# Date or reference

Composite Design
Composite Design
Beams and Slabs
Beams and Slabs
2
British Standards to Eurocode
Composite Design hasn’t really
changed significantly – just a few
new formulae to consider.
(and a little bit more work as
usual!)
3
Some Useful References
1. R.P.Johnson. Composite structures of steel and concrete
3
rd
Ed 2004, Blackwell.
2. W.H.Mosley, J.H.Bungey, R.Hulse, Reinforced concrete
design to Eurocode 2, 2007, Palgrave Macmillan.
4
Composite Systems
Typical composite sections
Shear Studs
5
Composite Systems
6
Composite Systems
Composite Profiled Slimdec System
7
Composite Systems
Composite Slab with Steel Decking
8
Design Procedure
Apart from EN1990 (Actions), the following codes of practice
are required for the design of Composite Beams.
(a)EC2, (EN1992-1-1) for the design of concrete structures
(b)EC3, (EN 1993-111) for the design of steel structures
(c)EC4, (EN 1994-1-1) for the design of composite steel and
concrete structures
Also the National Annexes may be required.
9
Effective Width of Concrete Flange
EC4 CL 5.4.1.2
eff
=>
b
0
is the distance between centres of adjacent shear studs
b
ei
is the effective width of the concrete flange on each side of
the steel web.
b
ei
= L
e
/8 but < half the distance to the centre of the adjacent
beam
L
e
is the approximate distance between points of zero bending
moment (L/2 for midspan of a continuous beams or L for a
single simply supported beam.)
o ei eff b b b + Σ =
10
Effective Width of Concrete Flange:
Basic Example
Continuous beam, with spans equal to 12m, with
The effective breadth of the concrete flange is:
beff = 2 x Le/8 = 2 x 0.5 x 12/8 = 1.5m
This is less than half the distance between adjacent
beams (2m), so this is o.k.
If the beam was simply supported, the effective
11
Design Procedure
Principal Stages in the Design are:
1. Preliminary sizing – the depth of the beam
(UB) initially approximated as:
Simply supported => Span/20
Continuous => Span/24
The yield strength and classification should then be
determined to EC3.
12
Design Procedure
2. During construction (Unpropped only)
Beam self weight
Shuttering/steel decking weight
Weight of the wet concrete
Imposed construction load => usually 0.5~0.75 kN/m
2
Check Bending, Shear at ULS, check deflection at SLS
13
Design Procedure
3. Bending and shear of composite section at ULS
Compare the moment of resistance of the composite
section with the ultimate design moment.
Check the shear strength of the steel beam (alone)
4. Shear connectors and Transverse steel at ULS
Design shear connectors at the concrete/steel beam
interface, for either full or partial interaction
Provide transverse reinforcement to resist the longitudinal
shear in the concrete flange.
14
Design Procedure
5. Deflection
Check the deflection of the beam to protect
against cracking of architectural finishes.
Note that for slabs, deflection due to ponding
should also be considered.
15
Design Procedure
Design of the steel beam during construction =>
At ULS bending,
The plastic section modulus W
pl,y
for the steel beam may be calculated
from:
Where
M
Ed
is the ultimate design moment
fy is the design strength of the steel (EC3 table 3.1)
This assumes the compression flange for the steel beam is adequately
restrained against buckling by the steel decking and the steel section
used can be classified as a plastic or compact section as defined in EC3
sections 5.5 and 5.6
y
Ed
y pl
f
M
W =
,
16
Design Procedure
Design of the steel beam during construction =>
At ULS Shear
The shear (as usual) is considered to be carried by the steel beam alone at
the construction stage and also for the final composite stage.
The ultimate shear strength of a rolled I-beam is based on the following
shear area A
w
A
w
= A
a
– 2bt
f
+ (t
w
+ 2r)t
f
but not less than ηh
w
t
w
where A
a
is the cross sectional area of the steel beam and h
w
is the overall
height of the web. η can be taken as 1.0
The other dimensions are shown in the next figure.
17
Design Procedure
Design of the steel beam during construction =>
At ULS Shear
18
Design Procedure
Design of the steel beam during construction =>
At ULS Shear
However, you can still take the shear area conservatively as
the web area
Av = d x tw
where d is the depth of the straight portion of the web.
The design plastic shear resistance is:
3
,
MO
y v
Rd pl
f A
V
γ
=
MO
γ
= 1.0
19
Design Procedure
Design of the steel beam during construction =>
At SLS Deflection
Deflections at midspan are calculated, i.e.
EI
wL
384
5
4
= δ
These deflections at the construction stage due to the permanent
loads are locked into the beam as the concrete hardens.
20
Design Procedure
Example => Design of steel beam for construction loads
21
Design Procedure
Example => Design of steel beam for construction loads
Steel strength and Classification (EC3 tables 3.1 and 5.2)
Web thickness t
w
= 9mm
Flange thickness t
f
= 14.4mm
Both < 40mm
From EC3 section 3.2 table 3.1, yield strength f
y
= 355 N/mm
2
From EC3, section 5.6, table 5.2
3 . 58 72 3 . 45
0 . 9
6 . 407
81 . 0
235
= × < = = = = = ε ε
w y
t
d
t
c
f
Therefore the steel section is class 1
22
Design Procedure
Example => Design of steel beam for construction loads
Average depth of concrete slab and ribs = 90 + 50/2 = 115 mm
Weight of concrete =0.115 x 25 x 3 =8.62 kN/m
Steel deck =0.15 x 3 =0.45 kN/m
Steel beam =74 x 9.81 x 10
-3
=0.73 kN/m
Imposed construction load = 0.75 x 3 =2.25 kN/m
k
+ 1.5Q
k
= (1.35 x 9.8 + 1.5 x 2.25) = 16.6 kN/m
23
Design Procedure
Example => Design of steel beam for construction loads
Bending.
Maximum bending moment = wL
2
/8 = (16.6 x 9
2
)/8 = 168 kNm
Moment of resistance of steel section = W
pl,y
f
y
= 1653 x 355 x 10
-3
= 587kNm > 168 kNm OK
24
Design Procedure
Example => Design of steel beam for construction loads
Shear
Maximum shear force V = wL/2 = 16.6 x 9/2 = 74.7 kN
Shear resistance of section =
Using conservative approach, with web depth d = 407.6mm, web
thickness t=9mm
A
v
= dt
w
= 407.6 x 9 = 3.67 x 10
3
mm
2
Shear resistance of section =
(Capacity should be considerably larger here - OK)
3
,
MO
y v
Rd pl
f A
V
γ
=
kN kN V
Rd pl
7 . 74 752 10
3 0 . 1
355 10 67 . 3
3
3
,
> = ×
×
× ×
=

