers will need detailed and ongoing training to learn the skills of fishing.

Never let crewmembers operate equipment until they have been trained and tested to make sure they can operate it competently. Give all new crewmembers induction training. Record all training. The example of an induction checklist which follows is practical for small vessels. It serves to remind the person training the new crewmember of everything that should be covered. Keep records of completed training. These records will provide an audit trail to show that the training was done. If you or your crew have an accident you may need this evidence. An example of an induction training procedure sheet follows as an example. It gives an idea of what is required. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Seafood Industry Training Organisation (SITO) There are a large range of courses available from various training suppliers around New Zealand which can be used. If you have any doubts contact the Seafood Industry Training Organisation on 04 385 4005. There may be some funds available to you!

Induction Training Procedure

Crew Member Step 1. J. Bloggs Detail
Induction training has included, as a minimum, the following: Location of Muster Stations Emergency Instructions Locations of Life-raft & floatation equipment Responsibilities in fire/emergency party General arrangement of the ship Location of fire extinguishers Smoke and Heat detectors Location of Halon Release & Emergency Shut Downs Location of Quick Closing Valves Location of Firemens Outfits and Ammonia Suits Location of emergency fire pump Alarm signals Fire Alarm activation point Locations of cabin and exits Location of lifejacket & emergency escapes Location and operation of emergency systems such as : - Main and auxiliary engines emergency stops - Fuel pump emergency stop - Emergency fire pump and air compressor - Fire dampers - Emergency escape routes - Emergency fan stops Trainee has read the SSM Manual and has basic understanding of the Safe Ship Management System, SSM Code, applicable MSA Rules & Regulations and training manuals (see Section 5: Safe Ship Management System) Extra issues covered:


3. Safety Officer I Heart Signed (crew member)


3.7 3.19

Trip planning/ Pre-sailing checklist

Pre-sailing checklist
Before leaving port, your vessel must be ready and capable to travel: The vessel must be seaworthy. The vessel must be watertight and equipment must be secured. Vessel stability is improved if fuel and water tanks are full, the boom is down and weights (such as nets) are kept low. All cargo, fuel containers, and other supplies must be safely stored and secured. The vessel must be safely ballasted. Consideration must be given to current and forecast weather conditions. Before sailing check the essential items and equipment every time. These are included in SSM manuals or logs. An example is shown on the following page:

FV Hook: Wheelhouse Equipment Checklist (to be completed 8 hours prior to departure) Date: Time of check: Inmarsat - C (sent/rcvd): Email sent/rcvd cell: Email sent/rcvd Iridium: GPS 1 GPS 2 SeaPlotPro/Pescatus Radar 1 Radar 2 Net monitor Sounder 1 Sounder 2 SSB 1 Sonar Nav/fishing lights Steering pump #1 Steering pump #2

Trip: Checked by: Cell phone: Cell fax (sent/rcvd): VHF 1 VHF 2 VHF 3


Winch computer Trawl sonar Sonar Factory cameras Main station: Pitch control Steering

Pilot ladder Man ropes Lifering on standby Windlass Stab tank empty Ballast water (tank) Stability condition Freezer bilges pumped Factory Turos OFF Hatches secured for sea GM Remote station: Pitch control Steering Almanac Time of high tide Water at high tide Under hull clearance Draft AFT Port anchor on stdby Ballast water (litres)




Organising the navigational watch

The watch keepers main job is to ensure the safe navigation of the vessel and to prevent:
- Running aground - Colliding with another vessel or moving object - Hitting a rock or other hazard The law says that someone must be on watch at all times. In order to avoid collisions with either land or a floating object sound, professional bridge watch-keeping practices and procedures must be put in place on all seagoing vessels regardless of their size! There is a lot of information and resources to help with watch keeping. While there may still be the odd uncharted rock around the globe, the charts, radars, and other navigational aids are now detailed and very reliable. If a vessel does run aground, the reason will often be because someone made a mistake or had poor seamanship skills.

This section covers:

- The watch keepers job - Using two methods to check the vessels position - Look out duties - Tips for using navigational equipment - Being fit for duty as a watch keeper - The signals to display when fishing and trawling




Duties and Responsibilities

The watch keeper is responsible for the vessel and the lives of all those on board the vessel. The watch keeper must remain vigilant at all times to ensure the safety of the vessel and all who sail on board. Watch keeping duties are rarely performed in ideal conditions. The weather may be rough and make it hard to do the job. Even when the weather is calm the watch keeper can sometimes get a bit bored, and not focus on the job.

Two watch keepers on board

If possible, it is a good idea to have two qualified watch-keepers at sea. It can be hard to achieve this on a small vessel. Vessel operators should consider training all deckhands in watch-keeping and encourage them to sit the most basic qualification so the watch-keeping duties can be shared. The three main jobs of the watch-keeper are: Avoid collisions with other vessels or objects either floating or submerged. Keep the vessel on track and away from dangerous land and rocks and on her intended track. Manage the vessel and its logs books, charts and communications well and conduct other routine and training tasks professionally. These are important responsibilities. Navigational watch-keepers on all vessels (large and small) have to be alert and aware the vessels safety depends on you.

Good watch keeping practices

Use more than one method to confirm your actual position. Use visual fixing, radar fixing and GPS regularly. Keep records of incidents, sea conditions and watch changes in Log Book. Safe navigation should never become second priority. Even when you have to attend to fishing operations and have to take longer between fixes, complete thorough checks before you leave the bridge. Keep yourself active through out the watch. Make sure you have plenty of jobs to do. If you are moving and working, you are less likely to fall asleep. Do not have a television in the wheelhouse area. Ensure, and regularly check that your own navigational equipment, particularly navigational and fishing lights are operable and switched on (or off) to indicate the vessels mode of operations. Always maintain anchor watches. Make sure your position is checked regularly. In adverse weather keep a bridge watch while at anchor.



Keep a good lookout. To do this: - Regularly go outside and scan the sea around the vessel. - Use binoculars to scan the horizon. - Regularly check the radar for new contacts. - Keep note of the water depth under the vessel. - Listen for sounds that are different or unusual. - Look-out on the faxes and radio for changing weather. - Make sure you know the shapes and light configurations of different signals. This will help you to know what other vessels are doing. It is very important to remain vigilant. Listen and look for things that may endanger the vessel and the crew. All available means includes using your equipment such as depth sounders and radars that provide look-out information When you finish your watch, conduct a good handover. Explain what has happened during your watch, point out the vessels current position, intended track and any immediate hazards. Tell the next watch keeper about any other points of concern you have.

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS Maritime Rule Part 22 states that vessels must at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight and hearing as well as by all available means in the prevailing circumstances




Navigational Equipment

Navigational Charts
Paper navigational charts are used with a parallel ruler, dividers and a pencil. Charts are an essential navigational tool, and are especially useful when you need to plot a course for a longer trip. Charts show depths, hazards, land and deviation figures for the area you are navigating. Even if you have electronic chart software on your vessel, keep in the habit of using the paper charts. Then if a power failure or a power spike causes the computer to fail you will still have access to the information.

It is good practice to get into the habit of using the magnetic compass. It helps to: 1. Confirm electronic devices are operating correctly. 2. Show less experienced watch-keepers the true position of hazards on charts, when they calculate deviation and variation corrected headings. 3. Ensure that watch-keepers can perform their duties if GPS and Radar fail. 4. Break the monotony of the watch.

The radar set on your vessel is critical when visibility is poor (for example in poor weather, fog or at night). The radar will also often be the first indicator that there is something small ahead. The watch-keeper must keep an eye on the radar set at all times. Small objects or vessels can appear on the radar very quickly. The time between the radar detecting something, and the vessel colliding with that thing can also be very short. Radars need to be checked regularly. Radars do get out of sync and may need to be calibrated to give accurate readings. You can check radar accuracy by cross checking against visual fixing and GPS. Key points when for using the radar: 5. Ensure the Range is set correctly for the operation you are performing and the associated hazards in the area. 6. Make sure the Gain and Clutter settings are set appropriately for the weather conditions you are working in. 7. Remember the magnetron in your radar has a finite life and the radars performance will deteriorate so it is important that you have it checked and serviced regularly.

Navigation Lighting
The glow from your vessels navigational lights shows others where you are and what you are doing. At night, in fog, or in adverse weather, the lights will be the first warning other vessels may have of your presence. Navigation lights also help other vessels to figure out your vessels approximate course and indicate if you are fishing or towing to an adjacent vessel. Lights must be well maintained and correctly operated. 8. Always turn the appropriate lights on and off. 9. Remember to turn your fishing lights on and off. 10. Always run a quick visual check that the lights are shining after you have turned them on (you should do this even if you have an alarm fitted).

Shapes are used during daylight. They show that your vessel is performing a specific task such as fishing. This indicates to other vessels that your manoeuvrability may be restricted and they should give you plenty of room. The shapes on other vessels tell you what they are doing. Using shapes is an important safety practice.



The watch-keepers eyes and ears
Your eyes and ears are the most valuable navigational aids you have. Even though you may have good and reliable technology, what you see and hear at sea is very important. Keep background noise in the bridge to a minimum (i.e. stereos, CDs). Have the maritime radio on, and listen to it. Regularly put your head outside to look out and listen. Listen for changes of sound.

Weather Faxes and Broadcasts

These provide valuable information about the environment. Get into a routine of using or listening to them.

Depth sounders
In shallower waters the depth sounder gives useful information that you can compare with the charts. It helps to clarify position as well as warn of an immediate danger of grounding.

Global Positioning System (GPS)

Most vessels have a GPS on board now. GPS is a useful tool, but it must not be used as the sole navigational tool. Remember: GPS can become inaccurate due to electronic or satellite malfunctions. GPS does not show other vessels positions or warn of an imminent collision. GPS does not show the vessels position relative to adjacent shoreline. You have other navigational aids you can use.

The Watchkeepers face




Fitness for Duty

MEDIA RELEASE Date: 5 March 2003

Are you fit to be on watch duty?

The following things can affect your ability to do watch duty well: If you are tired or havent had enough sleep. If you are under the influence of drugs or alcohol. If you are ill or drowsy. If you are stressed. If you have other concerns that distract you from the task.

MSA suspends sleeping skipper

The Maritime Safety Authority has suspended the maritime documents of the fishing vessel which collided with a car carrier anchored in Tasman Bay, Nelson on Sunday 2nd, March 2003. Our initial investigation has revealed that the skipper of the vessel Da Vinci had been asleep at the wheel before the collision with Trans Pacific 8. This is simply unacceptable behaviour which warrants strong action, says Russell Kilvington, Director of Maritime Safety. By suspending this Skippers maritime documents until our investigation process is completed, the MSA is effectivly preventing him from taking charge of a vessel. The effects of fatigue onthe Skipper and crew of commercial fishing boats is of major concern to the MSA. We continue to have people falling asleep at a time when they are resposible for the safe navigation of a vessel and have the lives of others in thier hands says Mr Kilvington.

A person may not be fit for duty if they are:

More irritable or bad tempered than normal. Anxious. Bored, lethargic. Lacking energy.

If you do not think you are able to do watch keeping duty effectively, you need to tell the skipper.

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS Maritime Rule Part 31 requires procedures and systems to be put in place by the master and owner that ensures the watch-keeper is fit for duty. It also requires the crew members to consider if they are fit for thier duty.

FOR SKIPPER Often the first time you can assess that the person is fit or unfit for duty is when they appear in the Wheelhouse to take up their duty. As you discuss the handover watch for any signs of stress, uncertainty or fatigue. If you think the person is unfit for duty you must tactfully rearrange the watch to make it shorter, or divert and anchor up for a few hours if possible. Keep your vessel free of alcohol and drugs. Remember it is a work place as well as a home. After busy periods make sure you take the time to talk informally and casually to the crew and attempt to assess how they are handling the pressure. Adjust the planning of your watches to suit the work load, area of operations and the fitness for duty of the individuals. Check that log entries and charts have been completed properly and show each watchkeeper is keeping busy and conducting their watch in a professional manner.





