1 ABSTRACT

This report is a compilation of the work done by group of five Mechanical Engineering students as part of unit requirement of MEC2406. The report is a summary of the work done over a period of six weeks. This, however, does not represent the entire work, which comprised of a number of iterative steps and repetitive modification. The task at hand was to design a can opening machine. The machine was to be designed under constraints such as cost and look & aesthetic of the product. Several features were to be implemented such as safety and ease of operation. Requirement included that the machine be motorized. This report consists of three main parts. Sections 2, 3, and 4 relate to the development of the concepts and the formulation of framework to approach the problem and calculations. In all three concepts were developed, each with its own advantages. Priorities were set, the different aspects were weighted and one concept was selected for further development. Section 5 consists of all the calculation done for the critical components of the design. Initial basic calculations of all components were not included in this report and appear as assumptions. The entire calculation procedure was divided into four sub-systems and all the relevant components of the sub system were analysed. Each section includes a sketch of the sub-system and the design goals, among others. The cost estimation and value analysis for the design are in sections 6 and 7 respectively. In these two sections, the price of the machine was estimated and analysis was carried out to determine the value of the machine on whole. The latter section includes optimization of some design features/ components in order to increase its value and by doing so; increase the value of the entire machine.

Although this would be the ideal solution. simple to use and aesthetic is impossible. with reasonable justification.This constraint does not clearly define the target customers as it could be either a single disabled person or could be a shop or a restaurant which could be anywhere from small scale to large scale. To design a machine that is extremely affordable. the machine should primarily address this issue. The design also has a number of constraints and requirements. preferably with the least input from the operator. technically. Improvement of any of the above aspect cannot be achieved without compromising one or more of the other aspects. Other requirements are cost and the appearance of the product. The requirement was to design a machine to cut the lid of the can & open. Therefore the approach will be to strike a balance between all the above attributes. . Since it is not possible to create a single machine for such a broad scope. it is assumed that the target customer is for individual usage to small scale industry. Moreover the conventional method is a slow process and the solution must make the process simple. The machine is targeted at people with disabilities as well as the restaurants & shops for faster usage. but this might increase the coet of production which might increase the price of the product. it is up to the designers to decide the priority. safe. Since the priorities are not stated in the problem specifications. such a solution is not possible as not all the attributes have the same importance priority. Since the conventional method is not safe and it is not possible for usage by a disabled person. An important requirement is the safety aspect of the design. For instance the look of the product can be designed well .2 PROBLEM OUTLINE The definition of the problem is stated as: To design a device that cut the lid of the can for easy removal of the content in the can The above definition can be approached in numerous methods.

The coconut is placed on the top of the movable cross rail. . which is spring loaded.belt-pulley system.1 Concept 1 The design concept is composed of the following parts: . in order to keep the coconut above the blade initially. A collection bowl (not shown) will be placed below to collect the coconut water.screw rod .spring Working: The nut of the screw rod was rotated via a motor. The upper movable cross rail is lowered against cutter fixed to cut the coconut into halves. Sub problems: accommodate coconut of different sizes. motor/belt.3 CONCEPTS DESIGNS 3.movable cross rail .cutter .

Supporting frame . The shape of the channel is chosen to best fit the shape of a coconut.Motor system.2 Concept 2 Concept One The design concept is composed of the following parts: . The water will flow down to the collecting vessel which is placed underneath through the filter. with lever switch . blade. This force is sufficient enough to cut open the coconut into two and release the water. except for the high power motor which can be expensive. . cutting the coconut into half.3.g. In this way pure coconut water can be extracted without using much effort. Sub Problems – control panel etc. The coconut is inserted into the machine via the V channel as illustrated below. etc. The broken coconut pieces can be removed by opening the compartment using the handle on the front as shown above.Spring . After the shaft spring is fully compressed. spring. splashing and thus wastage of water while the coconut is cut.Shaft with cutter .V channel Working: This machine uses spring power that drives the blade downwards. A motorized system is used to raise the spring loaded shaft back upwards. This results in the shaft accelerating downwards due to gravity acting on its weight and the force generated due to the coiled spring. the motor switch is turned off and the lever switch pulled front which causes the wheel to detach from the cylinder. Cost The machine uses simple components e.

Update: The final design resulted as shown in this report.The mount table . Some of the major issue included : ore intricate support system with more than 6 mounting point. Several technical problem that could not be addressed with the design led to modifications in the concept. Sub Problems: – placement. The two half’s of the coconut will slide down the inclined collecting tray and can be removed off manually. . The clamp will be driven by an appropriate motor by means of a pulley.belt system which will be underneath the table. differs from the concept selected. that the new design still maintains the objective and priority of the selected concept.Collecting tray A – Mounting table The mounting table will be the surface on which the coconuts will be placed. speed.Collecting tray The collecting tray will consist of a stainless. mounting and the speed of the belt saw.3. Each clamp will be fitted with a torsion sprig to provide the gripping action.3 Concept 3 Concept design 3 The design consists of 4 main parts: . By doing so. The table will be supported by an inner frame made of welded square sections of steel. The proposed material would be stainless steel. C – Clamping mechanism The clamping mechanism will serve the purpose of holding the coconut firmly while the saw cuts the coconut and also to push the coconut forward. The belt saw should be controlled by a panel (not shown).Clamping mechanism . which are all geared to move in the same direction and speed.this is to ensure a complete cut.steel plate with slots to allow the pass of water. B – Belt saw setup The belt will pass through the table near the edge . it reduces the number of tasks of the user and also provides safety. It should be noted. The proposed design for each ‘clamp’ will consist of three wheels. The belt will run at relatively low speed to avoid splashing of the coconut water and also to prevent tearing of the fiber. D.Belt saw setup . – placement .