25
Design Procedure
Composite Section at ULS
Check moment capacity and shear strength. Define tensile and compressive
strength of the elements as follows (no major difference to BS approach):
Resistance of the concrete flange R
cf
= 0.567f
ck
b
eff
(h-h
p
)
Resistance of the steel section R
s
= f
y
A
a
Resistance of the steel flange R
sf
= f
y
bt
f
Resistance of overall web depth R
w
= R
s
-2R
sf
Resistance of clear web depth R
v
= f
y
dt
w
Resistance of the concrete above the neutral axis R
cx
= 0.567f
ck
b
eff
x
Resistance of the steel flange above the neutral axis R
sx
= f
y
bx
1
Resistance of the web over distance x
2
R
wx
= f
y
t
w
x
2
26
Design Procedure
Composite Section at ULS
General Section dimensions =>
(depth between fillets)
27
Composite Section at ULS
Neutral axis in the concrete flange = >
28
Composite Section at ULS
Neutral axis in the steel flange = >
29
Composite Section at ULS
Neutral axis in the steel web = >
30
Composite Section at ULS
Equations for Moment Capacity =>
( ) ( )
sf
f cf s p cf
a s
c
R
t R R h h R
h R
M
4 2 2
2

+
+ =
( )
v
cf p a cf
s c
R
d R h h h R
M M
4 2
2

+ +
+ =
Neutral axis in concrete flange =>
Neutral axis in steel flange =>
Neutral axis in steel web =>
( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦ −
− + =
2 2
p
cf
s a
s c
h h
R
R
h
h
R M
31
Composite Section at ULS
Example – Moment of Resistance of Composite Section
32
Composite Section at ULS
Example – Moment of Resistance of Composite Section
(1) From first principles:
Resistance of concrete flange:
R
cf
= 0.567f
ck
b
eff
(h-h
p
) = 0.567 x 25 x 3000 x (140 – 50) x 10
-3
= 3827kN
Resistance of steel beam: R
s
= f
y
A
a
= 355 x 9460 x 10
-3
= 3358kN
As R
s
< R
cf
, the neutral axis is within the concrete flange:
Neutral axis depth: 0.567f
ck
b
eff
x = R
s
= 3358kN
Therefore: x = (3358 x 10
3
)/(0.567 x 25 x 3000) = 79mm
33
Composite Section at ULS
Example – Moment of Resistance of Composite Section
Moment of resistance =>
Lever arm z to the centre of the steel section is:
z = (h
a
/2 + h - x/2) = 457/2 + 140 – 79/2 = 329 mm
Therefore
M
c
= R
s
z =3358 x 329 x 10
-3
= 1105 kNm
34
Composite Section at ULS
Example – Moment of Resistance of Composite Section
(2) Alternatively, using the design equations =>
( )
( )
kNm
h h
R
R
h
h
R M
p
cf
s a
s c
1105 10
2
50 140
3827
3358
140
2
457
3358
2 2
3
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦

− + =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦ −
− + =

Nothing has really changed here, the basic equilibrium
equations are the same
35
Composite Section at ULS
Shear strength V
Rd
of the composite section
The resistance to vertical shear is assumed to be taken by the
steel beam alone (as for the construction stage).
Shear resistance =>
Shear area A
v
is given by:
(For most cases this is conservatively taken as the web area, d x t
w
)
3
,
MO
y v
Rd pl
f A
V
γ
=
A
v
= A
a
– 2bt
f
+ (t
w
+ 2r)t
f
36
Composite Section at ULS
Up to this stage everything is (almost) as
before in terms of the design procedures, with
a very few formula changes to EC
37
Composite Section at ULS
Design of Shear Connectors
Design shear resistance P
Rd
of automatically welded shear studs is the lesser