When a vessel is fishing, it cannot manoeuvre as easily. It is important to signal that fact to other vessels. This allows the vessels to avoid the fishing vessel and prevent an accident. Signals also tell you what other vessels are doing. Lights and shapes must be used in accordance with the Rules of the Road

Signals to be displayed
1. By vessels fishing during the daylight A black shape consisting of two cones with their apexes together. 2. By vessels trawling between sunset and sunrise Two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being green and the lower white If the vessel is more than 50m long a masthead light abaft of and higher than the allround green light. Vessels of less than 50 meters in length may have this light but do not have to. When making way through the water fishing vessels also have to display their sidelights and a sternlight. 3. By vessels fishing (other than trawling) Two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being red and the lower white. When outlying gear extends more than 150 meters horizontally from the vessel, an allround white light or a cone apex upwards in the direction of the gear. When making way through the water these vessels also have to have sidelights and a sternlight on.

Finding the regulations

Maritime Rule Part 22.26 gives details of the requirements for lights and shapes that fishing vessels are required to display.




Generic safety in fishing operations

A lot of the hazards and procedures covered in earlier sections of these guidelines are applicable to any vessel at sea. There are a number of further hazards that are related to work with fish and the gear we use to work with fish.
This section covers: safety when using fishing gear and equipment recovering fouled or snagged gear. safety when using ice safety when processing and storing fish knife safety using lifting gear safely.

Things to remember are:

Always wear protective clothing in work areas. Always wear a personal floatation device while working on deck. Rigging gear is often tightly strained as it takes on a load. Keep this equipment well maintained and safe. This gear is often exposed to the adverse elements at sea so will deteriorate. It is also often close to work areas and if it gives way people can get hurt. Do not wear rings or any other jewellery when you handle nets or other fishing gear. Stand clear of running warps and wires so that the vessels motion does not throw you onto these wires and ropes. Never stand in a bight of rope or wire. It could tighten suddenly and cause a serious injury. Be careful where you put your feet, especially where wires, ropes or nets are moving along the deck. Do not stand on parts of the gear lying on the deck when the remaining part is still in the water.




Use the correct tool to clear a line from the sheave of a block. Do not risk crushing your fingers. Make sure shelving and staging in fish rooms is safe. Pound boards should be piled properly in the fish hold or on deck. If you are not required on the working deck do not enter the deck area Watch your head. Do not stand under a load, or in areas where overhead equipment may swing and cause serious injury. Keep your hard hat on at all times. Make sure there is good communication between the winch operator and the person driving the boat. Keep fish chilled or frozen as much as possible. Keep holds clean of decomposing fish. Wet fish kept in storage consume oxygen and can produce poisonous gases as they spoil. In an enclosed space the atmosphere could eventually become so polluted and deficient in oxygen that it could cause illness or even death to someone breathing it.



Some fish spikes are extremely dangerous and poisonous. Ensure you wear gloves when handling spiky fish. If you scratch or spike yourself on such fish get it cleaned up as soon as you can. Keep a close eye on it in case it goes infectious. Wear safety gloves when cutting. Fish leave oils on the deck where they have laid. Wash down decks once fish have been cleared off! When you handle a heavy load share it with other crew when transferring or lifting it. Minimise the strain on your body by adjusting your position and bending your knees. Install guardrails where practical around processing and work areas to allow crew to brace themselves against vessel roll. Always place cargo on timber to allow drainage underneath. Tie all loads on deck, or in the hold, down securely. Stow heavy gear in accessible area so minimal twisting is needed, or strain on the body (particularly the back), to access it. Stay fit. Fishing is a physical job. Do stretches before you start work.







Recovery of fouled/ snagged gear

When a net or a line snags on a rocky bottom, a small fishing vessel is in an extremely dangerous situation.
power has been eliminated by being held fast by the line or warp manoeuvrability has been reduced because it is held in position by the anchored line or warp floatation qualities have been reduced because it is held down by the anchored line and not able to rise with the swell stability has been affected because of external force acts on the boat every time the line or warp goes taut.

In such a state the vessel is extremely vulnerable to the elements so action needs to be taken quickly and thoughtfully. A snag should be regarded as one of the most dangerous situations a fisherman will find themselves in. Gear can quickly break in such conditions. Extra load is placed on surviving lines and equipment. The crew on deck are also vulnerable.

Never underestimate the immediate hazards associated with gear becoming snagged.
Reduce power immediately, in a controlled manner. This will reduce the risk of being dragged astern by the snagged net and therefore reduce the risk of taking on sea water over the stern. Clear the deck of all unnecessary crew and make sure all watertight doors are closed. Then, decide...

Is it safe to attempt to free the gear?

The weather and sea conditions will be the main factors that influence this decision. If the weather is rough or there is a large swell, it is very dangerous to keep the vessel attached to the snagged gear. Check the chart to see if there is a known hazard (i.e. wreck or pinnacle) in the position.



Remember that manoeuvrability will be severely reduced. There is also a significant risk of fouling the rudder or propeller because: headway is reduced because of the snag the boat is tossed about by rough seas or a large swell. If the vessel is snagged and stuck fast, be aware of the danger that she will go down in the stern. If this happens the vessel will most likely take on some water. This could escalate the situation into a catastrophe. You may have to release the warps or lines to release the vessel. If possible, attach a float to the ends. This will help you recover of the gear at a later stage. When attempting to recover the gear, try to make the lifting point to as low as possible. The extra load on the upper derrick, gantry or fantail where the trawl blocks normally are will affect the centre of gravity of the vessel and affect stability. The lifting points should be as near to the centre of the vessel as possible and remain at the stern. To avoid crossovers the recovery is normally attempted straight above the snagged gear. Keep a close eye on the vessels trim and heel. Keep crew away from the lines and warps as they will be under extreme loads. If this does not work, you may wish to try and to clear the snag from the opposite direction. Consider radioing for assistance from a bigger vessel. Yes there will be a cost, but remember the cost of losing your vessel! Your vessel should have an axe, large bolt cutters or some other way to cut the lines or warps in an emergency.



2.Hard hat

Safety on the trawl deck

While on the trawl deck safety clothing must be worn at all times:
1.Lifejacket (with crotch strap) 3.Steel toe-capped footwear

The trawl deck is equipped with safety gear including:

life rings smoke/light float Z boat.

When shooting or hauling fishing gear:

only enter the deck area if you are deck crew involved in the operation all other crew remain off the deck avoid working under warp cable at all times put the wave gate up whenever practical winch operator must be alert at all times the Z boat should be kept ready for deployment the crew should be drilled on man overboard procedures.

When working with wires and winches:

keep well clear of winches (at least a distance of 2 metres) watch for warps overhead be alert when sweeps and ground gear is moving on deck lock out winches when greasing them.

When lifting heavy objects on deck:

crane operators must be trained and qualified ensure the load is secure make sure all crew are clear of the swing area keep the wire length to a minimum by extending the boom to reduce the pendulum effect.

When working in an isolated area on deck:

make sure there is a backup system between yourself and the officer on watch to make sure your whereabouts is known at all times notify the officer on watch once you have completed your work in a blind area.




Meal Plant

The meal plant can be a very hazardous environment. It can be hot, wet and a confined place to work in. No one should undertake any work alone in the meal plant before they have been fully trained by a senior operator or engineer.

General Safety Guidelines

All meal operators should be able to identify and know how to use all the isolating valves and lockouts in the whole meal plant area. You should also be able to identify and use all the emergency stops and alarms. Full Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be worn at all times in the meal plant. This includes: safety boots or gumboots, full overalls and hearing protection arm length heat resistant gloves and dust masks that are available to use when required. Make sure you have no loose clothing or long hair that may become caught in machinery or snagged on pipes, etc. As it is usually a hot environment, operators should be aware of their liquid intake. Working long hours in full overalls can cause fatigue and dehydration so ensure you are taking frequent drinks of water. Working in the meal plant environment can cause a build up of oil and dust on the skin and the heat can cause irritation so take frequent showers and change your overalls regularly.

Moving machinery parts and augers are major hazards within the meal plant area.
These should be shut down and locked out before clearing any blockage or carrying out any maintenance on them. Be aware of the safety signage, and never poke fingers or tools into moving machinery.

In the Meal Plant

Access to the meal plant and meal holds can be difficult. You should: take care in narrow hatches and doorways to avoid hitting your head or slipping/tripping always keep three points of contact on ladders and take your time. As operation of the meal plant is often a one-man job, always be aware of any Dead Man or Man in Hold type alarms, know how to operate them and make sure you use them.

The alarms are there for your safety, so use them!

The meal plant should always be kept clean and tidy: clean up any oil or water spills and tidy away equipment safe access ways should be maintained at all times. Ensure that lighting is adequate. When cleaning the plant be aware of the electrics, especially when you are using a water blaster.

Steam hazards, hot surfaces and pipes

These should be clearly identified and guarded if necessary. The meal operator must know how to safely release a steam or pressure build up using the correct procedures. Heat resistant gloves should be worn any time you need to carry out maintenance around hot surfaces or pipes, or open any steam valves.

Bagging room and meal hold

This can be a dusty and hot environment. Make use of dust masks and PPE available to you, and maintain a good level of hydration. When lifting and carrying meal sacks, keep a straight back and bend your knees and always use smooth movements. Take time to do a warm up and cool down stretches for your back. Stack the meal hold correctly and do not create any vertical walls that may cave in on you, should the vessel hit rough weather. In cases of stacks collapsing or falling over, get someone else to help out with re-stowing. Always use any Dead Man or Man in Hold type alarms when working in the hold alone.


Ice Handling

There are specific hazards caused by using and handling ice.

Using and handling ice

You must take care as you prepare for, take, and stow ice. Take special care if you are taking ice from a wharf ice plant that you must operate yourself. Most ice plants rely on an auger system to convey ice from the ice plant bunker to the vessel by way of a gravity chute. A common hazard is the bridge of ice that forms immediately over the auger. The ice bridge results in a cavity forming over the auger, and this stops ice from reaching the chute. The ice bridge has to be broken before you can continue the ice transfer operation. This is often done by the plant operator, who climbs into the ice bunker to break up the bridge with an ice shovel. If you have to do this, turn the auger off and isolate the electric system. People have been seriously injured and killed when the ice collapsed under them, causing them to fall into the moving auger. If you have to break ice bridging in an ice plant ensure that the plant machinery and augers are electrically isolated and that the augers are not moving. Only enter the ice plant bunker after checking that the plant is not operating. Make sure that someone else knows what you are doing and is close by to help you if needed, or in the event of an accident. When receiving ice from a gravity feed chute into the hold, wear appropriate thermal protective (warm) clothing, ear protection and hard hat. Ensure that gravity feed ice is adequately pounded to prevent possible free surface effect if the bulk ice should move at sea.







Safe use of knives

Knives are used extensively throughout the fishing industry. They are used to open packaging, for work on lines and nets as well as in the processing of fish. Knives are extremely hazardous items, particularly when they are used on an unstable platform such as a boat.

Knives must be handled with care at all times. When using a knife concentrate on what you are doing! Select the correct knife for the work you are undertaking. Do not leave knives lying around in work areas. Stow them in a sheath or rack when you are not using them. Take care when passing knives to another crewmember. Hold the knife by the handle and point it towards the deck when you walk or move. Whenever possible put it in the sheath before moving. Clean knives separately from other items. Always stow your knife if you need your hands for some other task (even when it is only one hand)! Knife handles should be secure and fixed rigidly to the blade. If the handle is loose tighten it, or replace the knife. Keep the handles dry and clear of grease and oils. Wipe them regularly with a rag. Keep the knife sharp. When using a knife the action should always be away from your body and your other hand. The knife blade should be angled away from the work and so away from the fingers. Keep out of range of other crew. Do not attempt to catch a falling knife. Leave it to fall. Then you can pick it up safely and clean it. Do not stab knife into the chopping board as your hand may slip down onto the blade. When processing fish use protective gloves




Lifting gear safety

There are a large number of lines, blocks, winches, haulers etc used on fishing boats. All of these take a substantial load at some time during fishing operations. It is important that these are used safely and kept well maintained so they do not become hazardous.