Problem Analysis 1. Objective:To design a device that can open a can in a safe and user-friendly manner Functions:- The can opener is placed on top the can The holder is adjusted to grip can tightly The blade of the can opener puncture the can surface The blade goes around the can until the whole can is opened Lift the can opener to open the can . There are number objectives and consideration mentioned in the following tables. OFFERS Introduction We are to design a suitable machine to hold the can and cut the top lid without using much effort.1.1. The machine must be easy to use for all the users and handicapped people in particular.

Effects: Provides a safe way that does not require direct contact with any form of blade  faster operations for the use in the shops. Machines: Human powered by mechanical means or electrical power may be used Method: No special limitations.small Very mobile Less than 10N Less than 30 seconds Nil Nil Less than RM50 2 1 3 2 2 2 3 1 3 1 3 Can be used without much guidance 2 . including people with disabilities such as those with one hand or suffering from arthritis Money: Must be cheap enough to be mass-produced.Factors:      Men: Used by anyone. criteria and specifications:- Requirements Performance:  Reliability -durability -hygiene  Portability -weight -storage space required  Convenience  Effectiveness -force required -duration of operation Safety:  Harm to people  Harm to product Cost:  Retail cost Ergonomics:  User friendliness Criteria and specifications weightage Life span>5 years Easily washable Total weight<1kg Size. restaurants  Can be used by anyone including people with disability Requirements. less than 30 seconds Materials: Steel and cast iron. Minutes: Should not be much more than traditional methods.

Sub-problems: How to generate the power required to work the machine?  How to maintain safety during operation?  To maintain affordability 2.2 solution generation Function To hold can in place To tear the lid To power the machine Portability of device Controls of device 1 Hold with rubber Sharp steel electricity To carried by hand manually 2 Hold with round steel Rotary blade mechanical To carried by machine Remote control .

the user needs only one hand to use the machine & open the can. Criteria Performance  Cutting speed  Process time  Force Input  Quality of cut Safety Ergonomic Aesthetic Cost Portability Total Concept 1 2 2 4 1 Concept 2 2 1 3 2 Concept 3 2 1 3 3 4 3 5 3 3 27 3 2 3 2 2 20 3 3 2 2 2 21 The main aspect that we considered while designing our device was to include safety measures and minimize the number of required actions by the user in the design as opposed to adding them on later on. we eliminated concepts 2 and 3.4 DESIGN SELECTION All the previously mentioned concepts proved to be rather effective. . Due to this reason and the total points awarded. As mentioned before.In order to ease the process of selection we came up with the following table.with each of them having its own special feature . Improvements would also be made in the chosen design in order for the can to be cut properly and safely. Concept1 was the wisest choice out of the three because the blade is not exposed so it is safe for the user & it was the best looking product. the aim of the design was to be user friendly for the people who are suffering with disabilities. In the 1st concept.

the calculations were made on the components based on the function. Also.5 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 5. Rather than making calculations based on individual components. Can Bearing Shaft Motor Housing Blade Gear box Main Frame . In this approach. a systematic approach was adopted. the calculations are not arbitrary but in a way such that each calculations were related or dependent on another.1 System approach In order to develop the selected concept. the entire machine was divided into the sub-systems and calculation was performed.

as the failure of any component will not cause any significant damage to the user. Fl . Fl = l1 . the blade selection is made first and all other calculations are made thereafter.1 DESIGN GOAL The blade is the key component of the design as the blade alone achieves the objective of cutting the can. l1 : By what ratio the magnitude of the applied load can be greater than the greatest predictable load l2 : By what ratio could the load increase through unaccounted dynamic effects? . Fo : The consequence of failure Fl : The uncertainty in predicting the loads Fs : The uncertainty in predicting the strength Fo : The value was taken to be 1.2. Fs Where. l3 Where.2 Blade 5. Moreover. can be calculated as product of factor: Fd = Fo .5. The design goals are as follows:     Establishing safety factor Selection of Blade profile based on the requirement and application Determining the cutting force needed to cut the can Estimating the torque needed to provide the required force 5. the selection of blade requires determining the forces involved which in turn will determine the design on another key component – the motor.2 ESTABLISHING SAFETY FACTOR The design safety factor Fd. l2.2. Therefore.2.

869.1 1.1 1.l3 : To what extent could the predictable load be underestimated due to the eneven sharing of the load between different elements in the machine? F1 L1 L2 L3 1. .3 1. the value of Fd obtained is 1.1 Fs = s1 .9 1 1. s2 . s4 .1 1 1 1.4157 Therefore.       S : By what ratio could the material property that determines failure be an overestimation of its real value? S2 : to what extent could the manufacturing process reduce the strength of the item? S3 : by how much could the physical environment in which the item is used reduce the long – term strength? S4 : To what extent could the stress concentrations increase the stress at the point under consideration (over and above that accounted for in s5)? S5 : By what ratio does the assumptions made in constructing mathematical m odel of stress underestimate the actual stress in the item? Fs S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 0. s3 . s5 Where.

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