of the following two equations (cl. 6.6.1.3):
38
Composite Section at ULS
Design of Shear Connectors
39
Composite Section at ULS
Design of Shear Connectors – reduction factors (orientation of steel sheeting)
Further reduction factors k
l
and k
t
to be applied to P
Rd
(CL 6.6.4)
Depends on whether the ribs of the profiled sheet are parallel or transverse
to the supporting beam.
For ribs parallel to the supporting beam:
For ribs transverse to the supporting beam:
40
Composite Section at ULS
Design of Shear Connectors – reduction factors (orientation of steel sheeting)
There is an upper limit k
t,max
given in table 6.2 of EC4
41
Composite Section at ULS
Design of Shear Connectors – reduction factors (orientation of steel sheeting)
There is an upper limit k
t,max
given in table 6.2 of EC4:
42
Composite Section at ULS
Degree of Shear Connection – Full Connection
The change in horizontal shear (between zero and maximum moment)
will be the lesser of R
s
or R
c
.
To develop the full moment of resistance of the composite section,
the number of shear connectors n
f
required over the half span is the lesser of:
where
43
Composite Section at ULS
Degree of Shear Connection – Partial Connection
Sometimes the full shear connection is not required to provide adequate
moment capacity. Hence the number of shear connectors can be reduced
providing partial shear connection (normally for simpler stud layout/detailing)
Degree of shear connection =>
n is the number of shear connectors for full shear connection over a length of beam
n
f
is the number of shear connectors provided in that length
44
Composite Section at ULS
Degree of Shear Connection – Partial Connection
Cl 6.6.1.2 provides limits to the degree of shear connection according to the distance
L
e
, the distance in sagging between the points of zero moment.
1. The nominal diameter d of the shank of the headed stud is within the range
16mm < d < 25mm, and the overall length of the stud after welding is > 4d
2. The nominal diameter d of the shank of the headed stud is d=19mm
and the overall length of the stud after welding is > 76mm
For L
e
<25
For L
e
<25
( ) 4 . 0 03 . 0 75 . 0
355
1 ≥ −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− ≥ η η
e
y
L
f
( ) 4 . 0 04 . 0 00 . 1
355
1 ≥ −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− ≥ η η
e
y
L
f
45
Composite Section at ULS
Ultimate Moment of Resistance – Partial Shear Connection
Other conditions are presented in Cl 6.6.1.2, but the moment capacity for partial
shear connection is derived from stress blocks.
In the analysis the depth of the concrete stress blocks s
q
is:
eff ck
q
q
b f
R
s
567 . 0
=
Where R
q
is the shear resistance of the studs provided.
46
Composite Section at ULS
Ultimate Moment of Resistance – Partial Shear Connection
1. Neutral axis in the steel flange h < x < h+t
f
: R
s
> R
q
> R
w
47
Composite Section at ULS
Ultimate Moment of Resistance – Partial Shear Connection
2. Neutral axis in the steel web x > h+t
f
: R
c
< R
w
48
Composite Section at ULS
Ultimate Moment of Resistance – Partial Shear Connection
The moment capacities are:
Neutral axis in steel flange: (a)
Neutral axis in steel web: (b)
( ) ( )
sf
f q s
cf
p q
q
a s
c
R
t R R
R
h h R
h R
h R
M
4 2 2
2