General lifting
Regularly examine all gear. Your Safe Ship Management (SSM) system may cover main items but there are often other smaller items not covered. Use certified gear only. Get into the habit of checking gear before you use it. Keep blocks and swivels etc well greased and maintained. Remember a load on a crane or davit affects stability. The vessel will heel when a crane is used. Even when the load itself is low the force is actually acting at the point from where the wire is suspended (normally through a block) on the boom so the loads effect on the vessel will be greater than you may think. If along side ensure your fore and aft lines are tight while breast lines should have some slack in them. Use competent, trained and experienced crane or winch drivers. Always attach load control lines and guys. Do not leave loads suspended. Make sure you know the Safe Working Load of the equipment you are using. Remember the SWL is that of the weakest component of the lifting system! Make sure all people are wearing the specified PPE!

Winch safety
Deck crew should be familiar with the controls of the winch. Make sure the deck crew know the position of emergency stops. Keep your hands well clear of any winch drum. Be aware of riding turns. If anything obstructs your view of the load stop the movement. Try to use the same people to operate the winches each time.

Line handling
Check lines regularly for broken strands or fraying. Twist open stands to check for internal wear. Avoid kinks. Try not to bend wire through a sharp angle. Reverse ends of wire where possible to avoid uneven wear. Listen to sounds from wire under tension during normal working so you will recognise unfamiliar sounds that may warn of a potential failure. Do not overload lines and avoid putting a sudden (shock) load on. Rollers and sheaves of blocks should be free to rotate. Keep them greased and their bearings or bushes in good shape. Avoid using synthetic lines on surge drums.




Factory deck - general hazards

Factory sumps
The sumps and covering grates are to be kept clear and the pumps operational. Any undue amount of water on the factory deck or pump failure is to be reported to the skipper or supervisor immediately.

Water blasting (hi-pressure cleaner)

Crew operating a water blaster for cleaning should be aware of electric motors, such as filleting machines, power points, junctions, control panels and light fittings. Ensure that care is taken when cleaning around these areas. Do not, under any circumstances, point the water blaster at another person.

Overhead hazards
There are a considerable number of projections from the factory area, such as pipes and hydraulic lines, which have sharp edges. Crew should be aware of this. Peaked factory caps tend to obscure overhead vision. Therefore, crew need to be mindful of head room when moving about the factory.

Deck hazards
Loose skin, offal, and loose fish combined with water on deck combine to make a slippery surface. Be careful when moving around the factory, particularly when processing. Be aware of any protrusions from previous installations that may be a potential hazard. Wash down hoses must be coiled back around the provided hose holders. Hose ends placed through grates also create a potential hazard.

Machinery hazards
Crew must not climb over, or attempt to clear, adjust, or service any moving machinery. If a malfunction occurs, isolate (turn off) the machinery, and inform either the factory manager and/or engineers immediately. Machinery must only be operated by authorised crew. Operators must be fully conversant with the controls, emergency stops, and potential hazards of their respective machine. Any machinery or conveyors not in use should be turned off.

Conveyors are for product transport only. Do not wear loose clothing and watch legging or apron straps as they could become entangled in the rollers.

Overboard discharge
When not in use the overboard discharge chute flap should be shut and fully secured.





Wear appropriate protective clothing for a fish packing house. Ensure that there are no loose items about your person, such as apron ties or legging straps, that could become entangled in moving belts or racks. Hair must be restrained under a factory hat or a hairnet that is supplied. No jewellery or watches can be worn whilst working in the factory. Ear protection must be worn.



Use extreme caution when entering the pounds. Follow company procedures. Do not enter fish pounds when product is being tipped from the deck. The pounds are often sealed using hydraulic powered gates/hatches that are capable of causing crushing injuries.

balaclavas gloves.

Fish holds

These areas can be very cold and crew must wear the appropriate protective clothing specified by the company, which may include: freezer suits freezer boots Regular visual checks are made on any personnel working in the hold. Always use the correct access points for entry and exit of the hold area. Man in hold alarms are to be checked to ensure they are operational. Crew in the hold must know where the man in hold alarms are and use them. Crew must apply carton stacking procedures that minimise any vertical face (or stepping stack) and the potential hazards of cargo shifts. Crew should be aware of how to recognise the initial symptoms of hypothermia. Correct lifting procedures (bent legs/straight back) are to be used when stowing cartons. Crew should be careful when walking in the freezer hold as it can get very slippery.




Plate freezer

Do not touch plate freezer surfaces with bare hands Plate freezers present a hazard in rough sea conditions. Product can move while the plates are in the process of being opened or closed. Where possible, plate freezers should be loaded starting with the bottom plate and working up, and unloaded starting with the top plate and working down. Some vessels use pre-forming scats (aft side of plate freezers) or breakout scat (forward side of plate freezers). The operator is to ensure that no trays are protruding from either the scats or the freezers themselves. Be aware that any items protruding could damage the ammonia pipes in the area when the scat is moved. If breaking out in severe weather conditions, the leading hand or factory manager is to inform the bridge and operation may be eased by a course change when possible.



Factory deck machinery may consist of:

filleting machines heading machines skinning machines block ejectors strappers conveyors offal hopper/augers baiting machines.

Machines have many hazard points, which are explained below.

Do not operate any machinery without first having training. Turn all machinery off and lockout before clearing or cleaning. Keep all guards on the machinery while operating it. Do not bypass safety switches. Know where all the controls are. Know where all the emergency stop are. Keep all hands clear of machinery. Be careful of knives and circular blades. Do not touch frozen surfaces of trio drums. The spike chain has sharp spikes. Be careful of grab points on conveyors and belts. Augers are dangerous. Be careful when working near them.


Refrigeration Systems

Refrigerant gas or liquid... is poisonous to humans affects running machinery is bad for the environment if leaked. There are a range of refrigerant gases used and all are hazardous. For this reason these systems have to be well maintained and crew have to be aware of the dangers and action required in the event of a leak. Most refrigerants mix with oil so oil drained from a refrigeration system must be clearly labelled and disposed of separately. Refrigerants must not be mixed. In the past chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants R-11, R-12 and R-502 were common. The Ozone Layer Protection Act (1996) meant that CFCs could no longer be used in refrigeration systems. New refrigeration systems use more environmentally friendly hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants. The refrigerant used aboard the majority of factory freezer vessels is ammonia. Like all other refrigerants it is an extremely toxic agent and crew should not expose themselves to it. Unlike Freon, one of the other common refrigerants, ammonia has an extremely pungent smell and any leak is easily noticeable.

Dont inhale refrigerant gas! In the event of an ammonia leak

Notify your leading hand and the duty engineer. Follow the instructions of your leading hand who will order the shut down and evacuation of the factory and accommodation areas if the situation warrants it. All crew should assemble as per the ammonia emergency drill and await further instructions. The vessel will be turned into the wind to assist in the clearing of toxic fumes. Under no circumstances is any crewmember to return to any area of the vessel if evacuation has been ordered unless instructed to do otherwise and the appropriate breathing apparatus has been issued.

In the event of direct contact with ammonia

In the event of a crewmember coming into direct contact with liquid ammonia: remove the crewmember from the area as quickly as possible. flush the affected area with copious amounts of water, the more the better. Ammonia is water soluble and placing the affected person under a shower or a fast running hose will remove the substance. remove all clothing that has come into contact with the ammonia while the patient is under the water, taking care to wear gloves and eye protection so you do not become a patient yourself. notify the ships medic as soon as possible.



Freon hazards
Freon cannot be seen or smelt! Freon is heavier than air so it will fall into the vessel and stay sitting in the bottom of the compartments. Freon is extremely harmful if it comes into contact with the eyes. Freon is suffocating because it displaces air. If you inhale high concentrations of Freon, it attacks the nerve system. When Freon comes into contact with hot surfaces and starts to burn, it can give off poisonous gases. Freons, if released into the air, may cause depletion of the ozone layer which contributes to the greenhouse effect. Refrigerants are not to be released into the atmosphere. They must be drawn into the condenser/receiver or into a separate cylinder.

If you start feeling faint or dizzy as you enter a compartment dont think twice - evacuate!
If a refrigerant leak occurs: evacuate the compartment immediately sound the alarm and get the crew in an up-wind position if the leak is in the engine room, shut down the machinery turn the vessel into the wind if possible do not enter the compartment without ventilating it first.

Maintenance points
Refrigerant pipes are lagged and constantly damp. This means that pipe coatings and surfaces can deteriorate relatively quickly. Check pipes regularly and make sure the coating is maintained. Where flexible hoses are used only use refrigerant tolerant hoses. Try to avoid using flexible hoses wherever possible. Maintain fittings such as valves and gauges in good order. Mark pipes to show what type of refrigerant they have in them. Refrigerants are supplied in metal cylinders which will corrode in the salt environment. Make sure these are left in dry storage (preferably ashore).




Compressed Air Systems

All large vessels have a high pressure compressed air system on board and some may also have a low pressure system. All compressed air systems have a pressurised bottle which contains the high or low pressure air. These must be kept in excellent condition. Some housekeeping notes are given below.

Safety points
Always wear safety glasses when you are using compressed air. If you use compressed air to dry something, never point the hose directly at the object you are drying. Make sure whatever the compressed air is being used on, is secure. Never use compressed air as an air supply for breathing. Never use compressed air in the vicinity of hot work (welding, gas cutting). Do not use compressed air to clean or dry clothing while you are still wearing it.

Maintenance points
Air storage bottles must be kept in a clean and dry compartment. The paint coating on the bottle must be kept in good condition. Fittings, gauges, valves and relief valves must be kept in good condition with regular maintenance. Hoses used on portable air equipment must be regularly checked for damage and replaced if found. Air bottles must be rigidly secured to the vessel. Air bottles have test dates so must be regularly tested.

safety goggles must be worn




Gas Cylinders and Installations

Gas cylinders can be very dangerous if not maintained and operated safely.

Always turn gas off immediately after use. Bottles and regulating and relief valves must be installed outside. Bottles, valves, pipelines and hoses must be protected from physical damage. Bottles, valves, pipelines and hoses must be out of direct sunlight. The space in which the gas is being used should be well ventilated. It is a good idea to run the fans before ignition. LPG is heavier than air so will settle in the lower regions of the compartment. A gas detector should be fitted. Have all repairs and maintenance done by a qualified gas-fitter. Keep gases and hydrocarbons, such as greases, separate from each other.

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS The International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code provides guidance on the carriage of dangerous goods.

BOAT NOTICE Date: 2 February 1997

Gas Cooking Systems

A gas explosion which blew the top off the cabin of a pleasure vessel and gave the skipper serious head injuries has resulted in a Maritime Safety Authority warning on the use of gas stoves on boats. An investigation revealed that at some time previously a nail had pierced a rubber hose which permitted gas to escape and settle at the bottom of the vessel. When the engine was started a spark ignited the gas, causing the explosion..




Electrical Systems

All vessels have numerous electrical systems fitted including crucial alarm systems and navigational equipment as well as battery systems and high power systems.

Electrical systems that are badly operated or poorly maintained can:

black-out the ship rendering it without steerage or power at sea cause serious disruption to navigational aids on board electrocute a crewmember seriously burn a crewmember start a fire on board. All of the above can lead to death of one or more crewmembers. Here is a list of things every crew member should know about electrical systems:

Electrical Systems Dos

Get all electrical maintenance and repair work done by a certified person. Keep all guards and covers on electrical gear. Regularly check all terminals and connectors for tightness, cleanliness and for excessive heat. Keep all electrical gear away from water. Keep all grills and vents of electrical gear clean. Use marine rated equipment of the correct rating. Keep earth straps and bonding straps on equipment connected and in good condition. Regularly check for earth faults on your distribution board and remove faults when found. Regularly check battery packs and chargers. Regularly check alternative supplies to important equipment such as radars, radios, steering etc. Keep batteries well ventilated and dry.

Electrical Systems Donts

Dont hose down electrical gear. Dont fiddle! Dont run electrical cables through bulkheads or into boxes without using the correct watertight glands. Dont work on electrical equipment without first isolating it! Dont use under-rated parts in electrical systems. Dont overload circuits. Dont leave leads and other portable electrical appliances lying around. Never by-pass stop switches.




Hydraulic Systems

It is easier to find a potential fault in hydraulic systems. You can normally see a fault which is about to become a hazard. The fault will usually be a leak of some description. Dont just wipe up the leak and leave it. Leaks in hydraulic systems can give rise to: larger leaks, catastrophic failure: Small leaks may warn you of a bigger weakness or a fault endangering the vessel: Leaks cause a drop in pressure which can lead to system failure. This can effect, for example, fishing gear recovery and steering, which can endanger the vessel fire: If a significant leak suddenly appears, it may spray over electrical equipment or a hot surface. In both cases, a fire is likely to occur injury: a leak on the deck, day or night, can cause a crewmember to loose their footing and either fall overboard or suffer an injury. Hydraulic systems are very powerful and can cause fatalities if not treated with due respect. Hydraulic fluid is a pollutant and, therefore, cannot be spilt into the sea.

Key points when working with hydraulic systems:

Attend to leaks as soon as possible. If the leak cant be fixed until the vessel is alongside, contain the leak so it doesnt spread everywhere. Dont leave temporary containment arrangements in place for longer than necessary. Wipe up leaks as soon as possible and make sure you address them as early as possible. Never by-pass limit switches on hydraulic gear, and test these regularly. Make sure guards are used to protect people from the hydraulic system wherever possible. If guards are not practical, consider using a warning sign. Isolate electrical and oil supplies to hydraulic system before you start work on it. Store hydraulic fluids in the vessels tanks. Dont leave drums and containers of hydraulic fluid on board if not absolutely necessary. Make sure you have an oil spill kit adjacent to where hydraulic maintenance work is being conducted. If you are working on hydraulics on deck equipment, place rags in front of the scuppers to prevent oil spilling into the sea.




Hot Work

Hot work is the label given to any work that may generate a spark or significant heat. Sparks and heat can ignite nearby gases or materials so it is important to manage this hazard. The most common hot work on vessels involves welding, grinding and cutting operations. Electricians, upholsterers and other trades also use appliances that could ignite surrounding materials and gases through heat or sparks. Hot work has led to numerous fires onboard vessels and has also caused explosions on some vessels. It is important to know about it and treat it seriously. LEGAL REQUIREMENTS All vessels are to ensure that the local harbourmaster is informed of any hot work that is to be conducted on board a vessel in the port. If the contractor is a regular marine repairer they will be familiar with this requirement. The contractor will usually inform the harbourmaster. Once the harbourmaster issues a Hot Work Permit, work can start. It is still the skipper of the vessels responsibility to make sure there is a Hot Work Permit. The skipper must check that the contractor has the permit before allowing work to commence.

Danger to near by flammable goods

Some hot work operations, such as grinding and cutting, generate sparks which spray over a wide area. These sparks can ignite nearby rubbish bags, rags, cartons etc. Make sure you check both sides of the bulkhead or deck and clear such items out of the way or cover them with a flameproof blanket. (Remember to keep the vessels fire blanket aside, in case you need it to fight a fire).

Danger with fumes and gases

Sparks can also ignite fumes coming from fuel tanks, gas bottles, paint and other solvents. Never allow hot work to be conducted: during fuelling operations if there is a tank lid off if there are solvents, oils, paints or other flammable liquids in open containers or plastic containers (open or closed) nearby.

Always have a fire extinguisher nearby!




Weather Conditions

Fishing vessels are put in danger when caught in extremely bad weather. A large proportion of accidents involving vessels are weather related. Bad weather makes the work environment on board the vessel extremely hazardous. It also places a lot of strain on the vessels structure and equipment. It is important to respect the weather at sea. Vessel operators should always know and understand what the weather is forecast to do.

Marine weather information

Marine weather forecasts state what the weather is expected to do. This is done using series of measures as follows:

Wave height
Wave height used in forecasts refers to the waves that are generated by the wind in the area that is being reported. The measures used are: Calm Smooth Slight Moderate Rough Very rough High Very high Phenomenal approx. wind wave height 0.1 m approx. wind wave height 0.5 m approx. wind wave height 1.0 m approx. wind wave height 2.0 m approx. wind wave height 3.0 m approx. wind wave height 4.5 m approx. wind wave height 6.5 m approx. wind wave height 8.5 m approx. wind wave height 11.0 m

Swell is also forecast. Swell comes from either a distant disturbance, such as a cyclone or depression or the swell develops from wind waves that have been blowing from the same direction for a length of time. Swell height can be given in metres or named as follows: Low Under 2.0 m Moderate 2 - 4 m Heavy Over 4 m

Average Sea and Swell

The heights of both sea and swell refer to the average from the trough to the crest of the highest one third of waves present. Occasional waves may reach much higher; about one in a hundred is likely to reach half as high again, and one in a thousand twice the quoted average.

Wind Speed
Wind Speed is given in knots and the direction given is where the wind comes from. Warnings are issued as follows: Wind: The wind is expected to exceed 33 knots (either steady or in gusts) Gale: Expect to about 45 knots as a steady wind, gusts can be 50% higher Storm: To about 60 knots as a steady wind, gusts can be 50% higher Tropical: Cyclone is over 60 knots but is only used for hurricane type tropical storms

Visibility Distance
Fog: Less than 1.0 nautical miles Poor: 1 - 3 nautical miles Fair: 3 - 6 nautical miles Good: Over 6 nautical miles Average visibility in New Zealand is about 15 nautical miles

Sources of weather information

The two easiest ways of getting a marine forecast are by VHF Radio and telephone.

VHF Radio
Marine weather forecasts are announced on Channel 16 at 0533, 0733, 1033, 1333, 1733 and 2133 hours.

Met Phone
Other sources of forecasts Local Coastguard stations on VHF Teletext. Local newspapers (remember information can be relatively old) Local radio staions National Radio at 0500 hours Auckland area has continual forecasts on Channels 20 or 21. Whitianga area has continual forecasts on Channel 23.




Extreme Sea Conditions

Dangers in extreme seas

Severe seas of any kind are dangerous if you are not prepared. You should take special care in the following situations: In beam seas, excessive roll can cause cargo to shift, creating a dangerous list. This could cause the vessel to capsize. Strong breaking waves could also capsize the vessel. In following seas: If a vessel is riding down the face of a steep wave the bow can dig in, the stern then overtakes the bow and the vessel may broach and capsize. Also the rudder may lose effectiveness, leading to the loss of steering control, causing broaching and capsize. If a vessel is on the crest of a wave the bow and the stern are lifted out of the water, reducing the buoyancy they provide. Also the freeboard amidships is reduced, which in turn also reduces the overall stability levels. Lastly the stern out of the water reduces the effectiveness of the rudder. All of these can lead to the vessel broaching and capsizing. It is recommended that if you are in severe conditions and you cannot change course to put your bow into the seas, then the vessel should ride on the back of the wave to avoid any of the above scenarios. In quartering seas, the problems of beam and following seas are combined. Quartering seas represent the most dangerous situation in severe weather.




When encountering fog, and before you enter it, you must:
plot a fix on your chart or mark on a plotter reduce speed (so you can stop in half the visible distance is a handy rule of thumb) turn navigation lights on post extra watchkeepers - by sight and hearing - preferably on the bow. start sounding one long blast (4-6 seconds) every 2 minutes while making way through the water and 2 long blasts every 2 minutes when stopped.




General First Aid

First aid refers to the assistance given when a person becomes ill or injured. Often a vessel is days from shore or hours from even receiving help so it is up to the crew to conduct first aid which often results in saving the life of an injured fellow crewmember. Keep your first aid kit well maintained and organised in a dry location. Separate out common-use items (band-aids and painkillers) so the first aid box doesnt get disturbed.


Patient Management Plan

Check Safety for yourself, bystanders and patients - Check for other hazards! Check Response from voice and touch. If no response, send a MAYDAY call from your radio!

Open and clear the Airway.

Look, listen and feel for Breathing or other signs of life. Give 30 chest Compressions at approximately 100/min, then give 2 breaths. Continue ratio of 30:2 until the helicopter or ambulance arrives. Defibrillate - attach AED as soon as possible.

Check for Severe bleeding

For adults start with 30 compressions then 2 breaths. For children start with 2 breaths and them give 30 compressions.

Continue CPR until the helicopter or ambulance arrives or signs of life return.




Patient badly cut

Stem flow of blood by wrapping with any clean bandage or material. If an amputation has occurred, collect the severed section in a clean plastic bag and place on ice. Treat for shock.


Patient Burnt

Immerse burnt part of body in cold, fresh water. Keep the burn immersed in cold water for at least 20 minutes. Do not put any medication on burns! Wrap in a sterile bandage. Treat patient for shock.



If a patient has been in the water they will most likely experience hypothermia due to the temperature of the waters in which factory ships operate.


Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5

Shivering is a response by the body to generate heat. It does not occur below a body temperature of 32C Apathy and decreased muscle function. First fine motor functions are affected, then gross motor functions. Decreased level or responsiveness is accompanied by a glassy stare and possible freezing of the extremities. Decreased vital signs, including slowed pulse and respiration rates. Death.




35C - 37C

Cold, pale skin Alert and shivering Poor muscle co-ordination Rapid breathing rate Rapid heart rate Cold, waxy skin Puffy face, possible pink in colour Confusion Muscle rigidity, no shivering Slow heart rate Dilated pupils Diminished reflexes Stupor or coma Rigid muscles Slow breathing rate Hypotension (lowered blood pressure) Slow heart rate Fixed, dilated pupils Coma Flaccid muscles Slow respiration Slow or rapid heart rate Possible cardiac rate Cyanosis (blue lips, eyelids, earlobes) Fixed, dilated pupils Unresponsive Barely detectable breathing and heart rate Cardiac arrest

32C - 35C

30C - 32C

28C - 30C

20C - 28C

Get the patient into a sheltered position. Remove wet clothing and put dry clothes and/or blankets on them. Get the patient warm and then stabilise their temperature. Give them warm or high energy food.



If a patient has suffered a moderate or major injury, they will suffer from shock. Treat them by doing the following: lie the patient on their back with feet at slightly higher level than their head stay with the patient and keep reassuring them maintain their body temperature by keeping them warm but do not overheat.





The most common symptoms of a stroke are one or more of: numbness, tingling, paralysis of the face, arms or legs sudden blurred or limited vision in one or both eyes sudden difficulty speaking or understanding what others are saying sudden dizziness, loss of balance, difficulty with movements sudden intense headache, often on one aide or down the neck a brief episode of confusion.

Sit or lie down immediately and stop working! Send a MAYDAY call from your radio


Heart Attack

The characteristic chest pain of a heart attack is persistent and severe pain in the centre of the chest; it is often described as squeezing, pressing or tight. It is often accompanied by sweating, faintness, nausea or vomiting and shortness of breath. The pain may start in your chest or one of both arms, more commonly the left, and into the neck, back and abdomen. If any severe chest pain lasts for more than 15 minutes without easing, it should be assumed to be a heart attack and you should seek help immediately. Send a MAYDAY call from your radio





If poison is swallowed or breathed in: Protect yourself from poisoning if it is in gas or liquid form. DO quickly move the person away from the gas or fumes into fresh air. DO NOT try to rescue an unconscious person if a highly toxic or unknown gas is involved without breathing apparatus. Send a MAYDAY call from your radio. If the patient is not breathing or does not have a pulse: Start CPR. If the person is sleepy or unconscious but is still breathing: Place them in the recovery position: lie the person on their side (not their back) ensure their head is lower than their body seek medical advice from a Poisons Centre or your doctor bring the product container or the Material Safety Data Sheet to the phone if you can DO NOT make the person vomit without advice from a medical professional. If you get poison in your eye: flush with fresh water for at least 15 minutes DO NOT use an eye bath solution or eye drops DO NOT use a shower to flush the eye as the pressure may cause pain. If you get poison on your skin: Immediately flush with lots of water.

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS Maritime Rules Part 31C requires that a significant number of seafarers hold first aid or medical training certificates to meet the needs of any reasonably foreseeable medical emergency on board. You must report all injuries to Maritime NZ. See Section 16. All vessels must have a First Aid Kit onboard. Refer to Maritime Rules Part 50. All factory vessels must have a copy of The Ship Captains Medical Guide or a copy of the International Medical Guide for Ships. Refer to Maritime Rules Part 50.