(
(
¸
(

¸

− + =
( )
v
q
cf
p q
a
q s c
R
dR
R
h h R
h
h
R M M
4 2 2
2

(
(
¸
(

¸

− + + =
49
Composite Section at ULS
Ultimate Moment of Resistance – Partial Shear Connection
Good News – can still use the linear interaction method (method b)
50
Composite Section at ULS
Shear connectors need to be spaced closer together between the
Number of shear connectors between
Where:
N
t
is the total number of shear connectors required between the support and
the point of maximum moment
M
i
is the bending moment at the concentrated load
M
s
is the capacity of the steel member
M
c
is the moment capacity of the composite section
( )
( )
s c
s i t
i
M M
M M N
N

=
51
Composite Section at ULS
52
Composite Section at ULS
Example – Partial Shear Connection
Using previous example for the composite section ULS =>
Span = 9 m
80 shear studs in pairs at 225 mm (19mm dia, 100mm height)
W
pl,y
= 1653 N/mm
2
f
y
= 355 N/mm
2
f
ck
= 25 N/mm
2
Calculate the degree of shear resistance and moment of resistance of the
composite section based upon the shear connectors provided.
53
Composite Section at ULS
Example – Partial Shear Connection
Design shear resistance P
Rd
is the lesser of the equations in Cl.6.6.1.3, with
f
u
= 450 N/mm
2
kN
d f
P
v
u
Rd
7 . 81 10
25 . 1
4 / 19 450 8 . 0 4 / 8 . 0
3
2 2
= ×
× × ×
= =

π
γ
π
Calculate the reduction factor k
t
(transverse sheeting) with an upper limit of 0.8
from table 6.2 EC4 for the profiled sheeting
79 . 0 1
50
100
50
80
2
7 . 0
1
7 . 0
0
=
|
¹
|

\
|
− × =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
p
sc
p
r
t
h
h
h
b
n
k
54
Composite Section at ULS
Example – Partial Shear Connection
Hence the design shear resistance P
Rd
of a stud = 0.79 x 81.7 = 64.5 kN
For full shear connection, the number of studs required over the half span is:
52
5 . 64
3358
= = =
Rd
s
f
P
R
n
Hence for full shear connection, the total number of studs required over
the whole span = 104
55
Composite Section at ULS
Example – Partial Shear Connection
The degree of shear connection, η, is
77 . 0
104
80
= = η
( ) ( ) OK L
f
e
y
77 . 0 52 . 0 9 03 . 0 75 . 0
355
355
1 03 . 0 75 . 0
355
1 < = × −
|
¹
|

\
|
− = −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− ≥ η
The lower limit for η is calculated from:
56
Composite Section at ULS
Example – Partial Shear Connection
Use the linear interaction method to calculate the moment of resistance M
p
For the steel beam
Hence
( )
s s c p
M M M M + − =η
kNm f W M
y y pl s
587 10 355 1653
3
,
= × × = =