10.1 Fatigue
This section covers: what is fatigue how to know if someone is fatigued things to do to manage fatigue fatigue management plans. If you are suffering from fatigue you will not be able to do your work properly and safely. Sometimes people do not actually realise that they are fatigued. Fatigue happens when people: dont get enough sleep work very hard, either physically or mentally, and dont have time to recover from the work work for too long work when the body is programmed to sleep (e.g. in the middle of the night) cant sleep when they have the chance have poor quality sleep (e.g. sleep might be interrupted, or there might be something wrong with where youre trying to sleep too much light, noise, vibration, the vessel is moving, it is too hot or too cold). Most people need 7 8 hours of sleep a night to be fully rested. Most (but not all) can get by on 6 hours of unbroken sleep a night for a few nights until the pressure for sleep increases to dangerous levels. With less than 6 hours sleep a night the pressure for sleep increases rapidly. The risk of falling asleep or making a mistake also increases rapidly and needs to be managed. With lack of sleep the brain takes micro sleeps, turning itself off from the outside work for a short time (people who are asleep on their feet). Eventually this will turn into continuous sleep. If people go for several days without enough sleep, they are more likely to be affected by fatigue and to take longer to recover from the lack of sleep. This is called sleep debt. People naturally want to sleep at night, especially in the early morning, and feel sleepy in mid-afternoon. Late morning and early afternoon is when we feel naturally alert. So night workers often sleep 2 3 hours less every 24 hours than they need to be fully rested, because they try to sleep in the natural alert times.

Is fatigue a significant hazard on my vessel?

Fatigue is likely to be an issue at some point on nearly every fishing boat because of the sort of work that is being done hard, physical and sometimes monotonous. If the answer to any of the following questions is yes, fatigue is likely to be a significant hazard on your vessel: Does anyone on the vessel usually start work before 0700 or finish after 2200? Is the work day usually longer than 12 hours? Is it a demanding work environment (e.g. lots of noise, vibration, heat or cold, rough sea conditions)? Are work demands unpredictable? Is working on the boat constantly physically or mentally demanding? Do people working on the boat say theyre tired a lot or at particular times of trips? Does the crew report feeling excessively tired, or have health problems that affect their sleep? Do employees commute long distances to work? The use of alcohol and drugs can also lead to people falling asleep or becoming fatigued when they normally wouldnt.



How can I tell if someone is fatigued?
Someone who is fatigued wont always look or feel fatigued, particularly if they have come off a high, such as handling a good catch. It sometimes helps to think about the amount of sleep a person had recently, and what kind of work they have been doing. This history helps to identify if someone is at risk of being fatigued. People who are fatigued might: be very irritable (more than usual) be uncommunicative, or unclear when they talk forget things quickly, like something youve just told them or how to do something they know how to do be unable to stay focused on a task be preoccupied with parts of a problem, missing warning signs and losing the big picture cut corners to get the job finished take unusual risks make poor judgements about distance, speed and/or time have slow reactions to things that happen, or people talking to them have slurred or muddled speech be clumsy be obviously sleepy.

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS Fatigue is a hazard under the HSE Act. Employers have to take all practicable steps to manage fatigue as a hazard and need to involve employees in identifying fatigue problems and how to control them. Maritime New Zealand will be requiring every vessel owner to develop and have approved a Fatigue Management Plan as part of the SSM Manual, where fatigue is a significant hazard.

How can we manage fatigue on board our vessel?

If people on your vessel are at risk of fatigue, the skipper will need to write a fatigue management plan (which is the details about how you are going to manage fatigue as a hazard). There is more information about fatigue management plans later in this section. If fatigue is not an issue for people on your vessel, everyone involved (owner, skipper and crew) should agree that fatigue doesnt need to be actively managed at the moment. The skipper should write down when and why you decided to do this (so that anyone checking your hazard management systems knows youve thought about it).

1. There is no one right way to manage fatigue the solutions need to fit your boat, its operation, and the skipper and crew who work on board. 2. Owners, skippers, crew, partners and safety advisors should be involved in developing the fatigue management plan. 3. Everyone should learn about fatigue. Its a good idea for everyone to attend a training session about fatigue management. 4. Make sure everyone regularly has time off for sleep. A minimum of 6 hours continuous sleep in every 24 hours is recommended (time sleeping is not the same as time off) 5. Take short naps wherever possible (40 minute and 2 hour naps are the best timing, if you want to work soon after waking up). This works best before a person actually gets tired.



FOR SKIPPERS Assess whether fatigue is a significant hazard and develop a fatigue management plan. Work out what youre going to do when things occasionally go wrong and you cant stick to your fatigue management plan. (These contingency plans should form part of the fatigue management plan). Make sure you are regularly reviewing levels of fatigue and how well your fatigue management plan is working. You could make fatigue an item at each of your regular safety meetings. Any time you monitor or review the plan, make a note in your SSM Manual. This will prove that youre doing what is required. Make sure everyone has somewhere dry and light-proof to sleep. Talk about fatigue with the crew before they actually get tired. Make sure they know you know its human to get tired and that its better to admit it than hide it. Provide healthy food. Plan rest days so that cumulative fatigue doesnt become a problem. Work out in advance how youll cope if someone gets fatigued. Install watchkeeper alarms if appropriate. It is important not to rely solely on watchkeeper alarms as some people will sleep through them. The long-term solution is good planning and management of the watch activity. Make sure people on watch at night have activities to keep them active. Provide caffeine and energy drinks which can help keep people alert for short periods of time. Make sure watchkeepers feel comfortable waking someone else if they get tired.

A fatigue management plan

A fatigue management plan is an organised way of managing fatigue as a hazard. In practice, a good fatigue management plan has two major parts: 1. What to do on the boat to manage fatigue 2. What the owner or skipper has to do to keep an eye on how the plan is implemented and make sure its up to date. The owner, skipper and crew should work together to develop the fatigue management plan. Everyone has different job demands and experiences fatigue differently. If you have decided that fatigue is a significant hazard on board your boat, you need to show that you have thought about: why people are getting fatigued how you can stop it happening how you can cut down on how much it happens. You should also look at how you will deal with someone who is fatigued. When youve worked these things through, you need to write them down. The fatigue management plan should be put up where everyone can see it and read it. A laminated sheet on the bridge and in the crew mess is a good way to do this. Note how the plan will be monitored and kept up-to-date should go in the SSM manual. FATIGUE GUIDELINES Information on fatigue is available from Maritime New Zealand. The brochure Understanding Fatigue, the poster Wheelhouse Fatigue Checklist and five general fatigue posters provide useful information for crew. The booklet Fatigue Tools for Vessel Owners provides information about legal responsibilities, measuring fatigue, and strategies for managing fatigue, including shiftwork. Contact your local Maritime New Zealand office, freephone 0508 22 55 22, or

10.2 Stress
This section covers:
what is stress what causes stress how to know if someone is stressed things to do to manage stress Some stress is good for us. If we dont have enough challenges, it can be hard to get going however, if we have too many challenges, we may get stressed and not cope as well. We need the right balance. Whether stress is good or bad depends on the individual everyone reacts in different ways. As a general rule though, stress which goes on for a long time will be bad for a person and for the people theyre working with. The right balance can also change over time. Workplace stress is defined as when someone becomes aware that they are not able to cope with the demands of their work environment, and they have a negative emotional response to that awareness. The key is that they are overwhelmed by the situation and they care about feeling that way it is having an impact on their happiness or enjoyment of life. Stressors are things that lead to someone feeling that they are unable to cope with either physical or psychological demands. Stressors can: be because of things that make the job what it is for example, the peak workloads in fishing, knowing that the work of being a commercial fishermen is to some degree inherently dangerous, working in cramped conditions on board a vessel arise because of the way the work is organised. This can include physical factors (such as cold, wetness, noise etc) as well as physiological factors (such as shift work, lack of time to rest etc) arise out of excessive work demands such as unrealistic deadlines arise out of personal factors such as health status, relationships, and ability to cope with difficult situation.

Is stress a significant hazard on my vessel?

In terms of legal liability, an employer is required to take all practicable steps only for those circumstances that they know or ought reasonably to know about. If someone says they are stressed, or are acting in such a way that most people would agree they were stressed, then you need to do something. Fishing work can be difficult for people to cope with. People work long hours and in bad weather. There is not much space on the vessel to get away from other people. This means that owners and skippers need to be looking out for signs of stress in the crew and, where you find it, have effective systems in place to deal with it.

The situation on each boat will be different. To decide if stress is a significant hazard, you should ask yourself the following questions:
Is the work emotionally draining or unpleasant? Does the work require intense, prolonged concentration? Would a mistake have big consequences? Is the work inherently hazardous? Is the workload unrealistic? Is the work too hard for the person? Are there factors such as persistent bullying in the workplace? Are people separated from their families and/or friends for long periods of time? Are people forced to both live and work in close confines with people that they may not necessarily get along well with?



How can I tell if someone is stressed?
Stress is a complex issue. No two people will react in exactly the same way to situations. Owners and skippers need to watch for signs of stress in people who are working on the vessel. Crew need to tell the skipper or owner when theyre feeling stressed, and know that everything possible will be done to deal with the situation. People who are stressed might show some of these signs: not being aware of safety issues or putting themselves into harms way long-term health problems such as depression, burnout and heart disease being down, anxious, irritable of clinically depressed lose confidence, talk about sleeping badly, have slow reactions or behave oddly not be able to get along with people that they used to work well with be irritable or indecisive, or perform poorly and make more mistakes drink more alcohol than usual or use recreational drugs complain about their health and, for example, get frequent headaches.

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS Stress is a hazard under the HSE Act. It must be managed like any other hazard. Dont wait until an employee has a physical or mental health problem before taking steps to deal with stressors in the workplace. The law only requires employers to manage work stressors or the individuals stressed situation when you can be reasonably expected to know about the stress. Employers then need to do what can reasonably be done in the circumstances to manage the stress. Crew should be involved in identifying stress problems and suggest ways to control them. There need to be systems in place to assess and deal with identified stress, whatever the source, if the stress places that employee or anyone in the workplace at risk of harm. Employees must have confidence that if they report the situation (experiencing stress) that something will be done about it. Employers have no direct control over (nor responsibility for) non-work factors. However, if an employer knows about non-work sources of stress, steps may need to be taken to prevent harm where the safety of people in the workplace the employee included may be an issue.

How do I manage stress as a hazard?

For all crew Identify areas of the work that are inherently stressful the list of stressors at the beginning of this section. Work with the skipper to figure out how to eliminate or reduce the impact of those stressors. Learn ways that help you to manage your own stress levels. Tell your skipper when stress levels get too high.



FOR THE SKIPPER Make sure that work practices on the vessel dont cause unnecessary stress, and have systems in place to deal with crewmember stress. You are not required to monitor all your crewmembers stress levels all the time. You are required to put things in place to minimise stress and if a crewmember says they are stressed you need to take this seriously. Where possible, create clear work routines and operating procedures so there is a more predictable work environment. If a crewmember is consistently unable to carry out their work because of non-work stress factors, manage this as you would any performance issue. Talk to the crewmember about your concerns and work out a way to resolve the situation if possible (remember you have to take all practicable steps to deal with the hazard). Be aware that someone who is suffering from stress may be in danger to themselves or to others while working. If a crewmember is consistently unable to carry out their work because of non-work stress factors, manage this as you would any performance issue. Talk to the crew-member about your concerns and work out a way to resolve the situation. Work out how you will handle a situation where a crewmember tells you that they are stressed. Document this and make sure that the crew know that there is a system in place for dealing with stress and that everything possible will be done to deal with the situation in a confidential manner. Consider how you will decide whether a crewmember is coping with their work or whether they are affected by stress. Schedule time to regularly think about whether stress is a problem on your vessel. Make sure you treat each person as an individual, as different people cope with things in different ways. Ensure that there are different activities available on board to allow people to relax on their off duty hours. Make sure that there is adequate time available for rest. Work to create a supportive environment on board the vessel, and recognition of peoples different needs for space and time to themselves. Carefully investigate any crew claims of feeling stressed and put in place any necessary measures to reduce their stress levels. Make sure you identify the things in the job that are inherently stressful, and talk about them with potential employees before you offer them the job.



10.3 Alcohol & Other Drugs

Drug and alcohol abuse on the boat can cause serious problems. This makes it a serious health and safety issue. Alcohol and drug use affects the: ability to make good decisions co-ordination motor control concentration and alertness. This section covers the use of alcohol and illegal drugs on board the vessel. Some crewmembers may use prescribed drugs for health conditions. The skipper needs to know about this, and how to manage any side effects from medication or from the health condition requiring the medication.

Why is the use of alcohol and other drugs on board the boat a hazard?
Here is a list of problems that might happen when people use alcohol and other drugs on board: potential for misuse of machinery or equipment increased risk of causing harm of injury to self or other employees falling from heights, into holds, overboard, boarding and leaving vessel etc decreased skills, poor judgement, slower reaction times inappropriate behaviour, like fighting, abusive language increased risk of fatigue. LEGAL REQUIREMENTS Alcohol and drugs are defined in the HSE Act as hazards. Employers should check to see if they are a significant hazard on the vessel. The Misuse of Drugs Act 1975 makes it an offence for anyone to procure (buy or receive), or have in their possession, or consume, smoke or other use, any controlled drug. It is also an offence to supply or offer to supply or administer, and Class C controlled drug to any other person. It is illegal to bring controlled drugs onto a vessel. The possession or use of illegal drugs on the boat should not be condoned or allowed. It is also illegal to possess instruments (pipes, bongs, syringes etc) for the purpose of taking illegal drugs. Parents and guardians are the only people who can supply alcohol to people under the age of 18. If you have an accident or are injured while under the influence of alcohol or other drugs can affect your ability to claim insurance.



If there is an alcohol and drug policy for the vessel, follow it. Do not bring illegal drugs on board the vessel. Do not use illegal drugs on board the vessel. If you are allowed to drink alcohol on the vessel, do not drink too much or too close to when you need to be ready for work. Do not use machinery or steer the boat when you are under the influence of alcohol or drugs. FOR THE SKIPPER Develop a policy on the use of alcohol and other drugs at work. The policy should apply to everyone. It should be developed in consultation with crew and given to each new and existing crew member. Make sure that everyone who works on the boat is regularly reminded of the policy on the use of alcohol and other drugs at work and the consequences of not complying with it. It is strongly recommended that the use of alcohol and other drugs be banned on board the boat. The use of alcohol and other drugs can impair judgement and result in people affecting the health and safety of themselves and others on board the vessel. State and reinforce that it is unacceptable behaviour to bring illegal drugs onto the vessel, or use them on the vessel.

How do I develop an alcohol and drug policy?

An alcohol and drug policy is a way to set out what you expect of all those working on the vessel. The policy should aim to eliminate or minimise the hazards associated with the use of alcohol and other drugs in the workplace. Develop the policy in consultation with all those who are going to be affected by it.

The policy should cover the following areas:

why a policy is needed the importance of preventing harm and managing hazards scope that the policy covers everyone who comes on board the boat, including visitors infringements what is an infringement, and what will happen if someone doesnt follow the policy how to tell when someone is affected by drugs and alcohol list the common signs and symptoms of being under the influence how to deal with an intoxicated person information and training explain what training and information around managing the hazards of alcohol and drug use will be given and what it will cover workplace induction how skippers/crew/sharefishers/visitors will be made aware of the policy confidentiality make sure everyone understands that any action taken under the policy will be confidential and how you will ensure this happens screening/testing if applicable, explain the companys screening and testing procedures.

It is strongly recommended that the use of alcohol and other drugs on board the boat be prohibited.
If alcohol is used on board the boat, an alcohol policy also needs to cover: when it is considered appropriate to drink alcohol acceptable standards of work performance a prohibition on being drunk on the vessel.





This section deals with hazards that are unique to trawling operations. Specific hazards and procedures relating to trawl operations are shown below:
Wear personal floatation devices, hard hats and any other safety gear when working on the trawl deck. Wherever possible, keep clear of the trawl area when fishing gear is being either payed away (shot) or hauled in. There are a range of items that can easily catch and injure you, particularly as the gear deploys (i.e. nets, lines, net mesh and floats). Watch for loose headline floats when working around the net roller during shooting or hauling. This happens when there is uneven tension on the trawl when winding the net on to the roller. Stand clear from rigging blocks when the load is on the wire passing through them. Never stand underneath them! The particular blocks and wires (warps, sweeps, bridles, lazy wires etc) that carry the load are always changing as the operation moves from shooting, to fishing, to hauling and so on. You must continually re-assess the safety of the position you are standing in to make sure you are not in the line of fire if any part of the gear fails. Check the condition of shackles, hammerlocks, swivels, wire and chain regularly. Do this when you can between shots and during shooting and hauling. Wherever possible, keep clear of the warps and be aware of the hazards they pose! Keep tension on all parts of the trawl when winding on the net roller. Codend knots and codend clips sometimes jam take care when trying to free them particularly if the bag is moving. When you use a surge drum to assist, be careful you could break the codend rope if there is too much weight on the rope. Stand clear of the direct line of pull of your winch. You will be out of the way if the wire snaps when it is under pressure. Watch out for sprags on splices of warps and bridles and extensions. These may cut you or catch your gloves or clothes. When the net is hauled in over the stern keep clear. A net full of fish is a dead weight. If it moves suddenly it could knock you against part of the boat or cause you to loose balance and fall. Fish, such as hoki and squid, act like a liquid and their bags can crush you if you get hit by it.

Dont attempt to lift too much!

Do not over estimate the safe working load of your lifting equipment. Take care when lifting heavy items, such as bobbins, chains and mid-water weights, in rough weather.



A net full of fish being lifted over the side or stern affects the stability of the boat. Make sure you can safely lift the weight of fish in the sea and weather conditions at the time. If you are working around the net ensure the winch driver can see you and is fully aware of what you are doing. Make sure any hand signals you use are clear and that everyone uses the same hand signals. Avoid stepping over wires that are being worked. Be alert around trawl doors. They can move unexpectedly. When trawl doors are recovered keep well clear until they are hard against the boat and their movement has stopped. Make sure there is clear communication with the winch driver when hooking or unhooking the trawl doors. Check that hanging chains (and G-links or sister clips) used to clip the doors to the gantry are in good condition. Make sure the brake on the winch has been applied before putting your hands near the doors. Take particular care when unhooking sweeps, bridles or lazy wires from the trawl doors, net roller or other winches when shooting and hauling. Always stop the net roller to remove stickers or mark holes in the net. Keep your hands out from between the doors and the stern of the vessel when transferring trawl doors to dog-chains. Do not walk on a codend full of fish, especially those that are rolling around the vessel deck. Know where the emergency stops are. Do not hesitate to use them if you think it is necessary. Make sure the emergency stops are clearly marked.




Long Lining

This section deals with hazards during long-line fishing. There are safety issues to think about when: baiting the hooks laying or setting the long line hauling in the line

Setting /Laying Long-line

1. If you are baiting the hooks and setting the line, make sure you are in as secure and tight position as possible . This will mean that you are less likely to be thrown about with sudden changes of the boats motion. 2. Ensure the boat driver has good communications and can see or hear what is happening so he can maintain a sensible speed or stop if required . 3. Never attempt to untangle a snare or tangle when part of the line is under strain (i.e. tight). Secure the taut section before attempting to untangle the mess. Or wait until the strain if off before attempting to untangle . 4. If you are laying the line out, you must always be ahead of the speed of the line playing out. This way you will not have to deal with potentially dangerous tight lines. If you cannot keep up, tell the wheelhouse to slow down. 5. On Auto line vessels when using autobaiters, follow company and vessel procedures for all equipment . 6. Crew should keep a sharp knife handy at all times shooting or hauling



7. Keep as clear as practical of the roller and hauler while gaffing fish so clothing does not get caught in the rotating parts. And to prevent getting hooked by passing hooks. Do not wear loose clothing . 8. Keep good communication between crew to ensure every one knows what is happening and are working safely. 9. If you are gaffing the fish, you will be vulnerable to back strain, fatigue and falling overboard. Try to lift the fish the shortest possible distance. Work carefully and try to avoid awkward bending, lifting and twisting movements.



13 13.1

Duties & Responsibilities

Everyone who works on board a boat needs to make sure that things are safe, and that things they are doing (or not doing) dont hurt other people. The Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992 (HSE ACT) makes this a legal requirement. This section explains the responsibilities of each person and provides examples of application in the fishing context.

Employer (the person who pays the wages)

The employer is the person who pays the wages. This might be the owner, or it might be the skipper. If you pay the wages, you need to take all practicable steps to make sure the boat is safe and that the people who work on or visit the boat are safe. This means you need to: Regularly go through the process for Identifying hazards Make sure any hazards are eliminated, isolated or minimised Provide suitable protective equipment and clothing to your employees Provide safety information to your employees Provide training or supervision to make sure the work is done safely Keep an eye on your employees to make sure their work isnt causing them health problems Provide ways for your employees to contribute to health and safety. Maintain a Register of Hazards


Skipper (the person who controls the place of work)

The skipper is normally the person who controls the place of work (the boat). The skipper has to make sure that the boat and its equipment are safe. This means taking all practicable steps to ensure that any hazards do not harm any people who are (-see section 21.5): Lawfully at work on the boat (as employees, contractors etc) There as customers or to undertake an activity; or In the vicinity. The skipper also needs to make sure that visitors to the boat are told about any significant hazards on the boat.


Crew (who are paid wages)

Crew who are paid wages are defined as employees under the HSE Act. As an employee, you can expect that your employer will make sure the boat is safe. But you also have things you need to do: Make sure you do everything you can to ensure the boat is safe for working on Make sure nothing you do, or dont do, harms anyone else Use the protective equipment and clothing that either you or your employer provides Dont do work which is unsafe or involves unsafe practices Make unsafe work safe, or if you cant, tell your supervisor or the skipper Know about and follow the boats health and safety practices and procedures Co-operate in the monitoring of hazards and of your health. Report Hazards




Sharefishers (self-employed)

If you are self-employed, you must: Make sure nothing you do at work harms yourself or anyone else Make sure you take health and safety into account when you plan your work activities Keep a record of accidents and incidents that harmed or might have harmed either yourself or someone else, if it was caused by your work (and report those to Maritime New Zealand within seven days)

13.5 13.6

Principal (someone who hires self-employed people [Skipper or owner])

If you hire self-employed people to do work for you, you still have to make sure they are safe on the boat. You should include health and safety issues in your contracts and make sure you talk about health and safety with your contractors. You also need to: Make sure that no contractor, subcontractor, or employee of those people, is harmed while doing the work you hired them to do Keep accident registers Report accidents involving serious harm to Maritime New Zealand as soon as practicable

Other people who visit the workplace in the course of their work (observers, compliance officials, contractors etc.)

If you visit the boat in the course of your work, you are treated the same as a self-employed person. You must: Make sure nothing you do at work harms yourself or anyone else - (see section 21.2) Make sure you take health and safety into account when you plan your work activities Keep a record of accidents and incidents that harmed or might have harmed either yourself or someone else, if it was caused by your work (and report those to Maritime New Zealand as soon as practicable) You also need to ensure that you follow the instructions of the skipper as the person in control of the place of work.

Know which category of duties and responsibilities apply to you and any people working on board your boat. Seek advice on this if necessary. Develop a checklist for your duties and obligations and record on a regular basis your understanding of how you are fulfilling those duties and responsibilities Seek advice from Maritime NZ or your lawyer

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS The duties of employers to ensure the safety of employees are contained in section 6 of the HSE Act. The duties of employers in relation to training and supervision of employees are contained in section 13 of the HSE Act. The duties of a skipper as a person who controls the place of work are contained in section 16 of the HSE Act. The duties of self-employed people are contained in section 17 of the HSE Act. The duties of principals are contained in section 18 of the HSE Act. The duties of employees are contained in section 19 of the HSE Act.