( ) kNm M
p
986 587 587 1105 77 . 0 = + − × =
57
Composite Section at ULS
Longitudinal Shear Resistance for Steel Sheeting
Use either:
1) m-k method
2) Partial interaction method
Both deal with parameters concerned with empirical behaviour
(i.e. lots of tests in the lab!)
58
Composite Section at ULS
Longitudinal Shear Resistance for Steel Sheeting
For the m-k method Cl. 9.7.3 applies (mechanical and frictional interlock)
The maximum design vertical shear in a slab of width b should not exceed
the design shear resistance given by:
59
Composite Section at ULS
Longitudinal Shear Resistance for Steel Sheeting
The partial interaction method should only be used when the longitudinal
shear failure is ductile (EC4 contains caveats).
60
Composite Section at ULS
Vertical Shear Resistance
For partially anchored sheeting, vertical shear resistance is provided by
Equation 6.2b) in EC2 (for resistance of members not requiring design
shear reinforcement =>
Normally σ
cp
can be taken as zero for simply supported members
2
1
ck
2
3
min
035 . 0 f k v =
61
Composite Section at ULS
Transverse Reinforcement
Transverse reinforcement is supplied to resist the longitudinal shear in a
flanged beam, and follows the variable strut inclination method as
outlined in EC2
Uses the rules in Cl.6.2.4 EC2
Longitudinal shear stress =
62
Composite Section at ULS
Transverse Reinforcement
63
Composite Section at ULS
Transverse Reinforcement
∆x is half the distance between point of maximum moment and zero
moment
Transverse reinforcement per unit length:
For compression flanges, 26.5
0
< θ <45
0
,
so for minimum reinforcement take θ = 26.5
0
64
Composite Section at ULS
Transverse Reinforcement
To prevent crushing of the concrete flange, the following must be
satisfied:
(6.22)
65
Deflections
1) Calculate deflections at the construction stage
Permanent load deflection is locked into the beam at this stage
2) Calculate deflections for the composite stage based on a transformed
section (not shown, refer to Ref 1 for example)
Deflection due to composite stage plus construction stage gives total
Deflection.
Check < span/250 (for longer spans a pre camber can be incorporated)
66
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
6m Long Composite Beam, UDL at 3m centres:
67
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Profiled Sheeting => Comflor 51 (Corus 2002)
68
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Design Data:
Beam Spacing => L = 6m
Beam Spacing => s = 3m
Total Slab Depth => h = 130 mm
Depth of Concrete above profile => h
c
= 79 mm
Deck Profile Height => h
p
= 51 mm
Width of the bottom trough => b
bot
= 122.5 mm
Width of the top trough => b
top
= 112.5 mm
Average width of rib = 30mm (equates to 6.55 ribs per metre)
69
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Shear Connectors:
Diameter => d = 19 mm
Overall height before welding =>h
sc
= 100mm
Height after welding => 95 mm
70
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Material Properties of Steel (EN1993-1-1, Table 3.1)
Structural Steel:
Assume S275, maximum thickness < 40mm
Yield Strength, f
y
= 275 N/mm
2
Ultimate Strength, f
u
= 430 N/mm
2
Steel Reinforcement:
Yield Strength f
y
= 500N/mm
2
71
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Material Properties of Concrete (EN1992-1-1, Table 3.1)
Normal Weight concrete, strength class C25/30
Wet Density => 26 kN/m
2
Dry Density => 25 kN/m
2
Cylinder strength => f
ck
= 25 N/mm
2
Secant modulus of elasticity => E
cm
= 31 kN/mm
2
72
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
k
)
Self weight of concrete slab =>
Wet UDL => [(130x1000)-(7x30x51)]x26x10
-6
= 3.10 kN/m
2
Dry UDL => [(130x1000)-(7x30x51)]x25x10
-6
= 2.98 kN/m
2
Construction stage Composite stage
Concrete slab => 3.10 kN/m
2
2.98 kN/m
2
Steel Deck => 0.15 kN/m
2
0.15kN/m
2
Steel Beam=> 0.2 kN/m
2
0.2 kN/m
2
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Totals => 3.45 kN/m
2
3.48 kN/m
2
73
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
k
)
Construction stage:
2
Composite stage:
2
(from structural arrangement)
74
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Ultimate Limit State – Construction Stage
Combination of actions (EN1990, Eqn 6.10b)
Distributed load on beam (0.85 x 1.35 x 3.45) + (1.5 x 0.5) = 4.71 kN/m
2
d
= 4.71 x 6.0 x 3.0 = 84.78 kN
Maximum design moment at midspan
M
y,Ed
= F
d
L/8 = 84.78 x 6 / 8 = 63.59 kNm
Maximum shear => beam assumed to take shear from composite
75
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Ultimate Limit State – Composite Stage
Combination of actions (EN1990, Eqn 6.10b)
Distributed load on beam (0.85 x 1.35 x 3.48) + (1.5 x 3.8) = 9.69 kN/m
2
d
= 9.69 x 6.0 x 3.0 = 174.42 kN
Maximum design moment at midspan
M
y,Ed
= F
d
L/8 = 174.42 x 6 / 8 = 130.82 kNm
Maximum design shear
V
Ed
= F
d
/2 = 174.42 / 2 =87.21 kN
76
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Partial Factors for Resistance
Structural Steel (EN1993-1-16.1(1)) γ
M0
=1.0
Concrete (EN 1992-1-1, Table 2.1N) γ
C
=1.5
Reinforcement γ
S
=1.15
Shear connectors (EN 1994-2.4.1.2) γ
v
=1.25
Longitudinal shear γ
vs
=1.25
77
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Steel beam – trial section
W
pl,y
= M
y,Ed
γ
M0
/f
y
= 63.6x10
3
x1.0/275 = 231cm
3
Try => 254x102x22 UKB, S275 W
pl,y
= 259cm
3
From Section Tables =>
h
a
= 254.0 mm t
f
= 6.8mm
b = 101.6 mm r = 7.6mm
d = 225.2 mm A
a
= 28cm
3
t
w
= 5.7mm W
pl,y
= 258cm
3
Elastic Modulus E = 210kN/mm
2
Section is Class 1 under bending (EN 1993-1-1,3,2,6(1))
78
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Composite stage member resistance checks
Compressive resistance of concrete slab:
Effective width at midspan of compression flange (EN1994 5.4.1.2) =>
b
eff
= b
0
+ Σ b
ei
; b
ei
= L
e
/8 = L/8 = 6/8 = 0.75m (for SS beam)
Assume single shear studs, hence b
0
= 0m
beff = 0 + (2 x 0.75) = 1.50m<3m (beam spacing)
Compression resistance (EN1994 6.2.1.2) =>
N
c,slab
= 0.85f
ck
b
eff
h
c