Where can I find out more?
For more information on your roles and responsibilities under the Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992, check out the Maritime New Zealand website - or contact Maritime NZ on freephone 0508 22 55 22. The Inland Revenue Department has advice on its website about how to decide whether someone is an employee or self-employed check Maritime NZ has produced a booklet for the maritime industry (Health & Safety - A guide for seafarers) which outlines your obligations under the HSE Act 1992. You can get copies from maritime NZ on freephone 0508 22 55 22 or from the Maritime NZ website -



14.1 Legislation
Your health and safety system is the detail behind how you are going to meet your responsibilities as described in section 1. This section provides further information about developing and implementing your systems. Hazard Management is discussed in detail in Section 15.

Relevant Legislation
Since 2003, Maritime New Zealand has been responsible for administering the Health and Safety in Employment Act (HSE Act) for work on board ships and for ships as places of work. Maritime NZ also administers the Maritime Transport Act 1994. Maritime and marine protection rules are statutory instruments (or secondary legislation) made by the Minister of Transport pursuant to the Maritime Transport Act 1994 (MT Act). While the MT Act stipulates broad principles of maritime law, the rules contain detailed technical standards and procedures. Generally speaking, the MT Act and the rules made under that Act focus on boat related safety, while the HSE Act focuses on the safety of operations and people on board the boat. There is a degree of overlap.

Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992

The purpose of the HSE Act is to make work activities safe and healthy for everyone connected with them. The HSE Act reinforces that employers, or other people responsible for the work, have the primary responsibility for health and safety at work. The HSE Act also recognises that everyone within a workplace has responsibilities to themselves and others. Effective health and safety in the workplace requires cooperation and communication between everyone involved.

Safety Management Systems

The Safe Ship Management System (SSM) makes ship owners and operators responsible for the daily safe operation of their boats and ensures that the safety of a boat and its crew is maintained throughout the year instead of just on an annual survey day. The system covers construction, stability, equipment, operating limits, operating parameters, the qualifications of crew, training of crew, boat maintenance and emergency procedures. The system is reflected in documentation which is customised for each individual boat according to which particular system it fits within. The documentation also needs to contain information about how you are meeting your health and safety obligations under the HSE Act.

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS The HSE Act doesnt replace any duties you may have under other pieces of legislation (with the exception of Part II of the Maritime Transport Act 1994 which was replaced by the HSE Act in 2003). You are still required to comply with other legislation. The requirements of the HSE Act have been developed in order to interact consistently with other legislative requirements. In the Maritime sector this means you are still required to comply with the Maritime Transport Act 1994 and all relevant Maritime Rules Some maritime rules already address health and safety issues. These rules exist alongside the HSE Act and are designed to work with other health and safety systems and requirements to make a safer workplace.




Developing a Health and Safety Policy

Although not a legal requirement, its a good idea to develop a health and safety policy statement that is specific to the boat, its operations, management and people. This document sets the tone for the commitment to health and safety, and should be included as part of your SSM Manual. A health and safety policy could cover some (or all) of the following: A commitment to achieving the highest standards of health and safety in all aspects of operations; Seeking continuous improvement in health and safety performance taking into account evolving employee expectations, management practices, scientific knowledge and technology; Complying with all applicable legislation and standards, and where these do not exist, adopting and applying standards that reflect commitment to health and safety; Involving management, skippers, crew and contractors in the improvement of health and safety performance; Holding skippers responsible for safety in their areas of supervision in the same way that they are responsible for quality, efficiency, maintenance, etc; Training skippers to carry out their responsibilities effectively and have an understanding of health and safety. Training and holding individual employees / crew accountable for their area of responsibility; Managing risk by implementing management systems to identify, assess, monitor and control hazards and by reviewing performance on a regular basis; and Ensuring that all employees are informed of and understand their obligations in respect of the health and safety policy.

14.3 Providing Information

People on board the boat need to know how to do their work safely. The employer is required to provide easily accessible information to the crew about: Hazards on the boat Hazards that might arise from the type of work that the employee is doing The steps to be taken to minimise the chances that anyone will be harmed by the hazards Where to find safety clothing and equipment; and How to deal with any emergencies. Information needs to be provided in a way that employees can understand. This might be by talking to people, or it might include printed information using easily understood words, and perhaps including diagrams.




Selection and Placement of Crew

Safety starts with selecting the right person to crew on the boat. It is important to note that you cannot discriminate against someone on the grounds of a disability / medical condition. However, it may also be unlawful under the provisions of the Health & Safety in Employment Act, for a person to be placed in a position where they are likely to cause harm to themselves or others. If in doubt, get legal advice.

14.5 Training
One way of ensuring that crew can carry out work safely is by ensuring they have enough knowledge, experience and training to do what they need to do. Employers must do what is reasonably practicable to ensure crew have knowledge and experience of relevant similar workplaces, work, equipment or substances, or that they are supervised by someone who has that knowledge and experience. Employers must also ensure that crew are adequately trained in using the types of objects, substances and protective clothing and equipment that they are required to work with.


Induction for Visitors and Others

Everyone who comes on board the boat needs to know about the hazards they might come across on board that boat and how they are managed. You should develop a standard induction checklist for visitors which lists the hazards and any action required of the visitor. This would include letting them know where they cant go on the boat. Tick off the items on the list as you talk about them with the visitor, and get them to sign as proof that youve gone through it with them.

14.7 Employee Participation

Everyone needs to work co-operatively and in good faith to establish effective health and safety arrangements in the workplace.

Good faith requires being open and honest, and understanding that all involved have a legitimate interest in a safe and healthy workplace.
People who carry out work are in a good position to identify actual or potential hazards that arise in the course of that work and suggest ways those hazards could be managed. All employers have a duty to provide reasonable opportunities for the crew to participate effectively in processes for improving health and safety at work.


People who are not employees

Employers also have a duty to people who arent their employees. The employer must take all practicable steps to ensure that the actions or inaction of an employee while at work doesnt harm any other person. That includes a duty to stop anyone being harmed through skylarking or other actions or inaction where it is reasonably foreseeable that harm will be caused to another. It isnt enough to just have rules or procedures they need to be enforced. Where someone not following the rules or procedures could have serious consequences, there need to be back-up plans in place just in case.



14.9 System Auditing

Any system that is put in place needs to be regularly reviewed to make sure it is effective and that it is comprehensive that it is fully meeting the requirements of the law to have a safe and healthy workplace. You should do this in a systematic way perhaps have a list of the parts of the system and review one each month. You need to write down the details and results of the review, and any action that is taken. Keep this with your SSM manual.

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS The HSE Act specifies in some detail the requirements for maintaining a healthy and safe workplace. The Maritime Transport Act and the Maritime Rules contain requirements which are specific to the maritime sector. Your Safe Ship Management System also contains requirements which are relevant to health and safety and therefore must be followed.

Summary Points
Develop a Health and Safety Policy which makes clear to everyone on board the boat what your commitment to a healthy and safe boat is. Your health and safety system is the detail behind how you are going to meet your obligations to provide a safety and healthy workplace. You should write down how this is going to happen and make sure you are doing what you said you did. Make sure you are regularly auditing the system to check that it is effective, and to check again that all your responsibilities are being met. Write down the results of the audit in your SSM manual. Decide how youre going to make sure that people on the boat follow the rules and procedures you have, and what youre going to do if they arent followed. Make sure everyone has enough information and training to be working safely. Choose the right people to be part of your crew. Develop a standard induction checklist for use with visitors. Get it signed by the visitors once youve gone through it with them. Make sure the owner, skipper and crew all have opportunities to be involved in the development and ongoing implementation and maintenance of your health and safety systems. Make sure you know your legal obligations in relation to health and safety

Where can I find out more?

For further information about the Maritime Transport Act and the associated maritime and marine protection rules contact the Manager, Rules and International Standards, at Maritime New Zealand, or email For further information about Safe Ship Management contact the Nautical Advisor, Safe Ship Management, at Maritime New Zealand, or email Maritime NZ has produced a booklet for the maritime industry (Health & Safety - A guide for seafarers) which outlines your obligations under the HSE Act 1992. You can get copies from Maritime NZ on freephone 0508 22 55 22 or from the Maritime NZ website www. If you need assistance in agreeing on a system for employee participation in managing health and safety matters, the mediation services provided by the Employment Relation Services can help you work towards a solution. Contact them through WorkInfo on 0800 20 90 20.




Hazard Management

Hazard management identifying hazards and then making sure their potential or actual impacts are either eliminated, isolated or minimised - is an important way of meeting the obligations of the Health and Safety in Employment Act (HSE Act). It is also a legal requirement. This section provides an overview of the process which needs to be gone through to ensure that youre customising the management of hazards to your particular boat and operation.

15.1 What is a Hazard

A hazard is any activity, situation or substance that can cause harm. This includes a situation where a persons behaviour may be an actual source of harm to themselves or others. Hazards can: Be actual or potential Be physical, biological or behavioural, including temporary conditions that can affect a persons behaviour, such as fatigue, shock, alcohol or drugs Arise or be caused within or outside a place of work Hazards also include events that cause crew to be at a greater risk of causing themselves or others on board harm. These events could occur in the on board or elsewhere ashore. Examples of these events are: The design of shifts and rosters Jobs with inherent stress or pressure Seasonal peak workflows Jobs that regularly include long days because of travel before, after or during work Being part of, or witness to, an accident Physical or mental fatigue, drugs, alcohol and traumatic shock are specifically mentioned in the HSE Act as hazards




When does a hazard become significant?

There is a legal definition of a significant hazard. A significant hazard is one that is an actual or potential cause or source of one or more of

Serious Harm
The definition of serious harm is as follows: Any of the following conditions that amounts to or results in permanent loss of bodily function, or temporary sever loss of bodily function: respiratory disease, noise-induced hearing loss, neurological disease, cancer, dermatological disease, communicable disease, musculosketal disease, illness caused by exposure to infected material, decompression sickness, poisoning, vision impairment, chemical or hot-metal burn of eye, penetrating wound of eye, bone fracture, laceration, crushing. Amputation of a bodily part. Burns requiring referral to a specialist registered medical practitioner or specialist out patient clinic. Loss of consciousness, or acute illness requiring treatment by a registered medical practitioner, from absorption, inhalation or ingestion of any substance. Loss of consciousness from a lack of oxygen. Any harm that causes the person harmed to be hospitalised for a period of 48 hours or more commencing within 7 days of the harms occurrence.

Harm, the severity of which may depend on how often or how long a person is exposed to the hazard
This harm must be more than trivial and includes such things as occupational overuse syndrome.

Harm that cannot be detected until a significant time after exposure

This includes diseases caused by exposure to hazardous substances, such as asbestosis, neurotoxicity, emphysema, and other occupational diseases. This definition is important as significant hazards are required to be managed in a set way. Hazards that arent significant need to be noted and re-examined in the future as necessary, to re-assess whether they have become significant as time has passed. They also need to be managed as appropriate - if there are easy or obvious things that can be done to reduce the hazard, you should do them. Assessing if a hazard is significant is a matter for the judgement of the employer (and should involve discussion with the crew and others on board the boat). If you identify a hazard and then decide it isnt significant, you should record the reasons why you believe it is not significant. You should also write down when you will re-look at the hazard to ensure it hasnt become significant over time.



15.3 Hazard Identification

Hazard identification means working out and then writing down the hazards on your boat. Everything on the boat and that happens when working on the boat needs to be looked at as a potential hazard. A regular process for hazard identification needs to be followed. The process must be systematic and thorough. How you have identified and assessed hazards should be written down and kept as a record in your SSM manual to show you are meeting your obligations. Ways of identifying hazards include: Going around and inspecting the boat and equipment Analysing the work that needs to be done on the boat and how its being done Reviewing previous accidents (including near misses) and looking at what happened and why (see also section 4) The HSE Act requires employers to give employees (e.g. the skipper and crew) reasonable opportunities to be involved in all parts of the hazard management process, including identification of hazards. You need to review your hazard identification methods regularly to make sure theyre effective for example, if an accident happens as the result of a hazard you hadnt identified, think about why your system didnt pick it up and how you can make sure there isnt anything else that hasnt been picked up.