c
= 0.85x25x1500x79x10
-3
/1.5 = 1679 kN
79
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Composite stage member resistance checks
Tensile resistance of steel section:
N
pl,a
= f
d
A
a
=f
y
A
a

M0
= 275 x 28 x10
2
/1.0 = 770 kN
Since N
pl,a
< N
c,slab
, the plastic neutral axis lies in the concrete flange
Design bending resistance - full shear connection (EN1994 6.2.1)
kNm
h
N
N
h
h
N M
c
slab c
a pl
a
a pl Rd pl
184 10
2
79
1679
770
130
2
254
770
2 2
3
,
,
, ,
= ×
(
¸
(

¸

× − + =
(
(
¸
(

¸

× − + =

80
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Composite stage member resistance checks
Bending moment at mid span M
y,Ed
= 131 kNm
Hence, design bending resistance of the composite beam is adequate
0 . 1 71 . 0
184
131
,
,
< = =
Rd pl
Ed y
M
M
81
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Shear connector resistance (EN1994 6.6.3.1)
Design shear resistance of a single shear connector is the smaller of:
and
v
cm ck
Rd
E f d
P
γ
α
2
29 . 0
=
( )
v
u
Rd
d f
P
γ
π 4 / 8 . 0
2
=
26 . 5
19
100
= =
d
h
sc
0 . 4 >
d
h
sc
0 . 1 = α
As
Then
82
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Shear connector resistance
So
or
As 73.7 kN < 81.7kN, Hence P
Rd
= 73.7 kN
kN P
Rd
7 . 73 10
25 . 1
10 31 25 19 0 . 1 29 . 0
3
3 2
= ×
× × × ×
=

( )
kN P
Rd
7 . 81 10
25 . 1
4 / 19 450 8 . 0
3
2
= ×
× × ×
=

π
83
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Influence of deck shape (EN1994 6.6.4.2)
Ribs are transverse to beam,
Also assume 1 stud per trough, n
r
= 1.0
Reduction factor
Hence, K
t
=1.0, no reduction in shear resistance i.e. P
Rd
= 73.7 kN
0 . 1 1
7 . 0
0

|
|
¹
|

\
|

|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
p
sc
p
r
t
h
h
h
b
n
k
48 . 1 1
51
100
51
5 . 112
1
7 . 0
=
|
¹
|

\
|

|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
t
k
> 1
84
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Number of shear studs in half span
Using 1 shear connector per trough =>
Stud spacing along the beam = 152.5 mm
Assuming either a primary beam width or column width of 254mm say,
then:
( )
18
5 . 152
2 / 254 3000
=