Hazard Assessment & Management

Where hazards are potentially harmful to people on the boat, the employer is required to take all practicable steps to provide a safe and healthy environment. The employers responsibility only extends to matters they can reasonably be expected to recognise or be aware of. Everyone on board the boat shares in the responsibility to recognise and manage problems themselves and this includes handling non-work issues sensibly. Hazards need to be assessed to determine whether or not they are significant. The Act describes a hierarchy of action for managing significant hazards. (Hazards that are not significant must still be managed, and this process may be useful for managing those hazards also). The preferred action is to eliminate the hazard, by changing things so that the hazard no longer exists. This might include, for example, relocating equipment or instruments which restrict forward visibility, or replacing a hazardous substance with one that is harmless. If this cant be reasonably done, you should isolate the hazard, by putting in place a process or mechanism that keeps employees away from the hazard. This might include: Permanently fixing a guard to cover a dangerous part of a particular machine Fitting an acoustic enclosure around noisy machinery; or Putting a releasable door catch inside a freezer If this cant reasonably be done, the hazard must be minimised, by doing what can reasonably be done to lessen the likelihood of harm being caused by the hazard and to protect employees. This might include: Providing employees with suitable protective clothing or equipment Monitoring employees exposure to the hazard With their informed consent, monitoring employees health in relation to the hazard (This process is set out in a two page form at the end of this section.) Not all hazard management methods are physical. There can be rules or policies designed to reduce the risk from the hazard (for example, the development of a fatigue management plan).




What does all practicable steps mean?

Employers, employees, self-employed people, people in control of workplaces, and principals, are required to take all reasonably practicable steps, in circumstances they know or should reasonably know about, to ensure their own safety and the safety of others. All practicable steps means those steps that it is reasonably practicable to take. A step is practicable if it is possible or capable of being done. The word reasonable means that not everything that is humanly possible needs to be done. Instead, it is only necessary to do what a reasonable and prudent person would do in the same situation. Whether a step is reasonable needs to take into account: The nature and severity of any injury or harm that may occur The degree of risk or probability of injury or harm occurring How much is known about the hazard and the ways of eliminating, isolating or minimising the hazard The availability and cost of safeguards The costs of dealing with a hazard are only one factor in deciding if a step is reasonably practical. Costs should be measured against other factors, including the risk and seriousness of harm that might occur if nothing is done. If there is a risk of serious or frequent injury or harm, spending a greater amount of money to deal with the hazard is considered reasonable.

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS The HSE Act requires employers to systematically identify hazards and to systematically manage significant hazards by either eliminating them, isolating them or minimising them and then developing and maintaining emergency procedures. Hazards that arent significant still need to be managed to make sure that the boat is safe and that working on the boat is safe. The HSE Act requires employers to give employees (e.g. the crew) reasonable opportunities to be involved in all parts of the hazard management process. Where appropriate, employers must provide suitable protective clothing and equipment to protect people from hazards. They also need to provide training in its use and make sure it is worn or used. Maintain a Hazard Register.

Summary Points
Set up a regular system for identifying hazard. Schedule this into your work routines, including regularly looking at whether the ways in which youre controlling hazards is working. Emphasise to everyone on board the boat that it is their responsibility to let the skipper know of any hazards that they find on the boat. Set up regular meetings with the crew to talk about hazards and how they can be managed. Set up emergency processes for hazards in case things go wrong. Regularly review accidents and near misses to help you identify any hazards you might have missed. When you identify things that need to be done to manage a hazard, make sure responsibility for the action is clear, and someone checks that it has been done. Make sure you regularly check that policies and procedures are being followed and that your management of hazards is effective. Make sure everyone on board the boat has enough training and information around how hazards are managed on the boat, and how to work safely, and that theyre supervised when necessary.

Information needs to be provided in a way that will be understood this might be through talking to people, or it might mean making sure written material is in different languages, simple to understand, and including diagrams or pictures where you can. Keep a register of all hazards that are identified on the boat.

Where can I find out more?

Maritime NZ has produced a booklet for the maritime industry, (Health & Safety - A guide for seafarers) which outlines your obligations under the HSE Act 1992, and the associated hazard management processes. You can get copies from Maritime NZ on freephone 0508 22 55 22 or from the Maritime NZ website To find out more about how to go about identifying and managing hazards, contact Maritime NZ, on freephone 0508 22 55 22, or email



Significant Hazard Management Worksheet

Section One: Background
Hazard: Is this hazard significant? Yes/No Why is the hazard significant or not significant?

Section Two: Elimination

Can the hazard be eliminated? Yes/No If yes, list the steps to achieve this, allocate responsibility, then go to Section Five:




If no, why not? Test your reasons against the all practicable steps requirement.

Section Three: Isolation

Can the hazard be isolated? Yes/No If yes, list the steps to achieve this, allocate responsibility, then go to Section Five:




If no, why not? Test your reasons against the all practicable steps requirement.



Hazard Management Worksheet

Section Four: Minimise
List the steps you will take to minimise the likelihood of harm from the hazard:




List the equipment and clothing that are required to protect employees from the harm:


Timeline for Provision


Section Five: Review and Monitoring

Have you tested your answers against the all practicable steps requirement? Yes/No How will the employees exposure to the hazard, and their health in relation to the exposure, be monitored?

Monitoring Step



How and when will you review the success of your control measures?

Review Step



Were employees involved in this hazard management process? Yes/No If no, why not?

Section Six: Sign-Off

Vessel Name: Name and position of person filling out this sheet: Date:




Accident/Incident Management

Every employer of seafarers on a New Zealand ship, along with people who are self-employed and people who hire self-employed people, must record all accidents, incidents and mishaps that cause (or could have caused) harm to people in the place of work the boat. This means that the details need to be written down and kept on the boat. The skipper also needs to notify all accidents resulting in the death of, or serious harm to, a person, or any accident and incident, to Maritime NZ through the Rescue Coordination Centre New Zealand as soon as practicable (by phone or VHF Channel 16). A written report then needs to be filled out and sent in. The reason accidents, incidents and mishaps need to be recorded on the boat is not only to ensure that reporting requirements are met, but also to help meet the responsibility of the employer under the HSE Act to review hazard identification and control processes to make sure that the same accidents arent going to keep happening. LEGAL REQUIREMENTS Any Accident, Incident or Serious Harm Injury needs to be reported to Maritime NZ as soon as practicable after it occurs. This requirement applies to all New Zealand vessels. This initial notification must be followed by a written report within 7 days. It is the skippers responsibility to report under legislation. If the skipper cannot notify Maritime NZ, due to death, injuries or other good reason, the operator of the ship (e.g. the owner or responsible person ashore) must do so. The words as soon as practicable mean as soon as possible in the circumstances. After ensuring that the vessel, crew and passengers are not in immediate danger, reporting an accident, incident or mishap to Maritime NZ should be the skippers first priority. In the case of a serious harm injury on board a vessel there is a further legal requirement for reporting under the Health & Safety in Employment Act 1992. In this case, the employer of the person seriously harmed must report the injury to Maritime NZ within seven days of it becoming known (although remember there is also the requirement for the skipper to have reported the serious harm injury as soon as is practicable after it occurred). If the person harmed is self-employed, they must report the incident to Maritime NZ themselves, if able to. If the person injured was under contract at the time it happened, the person who contracted them (the Principal who is most likely the skipper) must report it to Maritime NZ. Minor injuries, such as a small cut or sprain do not have to be reported to Maritime NZ, but their details still have to be recorded. Copies of the forms should be kept on board the boat. Failing to report is an offence that carries a fine up to $5,000 for individuals and $30,000 for companies. Employers, self-employed people and principals of contractors who fail to report serious harm injuries within seven days may be fined up to $250,000.

How do I report?
Phone Maritime NZs Rescue Coordination Centre NZ (RCCNZ) to let them know as soon as practicable about the accident, incident or serious harm injury. RCCNZ has staff working 24 hours a day, seven days a week, who will record what happened and provide assistance if required.

RCCNZ Freephone: 0508 222 433

Alternatively, contact the Maritime NZ Maritime Operations Centre on VHF Channel 16. This Centre is also manned round the clock, and theyll immediately relay the information to RCCNZ. After you make an initial verbal report, send Maritime NZ a completed Accident/Incident reporting Form MAR A14 or Serious Harm Form MAR A12 as soon as possible. These forms can be printed from the Maritime NZ website ( or copies obtained by phoning Maritime NZ on 0508 22 55 22.



Complete the form, and then fax it to RCCNZ:

RCCNZ: Fax: 04 914 8388

If you do not have access to a fax machine, mail the form to: RCCNZ, PO Box 30050, Lower Hutt (Attn: reporting form).

Whats the definition of an accident, incident and serious harm injury (mishap)?
Accidents include events such as any damage to a vessel, which may affect its strength or seaworthiness, groundings, collisions, machinery failures and steering loss. Incidents include a near collision or a near grounding. If there is any doubt as to whether an incident should be reported, the best thing to do is to report it to Maritime NZ. Serious harm injuries (legally defined as mishaps) are defined in Section 21. The full definitions of accidents, incidents, mishaps and serious harm injuries, can be found on the Maritime New Zealand website:

Accident Registers
You are required to keep a register of all accidents and incidents and other occurrences of serious harm that arise from workplace hazards, on board the boat. The purpose of the register is to include details relating to the incident. The register must be up to date at all times. This is part of the Safe Ship Management manual.

Self-Investigation, Follow-Up and Review

If an accident occurs that harmed, or might have harmed, any employee, all practicable steps need to be taken to find out what happened and to decide whether the accident arose from or was caused by a significant hazard. If a significant hazard is new, you need to do something to control that hazard (see section 21). If the hazard isnt new, you need to decide why anything you were already doing to control that hazard didnt work in this case. If necessary, change how the hazard is being controlled. You need to write down what you are doing to stop the same (or similar) accident happening again. The accident and serious harm register needs to be reviewed periodically to identify accident and injury trends. This means you should have a look over the accidents and injuries that have happened, and see if the same or similar things are happening frequently. This information needs to be made available to managers, supervisors, and employees.

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS The Maritime Transport Act (s 31) requires skippers to report any accident, incident or serious harm injury to Maritime New Zealand as soon as practicable. In the case of a serious harm injury on board a vessel there is a further legal requirement for reporting under the Health & Safety in Employment Act 1992. In this case, the employer of the person seriously harmed must report the injury to Maritime New Zealand within seven days of it becoming known. If the person harmed is self-employed, they must report the incident to Maritime New Zealand themselves, if able to. If the person injured was under contract at the time it happened, the person who contracted them (the Principal) must report it to Maritime New Zealand. The Maritime Transport Act (s30) requires employers of seafarers on a New Zealand ship to maintain a register of accidents, incidents and mishaps and to record particulars relating to those events. The Health and Safety in Employment Act (s25) requires employers, the self-employed, and principals to maintain a register of accidents and serious harm. The same register can be used for both. The Health and Safety in Employment Act (s7) requires employers to take all practicable steps to investigate accidents and serious harm to determine whether they were caused by or arose from significant hazards and, if so, to address those hazards.



Summary Points
Make sure all skippers are aware of reporting requirements and have the contact details for RCCNZ handy. Ensure that you have an accident register that is easy to fill out (this should be in your SSM Manual). Make copies of the accident reporting forms easily available in the accident register. Make sure you have a set process that you go through when an accident happens. This should include sitting down with all those involved to talk about what went wrong and how you can prevent similar things happening again in the future. Write down the details of what you talked about and what youre going to do and remember to check that whats been agreed to happens. Set aside a regular time for reviewing accidents in the register. This should occur at a time that is relevant to your operation for example at the end of a season, before a season is about to start, and at regular intervals during the season. Write down the results of your review this doesnt have to be extensive. As a general rule, if you open the first aid kit, you probably need to record it! Note the details in your accident register.

Where can I find out more?

To find out more about accident reporting and investigation, including how to carry out your own internal investigation of accidents, contact the Maritime New Zealand Chief Investigator of Accidents, on freephone 0508 22 55 22, or email accidents.investigations@ Further information can also be found on the Maritime New Zealand website