= n
Shear stud connectors
per half span
85
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Degree of shear connection
Hence, full shear connection is provided, and no reduction in
bending resistance is required.
kN P R
Rd q
1327 7 . 73 18 18 = × = =
0 . 1 7 . 1
770
1327
,
> = =
a pl
q
N
R
86
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Shear buckling resistance of the uncased web
For unstiffened webs if the shear buckling
resistance of the web should be checked.
Where:
ε
η
72
>
t
h
w
92 . 0
275
235 235
= = =
y
f
ε
With η = 1.0
( ) mm t h h 4 . 240 8 . 6 2 254 2
f a w
= × − = − =
2 . 66 92 . 0
0 . 1
72 72
= ×
|
¹
|

\
|
= ε
η
2 . 42
7 . 5
4 . 240
w
w w
= = =
t
h
t
h
As 42.2 < 66.2 the shear buckling resistance of the web does not need to be checked.
87
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Resistance to vertical shear
Shear resistance of the composite beam is:
( )

3
M0
y v
Rd a, pl, Rd pl,
γ
f A
V V = =
( ) r t t bt A A 2 2
w f f v
+ + − =
w w
t h η
[ ] ) 6 . 7 2 ( 7 . 5 8 . 6 ) 8 . 6 6 . 101 2 ( 2800
v
× + × + × × − = A 1560
v
= A
For rolled I and H sections loaded parallel to the web:
but not less than
mm
2
0 . 1 = η
1370 7 . 5 4 . 240 0 . 1
w w
= × × = t h η (Conservatively)
1560 mm
2
> 1370 mm
2
Therefore, Av = 1560 mm
2 247kN 10
0 . 1 3
275
1560
3 -
Rd pl,
= ×
×
× = V
88
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Resistance to vertical shear
35 . 0
247
87

Rd pl,
Ed
= =
V
V
< 1.0, Therefore the design resistance to vertical shear is adequate.
As there is no shear force at the point of maximum
bending moment (mid span) no reduction (due to shear)
in bending resistance is required
89
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Design of Transverse Reinforcement

f
yd sf
s
f A
θ cot
f Ed
h v

f
sf
s
A
θ cot
yd
f Ed
f
h v
The area of reinforcement (A
sf
) can be determined using the following equation:
therefore,
Neglect the contribution of the decking and check the resistance of
the concrete flange to splitting:
> >
435
1.15
500

s
y
yd
= = =
γ
f
f
where: h
f
is the depth of concrete above the metal decking, therefore, h
f
= h
c
= 79 mm
For compression flanges 26.5° ≤ θ ≤ 45°
N/mm
2
90
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Design of Transverse Reinforcement
The longitudinal shear stress is the stress transferred from the steel beam to the
concrete. This is determined from the minimum resistance of the steel, concrete and
shear connectors. In this case, the plastic neutral axis lies in the concrete flange,
and there is full shear connection, so the plastic resistance of the steel section to
axial force needs to be transferred over each half-span. As there are two shear
planes (one on either side of the beam, running parallel to it), the longitudinal shear
stress is:
83 . 1
3000 70 2
1000 770
2
f
a pl,
Ed L,
=
× ×
×
= =
x h
N
v

N/mm²
91
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Design of Transverse Reinforcement
For minimum area of transverse reinforcement assume θ = 26.5°

f
sf
s
A
147 10
6.5 2 cot 435
79 83 . 1
cot
3
yd
f Ed L,
= ×
×
×
=
θ f
h v

Therefore, provide A193 mesh reinforcement (193mm
2
/m) in the slab.
mm
2
/m
92
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Crushing of the concrete flange
Where
f f cd Ed L,
cos sin θ θ νf v ≤
(
¸
(

¸

250
1 6 . 0
ck
f
- 54 . 0
250
25
- 1 6 . 0 =
(
¸
(

¸

59 . 3 5 . 26 cos 5 . 26 sin
5 . 1
25
54 . 0 cos sin
cd
= × × × =
f f
f θ θ ν
83 . 1
Ed L,
= v
Verify that:
f
cd
= f
ck

c
ν =
N/mm²
N/mm² < 3.59 N/mm²
Therefore the crushing resistance of the concrete
where
=
93
Example:
Simply Supported Composite Beam
Serviceability limit state
Performance at the serviceability limit state should be verified.
However, no verification is included here. The National Annex
for the country where the building is to be constructed should
be consulted for guidance.
Considerations would be:
Short-term, long-term and dynamic modular ratios
Serviceability combinations of actions
Composite bending stiffness of the beam
Total deflection and deflection due to imposed loads
Stresses in steel and concrete (to validate deflection
assumptions)
Natural frequency.